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Model Development

Preamble to the Model Development

1. In determining initial parameters to develop the model, the researcher focused on the lowest

three dimensions of the listed twelve as a result of the survey. They are as follows and demarcate

the scope of the model building:

a) Discussing ideas – students get together and debate and discuss ideas and potential

solutions to existing problems.

b) Taking time to think – students, when confronted with a problem, weigh all options for

potential solutions objectively and, through brainstorming and other techniques, reach the best

possible solution after taking time to think.

c) Learning alongside each other – students learn and study in a group, understand and

use each others’ strengths and abilities to complement each other. Abilities and weaknesses are

displayed and visible to all involved without fear of judgment.

2. As for gender differences, male and female students may be enrolled to act

as change agents in sharing dimensions which they have mastered better

than their friends of the opposite sex. Listed below are the four highest

dimensions of both genders:

Female Male

a) Making Decisions a) Developing cognitive side of their


b) Learning from mistakes b) Reflective communication

c) Discussing Ideas c) Taking time to think

d) Truly speaking their mind d) Learning alongside each other

It is noteworthy that for females there are two dimensions of verbal exchange part of the highest

dimensions, while among males there is but one (reflective communication) and that not even

necessarily on an interpersonal level with peers.

3. Taking into account the findings in class levels, sharing of mastery will also benefit the

students of different levels as well.

Class Level 3 Class Level 4

a) Taking risks a) Making decisions

b) Solving problems b) Learning from Mistakes

c) Being innovative and creative c) Giving positive communication

d) Truly speaking their minds d) Learning alongside each other

The difference in class levels is striking in that level 3 students are both greater risk takers and

more outspoken versus the older students who are better decision makers and excel at learning

from mistakes. Proper collaboration should enable the class level 3 students to take time to think

and encourage both class level 3 and class level 4 students to discuss ideas collaboratively.

4. Dimensions in common between gender and class level

The highest dimensions in common for all female students and class level 4 students were for

making decisions and learning from mistakes. The highest dimension that male students and

class level 4 students displayed were for learning alongside each other. The only dimension
in common for level 3 students was with female students, where both groups scored high in

speaking their minds.

Foundational Theories (Komin, 1990)

1) Psychology of the Thais

At least two major parts of the Thai cultural value system must be taken into account to

properly address cultural idiosyncrasies between a Western based model and Thai target


a) Ego Orientation

Thais are highly ego-oriented and place high value on self-esteem. The following values play

an important role in ego orientation:

1. Face Saving Value– Since the top concern for Thais is ego and the protection

thereof, saving ‘face’ or the ego of persons involved in any interpersonal

interaction is the main priority.

2. Criticism Avoidance Value – Direct and strong criticism of any type needs to be

avoided to maintain the ego or face of not only superiors but also inferiors.

3. “Considerate Kreng Jai” value - Thai people’s consideration and reluctance to

impose upon another person or to take another person’ feelings into account. This

can be any other person, no matter if of higher or lower social standing.

b) Avoidance of Conflict

The above mentioned three values inextricably lead to conflict avoidance which in turn

inhibits the free discussion of ideas (as students do not want to show potential weakness
in verbal exchange), taking time to think (which instead is used as a delay function to

ascertain other individuals’ inclinations so as not to offend or counter existing tendencies

of others), and learning alongside each other (as this also may show one’s weakness). In

short, the task achievement value is inhibited by the social relationship value in Thai


2. Psychodynamic Leadership (Stech, 2004)

Students attending Welfare Education Schools in Thailand are as much the result of their

life situational context as children of more common backgrounds. The life context of every child

then is the result of their family origin, maturation or individuation, dependence and

independence, and repression and the shadow self.

a) Family of Origin

Students in the welfare education school system come from any of these ten different social

backgrounds: 1.) children forced to enter the labor market, 2.) children who are sex workers, 3.)

deserted children/orphans, 4.) children in observation and protection centers, 5.) street children,

6.) children affected by HIV/AIDS, 7.) children of the minorities, 8.) physically abused children,

9.) impoverished children, and 10.) children affected by narcotic drugs.

As a result, students at the schools tend to be submissive and dependent on teachers as surrogate

parents at the school.

b) Maturation or Individuation

In Maturation or Individuation, greater independence takes place in the child, but the child or the

student, properly trained and inculcated with the right socialization by the parents or teachers,

acting as surrogate parents, carries the “parent or teacher within”- a conscience. Since proper

training generally did not take place in the earlier lives of welfare education school students, this

development of conscience has not been completed in a positive or productive manner.

Individuation takes place when the child or learner becomes more independent but is still

connected through a psychological umbilical cord, and the level of maturation is not certain, but

hoped for as the regular next step in the maturation process. Great authority in the teacher may

well produce a highly resistant or highly submissive learner, while exposure to a very uncaring

and relaxed teacher can result in a confused learner without a clear understanding of boundaries

and limitations. Since students at middle and high school age react strongly to authoritarian

figures in their lives, students either become submissive or overly resistant.

c) Dependence, counter dependence and independence are the three ways in which an

individual may react psycho-dynamically to a display of leadership. Dependent reactions

include the inability of followers to reach their own conclusions without the constant input

from the leadership figure. Counter dependent reactions include rebelliousness, rejecting

leadership directives, and independent reactions happen when a leader’s directives are

evaluated objectively by the subordinate, whenever possible. An independent response

evaluates the leadership directive objectively with certain criteria, such as ethical validity,
practicality etc.. Since these children have been deprived earlier in their lives before entering

the welfare education school system, they have the tendency to show greater independence

and can react strongly to authoritarian figures. The guideline for enhancing positive

independence is, therefore, to teach students to look at situations objectively and rationally.

d) Repression and the Shadow Self are two terms referring to depth psychology, which concerns

itself with the study of the subconscious, which makes people act and feel a certain way

below the conscious level. Repression is what happens when individuals have been trained to

not act a certain way in response to a felt emotion based on a situation potentially long ago,

so they, instead will repress their feelings but vent them in a different way, such as through

sarcasm, snide comments etc., when hurt. Children attending welfare schools come from

backgrounds that exposed most of then to traumatic experiences, and without any outlet or

emotional support, theses experiences had to be suppressed by the youngsters. To counteract

the lowest of the three self-leadership dimensions, it is advisable to teach students differences

in right versus wrong, and what is acceptable and not acceptable as prescribed in Thai


The Shadow Self is what Carl Jung introduced and which is somewhat related to repression,

in that it concerns that part of a person’s personality which is consciously unacceptable and

the existence of which is therefore denied. In addition, mechanisms appropriate for

controlling derogatory concepts of repression and the shadow- self in the schools must be

3. Leadership Team Guidelines (Lambert, 2003)

Four guidelines are used in the development of the model.

First, purposes of leadership teams creating a broadening of the base of student self- leadership

in the school: Mechanisms in carrying out this process involve paying thoughtful attention to the

development of a professional learning community of teachers and all school staff. Student

learning is to be the focus, especially in knowledge sharing among students with different self-

leadership mastery skills as identified in the results of the survey.

Second, roles for leadership teams will be suggested within the model. Elements to be

inculcated are (1) designing student learning opportunities for self-leadership in the school, (2)

Establishing inquiry practices to enhance more discussion, (3) Initiatives are to be in alignment

with enhancing the three self-leadership elements, (4) Inviting leadership from other students, (5)

encouraging reflective communication, (6) mentoring progress of student self-development skills

and (6) Modeling self-leadership practice and skills.

Third, effective student self-leadership teams will be implemented through various steps.

They are: Creating readiness, clarifying accorded membership, selection of students as

participants in training, setting up an orientation and responsibilities for facilitation and

observation, creating self-leadership norms, providing essential skills and necessary training

processes with feedback loops for assessment.

4.) REACH Model (Merideth, 2004)

The training program will instill five elements of the REACH model:

Risk taking is seeking challenges and creating new processes to overcome challenges and

problems. Effectiveness in all students attempt is strongly encouraged to model best practices of
fellow students. Autonomy is to be practiced by creating initiatives, independent thought and

responsibility. Collegiality will arise from promoting community and interactive communication

skills. Finally, honor derives from demonstrating integrity, honesty, and ethics.

In the end, the model is depicted as the bird’s eye view of a pyramid square in plan with

receding terraces, each terrace being another part of the model firmly founded upon the

preceding, and eventually culminating in the pyramidal apex, the smallest innermost square

representing the intended outcome of the model. Starting as its basis from within the context of

Thai cultural values and psychology of the Thai people, ego orientation and conflict avoidance to

the second square, the use of the REACH model and TEAM guidelines. In the third square lies

the sharing of strengths and mastery from different gender and class levels. The summit of the

pyramid as illustrated in the model leads to the ultimate expected outcomes of enhancements of

the deficient self leadership dimensions, namely, the students’ ability to discuss ideas, taking

time to think and learning alongside each other.

Figure: The Self – Leadership Development Model for Mathayom Students in Welfare Schools,

Northeastern Thailand

Rationale for using games to implement the model

The following are advantages for using games as the main method of instruction to relay

information and improve upon an existing situation, The following has been adapted from Kirby,

A (1995) Games for Trainers. Hants, UK, Gower Publishing Company:

1) Anonymity- Less outgoing students have the opportunity to participate in an active way

without it being obvious to others they have made the decision to do so. This can be a

confidence booster and can encourage later participation in the discussion phase. In

effect, participants model active involvement for themselves, The optional element,

however, is important in allowing people the option of not participating if they so wish.

2) Developmental – For any giving learning objective there are any number of games that

differ in their complexity and in the demands that they make on the group. Selection of

the most suitable game addressing the needs and developing the abilities is of importance,

and can be done upon closer study of the game. The use of training games therefore

remains developmental for both participants and trainers.

3) Experiential – The source of training is what the students do rather than what they are

told by the trainer. Above all, games are action-based learning, with all the advantages of

that style of learning. In particular, this can improve the memorability of the learning


4) Experimentation – Rather than talking about different ways of doing things, games offer

an opportunity for students to practice skills in a relatively safe environment, and to try

out different options without risking the full consequences of doing so in the real world.

Sometimes this function games have of life skills simulation can even be openly

discussed with the group.

5) Flexibility – games offer the trainer an opportunity to vary the conditions of the activity

in accordance with the needs of the group of students, something that often be difficult

with more formal training methods. Length of game, difficulty level, rules and all other

aspects can be changed at any time, thereby ensuring a reaching of the objective.

6) Full participation – The involvement of all group members becomes the norm in games.

In many other trainer-centered activities the trainer interacts with one student at a time,

and this tends to be the most dominant fraction of the students, whether in terms of co-

operation or resistance. Games set up a requirement for (full and often equal)

participation by each student. If each person has been seen to do something, then the less

vocal or socially skilled students will be more encouraged to feed back both in the later

stages of a game, and in discussions and other verbal activities further in the course.

7) Group responsibility – A game gives a group the opportunity to take decisions for itself,

and reduces dependency upon the trainer as the source of responsibility. The facilitative

role of the trainer remains vital, but the group will have to establish its own principles

and ways of abiding by them. In some cases, such as team building, this can be a major

objective of the course. In others it breaks down preconceptions of what learning and

training are while also achieving other course objectives.

8) The learning cycle – Kolb (1984) and Honey and Mumford (1986) have independently

developed models of learning as a cycle of four stages: Action, reflection, theorizing and

planning for future occurrences of the same situation. The process of a game goes

through all these four stages. Some trainers contend that training games appeal only to

Activists – those people who have a high need for the first of these four stages. A well

designed and executed training game however will cater to the needs for all: the activist
(who needs to be involved in an activity to learn), the Reflector (who needs to think about

the experience afterwards), the Theorist (who needs to be able to work the details of any

underlying principles), and the Pragmatist (whose main concern is how to apply what

been learned).

9) Memorability – games tend to be memorable because each game is unique in what it feels

like to play. This acts as an anchor that can help students to recall what was learned

although there is a risk that students will recall the game but not the objective, so proper

debriefing is necessary.

10) Motivation – The “fun” element of games ensures that participants are motivated to take

a full part.

11) Multiple relevance – Although the trainer will have a reason for introducing a particular

game, it may well be that participants get something else out of it. The open nature of

games and their correct processing ensures that what people actually gain from the game

is fully expressed even if it is not what the trainer intended them to learn.

12) Payoff for all participants – Although there may be winners in the more competitive

games, there is a payoff for all participants in term of learning experience. It is also

possible to organize the activity in such a way that there is not stigma for the losers.

13) Peer learning – Arising from this is the fact that most of the learning for a student will

come from his or her peers. This is a useful point to be able to make in the classroom

because it promotes networking, interdependence among all students and a tendency not

to see the trainer as the source of right answers. Such a modeling effect can be very

significant, and in the long term can enable students to considerably broaden their

understanding of what a learning event can be.

14) Physicality – Most games operate by making a problem or a skill into a physical reality.

Such a process can be a very powerful way of putting people in touch with their own

feelings and reactions. By locating a problem or skill in their own physical space,

students are encouraged to become involved with it rather than treating it at an abstract

intellectual level. This is a key to self -awareness.

15) Process issues – Students are more likely to be their real selves in games than in many

other sorts of training activity where they will conform to what they think of as the

participant’s role. They therefore demonstrate the way in which they react and interact in

real life situations, which can itself be the subject of discussion (process intervention) at a

later stage in the activity. This is particularly important in team-building work and any

training where feelings are examined.

16) Rapidity of Learning – Compared to any unmanipulated experience, the time frame of a

game is very compressed, and the effect of this is to accelerate learning. This is an

advantage of simulation learning methods, of which games can be seen as a special case.

17) Realism – Even when it is not a simulation, a training game functionally represents some

aspects of real life, thus making for ecological validity-it examines the issues and skills of

everyday experience in the language that the particular experience needs. A degree of

reality is experienced that might not be possible with many other teaching methods. The

feelings evoked and many of the responses generated will be very similar to those in the

situation for which the training exercise is designed to prepare students. By stressing

these parallels between training and everyday situations, games may help promote the

principles of continuous learning with associated benefits for the student and the school.
18) Risk taking – Through contracting, the effects of loss of face are minimized, and risks can

be taken which might seem too formidable in an ordinary environment. The atmosphere

can remain supportive throughout.

19) Skill Development – Many games require a degree of organizational skill which may not

actually be the main objective. The development of those skills, however, is an

achievement that many participants will recognize.

Games and Activities

1) Students discussing Ideas

Teaching for Understanding Map

Strategies of Knowledge Skill Assessment

Effective Action Aspiration Action Aspiration Action Aspiration

Training I I would Skills Skills I What What

for- know... like to I would
self- share share... like to I want
leadership have... do...

to do...

student idea
2. Learning
tasks that
that represent
leadership as
of the
for learning
to the

Adapted from E. M.Merideth, (2000) Leadership Strategies for Teachers

2) Students taking time to think

Pfeiffer, W. (Ed.)(1989). The encyclopaedia of group activities: 150 practical designs for

successful facilitating. San Diego: University Associates

Identifying Group purposes

Goal: To demonstrate how different group purposes affect group process.

Group Size: Four subgroups (A, B, C, and D) of five to seven participants each.

Time Required: One hour and fifteen minutes.

Materials: 1. A set of task sheets for each subgroup

2. A newsprint flip chart and a felt-tipped marker for each subgroup

Physical Setting: A room large enough so that the subgroups can work without

disturbing one another.

Process: 1. The students are assembled into four subgroups of five to seven

members each. These subgroups are designated A, B, C, and D.

2. Each subgroup is given a different set of instructions according to its

letter (A, B, C, D) designation, a newsprint flip chart, and a felt-tipped


3 The facilitator stipulates that each subgroup is to spend twenty minutes

completing its task and recording its list of steps on newsprint.

4. The facilitator explains the four basic purposes of groups (social,

study/educational, problem solving, and therapeutic).

5. The facilitator leads a discussion of the contents of each posted list, explaining

how each is different according to the purpose of the subgroup’s task:

6. Task Sheet A presents a social task, Task Sheet B presents a study/educational

task; Task Sheet C presents a problem-solving task; Task Sheet D presents a

therapeutic task.

7. The facilitator leads a discussion based on the following questions:

• Which steps were similar? Which steps were different?

• Which purposes seemed clearer and easier to fulfill than others?

• What difficulties did you experience in attending to the steps rather than

the content? What were your reactions to these difficulties?

• What is the primary purpose of this group?

• What are the purposes of other groups that you belong to?

• How can understanding a group’s purpose help you in improving that

group’s process (the way in which it operates)?

Task sheets

Task Sheet A

Your group is in charge of planning the next school party for your school. What steps will you

follow in deciding what to do?

Task Sheet B

Your group is to analyze and evaluate the latest great Thai movie everybody has seen. What steps

will you follow in completing this task?

Task Sheet C
Your group is to find an answer to the school’s problem with not having enough (insert idea

here). What steps will you follow in completing this task?

Task Sheet D
Your group is attempting to comfort a member who has just loved one. What steps will you

follow in achieving your goal?

3) Students learning alongside each other


Summary: Exploration of how group members see themselves and are seen

by others.

Objectives: Self-Disclosure



Materials: Prepared cards (see below)

One card for each group member with his or her name on it.



Timing: 30 minutes.

Procedure 1. Pin up the name cards round the room at an equal

distance from each other.

2. Give each student a set of the prepared cards and

explain that each person has the same ones. You may
wish to eliminate some items or add others, depending

on the level of trust established within the group.

3. Invite students to pin the cards under the name of the

person they consider most appropriate. It might help

the group to start with their own name and ask the

students to move clockwise at the same time so that

nobody knows who has given what card to whom.

4. Invite the students to circulate and look at their own and

others’ lists.

5. Discuss the extent to which people’s perceptions of

themselves differed from those of others. Note how this

can even apply to apparently “objective” categories like


Commentary: On a team-building course it will not be appropriate to include

the trainer. In other contexts it might.

Variations: 1. Give different students different but overlapping sets of cards

2. Provide some blank cards for people to put their own


3. In the discussion, ask what other categories people would

like to have.

4. Use blank cards only.

Sample cards
Person who makes me laugh the most.
Kindest person.
Most outgoing person.
Most hard working person.
Most perceptive person.
Untidiest person.
Most reliable person. Friendliest
Silliest person.
Most unreliable person.
Most scatterbrained person.
Most flexible person.
Most trustworthy person.
Most serious person.
Most prejudiced person.
Most critical person.
Person I would most share my feelings with.
Most talkative person.
Most spiritual person.
Most untrustworthy person.
Most artistic person.
Person who most often irritates me.
Youngest person.
Cleverest person.
Most logical person.
Most accepting person.
Least prejudiced person.
Wisest person.
Most passive person.
Person I would most like to work with.
Most cynical person. Oldest person.
Greediest person.
Person I would most like to go on holiday with.
Most generous person.
Smartest person.
Person who made the least impression on me.
Most fashionable person.
Person I would most like to be my boss.