# Electronics

Principles & Applications
Sixth Edition

Charles A. Schuler
Chapter 1

Introduction (student version)

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

INTRODUCTION
• History • Digital or Analog • Analog Functions • Circuits with Both DC and AC • Trends

if you want to. This will allow you to view that segment again. . you can return to the beginning of that segment by clicking on the Repeat Segment button.Dear Student: This presentation is arranged in segments. Each segment is preceded by a Concept Preview slide and is followed by a Concept Review slide. When you reach a Concept Review slide.

History • • • • • • • • 1899 1901 1906 1943 1947 1958 1971 1982 Discovery of the Electron Radio Vacuum Tube First Computer Transistor Integrated Circuit Microprocessor Single Chip DSP .

• Analog signals have an infinite variety of levels. . • A/D and D/A conversions are commonplace. • Analog signals come from nature and from physical systems. • Digital signals usually have only two levels.Concept Preview • The world of electronics can be divided into digital or analog. • Digital signals are often represented as binary numbers.

An infinite number of levels ANALOG .

2 levels DIGITAL .

ANALOG (non-linear) .

Binary numbers Analog in … digital out A/D converter 01101110 11001000 11000010 01101110 00001110 00001001 01101110 .

Digital in … analog out 01101110 11001000 11000010 01101110 00001110 00001001 01101110 D/A converter .

00000000 11111111 10000000 D/A converter .

Linear electronic circuits are in the category called ____________. An analog circuit with some distortion can be called ________. two infinite analog non-linear A/D converter . An analog signal can be changed to a numerical format by an ____________.Electronic Circuit Quiz The output of a typical digital circuit has _________ states or levels. The output of a typical analog circuit has ________ states or levels.

• Analog signals have an infinite variety of levels. Repeat Segment . • A/D and D/A conversions are commonplace. • Digital signals usually have only two levels.Concept Review • The world of electronics can be divided into digital or analog. • Digital signals are often represented as binary numbers. • Analog signals come from nature and from physical systems.

ANALOG ELECTRONIC FUNCTIONS Oscillator Controller Adder Amplifier Mixer Subtractor Regulator Attenuator Rectifier Clipper Divider Switch Detector Comparator Filter Converter Multiplier .

• Coupling capacitors have low reactance at the signal frequency.Concept Preview • Many circuits and signals have both ac and dc components. • Capacitors block dc since they have infinite reactance at 0 Hz. • Bypass capacitors remove the ac component. • Capacitors can couple ac signals from one point to another. • Bypass capacitors have one lead grounded. .

Many circuits are a mix of ac and dc.3 kΩ 1 µ F 0V 1 µF 10 VP-P 10 kHz 10 kΩ 10 kΩ . 10 V 10 V 10 kΩ 3.

3 kΩ 1 µ F -5 V 1 µF 10 VP-P 10 kHz 10 kΩ 10 kΩ .+5 V 0V 10 V 10 kΩ 3.

Note the loss in ac amplitude due to the drop across the 3. 10 V 10 kΩ 3.3 kΩ 1 µ F 0V 1 µF 10 VP-P 10 kHz 10 kΩ 10 kΩ .3 kΩ resistor.

10 V +5 V 0V 10 kΩ 3.3 kΩ 1 µ F 1 µF 10 VP-P 10 kHz 10 kΩ 10 kΩ .Note the combined dc and ac.

3 kΩ 1 µ F 1 µF 10 VP-P 10 kHz 10 kΩ 10 kΩ . 0V 10 V 10 kΩ 3.Note that the dc signal is blocked by the capacitor.

Bypass capacitors are used to eliminate the ac component. +5 V 0V 10 V 10 kΩ 3.3 kΩ 1 µ F 10 VP-P 10 kHz 10 kΩ 1 µF Bypass capacitor .

When a capacitor is used to eliminate ac at a node it is called a ________. A blocking capacitor is used to eliminate ________ at a circuit node. components dc dc and ac bypass dc . Resistors provide equal opposition to both ____________. Capacitors support the flow of ac but block ________.Capacitor/Resistor Quiz A node in an electronic circuit can have both dc and ac _________.

• Bypass capacitors have one lead grounded. • Bypass capacitors remove the ac component. Repeat Segment . • Capacitors can couple ac signals from one point to another. • Coupling capacitors have low reactance at the signal frequency. • Capacitors block dc since they have infinite reactance at 0 Hz.Concept Review • Many circuits and signals have both ac and dc components.

Solder .Insertion Technology Device leads pass through holes in the circuit board.

Surface Mount Technology Solder SOT-223 Chip resistor Devices placed by automatic equipment Circuit boards cost less (fewer holes) Higher connection density Smaller and less expensive products Difficult to repair .

Probing fine-pitch ICs is difficult without the right tools! .

Photograph courtesy of Agilent Technologies .The “Wedge” probe from Agilent makes it possible to safely connect to fine-pitch SMT integrated circuits.

REVIEW • History • Digital or Analog • Analog Functions • Circuits with Both DC and AC • Trends .