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Centre for Electronics Design and Technology, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore.
IP version 6 (IPv6) is a new version of the Internet Protocol, designed as the successor to IP version 4 (IPv4). The changes from IPv4 to IPv6 fall primarily into the following categories:
IPv6 Addresses-Larger and Different:
The larger 128-bit IPv6 address (versus the 32-bit IPv4 address) allows more flexibility in designing newer addressing architectures, as well as providing large enough address spaces for predicted future growth of the Internet and Internet related technologies. A new addressing format, called the Aggregatable Global Unicast Address Format, has been developed to help solve route complexity scaling problems with the current IPv4 Internet. The current IPv4 provider-based addressing used in the Internet relies on separate IPv4 addresses being assigned to ISPs in contiguously numbered blocks for routing efficiency; that is, the routers need to carry fewer routes.
Header Format Simplification:
The IPv6 header has a new format that is designed to keep header overhead to a minimum. This is achieved by moving both non-essential fields and optional fields to extension headers that are placed after the IPv6 header. The streamlined IPv6 header is more efficiently processed at intermediate routers.
Stateless Address Autoconfiguration:
Automatic configuration of IPv6 end systems (hosts) is one of the most important features of IPv6. In the current IPv4 Internet, you must either manually configure IP address, network mask, and default gateway, or rely on having a DHCP server. With IPv6, this process can take place automatically, even in the absence of a router; hosts on the same link can automatically configure themselves with link-local addresses and communicate without manual configuration.
point to Programs. and then click Add. Alternately. Right-click any local area connection. 3. 7. In the Select Network Protocol dialog box. and then click Command Prompt. In the Select Network Component Type dialog box. and then click OK. type “netsh interface ipv6 install. click Microsoft TCP/IP version 6. from the Windows XP desktop. 4.Windows XP Enabling IPv6: 1. 5. Click Start. Click Install. 6. point to Accessories. 2. and then click Properties. At the command prompt.” Example: Figure 1: Install IPv6 using CLI netsh is a command-line scripting utility that allows either locally or remotely. and then double-click Network Connections. Log on to the computer with a user account that has privileges to change network configuration. click Start. Add/Remove IPv6 address: Manually add/remove an IPv6 address on your “Local Area Connection” interface using netsh command “netsh interface ipv6 add/delete address“<interface-name>” <Global ipv6 address>” . Click Close to save changes to your network connection. display or modify the network configuration of a computer that is currently running. click Control Panel. click Protocol.
This utility allows you to get the IP address information of a Windows computer. . It also allows some control over active TCP/IP connections.Example: Figure 2: IPv6 address configuration Display and identify existing IPv6 address: From a CLI run the following commands: • • • ipconfig/all netsh interface ipv6 show interface ipv6 –v if Ipconfig is a command line utility available on all versions of Microsoft Windows.
Where as “::/0” is the prefix.Example: Figure 3: TCP/IP Configuration In the IPv6 protocol. . Because of this. Verify the configuration using netsh interface ipv6 show routes command. the interface index used by Host A to reach Host B might not be the same as the interface index used by Host B to reach Host A. Add/Remove IPv6 default gateway: Manually add/remove an IPv6 route on your “Local Area Connection” interface using netsh command “netsh interface ipv6 add/del route ::/0 “Local Area Connection” <default gateway address>” . The interface index is defined locally on each IPv6 host. the zone ID for link-local addresses is typically the interface index from the display of the netsh interface ipv6 show interface command.
It works by sending ICMP “echo request” packets to the target host and listening for ICMP “echo response” replies. Example: Figure 5: Ping the interface . Ping local/global IPv6 address using “ping -6” in Command Line Interface.Example: Figure 4: Default Gateway Verify IPv6 configuration using some IPv6 related tools: Ping: Ping is a computer network tool used to test whether a particular host is reachable across an IP network.
When a packet reached a destination host. Example: Figure 6: Trace the route taken by packet . It works by increasing the "time-to-live" value of each successive batch of packets sent.Traceroute: Traceroute is a computer network tool used to determine the route taken by packets across an IP network. it discards the packet and sends an ICMP time exceeded packet to the sender.
So. identifies the Ethernet port defined as eth0.Linux – Ubuntu (7. or not. iface is used to identify an interface. verify that the module is running by listing the current loaded modules: lsmod |grep ipv6 Add/Remove IPv6 address: In Ubuntu there is only one file to be edited. run "/etc/init.10. to bring the changes into effect.04 & 9. The inet6 indicates the internet protocol version 6. Where. 8. the IPv6 capability is generally compiled as a module. IPv6 the following file must exist: /proc/net/if_inet6 It's possible that the IPv6 module is not loaded automatically on startup. To check whether your current running kernel supports.d/networking restart".04) Verify IPv6 support in Linux: Modern Linux distributions already contain IPv6−ready kernels. eth0. In terminal type the following: Desktop# sudo su Root-Desktop# gedit /etc/network/interfaces Add the following: iface eth0 inet6 static address 2001:0e30:1c04::13 netmask 126 gateway 2001:0e30:1c04::11 Once the file has been saved. /etc/network/interfaces. .
Display and identify existing IPv6 address: From a CLI run the following commands: • Ifconfig Ifconfig displays the status of the currently active interfaces. it displays the status of the given interface only. and disabling or enabling a given interface. Example Figure 7: IPv6 address verification . uses of ifconfig include setting an interface's IP address and netmask. If a single interface argument is given.
. records any packet loss. Ping6 estimates the round-trip time. This flag applies if the ping destination is a link-local/site-local unicast address.Verify IPv6 configuration using some IPv6 related tools: Ping: Ping6 is a computer network tool used to test whether a particular host is reachable across an IP network. and prints a statistical summary when finished. It is similar to windows XP. generally in milliseconds. Example: Figure 8: Ping link-local address Figure 9: Ping Global address Where as –I in the Figure: 6 is the source packets with the given interface address.
Its primary use is to set up static routes to specific hosts or networks via an interface. it shows detected Path MTU. amount of hops to the destination. Example: Figure 11: Default Gateway .Tracepath: It traces path to destination discovering MTU along this path The last line summarizes information about the entire path to the destination. Example: Figure 10: Trace Route Add/Remove IPv6 default gateway: Route manipulates the kernel's IP routing tables.
Open /etc/sysconfig/network file. IPV6_DEFAULTGW=Add a default route through specified gateway.google. enter: $ traceroute6 ipv6. enter: # vi /etc/sysconfig/network Append following line: NETWORKING_IPV6=yes Open /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 (1st network config file) # vi /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 Append following config directives for IPv6: IPV6INIT=yes IPV6ADDR=<IPv6-IP-Address> IPV6_DEFAULTGW=<IPv6-IP-Gateway-Address> Where. IPV6ADDR= Specify a primary static IPv6 address here. Save and close the file.Enable or disable IPv6 configuration for all interfaces.com Routing Table: $ route -n -A inet6 .Linux – Redhat You need to update and configure following files for IPv6 configuration: 1. /etc/sysconfig/network : Turn on networking in this file. Restart networking: # service network restart Verify your configuration by pinging ipv6 enabled site such as ipv6.google.Enable or disable global IPv6 initialization. /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 : Set default IPv6 router IP and server IP address in this file. • • • • NETWORKING_IPV6=yes|no . 2.com: $ ping6 ipv6.com Traces path to a network host.google. IPV6INIT=yes .
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