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192 11, MAGNIFYING INSTRUMENTS the light and transmitting the other half, At best, therefore, only 25% of the incident light reaches the image, and an intense light source is required, particularly if the object under examination is not very reflective, Microscopes of this kind are used extensively in metallurgy, and also in the microcircuit industry to inspect integrated circuits for gaps and bridges that would make the circuit inoperative. If oblique illumination is required, the beam splitter in the vertical illuminator can be replaced by a semicircular opaque mirror; this sends light down through one side of the objective, with the reflocted light coming up through the other side, Fora dark field we may use the Leitz Ultrapak system shown in Fig. 11.10, in which an annular condenser system is built around the objective, light being reflected down through the condenser by means of an annular mirror. E. Catoprric Omectivas For work in the IR and UV regions, an all-mirror objective is often preferred. It exhibits no selective absorption and no chromatic aberration, so that it can be focused in the visible and used in any wavelength without change in focus. The type suggested by Schwarz- schild is described in Section ITT of Chapter 14. F. Zoom Microscopes Recently, many microscopes have been provided with contin- uuously variable magnification by the insertion of a zoom Bravais arrangement between the objective and the eyepiece, This often con- sists of three lenses, plus-minus—plus, where the first lens is fixed at a convenient distance above the objective lens and the other two lenses are movable in such a way as to change the magnification without shifting the image from the normal eyepiece focal plane. Because the aperture is small(about /720 for a 10%, NA = 0.25 objective) and the ficld is also small(say. + 3°, fairly simple cemented doublets are often g00d enough for the lenses in such a zoom system. A possible system in thindens layout is shown in Fig. 11.11, the ‘magnification ranging from unity to 2X, as shown. At unit magnifica- IL. THE COMPOUND MICROSCOPE 193 Objective Zoom Bovels Sjsten mone Fig, 11.11, Arrangement of a zoom microscope, tion, the ray emerging from the zoom system must continue along its incident path with no change in slope angle. As an example, we will assume that the focal lengths of the three lenses are 60, —10.5, and 30 mm, respectively, and that the first fixed lens is at 130 mm from the ‘eyepiece focal plane. Ifthe diameter ofthe final image is 15 mm andi. the objective lens is a 16-mm 2 Iens with a numerical aperture of 0.25, then the oblique beam is as shown in Fig. 11.11b. The marginal ray is shown at an exaggerated distance from the axis by dashed lines, the shaded area represents the true oblique beam to scale. Figure 1.1 1a shows the situation when the zoom system is set at 2X magnifi- cation, The dashed lines show that the emerging ray from the zoom now has half the slope angle at which it entered the zoom, since m= ‘The positions of the two lenses ata series of magnifications are indicated in Fig. 11.12, which shows that the negative lens moves 10 the right while the rear positive lens moves to the left. To make a linear scale of magnification, two cams must be used, but the rear lens can be Magrifcation Dstance trom image (mm) Fria. 11.12, Lens movements in 4 200m microscope. 194 1, MAGNIFYING INSTRUMENTS. moved linearly if preferred, in which case only one cam is required. In practice, the user adjusts the magnification by inspection rather than ‘by reading from a scale, and hes not concerned with whether the scale is uniformly divided. G, PHoToMICROGRAPHY! Photographing small objects under a microscope is often quite difficult. Uniformity of illumination over the field is, of course, eces- sary, and a flat-feld objective lens must be used. The eyepiece of the microscope can be merely omitted if a small picture is desired, as on 35-mm film, or a projection eyepiece can be used to enlarge the image, ‘This may be the ordinary eyepiece supplied with the microscope, or it may bea special negative lens called a projection eyepiece, which is not really an eyepiece at all. Both forms are illustrated in Fig. 11,13. In either case, itis necessary to focus the projected image with great care on the film, and the focus setting is usually different from that required by eye because the eye looks at a collimated image, whereas the film requires a sharply focused image at a close distance. The negative projection eyepiece is generally preferred ast tends to help flatten the field. In any photomicrographic procedure, depth of focus is of para- ‘mount importance. Stopping down the aperture of the objective lens increases the depth but tends to enlarge the diffraction image and so reduce the resolving power of the system. Some degree of compromise is therefore required. 1H, MicrorHorocraPHy? Photomicrography and microphotography are very different pro- cedures, although the names are similar and often confused. Micro- photography is the process of forming a tiny image of a pattern or message by working backward through a microscope; the object is placed at the eyepiece end of the tube and the photographic film on the 'R. P. Loveland, “Photomicrography,” Vols. | and 2. Wiley, New York, 1970. »G, W. W, Stevens, “Microphotography”, 2nd ed, Wiley, New York, 1968,