NPTEL – Chemical – Mass Transfer Operation 1

Joint initiative of IITs and IISc – Funded by MHRD Page 1 of 5


MODULE 5: DISTILLATION


LECTURE NO. 6

5.2.2.4. Analysis of binary distillation by Ponchon-Savarit
Method
Background Principle:
The method is concerned with the graphical analysis of calculating the theoretical
stages by enthalpy balance required for desired separation by distillation process
(Hines and Maddox, 1984). In this method, the enthalpy balances are
incorporated as an integral part of the calculation however it is not considered in
the analysis separation by distillation process by McCabe-Thele method. This
procedure combines the material balance calculations with enthalpy balance
calculations. This method also provides the information on the condenser and
reboiler duties. The overall material balance for the distillation column is as
shown in Figure 5.11:
B D F + = (5.39)
For any component the material balance around the column can be written as:
B D F
Bx Dx Fx + = (5.40)
Overall enthalpy balance for the column yields
C B D R F
Q BH DH Q FH + + = + (5.41)
NPTEL – Chemical – Mass Transfer Operation 1


Joint initiative of IITs and IISc – Funded by MHRD Page 2 of 5

where H is the enthalpy of the liquid stream, energy/mol, Q
R
is the heat input to
the reboiler, J/s and Q
C
is the heat removed from condenser, J/s. The heat
balance on rearrangement of Equation (5.41) gives
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + |
.
|

\
|
+ =
R
Q
H B
D
Q
H D FH
R
B
C
D F
(5.42)
The Equation (5.41) is rearranged as Equation (5.42) for the convenience to plot
it on the enthalpy-concentration diagram. The points represented by the feed,
distillate and bottom streams can be plotted on the enthalpy-concentration
diagram as shown in Figure 5.21.


Figure 5.21: Representation of feed, distillate and bottom streams on the enthalpy-concentration
NPTEL – Chemical – Mass Transfer Operation 1


Joint initiative of IITs and IISc – Funded by MHRD Page 3 of 5

Substituting the Equation (5.39) into the Equation (5.40) and (5.42) we get
B D F
Bx Dx x B D + = + ) ( (5.43)
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + |
.
|

\
|
+ = +
R
Q
H B
D
Q
H D H B D
R
B
C
D F
) ( (5.44)
From the Equations (5.43) and (5.44) one can write
F
C
D
R
B F
F D
B F
H
D
Q
H
R
Q
H H
x x
x x
B
D
÷ +
÷ ÷
=
÷
÷
=
) (
) (
(5.45)
The Equation (5.45) can also be written on rearrangement as:
F
C
D
F D
R
B F
B F
H
D
Q
H
x x
R
Q
H H
x x
÷ +
÷
=
÷ ÷
÷
) ( ) (
(5.46)
Comparing the Equation (5.46) with the points plotted on Figure (5.21), it is found
that the left hand side of the Equation (5.46) represents the slope of the straight
line between the points (x
B
, H
B
-Q
R
/B) and (x
F
, H
F
). The right hand side of the
Equation (5.46) represents the slope of the straight line passing through the
points (x
F
, H
F
) and (x
D
, H
D
-Q
C
/D). From this it can be said that all three points are
on a same straight line. The amount of distillate as per Equation (5.45) is
proportional to the horizontal distance
______
B F
x x and the amount of bottoms is
proportional to the horizontal distance
______
F D
x x , then from the overall material
balance it can be interpreted that the amount of feed is proportional to the
horizontal distance
______
B D
x x . This leads to the inverse lever rule. Based on this
principle, the analysis of distillation column is called Enthalpy-composition
analysis or Ponchon-Savarit analysis of distillation column.
NPTEL – Chemical – Mass Transfer Operation 1


Joint initiative of IITs and IISc – Funded by MHRD Page 4 of 5

Analysis of tray column
Consider the theoretical stage shown in Figure 5.12 and the principle by which it
operates is described in the enthalpy-composition diagram as shown in Figure
5.22.

Figure 5.22: Operation principle of stage-wise binary distillation on enthalpy-concentration diagram
The vapor entering to the tray (n), V
n+1
is a saturated vapor of composition y
n+1

wheras the liquid entering to the tray is L
n-1
of composition x
n-1
. The point P in the
Figure 5.22 represents the total flow to the tray. The point P lies in a straight line
joining xn-1 and yn+1. The distance
______
1
P y
n+
is proportional to the quantity Ln-1 and
the distance
______
1
P x

is proportional to the quantity Vn+1 as per lever rule. So
NPTEL – Chemical – Mass Transfer Operation 1


Joint initiative of IITs and IISc – Funded by MHRD Page 5 of 5

______
1
______
1
1
1
P x
P y
V
L
n
n
n
n
÷
+
+
÷
= (5.47)
The sum of the liquid and vapor leaving the plate must equal the total flow to the
plate. So the tie line must pass through the point P which represents the addition
point of the vapor V
n
and liquid L
n
leaving the tray. The intersection of the tie line
with the enthalpy-composition curves will represent the compositions of these
streams.
Around the tray n, the material balances can be written as:
1 1 ÷ +
÷ = ÷
n n n n
L V L V (5.48)
1 1 1 1 ÷ ÷ + +
÷ = ÷
n n n n n n n n
x L y V x L y V (5.49)
The enthalpy balance around the tray gives
1 , 1 , , 1 , 1 ÷ ÷ + +
÷ = ÷
n L n n V n n L n n V n
H L H V H L H V (5.50)
Where H
V
is the enthalpy of the vapor and H
L
is the enthalpy of the liquid. From
the material and enthalpy balance Equations above mean that the stream that
added to V
n+1
to generate L
n
is same to the stream that must be added to V
n
to
generate L
n-1
. In the Figure 5.22, Δ represents the difference point above and
below the tray. This point of a common difference point can be extended to a
section of a column that contains any number of theoretical trays.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful