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Oxalis tuberosa - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Oxalis tuberosa
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Oxalis tuberosa (Oxalidaceae) is a perennial herbaceous plant that overwinters as underground stem tubers. These tubers are known as oca, from the Quechua words okka, oqa, and uqa;[1] New Zealand yam; and a number of other alternative names. The plant was brought into cultivation in the central and southern Andes for its tubers, which are used as a root vegetable. The plant is not known in the wild, but populations of wild Oxalis species that bear smaller tubers are known from four areas of the central Andean region.[2] Oca was introduced to Europe in 1830 as a competitor to the potato and to New Zealand as early as 1860. In New Zealand, oca has become a popular table vegetable and is simply called yam.[3]

Oxalis tuberosa

1 Cultural Significance 2 Diversity 2.1 Morphological characters 2.2 Local cultivar names 2.3 Molecular markers 3 Edibility 3.1 Use categories 3.2 Nutrition 4 Cultivation 4.1 Distribution 4.2 Climate requirements 4.3 Soil requirements 4.4 Propagation 4.5 Cropping factors 4.6 Yields 4.7 Limitations 4.8 Agricultural potential 5 Conservation Efforts 6 Alternative names 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

Yellow and purple Oxalis tuberosa (oca) tubers

Scientific classification Kingdom: (unranked): (unranked): (unranked): Order: Family: Genus: Species: Plantae Angiosperms Eudicots Rosids Oxalidales Oxalidaceae Oxalis O. tuberosa Binomial name Oxalis tuberosa

Cultural Significance
Grown primarily by Quechua and Aymara farmers, oca has been a staple of rural Andean diets for centuries.[4] Of all Andean root and tuber crops, oca is presently second only to potato in area planted within the Central Andean region.[3] Oca is important to local food security because of its role in crop rotations and its high nutritional content.

Andean farmers cultivate numerous varieties of oca. Oca diversity may be described with respect to morphological characters, local cultivar names, or molecular markers.

Morphological characters
Oca morphotypes are distinguished by foliar, floral, fruit, stem, and tuber characteristics, as described in the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute’s document on oca descriptors.[5] The morphological diversity of oca tubers, in particular, is astounding. Tubers range from 25 to 150 mm in length by 25 mm in width;[6] skin and flesh color may be white, cream, yellow, orange, pink, red, and/or purple and distributed in range of patterns.[5]

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Nutrition The table to the right displays the nutritional content for fresh and dried oca.3 4.[2] Farmers process these tubers to form a usable storage product. Cultivars in this use category are referred to in Quechua as khaya (name of the dried.85 2. and tolerance for poor soil.[16] so these measures should be taken only as approximates. high altitude and harsh climates.0 2 Phosphorus (mg) 36 Iron (mg) Retinol (µg) Riboflavin (mg) Niacin (mg) Vitamin C (mg) 1. sunny days and cold..9 0 0.[11] and in Aymara as luk’i. served like potatoes.[2] Carbohydrates (g) 13. and iron. but rather genetically heterogeneous groupings.php?title=Oxalis_tuberosa&printable=yes Local cultivar names Oca-growing communities often name varieties based primarily on tuber morphology[7] and secondarily on flavor.[11] cluster analyses indicate that folk cultivars are not perfect clones. freezing nights until they become completely dehydrated. Cultivars in this category are referred to in Quechua as wayk’u (boiling).4 3.[2] For example.g.[2] Sour oca and sweet oca form distinct genetic clusters based on AFLP data.[15] potassium (included in value for ash).[8] Molecular markers Modest display of Oxalis tuberosa Numerous studies have additionally described oca diversity through molecular approaches to study diversity on one farm in Peru [9] protein and genetic variation. Andean communities have various methods to process and prepare tubers. processed product) or p’osqo (sour/fermented).[10][11] Edibility Oca is cultivated primarily for its edible stem tuber.[15] It also provides some protein.[14] This suggests the possibility of distinct evolutionary histories for each use-category. concentrated in the skin. due to its easy propagation. common names may include ushpa negra (black ash) or puka panti (red Cosmos peucedanifolius). with valine and tryptophan its limiting amino acids.6 1 0.43 38. Once exposed to sunlight. Molecular markers. tubers are first soaked in water for approximately one month. lemon. and in Mexico oca is eaten raw with salt. called khaya in Quechua.0 dried 1360 15. contains cultivars with high levels of oxalic acid.Oxalis tuberosa .08 0. and hot pepper.Wikipedia. Oca is a valuable source of vitamin C.[3] Distribution 2 of 5 4/24/2013 11:40 PM . but the leaves and young shoots can be eaten as a green vegetable also.g. This is done by exposure to sunlight.[11] This process is similar to the preparation of chuño from bitter potatoes. oca can be boiled.3 Ash (g) Calcium (mg) 1. Cultivation Oca is one of the important staple crops of the Andean highlands. contains cultivars with lower levels of oxalic acid. In the Andes it is used in stews and soups. the free encyclopedia http://en. but without dehydration.[2] The traditional Andean preparation methods for this use-category are also geared towards reducing the oxalate level of the harvested vegetable.3 75.9 52 171 9. show oca diversity to be low relative to other crops. sweet oca. to starchy or mealy when fully cooked.wikipedia. 1999 ) and inter[10] simple sequence repeats (e. and texture ranges from crunchy (like a carrot) when raw or undercooked. 2006 ). miki’i (sweet/delicious) and in Aymara as q’eni. Pissard et al.13 0. baked or fried.4 The other use-category.[3] The flavour is slightly tangy.[16] Cultivars vary greatly in nutritional content.[13] Significant variation in oxalate concentration exists among varieties. probably because of its vegetative mode of propagation. Great inconsistency of nomenclature has been reported within and among communities. sour oca. or can be served as a sweet. and this variation distinguishes two oca use-categories recognized by Andean farmers. such as allozymes ( Then they are left outside during hot. which decreases the organic acid content and thereby increases the sweet taste of the oca..1 1. Nutritional value per 100 g [citation needed] fresh Energy (J) Water (g) Protein (g) 255 84.[12] and the bioavailability of oxalate appears to be similar to spinach.4 Use categories Oca is fairly high in oxalates. del Río.[2] One use-category.[11] To prepare khaya.. While genetic differentiation corresponds well with folk classification.

[20] Furthermore. Such mixed fields may later be sorted into tuber types during harvest or before cooking. ulluco weevil (Cylydrorhinus spp). and is day length dependent. Megachile. A common sequence in this rotation system may be one year of potato.[20] Oca flowers are pollinated by insects (e. Propagation by seed is possible but is rarely used in practice. oca requires climates with average temperatures of approximately 10 to 12°C (range: 4°C to17°C) and average precipitation of 700 to 885 millimeters per year. the probable area of its domestication. on the rare occasion that oca plants do produce fruit. oca production can range from 35 to 55 tons per hectare.[22] Yields Yields vary with the cultural method. early frosts may cut back the foliage before the tubers have a chance to form. In addition. it is often planted after potato and therefore benefits from persisting nutrients applied to. like many other species in the genus Oxalis. Crops in the Andes are often infected with viruses. and the tubers also begin to form then. and tolerates acidities between about pH 5.g. But with adequate inputs and virus free propagation material.. the identification of which 3 of 5 4/24/2013 11:40 PM . in one field is common in Andean production.[3] Close-up of an 'apricot' NZ yam Soil requirements Oca grows with very low production inputs.Wikipedia.[19] The cultural practice is similar to potatoes. Often this intercoppng consists of several different varieties of each species. making it difficult to harvest seed.wikipedia. Adequate techniques to remove viruses have to be applied before the varieties can be used outside the Andean region.[19] In areas with harsh winter q’allpa is a Quechua term that signifies soil previously cultivated and prepared for planting of a new crop.[3] Cultivation is also constrained the Andean potato weevil (Premnotrypes spp). and two to four years fallow. oca will not set a crop successfully. In tropical areas where the days are unchanging in length. one year of oca.[19] The first flowers bloom around three to four months after planting. the free encyclopedia http://en.[17] from 2800 to 4100 meters above sea level.[3] In traditional Andean cropping systems. genera Apis.3 and 7. First.[3] Harmine found in root secretions of Oxalis tuberosa has been found to have insecticidal properties.[20] Between planting and harvesting. the potato crop.[20] Data regarding the frequency of volunteer hybrids and farmers’ subsequent incorporation of them has not yet been published.[19] Pink Oxalis tuberosa (oca) tubers Propagation Oca is usually propagated vegetatively by planting whole tubers. oca flowers exhibit tristylous heterostyly and are consequently subject to auto-incompatibility.[18] Climate requirements Oca needs a long growing season. and Bombus). Cropping factors Oca tuber-seeds are planted in the Andes in August or September and harvested from April to June. Planting is done in rows or hills 80–100 cm apart with plants. forming tubers when the day length shortens in autumn (around March in the Andes). but interplanting with several tuber species. and oca weevil. generally on plots of marginal soil quality. their loculicidal capsules dehisce spontaneously.8. Annals from Andean countries report about 7-10 tons per hectare for Oxalis tuberosa production.php?title=Oxalis_tuberosa&printable=yes Oca is planted in the Andean region from Venezuela to Argentina.[11] Its highest abundance and greatest diversity are in central Peru and northern Bolivia.[19] Within this system. the oca crop requires little tending. one year of oats or faba beans. causing chronic yield depression.[21] Monoculture predominates.[3][17] Limitations Pests and diseases limit the production of oca.[19] Oca is a component of traditional crop rotations and is usually planted in a field directly after the potato harvest. mashua and olluco. except for a couple of weedings and hillings.[3] Sexual propagation is complicated by several factors. spaced 40–60 cm apart in the rows. or left over from.Oxalis tuberosa .

On farm conservation of minor tubers in Peru: the dynamics of oca (Oxalis tuberosa) landrace management in a peasant community. 8. huasisai. Further notable pests are nematodes. Zerega. Genome 49(1). (2009). 4 of 5 4/24/2013 11:40 PM . ^ a b c (1989). M.1139/g05-084 (http://dx.wikipedia. (pp. CIP. & Bertin. P. A. 2006. Genetic diversity of the Andean tuber-bearing species. or ibi in Colombia Macachin or miquichi in Venezuela [23] Papa extranjera in Mexico[23] Truffette acide in France [24] Yam in many other places. 13.cipotato. a name shared with the unrelated arracacha Cuiba or quiba in Venezuela [23] Hibia. D. J. doi:10. Asia and Africa may be possible. ^ Ramirez. Evolution and conservation of clonally propagated crops: Insights from AFLP data and folk taxonomy of the Andean tuber oca (Oxalis tuberosa). G. Washington. 81: 1027-1033. B.. the free encyclopedia http://en. Lost Crops of the Incas: Little-Known Plants of the Andes with Promise for Worldwide Cultivation. These weevils often destroy entire crops.C.htm Genetic diversity and structure of three Andean tubers. G. 8–16. S. Pl Genet Res Newl 114: 9-15. Lima. and Conservation of Crops. such as Polynesia[citation needed] and New Zealand. Rome. investigated by inter-simple sequence repeats.P. Alternative names Apilla in Bolivia Apiña in Bolivia and Peru Batata-baroa or mandioquinha (literally. Plant Genet Res Newsl 132: 1-9. ^ Malice. of the Science of Food and Agr. Universidad Ricardo Palma. Cross. ^ a b Pissard. Descriptores de oca. 1990. Columbia University Press. Ulluco. Gembloux Agricultural /670/670_9. P. Evolution. 2002. 12. The cultivation and use of a fleshy pink variety[12] of Oxalis tuberosa in New Zealand already indicates a wider utilization and agricultural interest than has been previously recognized. Pages 308–346 in T. Peru.H. Deo.php?title=Oxalis_tuberosa&printable=yes remains uncertain (possibly Adioristidius. Ghislain.. 2005. Spatial dynamics of in situ conservation: handling the genetic diversity of Andean tubers in mosaic systems. M. Scientists work with specific breeding. ^ a b c d e f g Bradbury. 1–197). The Role of Organic Acids in the Domestication of Oxalis tuberosa: A New Model for Studying Domestication Resulting in Opposing Crop Phenotypes 1. F. National Academy Press.. Halloy. (2011).[3] Agricultural potential Potential distribution to other suitable ecogeographical zones of. 3.. Análisis de la variación isoenzimática de Oxalis tuberosa Molina "oca" y su distribución geográfica. Acta Hort.[17] As already mentioned day length restrictions and the presence of oxalates can also be considered limiting factors. 5. ^ "Oca. B..elsevier. & Emshwiller.actahort. (ISHS) 670:87-92.[16] Conservation Efforts A number of ongoing ex situ and in situ conservation projects currently focus on the preservation of Oxalis tuberosa diversity. 10. ^ Terrazas. and G. Valdivia. See also Mashua New World crops Yacón Ulluco References 1. 9. IPGRI. and Mashua": http://www. 6. P. and virus cleaning programs on these purposes. and Savage.. E.1139%2Fg05-084) 11. P. J. ^ Martin. "The effect of cooking on the location and concentration of oxalate in three cultivars of New Zealand-grown oca (Oxalis tuberosa Mol)". Mycrotrypes. for example. eds. 1–9. or Premnotrypes). http://www.J. 2. ^ a b c d e f Emshwiller. R. A. M. (2001). J. ^ The Bioavailability of Oxalate from Oca (Oxalis tuberosa) (http://linkinghub.. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k National Research Council.Oxalis tuberosa . E. 4.J. 2001. E. and H.R. Development of new oca lines in New Zealand. ^ a b IPGRI-CIP. (2006). Motley. ^ del Río. New York. Lima. oca (Oxalis tuberosa Mol. "little mandioca") in Brazil. Darwin’s Harvest: New Approaches to the Origins. Ullucus tuberosus Caldas and Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruiz & Pav.. 1998. E. selection. Econ Bot. Italy.). Peru.Wikipedia. Oxalis tuberosas Molina. and Fletcher. N.[12] where the Dioscorea vegetables known elsewhere as yams are generally very uncommon.doi.

39-56. 347-369. 19. 547 ISBN 0-19-211579-0 External links Oca in Lost Crops of the Incas (http://books. 21. (2000). J. Econ Bot 41(4). Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. Vivancoa (18 June 2002). Botánica económica de los Andes Centrales. 24. & Golmirzaie A. Huamán Z. Organizacion de las naciones unidas para la alimentacion y la agriculture. Garcí /2002Harsh. P.purdue. and 17. 5 of 5 4/24/2013 11:40 PM . Origins of domestication and polyploidy in oca (Oxalis tuberosa: Oxalidaceae) 3: AFLP data of oca and four wild.. Other andean roots and tubers. Halliganb. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. the free encyclopedia http://en. Kathleen M. Nutritional evaluation of three underexploited Andean tubers: Oxalis tuberosa (Oxalidaceae). Simon (eds. ulluco. a non-profit organization. Rome. C.R.wikipedia. ^ Eve Emshwiller. Janick and J. La Almanza. Tubérculos at the International Potato Center Oxalis tuberosa (http://pfaf. ^ a b c Cadima Fuentes X. Rea. Alan. Rijks (1975) Ullucus tuberosus. ^ Arbizu C. Sang-Wook Rome. (1990). et al. e isaño (Tropaeolum tuberosum) ( No. Terrazas. additional terms may apply. & Erazo.. 1992.. S. León. Cadima.. eds. Am J Bot 96(10): at International Potato Center Oca.Wikipedia. Lima. Tubérculos.php?record_id=1398&page=82) NewCROP page on oca (http://www. Bolivia: PROINPA. La biología reproductive de la oca. 147–161.. and Tropaeolum tuberosum (Tropaeolaceae). (2003). manejo y limitantes (pp. Portland. zonas productoras.1016%2FS0031-9422%2802%2900235-2). S.)Importancia. Inc.. S. 48–68.wikipedia. In Cultivos marginados: otra perspectiva de 1492. 16.pdf) (PDF). UK: Cambridge University Press. F. p. Eds. Alfredo Grau.... Biodiversity in trust: conservation and use of plant genetic resources in CGIAR Retrieved from " & Condori.nap. Ramos. 22. M.aspx?LatinName=Oxalis%20tuberosa) at Plants for a Future Oca in the Vegetable Garden (http://www. C. In:Estudio agroclimatolgico de la zona Andina (informe tecnico).. Frank R. Victor Nina and Franz Terrazas. W. M. 20. Timber Press.php?title=Oxalis_tuberosa&printable=yes 14. Harsh.). 2006. & Stapleton P. FAO. 18.1016/S0031-9422(02)00235-2 (http://dx. Stermitzb. Compositional changes of oca tubers following post-harvest exposure to sunlight. Hernández Bermajo and S. Producción de oca (Oxalis tuberosa). p. J. roots" (http://lamar. papalisa (Ullucus tuberosus).html) Andean root and tuber crops (http://cipotato. M. (1995).org/user/Plant. S.thevegetablegarden. & J. Frére. 20). "Exudation of fluorescent b-carbolines from Oxalis tuberosa L. and mashua (http://www. Terra Theim.E. Jorge M. Advances in new crops. ^ a b c d e f Gonzales. Hermann. S. (1987). Italy.cipotato.html) Ian Pearson's blog on growing oca in the UK (http://oca-testbed. 15. ^ a b c d Carrión. Phytochemistry 61 (5): 539–543. pp. ^ Arbizu. J.". doi:10.colostate.Oxalis tuberosa . tuber-bearing taxa. By using this site. OR. Edited by J. 23. you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. "Advances in new crops: Worldwide potential.php?title=Oxalis_tuberosa&oldid=543752487" Categories: Root vegetables Oxalis Crops originating from the Americas Crops originating from Bolivia Crops originating from Ecuador Crops originating from Peru Edible plants This page was last modified on 13 March 2013 at 03:05. "Oca". C. Ullucus tuberosus (Basellaceae).. & Gershoff. Further reading Davidson. CIP Program Report. Sears L. and Tapia. eds. Oxford Companion to Food (1999). /10.hort. 1997. J. B. 391–396. ^ a b Hermann. (X. In: Fuccillo R. In: Moraes R.. 1–46). ^ M.Q. ^ a b c Sperling.. ^ a b c King. Retrieved 2008-02-02. & Trognitz. Cambridge.. Cochabamba. 503–511. ^ Pal Bais. N. Boletín de Lima.R. (2009). Bolivia: Universidad Mayor de San Andrés.

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