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Analytical study of aberrations of optical systems

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OPTICS ROUND A FINITE PRINCIPAL RAY 189
We next obtain the corresponding relation for sagittal foci. In Fig. 9.14
let r again be the principal ray and let S be the sagittal focus in the incident
space. We join S to the centre of curvature and call this line the auxiliary axis
{it has, of course, nothing to do with the axis of symmetry of the complete
system). Let the auxiliary axis meet the refracted part of the ray r at S’; if the
three segments of ray shown are rotated about the auxiliary axis through any
Centre of curvature
Auxiliory oxis
FG. 9.14, Sagittal foci
angle they will still represent a possible configuration of incident and refracted
ray at the surface, so that if this angle of rotation is small they will represent a
ray close to the principal ray in the sagittal section. Thus we see that S’ is the
sagittal focus corresponding to S. To find an actual conjugate distance rela-
tion between PS = s and PS’ = s’ we note that
1 5
csin(a@— 1) sine
@-D 7 (9.70)
1 __S
esin(@@—1) sina
If aw is eliminated between these two equations we obtain
ssin I s’sin I’
es cos 7 es’ cos 7” ow
or, from Snell’s law,
s s
nl —cscosl) nl —cs’cosT’).190 _ FINITE ABERRATION FORMULAE
which may be rearranged to give
5 — 7 = etn’ cos 1 ~ n 08 D, 72)
the required sagittal conjugate distance equation.
Equations (9,69) and (9.72) are Thomas Young’s astigmatism equations and
they are used to trace the positions of the astigmatic foci along a finite
principal ray. The raytrace data required are all available from the standard
raytracing equations of Chapter 4. In particular we note that the generalized
power as defined in Chapter 4 appears on the right-hand side of both astig-
matism equations. Transfer between surfaces involves merely the distance D
along the principal ray from surface to surface and this is also known from
the raytrace data.
The modifications required for non-spherical surfaces of revolution are
trivial: we simply have to use the appropriate principal curvature instead of
the spherical curvature.
9.9 Astigmatism of quadrics of revolution
In this section we give as an example of the application of the formulae of
Section 9.8 a proof of the result stated at the end of Chapter 8, that if the
principal ray passes through a geometrical focus on a reflecting quadric of
revolution there is no astigmatism for any conjugates on that ray. Let the
Fi. 9.15, Stigmatic reflection at a quadricASTIGMATISM OF QUADRICS OF REVOLUTION 191
principal ray be as in Fig. 9.15 with conjugates PO = / and PO’ = I and let
c, and ¢, be the curvatures of the quadric at P in the sagittal and tangential
sections.
Then from eqns (9.69) and (9.72) we must have
14
jt pm aco!
tom (9.73)
a acl
if there is no astigmatism for O and O' as conjugates. That is, we have
= ¢, cos? I; (9.74)
but this condition is independent of the conjugates and so if it is true at one
pair of conjugates O and O’,it is true for all conjugates. But it is true for the
conjugates F and F’, since these are aberration-free, and therefore there is no
astigmatism at all conjugates.
At any non-singular point on a general reflecting surface, if the principal
curvatures ¢, and ¢, are of the same sign, an azimuth and an angle of incidence
can always be found to satisfy eqn (9.74) and thus there is always one principal
ray at any point for which there is no astigmatism at any conjugate.

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