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Preparation Guide to CDMA2000 BSC6680 Engineering Installation

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Applied Region Target readers Edited by

Overseas Customer / engineer / cooperation partner CDMA-BSS TSD

Product Name Product Version Document Version

CDMA BSC6680 V300R006 1.0

Preparation Guide to CDMA2000 BSC6680 Engineering Installation


Drafted by Reviewed by Approved by Liqi Zhaochaozhong Date Date Date 2009-09-18

Huawei Technologies Co, Ltd All Rights Reserved

Preparation Guide to CDMA2000 BSC6680 Engineering Installation

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Revision Records Date 2009-09-18 Revised Version 1.0 Description 1Finished the draft. Li Qi Author

2013-05-15

HUAWEI Confidential

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Table of Contents Chapter1Forward.................................................................................................................................5 Chapter2Installation Procedure ..........................................................................................................6 Chapter3Installation Requirements of CDMA2000 BSC6680..........................................................7 3.1 Introduction of CDMA2000 BSS.........................................................................................7 3.1.1 Position of BSC in CDMA2000 System...................................................................7 3.2 Requirements for Layout and Space of the BSC Equipment Room ...................................8 3.2.1 Requirements for Layout of the BSC Equipment Room...........................................8 3.2.2 Requirements for the Cabling Space of the BSC Equipment Room.........................9 3.2.3 Requirements of Space for Capacity Expansion in the BSC Equipment Room.....11 3.3 Requirements for the BSC Equipment Room.....................................................................13 3.3.1 Requirements for the Floor Conditions of the BSC Equipment Room...................13 3.3.2 Requirements for the Construction of the BSC Equipment Room.........................14 3.3.3 Requirements for the Working Environment of the BSC........................................17 3.3.4 Basic Requirements for the Environment of the BSC.............................................20 3.3.5 Requirements for Fire Protection in the BSC Equipment Room............................24 Chapter4Preparations for Engineering Construction .......................................................................26 4.1 Requirements for the Power Supply System of the BSC...................................................26 4.1.1 Power Supply Schemes for the BSC .......................................................................26 4.1.2 Requirements for the DC Power Supply of the BSC...............................................27 4.1.3 Requirements for the AC Power Supply of the BSC...............................................29 4.2 Requirements for the Lightning Protection and Grounding of the BSC............................31 4.2.1 Requirements for the Lightning Protection and Grounding System.......................31 4.2.2 Underground Lightning Protection and Grounding System....................................33 4.2.3 Lightning Protection and Grounding of the Equipment Room...............................34 4.2.4 Outdoor Lightning Protection and Grounding System............................................40 4.2.5 Lightning Protection and Grounding of the Power Supply System........................42 4.2.6 Requirements for the Lightning Protection and Grounding of Signal Cables........45 4.2.7 Requirements for the Lightning Protection and Grounding of Feeders..................46 4.2.8 Requirements for Lightning Protection and Grounding of Other Equipment.........48 4.3 Requirements for Transmission in the BSC........................................................................49 4.3.1 Physical Interfaces on the BSC................................................................................49 4.3.2 Peer Equipment and Interfaces Supported by the BSC...........................................51 4.3.3 Requirements for the PDF/DDF/ODF.....................................................................51 4.4 Requirements for BSC Cable Layout.................................................................................52 4.4.1 Installation Specifications for Power Cables and PGND Cables............................52 4.4.2 Cabling Specifications for the BSC Signal Cables..................................................53 4.5 Requirements for the Clock of the BSC.............................................................................58 4.5.1 Clock Resources of the BSC....................................................................................58 4.5.2 Requirements for Clock Precision of the BSC........................................................59 Chapter5Checklist for BSC Site Preparation ...................................................................................61 5.1 Checklist for the Site Location...........................................................................................61 5.2 Checklist for the Equipment Room Environment .............................................................62
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5.3 Checklist for the Power Supply System.............................................................................63 5.4 Checklist for the Grounding Cables....................................................................................64 5.5 Checklist for the Transmission System...............................................................................64 Chapter6Physical and Electrical Parameters of CDMA BSC Switching Equipment......................65 6.1 Structure Specifications......................................................................................................65 6.2 Electrical Specifications......................................................................................................66 6.3 Specifications for GPS feeders and jumpers.......................................................................66 Chapter7Physical and Electrical Parameters of M2000 OMC Equipment......................................67

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Chapter1 Forward
Dear Customer, Thank you for your choice of Huawei Airbridge CDMA system. For the purpose of better cooperation and successful installation, we compiled this Preparation Guide to Airbridge CDMA BSS Installation. You are expected to have made good preparations as required in this guide before Huawei technical engineers arrive at the construction site. In this way, the equipment could successfully be put into operation so as to bring social and economic benefits as early as possible. Before the preparations for the installation, you should carefully read the following contents: After you finish all the preparations for the installation, please contact the regional office in time so that Huawei could arrange engineers for the engineering installation. If the installation starts in the case that the preparations are not fully completed for some reason, you should arrange personnel to prepare for the unsatisfied conditions as early as possible so as to carry out the installation successfully. If the installation starts in the case that the preparations are not fully completed for some reason, but it is impossible for the installation to continue due to the inadequacy of preparations, Huawei has the right to stop the installation, depending on the specific situation. After the preparations get fully ready, both parties can negotiate to arrange for the restart of installation. If you have any question during the preparations for the installation, please feel free to consult the regional office of Huawei. The following lists the information about the regional office of Huawei for your reference:

Address: Telephone/fax: Project owner and telephone:

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Chapter2 Installation Procedure


The installation procedure for Huawei equipment is introduced here for the purpose of a better understanding and cooperation between both parties. The installation procedure starts with the signing of the contract and ends with the final acceptance of equipment, followed by the maintenance procedure. The installation procedure is shown below:
Sign contract and start to carry out it

Huawei sends engineers to carry out site survey Customer makes prepayment Huawei arranges for production and delivery Equipment arrives on site Huawei provides consultation for preparations and customer finishes preparations before installation Customer starts to make preparations according to Preparation Guide to Airbridge CDMA BSS Installation and carries out site survey and data planning with Huawei survey engineer

Huawei and customer jointly decide start date and their own project owners Out-of-box quality inspection by Huawei and customer Hardware installation and software debugging Completion of installation and commissioning of system, preliminary acceptance, cutover, and operation

Final acceptance End of installation

A successful completion of a project requires the close cooperation between you and Huawei. We hope the installation can successfully be completed.

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Chapter3 Installation Requirements of CDMA2000 BSC6680


3.1 Introduction of CDMA2000 BSS
3.1.1 Position of BSC in CDMA2000 System

PCFPacket Control Function HAHome Agent MSMobile Station RadiusRemote Authentication Dial-in User Service

PDSNPacket Data Serving Node FAForeign Agent SCPService Control Point(Intelligent Network)

Figure3-1 CDMA2000 System Structure

The CDMA system consists of several subsystems or functional entities. The base station subsystem (BSS) is closely related to the wireless cellular technology in the CDMA system. Through the radio interface, the BSS connects the MS to send and receive radio signals and manage radio resources. The BSS connects the mobile switching center (MSC) in the network

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subsystem (NSS) to transfer system signals and user information between mobile subscribers, or between mobile subscribers and PSTN subscribers. On the other hand, the BSS connects the packet data serving node (PDSN) to realize the packet data service.

3.2 Requirements for Layout and Space of the BSC Equipment Room
3.2.1 Requirements for Layout of the BSC Equipment Room
This topic describes the requirements for ensuring appropriate layout, easy installation, and neatness in a BSC equipment room. The requirements for the layout of the BSC equipment room are as follows: The minimum distance between the front portions of two adjacent cabinet rows should be 1,800 mm [5.91 ft]. The minimum distance between a wall and a cabinet side that is closest to the wall should be 800 mm [2.63 ft]. The minimum distance between a wall and the front or the back of its closest cabinet row should be 800 mm [2.63 ft]. An aisle that is at least 1,000 mm [3.28 ft] wide should be reserved in the equipment room. The minimum head room of the equipment room should 3000 mm [9.84 ft]. If the BSC cabinets, BSC cabinets, and PDF are co-located in an equipment room, Huawei recommends that all the cabinets be installed in one row for facilitating cable routing. Figure3-2 shows the layout of the BSC equipment room.

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Figure3-2 Layout of an equipment room (unit: mm) The layout of the equipment room should be completed by the design department of the customer or survey engineers, and copies of the layout should be provided to Huawei before the delivery of products.

3.2.2 Requirements for the Cabling Space of the BSC Equipment Room
This topic describes the requirements for the cabling space of the BSC equipment room, where both overhead cabling and underfloor cabling can be used.

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Overhead Cabling in the BSC Equipment Room


When overhead cabling is used in the BSC equipment room, the following requirements must be met: The minimum distance between the roof and the top of the cabinet should be 1 m [3.28 ft]. A 200-mm wide space should be kept at both ends of each cabinet row for the installation of cable racks. Figure3-3 shows the overhead cabling in an equipment room.

Figure3-3 Overhead cabling in a BSC equipment room (unit: mm)

Underfloor Cabling in the BSC Equipment Room


When underfloor cabling is used in the BSC equipment room, the height of the ESD floor should be greater than 200 mm [7.87 in.], as shown in Figure3-4.

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Figure3-4 Underfloor cabling in a BSC equipment room (unit: mm)


NOTE: The height of the ESD floor refers to the distance between the upper surface of the ESD floor and the surface of the cement floor. If some of the above conditions cannot be met, you can route the cables based on the actual situation. Appropriate cable racks, however, must be kept ready.

3.2.3 Requirements of Space for Capacity Expansion in the BSC Equipment Room
This topic describes the requirements of space for capacity expansion in the BSC equipment room.

Space Reservation for a Fully-Configured System


A fully-configured BSC consists of one CBCR and one CBSR.. Figure3-5 shows the space reserved for a fully-configured system.

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Figure3-5 Space reserved for a fully-configured system (unit: mm)

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3.3 Requirements for the BSC Equipment Room


3.3.1 Requirements for the Floor Conditions of the BSC Equipment Room
This topic describes the requirements for the floor conditions of the BSC equipment room, including the requirements for the floor type and the requirements for the height of the equipment room.

Requirements for the Floor Type of the Equipment Room


The BSC can be installed either on a cement floor or on an ESD floor. Table3-1 lists the requirements for the floor conditions of the BSC equipment room. Table3-1 Requirements for the floor conditions of the equipment room

Floor Type Cement floor

Requirements for the Floor Conditions The weight-bearing capacity of the equipment room should be equal to or greater than 450 kg/m2. The thickness of the floor should be greater than the length of the expansion bolt assembly.

ESD floor

The resistance of the ESD floor must comply with the relevant requirements. The floor is firm and tight, with a horizontal error less than 2 mm [0.08 in.] per square meter. If an ESD floor is not available, use a static-conductive floor instead. The volume resistivity of the static-conductive floor must range from 1.0 x 107 ohms to 1.0 x 1010 ohms.

The floor should be connected to the grounding device through a current-limiting resistor and cables. The resistance of the resistor must be 1 Mohms. Tests show that terrazzo (including cement floor) can met the requirements mentioned above.

All the cable holes should be covered with lids. Ensure that the

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Table3-1 Requirements for the floor conditions of the equipment room

Floor Type

Requirements for the Floor Conditions location and size of the holes comply with the engineering design.

Requirements for the Height of the Equipment Room


Locate the equipment room on or above the second floor or at least 600 mm [23.62 in.] above the maximum flood level recorded in the local area.

3.3.2 Requirements for the Construction of the BSC Equipment Room


This topic describes the requirements for the BSC equipment room. The equipment room consists of the switching room, control room (with an area not smaller than 20 m 2[215.273 ft
2

]), and auxiliary room. If required, the switching room and the control room can be combined.

During the construction of an equipment room, factors such as cabling (shortest routing of antenna cables), weight-bearing capacity, power supply, and entrance of transmission cables must be considered.

Requirements for the Area


The requirements for the area of an equipment room are as follows: The area must have the scope for future capacity expansions. The area must facilitate feeder window installation and feeder distribution. The area must facilitate installation and maintenance of the equipment. There should be enough space for opening and closing the doors of cabinets. The actual area of an equipment room depends on the network capacity. For specific requirements, consult with Huawei survey engineers when planning the layout the equipment room.

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Requirements for the Height


The minimum height of the equipment room, which refers to the distance between the beam or the wind pipe and the floor, should be 3.5 m [11.48 ft] for overhead cabling and 3 m [9.84 ft] for underfloor cabling. Thus, sufficient space can be reserved for installing the cable rack and laying cables and feeder pipes.

Requirements for the Weight-Bearing Capacity


The weight-bearing capacity of the equipment room depends on the equipment weight, equipment base area, installation position, and structure of the equipment room. Ensure that the weight-bearing capacity is tested by a construction engineer. If the capacity does not meet the requirements, take appropriate measures to increase the weight-bearing capacity. Generally speaking, The weight-bearing capacity of the equipment room should be equal to or greater than 450 kg/m2.

Requirements for the Doors and Windows


The requirements for the doors and windows of the equipment room are as follows: The size of the doors should be appropriate. Each door should have a lock and key. Doors and windows should be sealed with anti-dust rubber strips. Windows exposed to direct sunlight should be covered with reflecting paper or colored glass. If the sunlight in the room is sufficient, you can block the windows. Doors and windows should be firm and dustproof. The roof should be waterproof and dustproof, and the materials used should not be combustible.

Requirements for the Roof and Walls


The requirements for the roof and walls of the equipment room are as follows: The roof and walls should be heat-insulating and waterproof. The roof should be waterproofed if there are antenna mast and cable holes in the roof. Ensure that the roof has the required weight-bearing capacity. The walls can be painted with lusterless lacquer rather than the paint that easily chalks. The roof and walls should be light-colored.

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Requirements for Resistance


The intensity requirement of shockproof design of the equipment room should be one degree higher than the local intensity requirement. If the shockproof design is not satisfactory, strengthen the construction of the equipment room.

Requirements for Lightning Protection and Grounding


For details, refer to 4.2.3 Lightning Protection and Grounding of the Equipment Room.

Requirements for Dustproofing


The requirements for dustproofing are as follows: The density of the dust with a diameter greater than 5 micron should be less than 3104granule/m3. The dust granules should be non-conductive, non-magnetic, and non-corrosive. Huawei recommends that the following measures should be taken to make the equipment room dustproof: Ensure that the doors and windows are airtight. Equip the outer windows with doublelayer glass and the doors with sealing strips. Ensure that the shoes and clothes that are used in the equipment room are clean and washed regularly. Isolate the control room from the switching room by using aluminum alloy frames with glass. To prevent dust or any other possible interference, do not allow personnel from frequently entering the switching room. If possible, increase the humidity of the equipment room because higher humidity can reduce static electricity.

Requirements for the Passageway


The requirements for the passageway of an equipment room are as follows: The width of the transmission passageway should be more than 1.5 m [4.92 ft] and its height should be more than 2.5 m [8.20 ft]. All the emergency exits in the equipment room should be free from obstructions. Emergency exit signs should be placed at prominent locations. The height of the doors of the equipment room should be more than 2 m [6.56 ft] and their width should be more than 1 m [3.28 ft].

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The height of the elevator should greater than 2.4 m [7.87 ft].

3.3.3 Requirements for the Working Environment of the BSC


This topic describes the requirements for the working environment. The requirements for the working environment consist of the climatic, waterproof, ESD, biological, air cleanness, and mechanical stress requirements.

Requirements for Climate


Table3-2 and Table3-3 list the climatic requirements of the BSC.

Table3-2 Requirements for temperature and humidity

Temperature Long-term 0 to 45 NOTE: Short-term -5 to +55 Long-term 5% to 85%

Relative Humidity Short-term 5% to 95%

Measure the temperature and humidity at the place 1.5 m [4.92 ft] above the floor and 0.4 m [1.31 ft] in front of the cabinet (no protection boards in front or at the rear of the cabinet).

Short-term refers to a period of less than 96 continuous hours or less than 15 days in a year.

Table3-3 Other climatic requirements

Item Altitude Air pressure Temperature change rate Solar radiation

Range 4,000 m [2.48 miles] 70 kPa to 106 kPa 3/min [37.40 F/min] 700 W/m2

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Table3-3 Other climatic requirements

Item Heat radiation Wind speed 600 W/m2 5 m/s

Range

To meet the above requirements, take the following measures: Use dustproof materials for the floor, walls, and roof. Install screen doors and screen windows. Ensure that the outer windows are dustproof. Clean the equipment room and air filter regularly (for example, once every three months). Wear ESD-preventive shoes and uniforms before entering into the room.

Requirements for the Biological Environment


The working environment of the BSC should meet the following biological requirements: The environment should not be conducive to the proliferation of fungus or mildew. There should not be any rodents such as mice.

Requirements for Air Cleanness


The working environment of the BSC should meet the following requirements for air cleanness: The air should be free from explosive, conductive, magneto-conductive, or corrosive dust. The density of physically active materials must comply with the requirements listed in Table3-4. The density of chemically active materials must comply with the requirements listed in Table3-5.

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Table3-4 Requirements for physically active materials

Chemically Active Material Dust particles granule/m3

Unit

Density 3 x 104 (No visible dust on desks within three days)

NOTE: Dust particles: diameter 5 m

Table3-5 Requirements for chemically active materials

Chemically Active Materials SO2 H2S NH3 Cl2 mg/m3 mg/m3 mg/m3 mg/m3

Unit 0.20 0.006 0.05 0.01

Density

Requirements for mechanical stress


The mechanical stress of the working environment of the BSC should meet the requirements listed in Table3-6.

Table3-6 Requirements for mechanical stress

Item Sinusoidal vibration Offset

Sub-Item 3.5 mm [0.14 in.] -

Range 10.0m/s2

Accelerated speed

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Table3-6 Requirements for mechanical stress

Item

Sub-Item Frequency range 2 Hz to 9 Hz

Range 9 Hz [9 c/s] to 200 Hz [9 c/s]

Unsteady impact

Impact response spectrum II Static payload

100 m/s2

NOTE: Impact response spectrum refers to the maximum acceleration response curve generated by the equipment under specified impact excitation. Impact response spectrum II means that the duration of the semi-sine impact response spectrum is 6 ms. Static payload refers to the capability of the packed equipment to bear the pressure from the top in normal pile-up method.

3.3.4 Basic Requirements for the Environment of the BSC


Requirements for ESD Prevention
The absolute value of electrostatic voltage should be less than 1,000 V. To meet the above requirement, take the following measures: Train the operators on ESD prevention. Control the humidity in the room to reduce static electricity. Equip the equipment room with an antistatic floor or ground the floor properly. Wear ESD-preventive shoes and uniforms before entering into the room. Use antistatic tools such as ESD-preventive wrist straps, antistatic tweezers, and extraction tools during operations. Ground all the conductive devices (including computer terminals) in the room and arrange for antistatic workbenches. Keep non-antistatic materials such as common bags, foams, and rubbers at least 30 cm [0.98 ft] away from boards and ESD-sensitive devices.

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Requirements for Anti-Interference


With the development of sciences and technology, interference sources that produce stray signals have increased rapidly. The stray signals affect communications quality and the normal operation of the BSC equipment. The possible interference sources are listed as follows: Corona discharge of transmission lines Electromagnetic interference caused by transformers Various kinds of switch apparatuses Waveform distortion due to operation on large-sized equipment Radio-frequency interference Natural interference such as the terrestrial magnetic field and extraneous radiation The possible forms that interference takes are capacitance coupling, inductive coupling, electromagnetic wave radiation, electric conduction of common resistance (including the grounding system), and electric conduction of various conducting wires (power cables, signal cables, and output cables). When external noises exceed the anti-interference capacity of the integrated circuit of equipment, the equipment may not operate normally. It is impossible to eliminate or shield all the interference. You can, however, reduce the interference by taking the following measures: High-frequency interference signals on electric networks are generated by the coupling of primary coil to secondary coil of the power transformer through the distributed capacitor. Thus, a low pass filter on led-in power cables and a proper power transformer can suppress the interference. To remove the interference caused by the grounding system, prevent various grounds (signal ground, power ground, protection ground, and shielding ground) from forming loops, such as the loop formed by a large distributed capacitor. If loops exist, interference signals affect the normal operation of the equipment through the coupling of the common resistance of the grounding system. Protecting the equipment against electromagnetic interference In some multiple-use buildings, there may be more than one high-frequency transmitter, whose impact on the BSC equipment must comply with the requirements specified in the related EMC standards. In addition, make sure that you ground, shield, and filter the waves for the BSC equipment properly. In a high-frequency electromagnetic field (external interference), a high longitudinal voltage may be inducted in the sheath and the core of the communication cable. Due to the asymmetry of the core, the longitudinal voltage may generate lateral noise voltage at the end of the core. The noise voltage causes interference. If the

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metallic sheath is grounded, the sheath produces the shield function and the longitudinal voltage decreases significantly, and the interference voltage is reduced. Additionally, interference reduction can be achieved through the following methods: lowering the voltage and current of interference sources, shortening the wires or the interval of wires for decreasing the area of the interference loop, placing insulated and interfered wires on the grounded surface, using special ground return cable for eliminating common resistance, and twisting signal cables and return cables together for offsetting the partial external electromagnetic interference. All the methods mentioned earlier are effective. The density of the electric field in the equipment room must not exceed 300 mV/m. The density of the magnetic field must not exceed 11 GS.

Requirements for Illumination


The requirements for illumination in the equipment room are as follows: The equipment room must not be exposed to direct sunlight. Exposure to direct sunlight can lead to the aging and deformation of circuit boards and other components. The battery compartment should be equipped with an explosion-proof lamp that does not emit bright light. If the sunlight in the room is sufficient, you can paint or block the windows. For BSC equipment rooms that have large capacity or great influence, a DC power supply should be arranged as the standby lighting system.

Requirements for Air Conditioning


Calculate the capacity of the air conditioner based on the area of the equipment room and the heat emitted by the BSC equipment. For the calculation method, refer to relevant engineering design specifications. Generally, you can use two air conditioners so that they can work alternately. The following equation is used to calculate the heat emitted in the BSC equipment room: Q = 0.86 x (V x A W) (kilocalorie/hour) Where, Q refers to the heat emitted by the BSC equipment. V (in volts) refers to the voltage of the DC power supply. A (in amperes) refers to the average power consumed in a busy hour. W (in watts) refers to the effective radiating power of the antenna.

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The number 0.86 is the conversion coefficient of electrical energy per watt to heat energy. If the BSC equipment room has other telecommunication devices, heat emitted by these devices should be considered. The requirements for the air conditioners in the equipment room are as follows: Humidity: 30% to 75% (50% to 60% preferred.) Temperature: 18C to 28C (20C to 25C preferred)

Requirements for Communication


Telephones and facsimile machines should be available in the equipment room.

Requirements for the Environment Control System


The environment control system consists of the timing control, temperature monitor, anti-theft alarms, smoke alarms, and power supply and backup power control. The system must meet the following requirements: The working time and working mode of the air conditioner should be adjusted automatically according to the measured temperature. Intrusion, over-high temperature, AC power failure, smoke, and fires, and transfer of the alarm information to the O&M center should be detected, thus realizing remote maintenance for the BSC. Table3-7 lists the requirements for the environment control system.

Table3-7 Requirements for the environment control system

Item Timing control

Requirement According to the time preset based on BSC, the system controls the timing converter to automatically convert the working states of the air conditioners. The air conditioners work in turns, and thus the energy is saved and the life span of the air conditioners is prolonged.

Temperature monitoring Anti-theft alarm

Detects the temperature in real time and generates alarms when the temperature exceeds the thresholds. Detects the intrusion into the equipment room in real time. The dualmode detection annunciator (infrared and microwave) is

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Table3-7 Requirements for the environment control system

Item recommended. Smoke alarm Power supply and backup power control

Requirement

Detects smoke or fires in the equipment room in real time. Automatic charging When the battery detection circuit detects that the power is insufficient, the system should switch to the automatic charging state. Charging protection The system protects the batteries in the case of abnormal power supply or over-high charge current. Discharging protection The system cuts off the load when the battery charge level drops and the life span of the battery is affected. The battery should provide power supply when there is a power failure. When the mains supply becomes available, the system should switch back to the mains supply state and the charging state.

3.3.5 Requirements for Fire Protection in the BSC Equipment Room


This topic describes the requirements for fire protection in the equipment room. For buildings with fire resistance rating 1 or 2, the minimum space between buildings should be 6 m [19.68 ft]. For buildings with fire resistance rating 3 or 4, the minimum space between buildings should be 7 m [22.96 ft]. Flammable and explosive materials should be kept away from the equipment room. Fire extinction facilities must be available on the construction site. Alarm devices, such as smoke sensors and temperature sensors, must be functional. Sockets of different voltages should be marked noticeably.

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Reserved mounting holes in the floor should be installed with safety covers. If possible, automatic fire extinguishers should be installed. In addition, portable extinguishers must be available along the aisle of the equipment room. The water pool for fire extinction should hold sufficient water to extinguish the fire both outside and inside the room (assuming that the fire lasts for 2 hours). Fire hydrants should be placed where they are easily accessible. Do not place them inside the room.

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Chapter4 Preparations for Engineering Construction


4.1 Requirements for the Power Supply System of the BSC
4.1.1 Power Supply Schemes for the BSC
This topic describes the power supply system of the BSC. The power supply system consists of DC power distribution cabinet, PDB, and cables that connect them. For a large-capacity site or a site with more than two switching systems, provide each of them with an independent power supply system. In large-sized communications venues, you should install multiple independent power supply systems that supply power to the equipment rooms on different floors. In middle-sized communication offices, you should use either integrated power supply or dispersed power supply. In small-sized offices, the integrated power supply can be used. Ensure that the circuit boards are protected from the corrosive gases emitted by the batteries. Figure4-1 shows the power supply system for the BSC.

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Figure4-1 Power supply system for the BSC

4.1.2 Requirements for the DC Power Supply of the BSC


This topic describes the requirements for the DC power supply of the BSC. To provide stable and reliable power supply and to shorten the DC feed route as much as possible, you should place the power equipment close to the telecommunications equipment. To reduce power consumption and installation cost, ensure that the loop voltage drop between the battery port and the port on the equipment is less than 3.2 V. Table4-1 lists the requirements for DC power supply.

Table4-1 Requirements for DC power supply

Item Permissible range of the input voltage Bearing capability for surge current 57 V DC to 40 V DC

Description

At least 1.5 times of the rated current

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Table4-1 Requirements for DC power supply

Item Regulated voltage precision

Description If the input AC voltage ranges from 85% to 110% of the rated value, and the load current ranges from 5% to 100% of the rated value, the output voltage of the rectifier ranges from 46.0 V to 56.4 V, with the regulated voltage precision of the rectifier no more than 1%.

On/off overshoot amplitude

The switch on/off overshoot amplitude should be equal to or less than 5% of the output DC voltage.

Peak-to-peak 200 mV noise voltage Dynamic response The restore time is less than 200 ms, with the overshoot amplitude not exceeding 5% of the output DC voltage.

The requirements for the DC power supply system are as follows: The dispersed power supply mode is recommended, that is, multiple DC power supply systems and power devices can be used. A standard DC power supply system should be used and the output voltage should meet the related requirements. To improve the reliability of the whole power supply system, you should improve the reliability of the AC power supply system and reduce the battery capacity. If the reliability of the AC power supply system is difficult to improve, you can increase the battery capacity. The capacity of the high-frequency switch rectifier must meet the needs of power of the equipment and the charging power of the battery. If the number of active rectifiers is less than 10, use one standby rectifier. If the number is greater than 10, use one standby rectifier for every 10 active ones. The batteries should be divided into two or more groups. The battery capacity depends on the service time of the battery groups that provide power to the system independently. In most communication offices, the battery group should be able to power the system for at least one hour.

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4.1.3 Requirements for the AC Power Supply of the BSC


This topic describes the requirements for the AC power supply of the BSC. AC power should be ready before the construction of the equipment room. CAUTION: To ensure the smooth operation of the maintenance terminal in the event of power failure, UPS should be available. The centralized power supply mode is preferred for the AC power supply system that consists of the mains, UPS, and electrical generator. CAUTION: The AC backup power and the mains supply must be synchronized in phases, and the UPS/mains switchover duration must be shorter than 10 ms. If not, the equipment may be reset or restarted. In a low-voltage power supply system, three-phase power or single-phase power is preferred. Table4-2 lists the nominal voltage and frequency of low-voltage AC power. Table4-2 Nominal voltage and frequency of low-voltage AC power

Nominal Voltage (Unit: V) 110, 127, 200, 220, 230, 240, or 380 NOTE: 50 or 60

Nominal Frequency (Unit: Hz)

Power supply systems vary with countries, regions, or areas. For example, a country may use the three-phase three-wire of 200 V, three-phase four-wire of 200 V, or single-phase threewire of 200 V power. When you determine the AC power distribution capacity in the equipment room, consider the working current and faulty current to ensure that individual equipment has an independent AC distribution protection device. The protection switch should be more powerful than that of the lower-level electricity devices. Cable outlet of the power distribution panel is determined by the maximum load capacity of power supply. The type and specification of cables are chosen accordingly. The following lists the specific requirements for the AC voltage of communications equipment and power supply equipment:

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If the communications equipment uses the AC power supply, the permissible voltage range should be 10% to +5% of the nominal voltage. If the power supply equipment and important buildings uses the AC power supply, the permissible voltage range should be 15% to +10% of the nominal voltage. The permissible fluctuation range of AC frequencies should be within 4%. The sinusoidal distortion rate of the voltage waveform should be lower than or equal to 5%. The requirements for the electrical generators are as follows: No loud noise Automatic power-on and power-off, supply, and communication Remote control and measurement Standard interfaces and communication protocols The requirements for the AC power cables are as follows: For the AC neutral for communications, the conducting wire should have the same cross-sectional area as the phase line. The AC conducting wires should be fire-resistant. The layout of the AC power cables must comply with local regulations. The requirements for the AC power supply system are as follows: Use the voltage regulator in any of the following situations: The communications equipment is powered directly by the mains supply, and the input voltage exceeds the nominal voltage by 10% to +5% or exceeds the permissible voltage range for the communications equipment. The communications equipment is not powered directly by the mains supply, but the mains voltage exceeds the nominal voltage by 15% to +10% or exceeds the permissible AC input voltage for the DC power supplier. A UPS or inverter should be used to ensure stable power supply. An electrical generator should be configured for the office to ensure proper communication in the event of mains failure. The minimum capacity of the generator should be 1.5 to 2 times of the total capacity of the UPS and the inverter. The capacity of the UPS or inverter must be greater than the total load power, preferably with a surplus of 80% of the total load power. Backup is required for the use of the UPS or inverter.

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4.2 Requirements for the Lightning Protection and Grounding of the BSC
4.2.1 Requirements for the Lightning Protection and Grounding System
This topic describes the basic requirements for grounding and the requirements for the grounding resistance, grounding of the DC power distribution system, equipotential grounding, and lightning rod.

Basic Requirements for Grounding


The basic requirements for grounding are as follows: The neutral lines of AC power cables must not be connected to the protection ground of any communications devices. All grounding cables must be short and straight. The grounding cables cannot be twisted. Fuses or switches must not be installed on grounding cables. The grounding cables should be securely connected to the protection grounding bar of the equipment room. In case of oxidation, bad contact may be caused between the grounding cables and the grounding bar, thus increasing the resistance.

Requirements for the Grounding Resistance

CAUTION: The joint grounding system should interconnect the working ground, the protection ground, the grounding system of the building, and the grounding system of the industrial frequency AC power supply. The grounding resistance must meet the requirements specified by local countries or telecommunication operators. The requirements for the grounding resistance are as follows:

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The grounding resistance of the joint grounding system must be less than or equal to 10 ohms. For other devices in the equipment room, the lowest grounding resistance should be applied.

Requirements for the Grounding of the DC Power Distribution System


The DC working ground (reflow ground of the 48 V DC or +24 V DC power supply) must be connected with the indoor grounding bar nearby. The grounding cable must be capable of supporting the maximum load of the system.

Requirements for Equipotential Grounding


The requirements for equipotential grounding are as follows: All the equipment and auxiliary facilities in the equipment room must be grounded properly. All the protection grounds must be connected to a grounding bar, and the protection grounds in an equipment room must be connected to the protection grounding bar of the equipment room. The working grounds and protection grounds must share the same group of grounding grids. The grounding grids for the equipment room, tower, and power transformer must be interconnected underground in a multi-point manner. If the tower is located on the roof of the equipment room and the power transformer is located in the equipment room, the tower and the power transformer can share the grounding grid of the equipment room. Figure4-2 shows the grounding grids.

Figure4-2 Grounding grids The cable rack, steel shelf, rack or chassis, metallic air conduit, and metallic window and door must be properly grounded.

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Requirements for the Lightning Rod


The antenna of the base station must be protected by the lightning rod, that is, the antenna must be located within the protection range of the lightning rod. The lightning rod must have a special surge current leadin, which is made from 40 mm [1.57 in.] x 4 mm [0.16 in.] galvanized flat steel.

4.2.2 Underground Lightning Protection and Grounding System


This topic describes the requirements for the underground lightning protection and grounding system. Various grounding copper bars are connected to the grounding grid through copper cables. The sectional area of cables must meet the local or national requirements. Figure4-3 shows the underground grounding grid.

Figure4-3 Underground grounding grid NOTE: You can arrange for a grounding bar in the equipment room. The indoor rack grounding bar, AC grounding bar, and DC grounding bar are connected to the grounding bar. The requirements for the grounding facilities shown in Figure4-3 are as follows:

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The grounding grids for the power transformer, steel tower, and equipment room form a uniform grounding grid. The grounding grid must be connected to at least two steel bars of the building and tower.

The outdoor grounding ring can be connected in an L-shape or a C-shape. In areas where the soil has a low conductivity or there is a shortage of soil, use grounding stretch body. The grounding stretch body is a concrete bridge with built-in cables. It stretches outward from the corners of the grounding ring. The concrete bridge has strong moisture absorption capability. The recommended length of the grounding stretch body is 10 m [32.81 ft] to 30 m [98.42 ft].

It is recommended to use hot galvanized steel grounding pole with the specifications as follows: Steel tube: 50 mm [1.97 in.], and greater than 3.5 mm [0.14 in.] in thickness Angle steel: no less than 50 mm [1.97 in.] x 50 mm [1.97 in.] x 5 mm [0.197 in.] in volume Flat steel: no less than 40 mm [1.57 in.] x 4 mm [0.16 in.] in size Length: 1.5 m [4.92 ft] to 2.5 m [8.20 ft]

The space between the grounding poles is 1.5 to 2 times the length of a grounding pole. The upper end of the grounding pole should be more than 0.7 m [2.30 ft] from the ground surface. In cold areas, the entire grounding pole should be buried under the frozen soil layer. The grounding ring should be buried 0.7 m [2.30 ft] into the cement base. Whether to use resistivity reduction mixture depends on the location of the equipment room and the status of the soil.

4.2.3 Lightning Protection and Grounding of the Equipment Room


This topic describes the requirements for the lightning protection and grounding system of the equipment room. The system consists of the indoor grounding bar, cable rack, grounding leadin, earth electrode, and grounding resistance.

Overview
The grounding copper bars are available in the equipment room.

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In areas where lightning strikes frequently, the overhead bare wire ring on the internal wall of the equipment room must also be grounded indoors. Several parts of the wire ring are connected to the outdoor port of the grounding system. The wire ring is used to ground the conductors of the door and window. Figure4-4 shows the grounding system of the equipment room.

Figure4-4 Grounding system of the equipment room NOTE: Arrange for a grounding bar to interconnect the protection grounds and the working ground of the devices in the equipment room. Use 40 mm [1.57 in.] x 4 mm [0.16 in.] or 50 mm [1.97 in.] x 5 mm [0.20 in.] galvanized flat steel as the grounding leadin. Take protective measures for the projecting parts of the grounding leadin.

Indoor Grounding Bar


The indoor grounding bar is generally installed on a wall. The wall near the base station and power supply cabinet is used and it is as high as the cable rack. A single black grounding cable connects the grounding bar to the earth electrode.

Cable Rack
The indoor cable rack is connected to the indoor grounding bar by using a cable. The indoor cable rack must be connected separately from the outdoor cable rack.

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Both ends of the cable rack must be properly grounded. When the connectors between the cable racks are not connected properly, add cables to improve the electrical connection between the cable racks.

Grounding Lead-In

CAUTION: The same metal material should be used for the entire lightning protection system that consists of the lightning rods, lead-in, and grounding body. This prevents corrosion and poor grounding owing to long-term electrochemical reaction. The copper should not contact the galvanized iron parts directly because copper-zinc battery may be formed on the contact surface and thus cause corrosion. The flat braided wires or bunched wires cannot be used as the grounding lead-ins. They are susceptible to corrosion and oxidation. In addition, they have strong electric inductance and mutual inductance, thus affecting surge current discharge. The grounding lead-in should use galvanized flat steel or 16 to 18 screw-thread steel. The grounding lead-in must be welded with the lightning rods and the grounding body. The contact seam must be longer than 20 cm [7.87 in.]. Otherwise, high current passing through the seam can make the small contact area hot and probably cause serious sealing-off. When the grounding cable is led down from the roof, do not arrange the cable near or in parallel with other conductors. Regardless of whether the other conductors are grounded, the space between the grounding cable and the conductors must be more than 2 m [6.56 ft]. When the grounding lead-in has to pass through a metallic tube, connect the two ends of the lead-in to the two ends of the metallic tube. This metallic tube is also called the connection cable of the grounding cable. NOTE: The earth electrode under the steel tower must be as close as possible to the bottom of the steel tower.

Earth Electrode

NOTE: The grounding resistance is the sum of the drifting resistance of grounding bodies and the resistance of grounding cables.

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The drifting resistance is the resistance of the grounding body and the resistance in the soil within the reach of 20 m [65.62 ft] around the grounding body. If the grounding cable is not too long, ignore its resistance. The grounding resistance must be less than or equal to 10 ohms.

The formula for calculating the DC or industrial frequency drifting resistance varies according to the types of earth electrodes, the number of grounding poles, and the forms of combination. The following part lists some of the formulas that are used to estimate the grounding resistance of commonly used earth electrode sets: Single piece of steel pipe vertical bar If the earth electrode of steel pipe has a length of 2.5 m [8.20 ft], a diameter of 5 cm [1.97 in.], and a buried depth of more than 0.5 m [1.64 ft] (from the top of the tube to the ground), you can use the following formula to calculate its grounding resistance: R 0.3 (ohms) : resistivity of soil A horizontal flat steel band When the length of the flat steel band is about 60 cm [23.62 in.], its grounding resistance is defined as: R 0.03 (ohms) Parallel earth electrode set constituted by four steel pipes The grounding resistance is defined as: R 0.051 (ohms) The vertical grounding poles of the earth electrode set use four steel pipes with a length of 2.5 m [8.20 ft] and a diameter of 5 cm [1.97 in.]. Its depth in the soil is 0.5 m [1.64 ft]. The space between the pipes is 5 m [16.40 ft], and the horizontal connecting wires between these tubes are 40 mm x 4 mm [1.57 in. x 0.16 in.] galvanized flat steel bars, as shown in Figure4-5.

Figure4-5 Parallel earth electrode set constituted by four steel pipes Rectangular earth electrode set constituted by six steel pipes, as shown in Figure4-6 .

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Figure4-6 Connection of vertical grounding poles of the earth electrode set As shown in Figure 4-6, the steel pipes are the same as those in the parallel earth electrode set. The grounding resistance is defined as: R 0.045 (ohms) In this formula, soil resistance is the key factor. The actual soil resistivity can be measured by using a grounding resistance tester on site. If the actual value cannot be obtained, refer to the values listed in Table4-3. Table4-3 Resistivity of soils

Soil Type Sea water Kaolin Peat and marshland Lake water and pond water Black soil, garden loam, malm, and pottery clay Clay Sandy clay Concrete in wet soil Loess Sandy clay and sandy soil 60 100 100 to 200 200 300 1 to 5 10 20 30 50

Resistivity (/ohmm)

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Table4-3 Resistivity of soils

Soil Type

Resistivity (/ohmm)

Rocky soil Topsoil mixed with stones and under-layer gravel (humidity: 15% RH) Sands and clay soil (with a depth less than 1.5 m [4.92 ft], and being rocky at the bottom layer) Gravel, detritus, and rock mountain Granite

400 500

1000

5000 20000

The impact grounding resistance (Rch) equals to the DC grounding resistance multiplied by the impact factor, where: Rch = R (ohms) R indicates the DC (or industrial frequency) grounding resistance. is the impact coefficient.

The impact coefficient is related to the shape and size of the earth electrode, the impact current, and the resistivity of the soil. The value of ranges from 0.25 to 1.25. For a tabular vertical grounding body, the value of ranges from 0.25 to 0.9. NOTE: The type and temperature of the soil around the grounding pole affect the grounding resistance. To improve the grounding resistance, do as follows: In areas where the soil conditions are poor, the chemical resistance-reducing agent (for example, acrylamide resistance-reducing agent) can be added around the grounding pole. In the high-latitude areas where the soil temperature is below 0oC, the grounding pole can be deeply buried and chemical resistance-reducing agent can be added.

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4.2.4 Outdoor Lightning Protection and Grounding System


This topic describes the outdoor grounding system, the lightning protection and grounding of the RF antenna system, and the lightning protection and grounding of the satellite antenna system.

Overview
The outdoor lightning protection and grounding system consists of the grounding of the building, the grounding of the steel tower, and the grounding of the antenna system. The outdoor grounding system provides channels for the discharge of strong surge current caused by lightning. If the sectional area of the grounding conductor is less than 150 mm 2 [0.23 in.2], keep the routing of the conductor as straight as possible. CAUTION: The grounding resistance must meet the local requirements. If there is no reference standard for the resistance in the local area, the grounding resistance must be less than or equal to 10 ohms. Figure4-7 shows the outdoor grounding system.

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Figure4-7 Outdoor grounding of the building and steel tower The outdoor grounding bar is generally installed at a place that is not more than 1 m [3.28 ft] away from the feeder window. The grounding bar is connected to the earth electrode through a black cable with a sectional area of more than 95 mm2 [0.147 in.2]. For details about the installation of the outdoor grounding bar, refer to the instructions on the installation of the indoor grounding bar.

Fastening the Grounding Clip of the Feeder

CAUTION: When connecting the grounding cables to the grounding points such as the steel tower, cable rack, and grounding bar, remove the anticorrosive paint on the contact part. After connecting the grounding cables, coat the lug, nut, and grounding points using anticorrosive paint and wrap the bare wire and the lug handle using an insulating tape. When the grounding cables are grounded through the base of the grounding clip, the installation of the base must meet the requirements mentioned above. The requirements for the installation of the grounding clip are as follows: When installing the grounding clip of the feeder on the steel tower,

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If there is space for installing the grounding clip, the grounding cables should be connected directly to the steel plate of the tower. In this way, the tower can function as the conductor to discharge the surge current. For details about the installation of the grounding clip of the feeder, refer to the related instructions.

If there is no space for installing the grounding clip, the base of the grounding clip should be located on the tower or the outdoor cable rack, and the grounding cables should be connected to the base.

When installing the grounding clip on the roof of a building without a steel tower, connect the clip to the grounding grid on the roof of a nearby building and ensure that the grounding grid is grounded properly.

When installing the grounding clip on the outdoor cable rack, connect the grounding cables properly to the grounded cable rack.

When leading feeders into the equipment room, If the outdoor grounding bar is installed, connect the grounding cables to the outdoor grounding bar and arrange the grounding cables neatly. Connect the outdoor grounding bar to the grounding grid by using the special conductor. If the outdoor grounding bar is not installed, connect the grounding cables properly to the grounded outdoor cable rack or to the grounding grid of the building. The connection points between the grounding cables and the grounding points must be painted with anticorrosive paint.

4.2.5 Lightning Protection and Grounding of the Power Supply System


This topic describes the lightning protection measures that should be taken for the power supply system of the base station and the power cables.

Requirements for the Lightning Protection of the Power Supply System


The requirements for the lightning protection of the power supply system are as follows:

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The DC working ground (reflow ground of the 48 V DC or +24 V DC power supply) must be connected with the indoor grounding bar nearby. The grounding cable must be capable of supporting the maximum load of the system. The TN-S power supply system must be used in the event of AC power supply. A dedicated power transformer must be used for the base station. Before the power cables are connected to the base station, the cables must be covered by metal jackets or steel tubes, buried under the ground (the buried section must be at least 15 m [49.21 ft.] long), and properly grounded. When the power transformer is installed outside the equipment room, the following requirements must be met: For areas with more than 20 thunderstorm days every year and a ground resistance greater than 100 ohmm, install lightning protection cables for the aerial cables. The length of the lightning protection cable must not be less than 500 m [1640.40 ft]. The angles formed between the power cables and the lightning protection cables must be less than 25o. All poles of the lightning protection cables (except for the last pole) must be grounded independently. NOTE: A set of zinc oxide lightning arresters must be installed at the next to the last pole. If the lightning protection cables for existing aerial power cables cannot be installed, install the zinc oxide lightning arresters for each of the following poles of the aerial power cables: the last pole, the last but one pole, the last but two or three pole, and the last but four pole. In addition, install a set of high-voltage fuses for the last but three or four pole. The lightning protection cable and the grounding body of the lightning arrester should be of an outstretching or circle structure.

When the power transformer is installed inside the equipment room, the following requirements must be met: Lead the high-voltage power cables into the equipment room through underground channels. The length of the power cables must not be less than 200 m [656.16 ft]. Install zinc oxide lightning arresters for the three phase lines that connect the power cables and the aerial power cables. The metallic sheath of the power cables should be grounded properly.

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For the low-voltage power cables that are led into the equipment room, the following requirements must be met: Bury the cables under the ground before they enter the base station, and the length of the cables should not be less than 15 m [49.2 ft]. If the high-voltage side of the transformer uses power cables, the length of the low-voltage power cables may vary based on the actual situation. Install a lightning arrester at the place where the power cables connect the AC power distribution panel. The neutral lines led out of the power distribution panel need not be grounded. For the three phase lines at the high-voltage side of the power transformer, the following requirements must be met: Install a set of zinc oxide lightning arresters near the phase lines. Install seamless zinc oxide lightning arresters properly for the three phase lines at the low-voltage side of the power transformer. Ground the chassis of the power transformer, the neutral lines at the lowvoltage side, and the metallic sheath of the power cables connected with the transformer properly. Install lightning arresters at the place where cables run in or run out of the base station. Ground the uncharged parts of the power supply devices and the lightning arrester properly. Do not conduct neutral protection. Connect the DC working ground with the nearby indoor grounding bar. The cross-sectional area of the grounding cables must range from 35 mm 2 [0.054 in.2] to 95 mm2 [0.147 in.2] so that the cables are capable of supporting the maximum load. Use strand copper wires as grounding cables.

Equip the AC panel and rectifier (or high frequency switch power supply) with multilevel protection devices.

The voltage withstanding capability of the lightning arresters must conform to the relevant standards.

Requirements for the Lightning Protection of Led-In Power Cables


The requirements for the power cables led into the equipment room are as follows: Install lightning arresters.

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Do not lead AC or DC power cables into or out of the communications sites in an overhead way. After the low-voltage power cables are led into the AC rectifier and AC power distribution box, the power cables must be equipped with a lightning arrester that is grounded properly. In rural areas, install a lightning arrester of which the current discharge capacity must be equal to or greater than 40 kA. In suburbs where thunderstorms occur relatively frequently, install a lightning arrester of which the current discharge capacity must be greater than 40 kA. In mountain areas that are prone to thunderstorms or in a high building that stands alone, install a lightning arrester of which the current discharge capacity must be greater than 100 kA. The grounding cable of the lightning arrester must be less than 1 m [3.28 ft] in length and greater than 25 mm2 [0.039 in.2]in cross-sectional area.

4.2.6 Requirements for the Lightning Protection and Grounding of Signal Cables
For the lighting protection of the signal cables, you can use shielded cables, installing lightning arresters, or grounding the signal cables. The requirements for the lightning protection of signal cables are as follows: Do not route the signal cables in an overhead way. Install lightning arresters at the place where the signal cables enter the base station. Ground the idle lines in the signal cables properly. Ground the ends of the metallic tubes that cover the outdoor signal cables properly. Bury the signal cables under the ground before you lead the cables into the equipment room or after you lead the cables out of the equipment room. Ground the shielding layers securely before leading the signal cables into the equipment room. Ground the lightning arresters properly.

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For areas that experience thunderstorms for more than 20 days every year and where the ground resistance is greater than 100 ohmm, take the following measures during cable routing: NOTE: Huawei recommends that all signal cables use shielded cables. Huawei recommends that lightning arresters be used for interconnection devices, so that the protection against a differential mode of 3 kA or a common mode of 5 kA is achieved. Route drainage wires over the signal cables. Use the signal cables covered by metallic sheath. Use optical fibers.

4.2.7 Requirements for the Lightning Protection and Grounding of Feeders


This topic describes the environment requirements of the satellite antennas and feeders.

Location Requirements of the Satellite Antennas


The location requirements of the satellite antennas are as follows: The space between two antennas must be equal to or less than 1 m [3.28 ft]. The antennas should be located beyond the coverage of a directional antenna of which the transmit power is greater than 1 W and the frequency is higher than 400 MHz. In addition, the antennas should be located at least 20 m [62.62 ft] away from omni antennas. If possible, the antennas should be installed in the center of a roof. Do not install them on the surrounding parapets or the corners of a roof. If an antennas has to be installed on a parapet, the antenna should be preferably installed at an area where it does not affect the aesthetics of the building and the feeder can be fixed easily. In addition, the parapet should be strong so that it can be drilled for mounting expansion bolts. A parapet of more than 600 mm [1.97 ft] in height is recommended for mounting expansion bolts.

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If an antenna has to be installed on a tower, the location of the antenna should be higher than the top of the building where the equipment room is located. The antenna should be kept far away from the high-power antenna on the top of the tower.

If a dedicated lightning rod is unavailable, lightning rods on the top of buildings or towers work. In this case, you must consider the effect of interference.

The angle between the receiving end of the antenna and the lightning rod or the angle between the connection line at the top of the tower and the vertical line must be less than 45. In areas prone to thunderstorms (more than 20 days every year), the angle must be less than 30. The horizontal distance between the antenna and the lightning rod must be greater than 2 m [6.56 ft].

The upward vertical angle of the antenna should be greater than 90, as shown in Figure4-8.

Figure4-8 Location of the antenna

Location Requirements of the Feeders


The requirements for installing antennas are as follows: When the antenna is installed on a roof, make sure that you route the feeder along the root of the podium of the building roof and fix the feeder using a plastic clip with steel nails. Arrange the tips of the plastic pieces alternately in opposite directions. The space between the plastic pieces should be 1 m [3.28 ft]. All plastic pieces should be aligned with the surface of the wall so that the cable reaches the cable ladder on the roof. If the feeder is routed along the tower, use fixing clips to fix the feeder.

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When laying out a feeder, make sure that you expand the feeder first and avoid bending it. If you have to bend it, ensure that the bending radius of the feeders should be 20 times greater than the diameter of the feeder. Use reliable material such as a packing bag to protect the connectors on both ends of the feeder. If there are two feeders, use temporary labels to identify them. You can write the temporary labels in the same manner as the formal labels, or in any other manner. Do not cross the feeders. If the feeders are routed along a cable ladder, fix them using fixing clips with a space of 2 m [6.56 ft]. The path from the building roof to the BSC room should be free of any obstacles. In addition, waterproof and anticorrosion measures should be taken for the feeders. Before leading the feeder indoors, bend the feeder to make a waterproof curve. The vertical distance between the lowest part of the waterproof curve and the entrance should be at least 200 mm [7.87 in.], to keep the rain water out of the room.

4.2.8 Requirements for Lightning Protection and Grounding of Other Equipment


This topic describes the requirements for the lightning protection and grounding of other equipment, such as the equipment room, metallic devices on the roof, bulbs on the roof, and the cable rack. The requirements for the lightning protection and grounding of the other equipment are as follows: The equipment room should be equipped with the devices, such as a lightning protection band, lightning protection network, and lightning arrester. These devices can protect the equipment from direct lightning strikes and inductive lightning strikes. All metallic devices on the roof of the equipment room should be connected with the nearby lightning protection band. The bulbs on the roof of the equipment room should be installed under the lightning protection band. If the power cables of the bulbs are routed through the tower or top of the building, the cables must be enclosed in a metal tube.

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The cable rack, steel shelf, rack or chassis, metallic air conduit, and metallic window and door must be properly grounded. The grounding cables are a bundle of copper wires with a cross-sectional area of more than 25 mm2 [0.039 in.2].

4.3 Requirements for Transmission in the BSC


4.3.1 Physical Interfaces on the BSC
This topic describes the physical interfaces on the BSC.

Specifications of Data Transmission Ports


The BSC has external and internal ports for data transmission. The external ports are used for data transmission over the Abis, A, and PCF interfaces. Table4-4 lists the specifications of the external transmission ports. Table4-4 Specifications of the external transmission ports

Port Name

Board

Port Type

Remarks

E1/T1

AEUBa

DB44

This port is used for the ATM transmission over the Abis interface.

EIUAa

DB44

This port is used for the TDM transmission over the A interface.

PEUBa

DB44

This port is used for the IP transmission over the Abis interface.

PEUAa

DB44

This port is used for the IP transmission over the A interface.

Channelized OIUAa STM-1/OC3

LC/PC

This port is used for the TDM transmission over the A interface.

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Table4-4 Specifications of the external transmission ports

Port Name

Board

Port Type

Remarks

AOUBa/AO1Ba

LC/PC

This port is used for the ATM transmission over the Abis interface.

PO1Ba/POUBa/PO1Aa/POUAa LC/PC

This port is used for the IP transmission over the Abis interface and A interface.

FE/GE electrical port

FG1Ba/FG2Ba

RJ45

This port is used for the IP transmission over the Abis interface.

FG1Aa/FG2Aa

RJ45

This port is used for the IP transmission over the A interface.

FG1Pa/FG2Pa/FG1Xa/FG2Xa

RJ45

This port is used for the IP transmission over the PCF interface.

GE optical port

GOUPa/GOUXa

LC/PC

This port is used for the IP transmission over the PCF interface.

The internal transmission ports of the BSC are used for inter-subrack communication inside the BSC. Table4-4 lists the specifications of the internal transmission ports. Table4-5 Specifications of the internal transmission ports

Port Name GE electrical port

Board SCUOa

Port Type RJ45

Remarks This port is used for the interconnection between the CMPS and the CSPS inside the BSC.

Specifications of the Clock Signal Ports and Satellite Signal Ports


Table4-6 lists the specifications of the clock signal ports and satellite signal ports.

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Table4-6 Specifications of the clock signal ports and satellite signal ports

Port Type GPS satellite antenna port

Board Port ANT port on the panel of the GCUOa

Port Type SMA male connector

Remarks This port is used to receive timing information from the GPS satellite system.

Clock signal output port

CLKOUT port of the GCUOa

RJ45

This port is used to send 8 kHz and 1PPS clock signals to the SCUOa.

Clock signal input port

CLKIN port of the SCUOa

RJ45

This port is used to receive 8 kHz and 1PPS clock signals from the GCUOa.

CLKIN0 and CLKIN1 ports of the GCUOa

SMB male connector

This port is used to receive clock signals from the BITS.

4.3.2 Peer Equipment and Interfaces Supported by the BSC


The BSC is connnected to the BTS, MSC, PDSN, and another BSC through the Abis, A1/A2, A1p/A2p, A10/A11, and A3/A7 interfaces respectively.

4.3.3 Requirements for the PDF/DDF/ODF


If the BSC uses the PDF, DDF, or ODF, ensure that the PDF, DDF, or ODF meets the associated requirements.

Requirements for the PDF


If the PDF is far from the BSC cabinet (for example, they are located in different equipment rooms), the PGND cable of the BSC cabinet should be connected to the closest protection

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grounding bar, that is, the cabinet is co-grounded with the PDF. For details about the routing of the PGND cable, refer to the topic on the PGND cable of the PDF.

Requirements for the DDF


Prior to site deployment, a standard DDF should be arranged and installed by the customer. The capacity of the DDF should meet the current demand and allow for future expansions. If the capacity of the DDF is insufficient, Huawei recommends that a larger-capacity DDF should be installed as soon as possible. The connectors of the DDF should match the trunk cables. For details about the specifications of the trunk cables, refer to the contract or contact design engineers. For the installation of the DDF, copper cables with a cross-sectional area larger than 6 mm2 [0.0093 in.2] should be used. The cables should be connected to the protection grounding bar in the equipment room.

Requirements for the ODF


The requirements for the ODF are as follows: The optical ports of the ODF should be allocated following a top-down and left-right sequence (facing outwards). The metal case of the ODF and the internal wires of the optical cables should be properly grounded. For the installation of the ODF, copper cables with a cross-sectional area larger than 6 mm2 [0.0093 in.2] should be used. The cables should be connected to the protection grounding bar in the equipment room.

4.4 Requirements for BSC Cable Layout


This topic describes the requirements for the layout of power cables, PGND cables, and signal cables of the BSC.

4.4.1 Installation Specifications for Power Cables and PGND Cables


The installation of power cables and PGND cables must meet the requirements for cable layout and binding.

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Requirements for Cable Layout


Before the layout of power cables and PGND cables, cable connectors should be wrapped with insulating tape to avoid contact with PDF connecting terminals. The layout of power cables and PGND cables should allow for future expansion. Power cables and PGND cables should be routed separately from signal cables. When power cables and PGND cables are parallel with signal cables, the spacing between them should not be less than 10 mm [0.39 in.] inside the cabinet or less than 100 mm [3.94 in.] outside the cabinet. The bending radius of cables at turning should be five times larger than their diameter. During underfloor cabling, power cables should have an extra length at the cable inlet of the PDB on top of the cabinet to ease insertion and removal. Power cables should also be routed tidily. When power cables are connected to the wiring terminals on the PDB in the cabinet, they should be routed straight and bent smoothly at turning.

Requirements for Cable Binding


Power cables and PGND cables should be bound separately from signal cables. Power cables and PGND cables should be bound at an interval of 200 mm [7.87 in.]. During underfloor cabling, power cables and PGND cables should be routed along the column in the cabinet and bound to the wire bushing. Cable ties of different types (100 mm [3.94 in.]/150 mm [5.91 in.]/300 mm [11.81 in.]) should be used depending on the number of cables. Cable ties should face to the same direction. The extra part of cable ties should be stripped off and all cuts should be smooth without sharp projections. The cable ties indoors should be cut flush, and those outdoors should have an extra length of 3 mm [0.12 in.] to 5 mm [0.2 in.].

4.4.2 Cabling Specifications for the BSC Signal Cables


This topic describes the cabling specifications for the BSC signal cables. The specifications helps to ensure appropriate bending radius, neat routing, and appropriate binding of signal cables.

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Requirements for the Installation of BSC Signal Cables


If the connectors of the signal cables are made before delivery, pack the connectors with soft and durable materials during the cabling to avoid damage. Ensure that the jackets of the signal cables are not damaged during the cabling. The actual installation positions of the signal cables must meet the requirements of site survey and the data configuration. When installing the optical cables, do not step on or stretch the optical cables. Otherwise, the optical cables may be damaged. Use dustproof caps to cover the optical connectors that are not in use. When coiling extra optical fibers in the rear-mounted optical cable box, apply proper force to avoid damaging the optical fibers. Related operation guides describe the installation methods only. For the actual installation positions of the cables, refer to the site survey requirements and the data configuration plan. When installing the signal cables, coil extra interconnection cables on the cable ladder. Ensure that the bending radius meets the requirement.

Minimum Bending Radiuses of BSC Signal Cables


Table4-7 lists the requirements for the bending radii of BSC signal cables.

Table4-7 Minimum bending radii of signal cables

Cable Ethernet cable Optical cable Trunk cable

Minimum Bending Radius 25 mm [0.98 in.] 40 mm [1.57 in.] 40 mm [1.57 in.]

Requirements for the Routing of BSC Signal Cables


Separate the signal cables from the power cables. If the signal cables cross the power cables, the angle must be 90. Ensure that the requirements for the bending radii of signal cables listed in Table4-7 are met.

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Reserve extra lengths of signal cables near connectors for the convenience of inserting and pulling the connectors.

Do not cross the signal cables over each other when routing the signal cables inside the cabinet. The signal cables shall be led out along the two sides of the subrack. Arrange the cables of which the connectors are far away from the ports on the external side of the cable bundle and other cables on the internal side of the cable bundle. The cables must not cross each other, and they should routed neatly without any tangling.

When the signal cables are routed on the cable ladder and the distance between the cable ladder and the top of the cabinet exceeds 800 mm [2.62 ft], use a ladder to lead the signal cables downwards.

Lead the signal cables into or out of the cabinet through the cable holes, as shown in Figure4-9. Before routing, remove the plastic rodent-proof nets from the cable holes. After routing, cut appropriate plastic rodent-proof cover plates, cover the cable holes in the upper and lower enclosures, and use screws to fix the cover plates.

Figure4-9 Cable holes Figure4-10, Figure4-11, and Figure4-12 how to route trunk cables.

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Figure4-10 Routing and binding trunk cables on the cable ladder

Figure4-11 Routing trunk cables upwards along the cable ladder

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(1) Cable ladder

(2) Trunk cable

(3) Cable tie

Figure4-12 Routing signal cables from the cabinet to the cable ladder The cabling should be neat, appropriate, and in accordance with the engineering design. The cabling should be clear, proper, and smooth at the bends. The cables are laid in parallel. The cabling should facilitate future maintenance and capacity expansion.

Requirements for the Binding of BSC Signal Cables


Bind signal cables separately from power cables. When signal cables are laid parallel to power cables, leave a minimum distance of 10 mm [0.39 in.] between signal cables and power cables inside the cabinet and a minimum distance of 100 mm [3.94 in.] between them outside the cabinet. If twines are used for the binding, wax the twines in advance. Bind the signal cables at the entrance and the exit of the cable trough and at the bends, as shown in Figure4-13. Do not bind the signal cables in the cable trough.

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Figure4-13 Binding signal cables Bind optical cables in pairs at intervals of 150 mm [5.91 in.]. Cover the optical cables outside the cabinet by using corrugated pipes. Bind the cables that are routed on the cable rack and bundle them neatly. Reserve extra lengths of the signal cables near connectors for the convenience of inserting and pulling the connectors. Point the tips of the cable ties to the same direction, and bind the signal cables with proper tightness. For indoor cable ties, cut off the surplus part completely. For outdoor cable ties, leave an extra length of 3 mm [0.12 in.] to 5 mm [0.20 in.]. Arrange the cable ties evenly. For the trunk cables outside the cabinet, it is recommended to bind them at an interval of 1,000 mm [3.28 ft]. For the trunk cables inside the cabinet, it is recommended to bind them at an interval of 150 mm [5.91 in.] to 200 mm [7.87 in.]. For Ethernet cables, it is recommended to bind them at an interval of 705 mm [2.56 in. to 2.95 in.].

4.5 Requirements for the Clock of the BSC


This topic describes the requirements for the clock resources of the BSC.

4.5.1 Clock Resources of the BSC


The clock resources of the BSC are BITS clock signals, line clock signals extracted from the A interface, satellite synchronization clock signals, and board free-run clock signals.

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BITS Clock Signals


The BITS clock signal is obtained by the BSC from the BITS clock device. There are three types of BITS clock signal: 2 MHz clock signal, 2 Mbit/s clock signal, and 1.5 Mbit/s clock signal. The BITS clock signal has two input modes: BITS1 and BITS2. The BSC obtains the clock signal through the clock input port on the GCUOa. NOTE: The 2 MHz clock signal and 2 Mbit/s clock signal are E1 clock signals. The 1.5 Mbit/s clock signal is a T1 clock signal. BITS1 and BITS2 maps to the CKLIN0 port and the CLKIN1 port on the GCUOa respectively.

Line Clock Signals


The 2.048 MHz line clock signals extracted by the EIUAa, OIUAa, PEUAa, POUAa, or POU1Aa from the A interface are used as the clock reference source of the

GPS Satellite Synchronization Clock Signal


The GPS satellite synchronization clock signal is 1 pulse per second (PPS) signal extracted by the BSC from the GPS satellite system. The BSC can receive clock signals from the GPS satellite system through the satellite antenna port on the GCUOa.

Board Free-Run Clock Signals


When BITS clock source and line clock source are unavailable, the BSC can use board freerun clock signals.

4.5.2 Requirements for Clock Precision of the BSC


The specifications of the BSC clock signals are the clock precision, the pull-in range, the maximum frequency offset, and the maximum initial frequency offset. Table4-8 lists the requirements for clock precision.

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Table4-8 Requirements for clock precision

Item Clock precision Pull-in range Maximum frequency offset Maximum initial frequency offset 4.610-6 4.610-6 210-8 per day 110-8

Specification

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Chapter5 Checklist for BSC Site Preparation


5.1 Checklist for the Site Location

Item Site

Requirements Keep the site away from the environments with high objects, electromagnetic interference (radar station, radio station, and electric substation), and unstable voltage. The site must be located away from pollution sources, such as frequent earthquakes and strong noise. While designing the project, consider hydrographic, geological, seismic, power supply, and transportation factors. Select a site that meets the engineering and environmental requirements for the telecom equipment. The site should not be located in an area that is near the sea. The minimum distance from the seaside is 500 m [0.31 miles]. The site must be located away from water bodies. For example, the site should be located at a place that is higher than the sea level.

Specifications Good

Result

location temperature, poisonous gases, flammable or explosive

Good

Good

Good

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5.2 Checklist for the Equipment Room Environment

Item Height

Requirements Minimum height under the beam

Specifications 3 m [9.84 ft] to 3.5 m [11.48 ft]

Result

Bearing capacity Wall

Bearing capacity of the floor Wallpaper or lusterless paint

Not lower than 450 kg/m2 [0.64 bf/in.2] Difficult to be chalked

Floor Door and window

ESD floor The door is 2 m [6.56 ft]

Semiconductor and dustless Doors and windows are sealed with

high and 1 m [3.28 ft] wide. dustproof plastic tape. Double-layer One door panel is enough. glass is recommended for windows.

Groove in the room

The groove is used for routing various cables.

The inner side should be smooth and conform to the requirements for the transmission equipment layout.

Temperature Long-term working temperature Short-term working temperature Humidity Long-term working humidity Short-term working humidity Anti-EMI Electric field Magnetic field ESD protection ESD floor

0 to 45

-5 to +55

5% to 85%

5% to 95%

Not more than 300 mV/m Less than 11 Gs The volume resistivity should be 1.0 x 107 ohms to 1.0 x 1010 ohms.

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5.3 Checklist for the Power Supply System

NOTE: Before checking the power supply system, ensure that the cabinet is grounded. Item Voltage of the DC power supply Requirements The primary power supply and the storage battery work in the mutual hot backup mode. Standby generator A standby generator is recommended. Voltage of the AC power supply Routing of power cables 187 V AC to 242 V AC The 48 V power cables should be led to the power distribution cabinet or power distribution box. Alarms for power supply Alarms are generated Good when the power supply is disconnected or faulty. Good Good Good Specifications The voltage ranges from -57 V DC to -40 V DC. Result

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5.4 Checklist for the Grounding Cables

Item Main grounding bar bar

Requirements The distance between the copper be as short as possible. The grounding cables should be as thick as possible.

Specifications The installation is complete and the grounding cables are in good contact.

Result

and branch grounding bar and the copper wires should

Grounding resistance Integrated grounding

The grounding resistance is less than or equal to 10 ohms.

Grounding cable entrance

The grounding cables should be led to the power distribution cabinet or power distribution box.

Good

5.5 Checklist for the Transmission System

Item Trunk cables

Requirements The trunk cables should not be arranged overhead. If the trunk cables have to be arranged overhead, they should have double shielding layers or metallic sheath. The shielding layers or metallic sheath should be securely connected to the grounding bars.

Specifications Result Good

ODF

The optical transmission system is ready for use. The ODF or fiber distribution box is installed. Optical fibers are interconnected.

Good

Transmission The transmission system should be already tested system and meet the engineering requirements.

Good

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Chapter6 Physical and Electrical Parameters of CDMA BSC Switching Equipment


6.1 Structure Specifications

Item Cabinet specifications

Specification The structure design complies with the IEC 60297 standard and the IEEE standard.

Dimensions of the N68E-22 cabinet Dimensions of the N68-21-N cabinet Available clearance inside the N68E-22 cabinet Available clearance inside the N68-21-N cabinet

2200 mm [86.61 in.] x 600 mm [23.62 in.] x 800 mm [31.50 in.] 2133 mm [83.98 in.] x 600 mm [23.62 in.] x 800 mm [31.50 in.] 46 U

44 U

Weight of the N68E-22 cabinet Fully configured cabinet: 350 kg [771.60 lb]; empty cabinet: 140 kg [308.64 lb] Weight of the N68-21-N cabinet Fully configured cabinet: 410 kg [903.88 lb]; empty cabinet: 170 kg [374.78 lb]

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6.2 Electrical Specifications

Item Lightning protection 4000 V, 8/20 s Working voltage DC power supply: 48 V DC

Specification

Range: 40 V DC to 57 V DC Power consumption Power consumption of the entire cabinet: 8200 W

6.3 Specifications for GPS feeders and jumpers

Distance Between the Satellite Antenna and the Main Devices < 100 m [328.08 ft.] 100 m [328.08 ft.] L (the length) < 300 m [984.25 ft.] 300 m

Specifications for GPS Feeders and Jumpers 1/2'' jumper 7/8'' feeder

5/4'' feeder

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Chapter7 Physical and Electrical Parameters of M2000 OMC Equipment


Equipment Type Equipment Physical specifications name (single cabinet) Dimensions (mm) (Width% De pth% Height ) M2000 Server cabinet 610 % 930 % 1870 600 % 800 % 2100 Alarm box M2000 maintenance equipment Alarm console Dialup server M2000 server Sun server E4500 Sun server Blade 1000 GM12 alarm 400 % 100 % box Client 280 As large as a PC As large as a PC As large as a PC 340 % 500 % 560 256 % 610 % 455 31.8 4 68 12 100 240V AC 100 120V AC 220 240V AC Sun server / 220V AC 1600 390 A maximum of 875 W 1400 / 2.27 220V AC 500 / 1.36 220V AC < 400 / 1.36 / 0.75 -48V DC or 220V AC 220V AC <400 40 159 (empty cabinet) 300 10 -48V DC 10 220 - 240V AC Weight (kg) Current (A) Electrical specifications (single cabinet) Voltage (V) Power consumption (W) (Fully equipped)

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Netral 1405 (dual nodes) Router Cisco3640 Quidway25 01 Quidway26 31 LAN switch Catalist2950 Quidway30 26 Timeslot cross-connect equipment Mercury36 00 436 % 338 % 43.5 430 % 330 % 44 3 445 % 400 % 87 445 % 268 % 44 442 % 210 % 45 / 4 8 5 1.5 13.6 100 - 240V AC 100 240V AC 85 264V AC 100 - 240V AC 90 264V AC 90 240V AC 35 60 35 70 20 140

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