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Optical System Design RUDOLF KINGSLAKE Institute of Optics University of Rochester Rochester, New York @) ACADEMIC PRESS, INC. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers Orlando San Diego New York Austin London Montreal Sydney Tokyo Toronto CopyricHT © 1983, By ACADEMIC Press, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. NO PART OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE REPRODUCED OR ‘TRANSMITTED IN ANY FORM OR BY ANY MEANS, ELECTRONIC OR MECHANICAL, INCLUDING PHOTOCOPY, RECORDING, OR ANY INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM, WITHOUT PERMISSION IN WRITING FROM THE PUBLISHER. ACADEMIC PRESS, INC. Orlando, Florida 32887 United Kingdom Edition published by ACADEMIC PRESS, INC. . Agppesac | ESS, te. fEONDON) LTD. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Kingslake, Rudolf. Optical system design. Bibliography: p. Includes index. 1. Optics. 2. Optical instruments. I. Title. QC371.K52 1983 $35°.33 83-9997 ISBN 0-12-408660-8 PRINTED INTHE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 85 86 87 88 98765 Contents Preface ix Optical Systems 1. DESIGN AND PRODUCTION t Il. OPTICAL MATERIALS 2 Ill. LENS MANUFACTURE 3 Light and Images I. THE NATURE OF LIGHT 7 i. THE LAW OF REFRACTION 10 Ill. A PERFECT OPTICAL SYSTEM B IV. LENS ABERRATIONS 21 V. FIBER OPTICS 22 Ray-Tracing Procedures I. TYPES OF RAYS 26 I. GRAPHICAL RAY TRACING 4 III. MERIDIONAL RAY TRACING 28 PARAXIAL RAYS 30 CURVED MIRRORS 36 VI. MAGNIFICATION AND THE LAGRANGE THEOREM 36 VU. THE FRESNEL LENS 38