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Write a note on Globalization.
Ans. Write a short note on ‘Globalization’. The term "globalization" has acquired considerable emotive force. Some view it as a process that is beneficial – a key to future world economic development – and also inevitable and irreversible. Others regard it with hostility, even fear, believing that it increases inequality within and between nations, threatens employment and living standards and thwarts social progress. This brief offers an overview of some aspects of globalization and aims to identify ways in which countries can tap the gains of this process, while remaining realistic about its potential and its risks. Globalization offers extensive opportunities for truly worldwide development but it is not progressing evenly. Some countries are becoming integrated into the global economy more quickly than others. Countries that have been able to integrate are seeing faster growth and reduced poverty. Economic "globalization" is a historical process, the result of human innovation and technological progress. It refers to the increasing integration of economies around the world, particularly through trade and financial flows. The term sometimes also refers to the movement of people (labor) and knowledge (technology) across international borders. There are also broader cultural, political and environmental dimensions of globalization that are not covered here. At its most basic, there is nothing mysterious about globalization. The term has come into common usage since the 1980s, reflecting technological advances that have made it easier and quicker to complete international transactions – both trade and financial flows. It refers to an extension beyond national borders of the same market forces that have operated for centuries at all levels of human economic activity – village markets, urban industries, or financial centers. Globalization is not just a recent phenomenon. Some analysts have argued that the world economy was just as globalized 100 years ago as it is today. But today commerce and financial services are far more developed and deeply integrated than they were at that time. The most striking aspect of this has been the integration of financial markets made possible by modern electronic communication. There are four aspects of globalization: 1. Trade: Developing countries as a whole have increased their share of world trade – from 19 percent in 1971 to 29 percent in 1999. For instance, the newly industrialized economies (NIEs) of Asia have done well, while Africa as a whole has fared poorly. The composition of what countries export is also important. The strongest rise by far has been in the export of manufactured goods. The share of primary commodities in world exports – such as food and raw materials – that are often produced by the poorest countries, has declined.
Indeed. net official flows of "aid" or development assistance have fallen significantly since the early 1980s. trade opening (along with opening to foreign direct investment) has been an important element in the economic success of East Asia. The numbers involved are still quite small. direct foreign investment brings not only an expansion of the physical capital stock. In contrast. In these countries. No country in recent decades has achieved economic success. There is considerable evidence that more outward-oriented countries tend consistently to grow faster than ones that are inwardlooking.2 Ans.2. one finding is that the benefits of trade liberalization can exceed the costs by more than a factor of 10." the number of people in absolute poverty declined by over 120 million (14 percent) between 1993 and 1998. Describe the positives of trade liberalization. often overlooked. and the composition of private flows has changed dramatically. the proportion of labor forces round the world that was foreign born increased by about one-half. Most migration occurs between developing countries. 4. Both portfolio investment and bank credit rose but they have been more volatile. But the flow of migrants to advanced economies is likely to provide a means through which global wages converge. • 3. without being open to the rest of the world. Policies that make an economy open to trade and investment with the rest of the world are needed for sustained economic growth. export markets and economic policies is available at very low cost. but also technical innovation. It also shows that: • • the increase followed a particularly "dry" period in the 1980s. Countries that have opened their economies in . Q. Direct foreign investment has become the most important category. More generally. Opening up their economies to the global economy has been essential in enabling many developing countries to develop competitive advantages in the manufacture of certain products. The evidence on this is clear. knowledge about production methods. For instance. falling sharply in the wake of the financial crises of the late 1990s. and it represents a highly valuable resource for the developing countries. but in the period 1965-90. Movement of people: Workers move from one country to another partly to find better employment opportunities. aspect of globalization. management techniques. Capital movements: Globalization sharply increased private capital flows to developing countries during much of the 1990s. There is also the potential for skills to be transferred back to the developing countries and for wages in those countries to rise. Spread of knowledge (and technology): Information exchange is an integral. defined by the World Bank as the "new globalizers. in terms of substantial increases in living standards for its people.
such access should be made permanent. the increased growth that results from free trade itself tends to increase the incomes of the poor in roughly the same proportion as those of the population as a whole. This would give the poorest countries the confidence to persist with difficult domestic reforms and ensure effective use of debt relief and aid flows. Although quotas under the so-called Multi-fibre Agreement are due to be phased out by 2005. inequality among countries has been on the decline since 1990. Developing countries can illafford the large implicit subsidies. have experienced faster growth and more poverty reduction. The main benefits for industrial countries would come from the liberalization of their agricultural markets. The group of low-income countries. The original 23 GATT countries . Overall. the elimination of tariff peaks and escalation in agriculture and manufacturing also needs to be pursued.recent years. countries benefit most from liberalizing their own markets. Vietnam. those developing countries that lowered tariffs sharply in the 1980s grew more quickly in the 1990s than those that did not. Offering the poorest countries duty – and quota – free access to world markets would greatly benefit these countries at little cost to the rest of the world. speedier liberalization of textiles and clothing and of agriculture is particularly important. would gain most from agricultural liberalization in industrial countries because of the greater relative importance of agriculture in their economies. New jobs are created for unskilled workers. General Agreement on Tariff and Trade( GATT): The GATT. was established on a provisional basis after the Second World War in the wake of other new multilateral institutions dedicated to international economic cooperation – notably the "Britton Woods" institutions now known as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. and accompanied by simple. Q. Similarly. developing countries would strengthen their own economies (and their trading partners’) if they made a sustained effort to reduce their own trade barriers further.3 Ans. Freeing trade frequently benefits the poor especially. including India. Although there are benefits from improved access to other countries’ markets. The recent market-opening initiatives of the EU and some other countries are important steps in this regard. often channeled to narrow privileged interests that trade protection provides. In turn. in part the result of trade liberalization. Greater efforts by industrial countries and the international community more broadly. To be completely effective. transparent rules of origin. however. are called for to remove the trade barriers facing developing countries. Enhanced market access for the poorest developing countries would provide them with the means to harness trade for development and poverty reduction. raising them into the middle class. and Uganda. Write a short note on GATT and WTO. extended to all goods. Developing countries would gain about equally from liberalization of manufacturing and agriculture. On average. Further liberalization – by both industrial and developing countries – will be needed to realize trade’s potential as a driving force for economic growth and development. Moreover. particularly the poorest countries. highlighting the difference between the two. reflecting more rapid economic growth in developing countries.
The limited achievement of the Tokyo Round. through technical assistance and training programs Cooperating with other international organizations . outside the tariff reduction results. Despite its provisional nature. Although. High rates of unemployment and constant factory closures led governments in Europe and North America to seek bilateral market-sharing arrangements with competitors and to embark on a subsidies race to maintain their holds on agricultural trade. or "trade rounds". under the auspices of GATT – the Uruguay Round was the latest and most extensive. fairly and predictably. restrictive business practices. was a sign of difficult times to come. freely. Both these changes undermined the credibility and effectiveness of GATT. combined with a series of economic recessions in the 1970s and early 1980s. in its 47 years. in 1950. GATT’s success in reducing tariffs to such a low level. When the United States’ government announced. The tariff concessions and rules together became known as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and entered into force in January 1948. drove governments to devise other forms of protection for sectors facing increased overseas competition. The Charter was intended to provide not only world trade disciplines but also contained rules relating to employment. This first round of negotiations resulted in 45. The biggest leaps forward in international trade liberalization have come through multilateral trade negotiations. It was also agreed that the value of these concessions should be protected by early and largely "provisional" acceptance of some of the trade rules in the draft ITO Charter.000 tariff concessions affecting $10 billion or about one-fifth – of world trade. The WTO’s overriding objective is to help trade flow smoothly.were among over 50 which agreed a draft Charter for an International Trade Organization (ITO) – a new specialized agency of the United Nations. international investment and services. the GATT remained the only multilateral instrument governing international trade from 1948 until the establishment of the WTO. Although the ITO Charter was finally agreed at a UN Conference on Trade and Employment in Havana in March 1948. the basic legal text of the GATT remained much as it was in 1948. commodity agreements. there were additions in the form of "plural-lateral” voluntary membership agreements and continual efforts to reduce tariffs. ratification in national legislatures proved impossible in some cases. It does this by: Administering trade agreements Acting as a forum for trade negotiations Settling trade disputes Reviewing national trade policies Assisting developing countries in trade policy issues. Much of this was achieved through a series of "trade rounds". that it would not seek Congressional ratification of the Havana Charter. WTO World Trade Organization came into existence in 1995 after the desolation of General Agreement on Tariff and Trade (GATT). In an effort to give an early boost to trade liberalization after the Second World War and to begin to correct the large overhang of protectionist measures which remained in place from the early 1930s-tariff negotiations were opened among the 23 founding GATT "contracting parties" in 1946. the ITO was effectively dead.
based in Geneva. membership applications and regional trade agreements. the Goods Council. thus. It does not have branch offices outside Geneva. either by ministers (who meet at least once every two years) or by their ambassadors or delegates (who meet regularly in Geneva). working groups and working parties deal with the individual agreements and other areas such as the environment. b. governments chose to treat it as a permanent commitment. This is typically by consensus. more automatic. The WTO’s agreements have been ratified in all members’ parliaments. e. Its annual budget is roughly 160 million Swiss francs. and was extremely rare under the WTO’s predecessor. The WTO dispute settlement system is faster. and therefore selective. A majority vote is also possible but it has never been used in the WTO. The WTO’s top level decision-making body is the Ministerial Conference which meets at least once every two years. The GATT was a set of rules. it completely replaces its predecessor and has a very different character. Difference between WTO and GATT:The World Trade Organization is not a simple extension of GATT. by the 1980s many new agreements had been added of a plural-lateral. GATT. The General Council also meets as the Trade Policy Review Body and the Dispute Settlement Body. on the contrary. and thus much less susceptible to . with no institutional foundation. The GATT rules applied to trade in merchandise goods. Among the principal differences are the following: a. The agreements which constitute the WTO are almost all multilateral and. nature. accounting for over 97% of world trade. c. d. In addition to goods. The WTO has nearly 150 members. the Secretariat does not have the decision-making role that other international bureaucracies are given with. the WTO covers trade in services and trade-related aspects of intellectual property. All major decisions are made by the membership as a whole. involve commitments for the entire membership. has around 600 staff and is headed by a director-general. Services Council and Intellectual Property (TRIPS) Council report to the General Council. The GATT was applied on a "provisional basis" even if. Numerous specialized committees. only a small associated secretariat which had its origins in the attempt to establish an International Trade Organization in the 1940s. Below this is the General Council which meets several times a year in the Geneva headquarters. The WTO commitments are full and permanent. Around 30 others are negotiating membership. after more than forty years. development. The WTO is a permanent institution with its own secretariat. Decisions are normally taken by consensus. The WTO is run by its member governments. Since decisions are taken by the members themselves. Decisions are made by the entire membership. The WTO Secretariat. a multilateral agreement. While GATT was a multilateral instrument. At the next level.
an MNC is a parent company that a. b. whereas "polycentric" loses its meaning when the MNCs operate only in one or two foreign countries.foreign sales branch or assembly operations (to save transport cost) . "ethnocentric" is misleading because it focuses on race or ethnicity. finance and staffing that transcend national boundaries. Business strategy of a MNC can be analyzed with the help of Three Stages of Evolution 1. marketing. However. polycentric and geocentric. exercises direct control over the policies of its affiliates. Multinational companies (MNC) may pursue business strategies that are home country – oriented or host country – oriented or world – oriented. than the old GATT system.blockages.4 Ans.firms rely on export agents expansion of export sales further expansion . engages in foreign production through its affiliates located in several countries. implements business strategies in production. especially when the home country itself is populated by many different races. Q. The implementation of WTO dispute findings will also be more easily assured. Think of any MNC and analyze its business strategy orientation. Export stage • initial inquiries . Perlmutter uses such terms as ethnocentric. c. According to Franklin Root (1994).
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