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OPTICS ROUND A FINITE PRINCIPAL RAY 189 We next obtain the corresponding relation for sagittal foci. In Fig. 9.14 let r again be the principal ray and let S be the sagittal focus in the incident space. We join S to the centre of curvature and call this line the auxiliary axis {it has, of course, nothing to do with the axis of symmetry of the complete system). Let the auxiliary axis meet the refracted part of the ray r at S’; if the three segments of ray shown are rotated about the auxiliary axis through any Centre of curvature Auxiliory oxis FG. 9.14, Sagittal foci angle they will still represent a possible configuration of incident and refracted ray at the surface, so that if this angle of rotation is small they will represent a ray close to the principal ray in the sagittal section. Thus we see that S’ is the sagittal focus corresponding to S. To find an actual conjugate distance rela- tion between PS = s and PS’ = s’ we note that 1 5 csin(a@— 1) sine @-D 7 (9.70) 1 __S esin(@@—1) sina If aw is eliminated between these two equations we obtain ssin I s’sin I’ es cos 7 es’ cos 7” ow or, from Snell’s law, s s nl —cscosl) nl —cs’cosT’). 190 _ FINITE ABERRATION FORMULAE which may be rearranged to give 5 — 7 = etn’ cos 1 ~ n 08 D, 72) the required sagittal conjugate distance equation. Equations (9,69) and (9.72) are Thomas Young’s astigmatism equations and they are used to trace the positions of the astigmatic foci along a finite principal ray. The raytrace data required are all available from the standard raytracing equations of Chapter 4. In particular we note that the generalized power as defined in Chapter 4 appears on the right-hand side of both astig- matism equations. Transfer between surfaces involves merely the distance D along the principal ray from surface to surface and this is also known from the raytrace data. The modifications required for non-spherical surfaces of revolution are trivial: we simply have to use the appropriate principal curvature instead of the spherical curvature. 9.9 Astigmatism of quadrics of revolution In this section we give as an example of the application of the formulae of Section 9.8 a proof of the result stated at the end of Chapter 8, that if the principal ray passes through a geometrical focus on a reflecting quadric of revolution there is no astigmatism for any conjugates on that ray. Let the Fi. 9.15, Stigmatic reflection at a quadric ASTIGMATISM OF QUADRICS OF REVOLUTION 191 principal ray be as in Fig. 9.15 with conjugates PO = / and PO’ = I and let c, and ¢, be the curvatures of the quadric at P in the sagittal and tangential sections. Then from eqns (9.69) and (9.72) we must have 14 jt pm aco! tom (9.73) a acl if there is no astigmatism for O and O' as conjugates. That is, we have = ¢, cos? I; (9.74) but this condition is independent of the conjugates and so if it is true at one pair of conjugates O and O’,it is true for all conjugates. But it is true for the conjugates F and F’, since these are aberration-free, and therefore there is no astigmatism at all conjugates. At any non-singular point on a general reflecting surface, if the principal curvatures ¢, and ¢, are of the same sign, an azimuth and an angle of incidence can always be found to satisfy eqn (9.74) and thus there is always one principal ray at any point for which there is no astigmatism at any conjugate.