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STEADY & UNSTEADY HEAT CONDUCTION Define Fourier Law. What is the importance of ve sign in Fourier equation? Define thermal conductivity. What are its units? K value is highest for ________ and least for ________ Out of metals, liquids, gases which is having higher K value. What is the effect of temperature on K value for metals, liquids, gases? List out various factors effecting K value. Define thermal diffusivity. What are its units? What is the temperature profile for plain wall? What is the temperature profile for hallow cylinder. What is the temperature profile for hallow sphere. What are the assumptions made in lumped parameter analysis? Define Biot No and Fourier No. Define characteristic length. What are the characteristic lengths for wall, cylinder, and sphere? What is the importance of Heislar and Groober charts? When do we say that the system has attained steady state condition? What is meant by periodic and non-periodic variation of temperature? Give any two examples for pure conduction. What is the mechanism of conduction in solids. Give example where we use composite wall. What is meant by thermal contact resistance? What is meant by conductance resistance? Define Fin. What is the function of fin? Give examples. What is meant by fin effectiveness? What is meant by fin efficiency? What is the relation between fin effectiveness and efficiency? What is the general equation and solution for a fin? What is the boundary condition for infinite long fin? What is the boundary condition for fin insulated at tip? What is the boundary condition for fin loosing heat at tip? What is the temperature profile along a fin? What is the governing equation for conduction? What is Overall heat transfer coefficient? What are its units?

What is the equation for variable thermal conductivity? What are the assumptions of Fourier equation?

Define Convection and give one example. Differentiate between free and forced convection. What are the significance of Nusselt no, Prandtl no, Reynolds no, Grashof no. What are the non-dimensional numbers used in free convection. What are the non-dimensional numbers used in forced convection. Define Newton law of cooling and write its equation. What are the factors on which h depends. What are the units of h. What is the mechanism of convection. What is the governing equation for convection. Out of free and forced convection , which is more effective. For same cross section and medium h value is more for _________ convection. Stanton no =_________ Ralygieans no =_________________ RADIATION Define radiation. What is the mechanism of radiation. Define Emissive power. Define monochromatic emissive power. Governing equation for radiation. Plancks law is valid for _______________ bodies. For longer wave length we use _________law. For shorter wave length we use ______________ law. Define Absorvitivity, Reflectivity, and Transmitivity. Define Black body, white body, grey body, diathermanous body, transparent body, opaque body. Define Krichoffs law. Define Emmisivity. Emmisivity value for black body is ___ What is the value of Stefan Boltzman constant.

What are the units for Stefan Boltzman constant. What is the relation between Emissive power and Intensity of radiation. What is Radiation shape factor. What is meant by radiation shielding.

HEAT EXCHANGER What is the principle of heat exchanger. Draw the temperature profiles for parallel and counter flow heat exchanger. Write the LMTD equation for parallel & counter flow heat exchanger. Define Effectiveness of heat exchanger. What does NTU indicates. For max effectiveness , NTU should be __________ What is the limitation of LMTD method. When do we use AMTD method. Give some examples of heat exchangers. Why LMTD value for counter flow is more than parallel flow. Does the temperature line for parallel and counter flow intersect? Expalin. What is the basic difference between Boiling and Condensation. Draw Boiling curve and indicate the zones of Boiling. What is the order of h values for free convection, forced convection and boiling.

Heat transfer Principles

Heat energy can be transferred in three ways. These are :A. By conduction B. By convection C. By radiation A. Heat transfer by Conduction This kind of heat transfer can only take place in solids and is considered as the slowest form of heat transfer. Solids which allow the flow of heat are referred to as 'Conductors' and, those which do not conduct heat are called 'Insulators' All metals and carbon will conduct heat - some metals have a high heat conductivity while others are slower. Conduction is the process of heat transfer by 'Collision of Molecules' in a substance. As temperature increases, molecules move faster and strike other molecules harder and more often. An example of this is: - when an iron bar is held at one end with the other end in a fire, the molecular motion at the hot end increases and the heat gradually travels along the bar by the increase in the motion and collision of molecules, until it can be felt by the hand. Examples of insulators are, - wood, plastics, air or gases and lagging - such as fibre glass, cork and asbestos ..etc. Some FACTORS which affect the rate of heat transfer by conduction are :1. The Thickness of the Material. 2. The Temperature Difference between the two sides of the solid being heated (length of heat path). 3. The Conductivity of the Material. 4. The Surface Area. B. Heat transfer by Convection Convection takes place in fluids. As a fluid is heated, the molecules increase in motion and the fluid begins to expand - molecules move further apart. This gives a decrease in density which causes the hotter fluid to rise and the cool fluid to fall, setting up a circulation within the fluid. The heat energy is gradually increased throughout the fluid.

This method of heat transfer is seen in the use of Space Heating and in heat distribution in a furnace. Convection can take place by the natural currents set up by the application of heat or increased heat transfer by mechanical means ( forced convection ) as when a fan or pump is used. Convection is also the principle used in the operation of a hot air balloon. Propane gas is combusted beneath the balloon opening and as the hot combustion gases rise into the canopy of the balloon, due to their temperature and expansion together with heated expanded air, the balloon is filled by lower density gases which gives lift to the balloon. The ascent and height of the balloon is controlled by the combustion of the propane. Birds, Gliders, Paragliding sports etc, also use natural convection currents (thermals) to soar around the sky. C. Heat transfer by Radiation Radiated heat is illustrated by the heat of the sun which reaches earth as 'Rays' of heat energy which are invisible but similar to rays of light. A further example is, heat from an open fire when you are standing in front of the fire, the side facing the fire becomes warm while the other side remains cool - (due to the convection currents). Radiated heat needs no material for its transfer and can travel through vacuum (as from the sun ). Substances in the path of radiated heat will increase in temperature. Heat transfer by radiation depends on :- The temperature of the radiating surface. - The type of receiving surface - i.e. colour and texture - Black, rough surfaces will absorb more heat than light, smooth ones. - The area of the receiving surface - greater area - greater heat reception. Examples of Heat Transfer by Radiation - Solar heating for homes, offices and power from solar cells. Heat transfer by direct radiation in furnaces for process operations.


Aim:- To determine total thermal resistance and thermal conductivity of composite wall.To plot temperature gradient along composite wall structure. The apparatus consist of a plates of different materials sandwiched between two aluminum plates. Three types of slabs are provided on the both sides of heater which forms a composite structure. A small hand press frame is provided to ensure the perfect contact between the slabs. A dimmer stat is provided for varying the input to the heater and measurement of input is carried out by a voltmeter and ammeter. Thermocouples are embedded between interfaces of the slabs, to read the temperature at the surface. The experiments can be conducted at various values of input and calculation can be made accordingly. slabs size: a) M.S -25cm*25mm.thick b) Backlite-25cm*10mm.thick c) Brass-25cm*10mm.thick Nichrome heater wound on mica former and insulator with control unit capacity 200 watt maximum

Calculations: Read the Heat supplied Q = V x I Watts (In S. I. Units) For calculating the thermal conductivity of composite walls, it is assumed that due to large diameter of the plates, heat flowing through central portion is unidirectional i. e. axial flow. Thus for calculation, central half diameter area where unidirectional flow is assumed is considered. Accordingly, thermocouples are fixed at close to center of the plates. Total Thermal resistance to found out to be --------------------

2.Heat Transfer from a Pin-Fin Apparatus

Aim: - To calculate the value of heat transfer coefficient form the fin for natural & forced convection Introduction: Extended surfaces of fins are used to increase the heat transfer rate from a surface to a fluid wherever it is not possible to increase the value of the surface heat transfer coefficient or the temperature difference between the surface and the fluid. The use of this is variety of shapes (refer fig. 1). Circumferential fins around the cylinder of a motor cycle engine and fins attached to condenser tubes of a refrigerator are a few familiar examples. It is obvious that a fin surface sticks out from the primary heat transfer surface. The temperature difference with surrounding fluid will steadily diminish as one moves out along the fin. The design of the fins therefore required a knowledge of the temperature distribution in the fin. The main objective of this experimental set up is to study temperature distribution in a simple pin fin. (The aim of the experiment is to study the temperature distribution and the effectiveness of the fin. Fins are used to increase the rate of heat transfer from a surface to the surrounding. Fluid where evere it is not possible to increase the valve of the surface heat tyransfer cofficiant rae the temperature difference between the surface and the fluid.fins are fabricated in varity forms. Fins around the air cooled engines are a common example. The aim of the experiment is to study the temperature distribution and the effectiveness of the fin, which place a impartant role in design.) APPARATUS 1. Pin fin 2. Rectangular duct 3. Electric heater 4. Thermocouples 5. Orifice A brass fin of circular cross section in fitted across a long rectangular duct. The other end of the duct is connected to the suction side of a blower and the air flows past the fin perpendicular to the axis. One end of the fin projects outside the duct and is heated by a heater. Temperature at five points along the length of the fin. The air flow rate is measured by an orifice meter fitted on the delivery side of the blower. Schematic diagram of the set up is shown in fig. 2, while the details of the pin fin are as per fig. 3. (Thermal conductivity of fin material (Brass) = 110w/m 0C.) a. Natural convention Open the duct cover over the fin. Ensure proper earthing to the unit and switch on the main supply. Adjust dimmer stat so that about 80 volts are supplied to the heater. The fin will start heating. When the temperature remain study, note down the temperature of the fin and duct fluid temperature. Repeat the experiment at different inputs to heater. b. Forced convention Close the duct cover over the fin. Start the blower. Adjust the dimmer stat so that about 100-110 volts are supplied to the heater. When the temperature becomes stedy, note down all the temperature and the manometer difference. Repeat the experiment at different inputs and at different air flow rates.

Conclusion: Heat transfer coefficient form the fin for natural & forced convection is found out to be ----

3 . Emissivity Measurement Apparatus

Aim:- To determine Emissivity of non black test plate surface.

THEORY: All bodies emits and absorb the thermal radiation to form surroundings the rate of thermal radiation depends up on temperature of the body. Thermal radiations are electromagnetic waves and they do not require any medium for propagation. When thermal radiation strikes a body part of it is reflected, part of it is absorbed an d part of it is transmitted through the body.

APPARATUS: The dynamic apparatus uses compactor method for determining the emissivity of test plate. It consists of two aluminum plates, of equal physical dimensions. Mica heaters are provided inside the plates. The mounted in an enclose to provide undisturbed surroundings.One of the plates is blackened outside for use a comparator (because black surface has =1).Another plate having natural surface finish. Input to heaters can be controlled by separate dimmer stats. Heater input is measured on common ammeter and voltmeter. One thermocouple is fitted on surface on each plate is measure the surface temperature with digital temperature indicator. By adjusting the input to the heaters, both the plates are brought to same temperature, so that conduction and convection losses from both the plates are equal and difference in input is due to different emissivitys. Holes are provided at back side bottom and the top enclosure for natural circulation of air over the plates. The plate enclosure is provided with Perspex acrylic sheet at the front Conclusion:Emissivity of non black test plate surface is found out to be --------------

4.Thermal Conductivity of Metal Rod

Aim :- To determine thermal conductivity of metal rod. Introduction : Thermal conductivity is the physical property of the material denoting the ease with a particular substance can accomplish the transmission of thermal energy by molecular motion. Thermal conductivity of material is found to depend on the chemical composition of the substance or substance of which it is a composed, the phase (i. e. gas, liquid or solid) in which it exists, its crystalline structure if a solid, the temperature and pressure to which it is subjected, and whether or not it is a homogeneous material.

Mechanism of Thermal Energy Conduction In Metals: Thermal energy may be conducted in solids by two modes : 1. Lattice Vibration. 2. Transport by free electrons.

In good electrical conductors a rather large number of free electrons move about in the lattice structure of the material. Just as these electrons may transport electric charge, they may also carry thermal energy from a high temperature region to a low temperature region. In fact, these electrons are frequently referred as the electron gas. Energy may also be transmitted as

vibrational energy in the lattice structure of the material. In general, however, this latter mode of energy transfer is not as large as the electrons transport and it is for this reason that good electrical conductors are almost always good heat conductor viz. Copper, Aluminium and silver. With increase in the temperature, however the increased lattice vibrations come in the way of the transport by free electrons for most of the pure metals the thermal conductivity decreases with increase in the temperature. The experimental set up consists of the metal bar, one end of which is heated by an electric heater while the other end of the bar projects inside the cooling water jacket. The middle portion of the bar is surrounded by a cylindrical shell filled with the asbestos insulating powder. The temperature of the bar is measured at eight different sections { Fig. 2 (1) to (4) } while the radial temperature distribution is measured by separate thermocouples at two different sections in the insulating shell. The heater is provided with a dimmerstat for controlling the heat input. Water under constant heat condition is circulated through the jacket and its flow rate and temperature rise are noted.

Conclusion:- 1) Thermal conductivity of metal rod is found out to be ---------------

5.Heat Transfer in Natural Convection

Aim:- To determine the surface heat transfer coefficient for a vertical tube losing heat by natural convection. Theory:- When a hot body is kept in still atmosphere, heat is transferred to the surrounding fluid by natural convection. The fluid layer in contact with the hot body gets heated; rise up due to the decrease in its density and the cold fluid rushes in to take place. The process is continuous and the heat transfer takes place due to the relative motion of hot cold fluid particles.

Conclusion:Heat coefficient for a vertical tube losing heat by natural convection is found out to be

6. Parallel Flow / Counter Flow Heat Exchanger

Aim:- To determine heat transfer rate and overall heat transfer coefficient of Parallel flow and counter flow heat exchanger. Introduction: Heat exchanger is a device used for affecting the process of heat exchange between two fluids that are at different temperatures. It is useful in many engineering processes like those in Refrigeration and Air conditioning system, power system, food processing systems, chemical reactor and space or aeronautical applications. The necessity for doing this arises in multitude of industrial applications. Common examples of best exchangers are the radiator of a car, the condenser at the back of the domestic refrigerator, and the steam boiler of a thermal power plant. Description & Construction: The simple example of transfer type of heat exchanger can be in the form of a tube in tube type arrangement as shown in the figure. One fluid flowing through the inner tube and the other through the annulus surroundings it. The heat transfer takes place across the walls of the inner tube. The experiments are conducted by keeping the identical flow rates [approx] while running the unit as a parallel flow heat exchanger and counter flow exchanger. The temperatures are measured with the help of the temperature sensor. The readings are recorded when steady state is reached. The outer tube is provided with adequate insulation to minimize the heat losses. The PF & CF heat exchanger consist of following components 1. Main Frame 2. Heat Exchanger 3. Temperature Indicator 4. Hot water Generator 5. Rotameter for hot & cold water flow rate measurement 6. Temperature Sensors The total assembly is supported on a main frame. The apparatus consists of a tube in tube type concentric tube heat exchanger. The hot fluid is water, which is obtained from the hot water generator it is attached at the bottom of assembly to supply the hot fluid i.e., water with the help of pump through the inner tube while the cold fluid is flowing through annulus. Pump set is connected to the hot water generator to suck the water from it & deliver as per requirement. Different valves are provided in the system to regulate the flow of fluid to the system. The hot water & cold water admitted at the same end & the opposite end, named parallel & counter flow heat exchanger accordingly, is done by valve operation. The concentric type heat exchanger is connected in system, which transfers thermal energy between two fluids at different temperature.

Type of Heat Exchangers: Heat exchangers are classified in three categories. Transfer Type According to flow arrangement 1. Parallel flow 2. Counter flow 3. Cross flow Storage Type 1. Direct Transfer Type 2. Shell and tube heat Exchanger 3. Concentric tube Heat Exchanger A Transfer type heat exchanger is the one in which both fluids pass simultaneously flow through the device and heat is transferred through separating walls. In practice most of the heat exchangers used are transfer type ones. The transfer type heat exchangers are further classified according to flow arrangements as Parallel Flow, in which fluids flow in the same direction. Counter flow, in which they flow in opposite direction. Conclusion: Heat transfer coefficient of Parallel flow and counter flow heat exchanger is found out to be -----------

7. Heat Transfer in Forced Convection

Aim: To determine the heat transfer coefficient in forced convection of air in a tube. Introduction: In many practical situations and equipments, we invariably deal with flow of fluids in tubes e.g. boiler, super heaters and condensers of a power plant, automobile radiators, water and air heaters or coolers etc. the knowledge and evolution of forced convection heat transfer coefficient for fluid flow in tubes is essentially a prerequisite for an optional design of all thermal system. Convection is the transfer of heat within a fluid by mixing of one portion of fluid with the other. Convection is possible only in a fluid medium and is directly linked with the transport of medium itself. In forced convection, fluid motion is principally produced by some superimposed velocity field like a fan, blower or a pump, the energy transport is said due to forced convection. Description: The apparatus consists of a blower unit fitted with the test pipe. The test section is surrounded by a Nichrome band heater. Four thermocouples are embedded on the test section and two thermocouples are placed in the air stream at the entrance and exit of the test section to measure the air temperature. Test pipe is connected to the delivery side of the blower along with the orifice to measure flow of air through the pipe. Input to the heater is given through a dimmerstat and measured by meters. It is to be noted that only a part of the total heat supplied is utilized in heating the air. A temperature indicator with cold junction compensation is provided to measure temperatures of pipe wall at various points in the test section. Airflow is measured with the help of orifice meter and the water manometer fitted on the board.

Conclusion:-Heat transfer coefficient in forced convection of air in a tube is found out to be -----


AIM: To determine the Stefan Boltzmann constant. APPARATUS:The dynamic apparatus of a water heated jacket of hemispherical shape. A copper test disc is fitted at the center of jacket. The hot water is obtained from a hot water tank, fitted to the panel, in which water heated by an electric immersion heater. The hot water is taken around the hemisphere temperature rises. The test disc is inserted at the center. Thermocouples are fitted inside the hemisphere to average out hemisphere temperature. Another thermocouple fitted at the center of test disc measures the temperature of test disc. A timer with a small buzzer is provided to note down disc temperature at the time intervals of 5 seconds. THEORY: All the substances emit thermal radiation. When heat radiation is incident over a body, part of radiation is absorbed, transmitted through the reflected by the body. A surface which absorbs all thermal radiation incidents over it, is called black surface. For black surface, transmitivity and reflectivity are zero and absorbivity is unity. Stefen boltz men law states that emissivity of surface is praportionl to fourth poewer of absolute surface temperateure. PROCEDURE: 1. See that water inlet cock of water jacket is closed and fill up sufficient water in the heater tank. 2. Put on the heater. 3. Blacken test disc with help of lamp black& let it cool. 4. Put the thermometer and chuck water temperature. 5. Boil the water and switch off the heater. 6. See that drain cock of water jacket is closed and open water inlet cock. 7. See three is sufficient water above the top of hemisphere (A piezometer tube is fitted to indicate water level). 8. Note down the hemisphere temperature (i.e. up to channel 1to4). 9. Note down the test disc temperature (i.e. channel no.5). 10. Start the timer. Buzzer will start the ringing. At the start of timer cycle, insert test disc into the hole at the bottom of hemisphere. 11. Note down the temperature of disc, every time the buzzer rings .Take at least 4to5readings.


The vapor compression refrigeration cycle is used in what is commonly known as an air conditioner. Such devices are thought of primarily as something needed to cool a room. The air conditioner circulates a fluid called a refrigerant through heat exchangers. The refrigerant absorbs heat at a low temperature at one of the exchangers and discharges heat at a high temperature at the other exchanger. Evaluation of the vapor compression refrigeration cycle is the subject of this experiment. The purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate and compare experimental parameters with the theory for the thermodynamic refrigeration cycle (Vapor-Compression Cycle). The student should be able to identify the individual components of the system and describe their function and performance characteristics both qualitatively and quantitatively. The Air Conditioner Apparatus

Figure 20.1 is a schematic of the apparatus used in this experiment. How the apparatus works in .pumping heat. is easily understood if we follow a finite mass of refrigerant around the circuit. The compressor is a component that takes in low temperature, low pressure refrigerant vapor and compresses it. The compressed refrigerant vapor is discharged as a highpressure, high temperature vapor. One way valves in the flow lines of the compressor controlthe flow direction. Upon leaving the compressor, the superheated vapor enters a finned tube heat exchanger. In the apparatus of this experiment, the heat exchanger is a cross flow type. Air flows in a duct across which are located small diameter tubes that convey the refrigerant. The small diameter tubes have fins in the form of thin sheet aluminum attached. The superheated vapor is higher in temperature than the air flowing across the finned tubes and so heat will be transferred from the refrigerant to the air. During this heat transfer process, the refrigerant will condense and so the heat exchanger is commonly called a condenser. Refrigerant leaving the condenser has

a very low quality. After leaving the condenser, the part liquid. part vapor refrigerant enters the top of a receiving tank. Within this tank, we have vapor rising to the top and liquid falling to the bottom; the tank thus acts as a separator. Liquid exits this tank at its bottom and then enters a throttling device. There are two such devices on this apparatus. One is called a thermostatic expansion valve and the other is a capillary tube (very small inside diameter tube). The object of a throttling device is to cause a significant loss in pressure of the refrigerant. (There are actually two thermostatic expansion valves. The second is used in reversing the flow direction of the refrigerant, which will not be done for this experiment.) When the refrigerant leaves the throttle, it has a low pressure and temperature. The refrigerant now enters another finned tube, cross flow heat exchanger. The refrigerant is cooler than the air passing through the exchanger and so heat is transferred to the air from the liquid refrigerant. During this process, the refrigerant vaporizes and so this heat exchanger is commonly called an evaporator. Refrigerant that has vaporized in the evaporator now enters the top of a reservoir called an accumulator tank. This tank also acts as a vapor.liquid separator. Vapor leaves this tank through another opening at the top of the tank and then returns to the compressor. Air that passes through the condenser absorbs energy from the refrigerant and is therefore heated in the process. Air that passes through the evaporator transfers energy to the refrigerant and is cooled in the process. The refrigerant thus pumps heat from the evaporator and discharges it at the condenser. In addition, the refrigerant gained energy from the compressor which is discharged also at the condenser. Experimental Procedure The unit used in the laboratory contains several pressure and temperature gages at various locations throughout the piping system. A number of valves are also in the circuit for flow control. Operation of the unit will be shown by the instructor. For the experiment, start and operate the unit as per directions given. Identify the compressor, condenser, receiving tank, throttling device, evaporator and the accumulator tank. Begin at the compressor and follow the closed loop made by the refrigerant. Observe the process of condensation and vaporization in the heat exchangers. Fans are used to move air past the cross flow heat exchanger tubes. Set the fans at a desired setting and with the compressor operating, allow the system to reach steady state. Use either the capillary tube or the expansion valve. Once steady state is reached, take temperature and pressure readings at all the gage locations.