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Basic Input/Output System

Introduction of BIOS
BIOS stand for Basic Input/Output System is a vital part of a
PC's system, without which nothing can work. BIOS refer to the
firmware code run by a Computer whenever it is powered on. The
primary function of the BIOS is to prepare the machine in working
condition so that other software programs stored on various
media (such as hard drives, floppies, and CDs) can load, execute,
and assume control of the PC. This process is known as booting
up. BIOS can also be said to be a coded program embedded or
mini operating system program or OS (the memory resident)
stored on PROM / EPROM or a Flash memory chip that recognizes
and controls various devices that make up the PC. The term BIOS
is specific to personal computer vendors. Among other classes of
computers, the generic terms boot monitor, boot loader or boot
ROM are commonly used.
Working of the BIOS
As mentioned above, the firm ware code (BIOS program) is stored
in the PROM / EPROM or Flash ROM. This code is used to start the
system working automatically and proceed the booting process in
the system. Therefore the chip has been termed as BIOS, the type
of program it holds. The BIOS performs different tasks before
making the system usable. These works includes testing and
verifying the devices, their working condition, creation of hand
shaking protocol with other electronic sections or devices
connected with the system so that each device or section could
contribute for the working of the system. We can divide the work
of the BIOS in two parts from the study point of view.

1. POST Cycle
The POST cycle is also known as Power ON Self Test cycle. This
test cycle is executed by the system as per the instructions
released by the BIOS program. The same basic sequence is
present on all computer architectures. It is the first step of the
more general process called initial program load (IPL) / booting /
bootstrapping. The POST cycle performs tests related to the
presence of the devices as mentioned in the CMOS Setup

program, work ability, their features (for RAM and storage
devices), logical connectivity between the various electronic
sections located on the motherboard or controller cards,
detection of any error in any device or any section and creating
the summary of the system configuration after testing each and
every important devices in a step by step manner and finally
loading the operating system second part from the media
authorized. The step by step progress of the POST cycle is given

1. After switching ON the system, execute the reset cycle.

2. Testing and connecting logically all the electronic sections of
the motherboard.
3. Checking the presence of the RAM on the motherboard. If found
proceeds for
next step otherwise generate the beep codes and stop further
4. Generating the single beep to indicate the user about the
initiation of the boot up process.
5. Checking the presence and work ability of the Display controller
card. If found move to the next step else generate the error
6. Initiating the display the progress on the screen.
7. Conducting the RAM refresh, counting and logical connectivity
of the RAM.
8. Checking the presence, the capacity or the type of floppy disk
drive. If found move to next step else generate an error message
on the screen and stop the further progress of the POST cycle.
9. Check the presence, the parameter of HDDs and CDROMs
connected with the system and if already mentioned in the CMOS
setup program else auto detects the same and in the event of any
error displays the error message on the screen.
10. Check the presence of the keyboard. If found move to next
step else display
the error message on the screen.
11. Generate the summary of the components or devices found
and load a pointer known as boot strap loader in the memory and
search for the next part of the operating system or bootable
device connected with the system and if finds any device having

the matching code, starts loading the files by reading them from
the respective device automatically else prompts the user to
insert bootable disk in the drive.

2. BIOS (CMOS) Setup Program

The COMS setup program is an interactive program through which
the user can configure the devices and other system settings for
the effective working of the system. There are different
companies which writes the BIOS program for different type of
motherboards depending on the architecture and the chips used
on the motherboard but the way of working along with the options
in the CMOS setup programs are to some extent similar but not

The CMOS stands for Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor.
It is a memory located on the motherboard that is used to store
the values or the options selected for the BIOS setting. The CMOS
has a size of 64 bits. When the system is started the BIOS
performs the POST cycle as per the settings stored in the CMOS.
One of the major advantages of using the CMOS for preserving
the BIOS settings is that the CMOS could be operated with a
minor current. Hence, a nickel - cadmium battery also known as
button cell is used to supply the required power to the CMOS
memory when the system is switched OFF to maintain the options
stored in the memory but when the system is in ON condition the
CMOS receives the power from the supply and the battery is
switched for charging. These options could be removed by
shorting the pins with the help of the jumper and the default
values are obtained. Normally pin number 2 and 3 in most of the
motherboard are used to clear CMOS or it is mentioned on the
motherboard with a CMOS setting chart. After clearing the CMOS
the jumper should be placed on its original position that is on pin
1 and 2 before switching ON the system. Working with the CMOS /
BIOS Setup Program In order to work in the setup program one
has to enter in to the setup program to see or work
on the various options given in the setup program. In most of the
setup program you can enter by pressing DEL, F 1 or F2 key. This
key is usually defined on the screen with a key work to enter the

setup press DEL / F1 / F2. In most of the old BIOS, DEL was used
to enter in the setup program. The BIOS setup utility enables you
to modify the settings and store them in the CMOS. This utility
enables you to control the boot sequence, display features, power
management features and also to provide the parameters of the
storage media s used in the system. To enter in the BIOS setup
utility program:
1. Switch ON the system.
2. Press Delete key / F 1 / F2 key as mentioned on the screen
displayed after switching
ON the system. After few seconds a screen known as main menu
will be displayed
on the monitor.

Main Menu
This is the first screen of the setup utility program. This screen
shows different BIOS
options along with the uses of different keys. In order to get in the
desired option you will have to browse to highlight the required
option with the help of arrow keys and press Enter key to select
the option. In order to return to the main menu from the option
selected press Esc key. The main menu options are listed below:

1. Standard CMOS Setup

2. Advanced CMOS Setup
3. Power Management Setup
4. PCI / Plug and play Setup
5. Load Optimal Settings
6. Load Best Performance Settings
7. Features Setup
8. CPU PnP Setup
9. Hardware Monitor
10. Change Password
11. Exit

1. Standard CMOS Setup

The standard CMOS setup page enables you to set the basic
settings of the system such as the date and time, type and

number of storage media used along with their parameter, type of
floppy disk drive connected with the system etc. One should
select the values according to the device connected with the
2. Advanced CMOS Setup
The Advanced CMOS Setup page enables you to access the
advanced functions of the BIOS. In other words we can set the
working priority of various devices or sections of the computer.
You can modify the settings in this page to increase or decrease
the time taken to boot the system. You can also specify the order
of the devices that the operating system must search for the
system files while the booting of the system.
3. Power Management Setup
The Power Management page enables you to control the power
setup of the system. The power management enables you to
automatically switch off the power supply to the devices such as
hard disk or the monitor when the system is not in use for a
longer period. This saves power and also increases the life of the
system. To return the system to the normal working state you
may have to press a key on the keyboard or to move the mouse.
However, you must first check that the software that you use
support the different power management modes such as the
Standby and the Suspend mode, otherwise the software may not
work properly.
4. PCI / Plug and play Setup
This feature is available on the newer systems and enables the
system to automatically search for new hardware connected to
the system. When the system finds a new hardware attached to
the system, it will automatically search and install the device
driver on its own and you don’t need to load the same (not in
case of Win 9X operating system).
5. Load Optimal Settings
The optimal setting enables to set the BIOS options as per the
default options already mentioned in the BIOS program. This
program automatically detects the best suitable options as per
the devices connected with the system. This keeps the system
settings at the minimum level and is recommended when the
system does not work properly. In order to activate the optimal
values browse to Load optimal settings and press enter key to

select. In the new screen press Y to load default values then press
F 10 for Save and Exit option, press Y to save and exit.
6. Load Best Performance Settings
This option enables to set the BIOS options to make the system
perform at the best
level such as increasing the utilization of processing speed. This
setting boosts the
hardware and makes the system work at the maximum possible
level. This setting
may put an extra load on the system and is recommended only
on systems having
high performance hardware installed on them. The process to
activate the Best
Performance Settings is similar as to activate the optimal settings.
7. Features Setup
The motherboard has numerous built - in components such as the
serial port, parallel port, sound card etc. The Features Setup
enables to control these components by setting their properties.
You can also enable or disable the components that you do not
intend to use, such as if you connect your keyboard and mouse to
the serial port on the system then you can disable the PS / 2 ports
that are not being used. This allows you to free up IRQ lines that
can be used by the other devices.
8. CPU PnP Setup
The Central Processing Unit (CPU) Plug and play setup page has
the information related with the details of the processor installed
on the motherboard. In general this page uses a default setting
for normal CPU functions but in case if you want to extract the
maximum benefit of the processor feature and speed then you
can make changes in the settings of the options shown in this
page. It is strongly recommended not to change the default
settings until unless you have technical specifications of that
processor as any wrong selection of option may lead to stop your
system or there will be no actions of the system not even the
running of the POST.
9. Setting the Hardware Monitor
The Hardware Monitor displays the system hardware details such
as the voltage used by the system, the system and the CPU fan
speeds, the power, system and the CPU temperature etc. These

options are useful as they enable you to monitor the system to
check that the system does not get overheated. These values
must be monitored especially when you overclock the system.
10. Setting the BIOS Password
The BIOS Password setting is used to prevent unauthorized access
either of the system or the changes in the settings stored in the
CMOS. In order to activate this feature you will have to first
enable/select the type of security feature you want from
Advanced CMOS Setup option in Main Menu. You can either
choose from two options Setup or Always/System. Then in this
option one can type the password and save the same. On
choosing the Setup option under Security options in Advanced
CMOS. Setup then the system will let you enter in the BIOS Setup
Utility only if you provide the correct password else will stop there
only. On choosing the Always/System option, the computer will
require the password even before starting the POST cycle and will
proceed for the booting process on getting the correct password
only. Similarly it will also ask for the correct password for entering
in to the BIOS Setup Utility program.
11. Exit BIOS Setup Program
The BIOS setup program gives two options to come out of the
setup utility program. You can also quit the setup program by
pressing Esc key. On pressing the Esc key. the system will ask you
to confirm quitting the Setup Program without saving the changes
made in the Setup. Pressing Y will quit the program without
saving the changes in the CMOS whereas pressing N will continue
the setup program session. Incase if you want to quit the program
and also wants to save the changes made then you can either
press F 10 followed by Y and pressing Enter key or selecting Save
and Exit option then press Y followed by Enter key.

File System

This is the 16 bit file system widely used by DOS and windows.
FAT 16 tracks where file are stored on a disc using a file allocation

table. The disadvantage of FAT 16 are that it only support
partition up to 2 GB and & it does not offer the security feature of
NTFS. The advantage of Fat 16 that it is backward compatible,
which is important if the computer will be dual booted with any
Operating system. Fat 16 support capacity of 16 MB to 2 GB.

FAT 32: This is the 32 bit version of FAT which was first
introduced in 1996 with WIN 95. FAT 32 many advantage over FAT
16 include the following:
• Disc partition can be large as two TB.
• More safeguard were added to provide fault tolerance in the
event of Disc failure. If the partition is over 2 GB, it will be
automatically partitioned as FAT 32.
• FAT 32 == 512 MB – 2 TB

NTFS: The ability to set local security on files & folder. The option
to compress data. This feature reduce disc storage requirement.
The flexibility to assign disc quotas. Disc quota is used to limit the
amount of disc space a user can use. The option to encrypt files.
Encryption offers an additional level of Security. NTFS offers the
following features:

Backward compatibility
[ Note:- Windows 2000/XP come with a new type of NTFS called NTFS 5.0
(The NTFS that come with WINDOW NT 4.0 was called NTFS 4.0)

Partition, Formatting & Installation

After installation of Hard disk with proper jumper setting we have
to do two things respectively
a) Partitioning
b) Formatting

A) Partitioning – It is used to partition the hard disc. Partitions

are logical division of hard disc that provide tremendous

flexibility in hard disc. A Computer might have only one
physical hard disc or more. There are two types of partition:
1) Primary partition
2) Extended partition

1) Primary partition – It stores the operating system. If we

want to boot from hard disc it must have primary partition.
2) Extended Partition – Hard disc may or may not have the
other partition type called extended partition. Extended
partitions are not bootable and one hard disc can have only
one extended partition. When we create an extended
partition it does not automatically get a drive letter. When
we have to divide the extended partition in to the logical
drive it get drive letter. Maximum (23+1) 24 logical drives on
one hard disc. Only A and B are reserve for Floppy i.e. C, D,
E……….Z (24) is used for logical drive.

Condition for partition

First Condition:

Primary Extended Extended Extended

One primary & rest reserved for Extended this is commonly used
for partitioning.
Second Condition:

Primary Primary Extended Extended

Two primary & two extended

Third Condition:

Primary Primary Primary Extended

Three primary & one extended

Fourth Condition:

Primary Primary Primary Primary

Only four primary partitions & extended zero.

c) Formatting – The formatting of hard disc perform two major

functions, creating and configuring the file system allocation
table (FAT) and creating Root directory. After partition next
step is to format the drive. Formatting creates a file system
for the drive – essentially big spreadsheets that track what
piece of data are stored in which location. Window support
three type of file system FAT16, FAT 32 & NTFS.

Go to CMOS setup ↵
Advance BIOS Feature ↵
First Boot device – CD ROM ↵
Second Boot Device – Hard Disc ↵
Press Esc to continue ↵
Press F10 for save the setting and insert window 98 disc in CD
System will reboot and boot from CD ROM
Start computer with CD ROM Support
A:\>fdisk ↵ = for make partition

[Do you wish to enable large disc support, Press y↵, it means, the
disc size is over 2 GB and it support FAT 32. If you press N ↵ then it
supports FAT 16 and you can’t create Partition up to 2 GB]

At this point, the fdisk menu will appear

Current fixed disc drive:
Choose one of the following:
1. Create DOS partition or logical drive.
2. Set active partition.
3. Delete partition or logical drive.
4. Display partition information.
4 = For Display partition ↵
Press Esc to continue. ↵

1 = Create DOS partition. ↵

1 = Create primary DOS Partition. ↵
The message “Do you wish to use the maximum available size for
a primary DOS partition and the make the partition active (Y/N)”.
Press N and press Enter.
Type in the size of the primary partition (in MB). Then press Enter.
Press Esc to continue. ↵

2↵ = for activate the primary partition.
1↵ = To activate the primary partition.
2↵ = to create extended DOS Partition
Give the rest space & define drives
Press Esc to continue. ↵
Pres Ctrl+Alt+Del = to restart the computer
After rebooting the computer, we will boot again from CD ROM
Boot from CD ROM ↵
Start computer with CD ROM Support ↵
A:\>e: ↵
E:\dir ↵
E:\>cd win98 ↵
E:\win98>format c:/s ↵
For format(Y/N): Y ↵
Volume label:……… ↵
E:\win98>md c:\win_98 ↵
E:\win98>copy *.* c:\win_98 ↵ [Note: check 101 file
copied message]
C:\>cd win_98 ↵
C:\win_98>setup ↵
The system will automatically scan the drives for an error and
then will proceed for loading GUI interface of installation wizard.
This is a guided installation program which enables the user to
install the operating system with ease. The setup program may
ask you to provide an authentic setup key consisting of
alphanumeric characters to proceed further. Follow the
instructions displayed on the screen. You may select from one of
the three type of installation parameters like

Typical Installation On selecting this option the system will
load some general features related files
Compact Installation This option is meant for laptops or the
drive having
limited or low disk space. On choosing this
option, the setup will load some minimal set of
software components.
Custom Installation This option is meant for advanced users
or professionals having good experience. In
this option one can select or deselect various
windows components as per requirement or
desire. The requirement of the hard disk
space changes with the options selected on
this screen.

4. The setup may ask you for the regional settings for date, time
and the country (for
time zone) . Make adequate changes and press next.
5. Setup will search for the required free disk space and will make
a copy for uninstall
information and then will ask to insert a blank preferably a new
floppy disk in the

floppy drive to create the startup disk. However you can cancel
this operation and
may continue the installation.
6. Setup may also ask you to choose the destination directory (by
default shows
C:\windows). Choose the default directory is recommended and
press Next to

Now fill the information and install win 98

And That’s it! you are Done!

Product key:



As a Microsoft Windows XP Professional support professional, one

of your tasks may be to install the operating system.

Step #1: Plan your installation

When you run the Windows XP Professional Setup program, you
must provide information about how to install and configure the
operating system. Thorough planning can make your installation
of Windows XP Professional more efficient by helping you to avoid
potential problems during installation. An understanding of the
configuration options will also help to ensure that you have
properly configured your system. I won't go into that part right
now but here are some of the most important things you should
take into consideration when planning for your XP installation:
Check System Requirements
Check Hardware and Software Compatibility
Determine Disk Partitioning Options
Choose the Appropriate File System: FAT, FAT32, NTFS
Decide on a Workgroup or Domain Installation
Complete a Pre-Installation Checklist
After you made sure you can go on, start the installation

Step #2: Beginning the installation process

You can install Windows XP in several methods - all are valid and
good, it all depends upon your needs and your limitations.
1. Start the computer from the CD.
2. You can press F6 if you need to install additional SCSI
adapters or other mass-storage devices. If you do you will be
asked to supply a floppy disk with the drivers and you CAN

NOT browse it (or a CD for that matter). If you plan to install
a new copy of XP - don't do anything.
3. If you want, you can press F2 to run the ASR sequence. For
that you need a good backup created by the Windows XP
backup program, and the ASR floppy disk. If you plan to
install a new copy of XP - don't do anything.
4. Setup will load all the needed files and drivers.

5. Select To Setup Windows XP Professional Now. If you want,

and if you have a previous installation of XP, you can try to
fix it by pressing R. If not, just press ENTER.
6. Read and accept the licensing agreement and press F8 if you
accept it.
7. Select or create the partition on which you will install
Windows XP Professional. Depending upon your existing disk
configuration choose one of the following:

a. If the hard disk is unpartitioned, you can create and size

the partition on which you will install Windows XP
b. If the hard disk is already partitioned, but has enough
unpartitioned disk space, you can create an additional
partition in the unpartitioned space.
c. If the hard disk already has a partition that is large
enough, you can install Windows XP Professional on
that partition. If the partition has an existing operating
system, you will overwrite that operating system if you
accept the default installation path. However, files

other than the operating system files, such as program
files and data files, will not be overwritten.
d. If the hard disk has an existing partition, you can delete
it to create more unpartitioned space for the new
partition. Deleting an existing partition erases all data
on that partition.

e. If you select a new partition during Setup, create and

size only the partition on which you will install Windows
XP Professional. After installation, use Disk Management
to partition the remaining space on the hard disk.

8. Select a file system for the installation partition. After you

create the partition on which you will install Windows XP
Professional, you can use Setup to select the file system with
which to format the partition. Windows XP Professional
supports the NTFS file system in addition to the file
allocation table (FAT) and FAT32 file systems. Windows
Server 2003, Windows XP Professional, Windows 2000, and
Windows NT are the only Microsoft operating systems that
you can use to gain access to data on a local hard disk that
is formatted with NTFS. If you plan to gain access to files that
are on a local Windows XP Professional partition with the
Microsoft Windows 95 or Windows 98 operating systems, you
should format the partition with a FAT or FAT32 file system.
We will use NTFS.

9. Setup will then begin copying necessary files from the
installation point.
10.The computer will restart in graphical mode, and the
installation will continue.

Step #3: The GUI-based portion of the Setup program

The setup process reboots and loads a GUI mode phase. It will
then begin to load device drivers based upon what it finds on your
computer. You don't need to do anything at this stage.
1. Click Customize to change regional settings, if necessary.
o Current System Local - Affects how programs display dates,
times, currency, and numbers. Choose the local that
matches your location, for example, India.
o Current Keyboard Layout - Accommodates the special
characters and symbols used in different languages. Your
keyboard layout determines which characters appear when
you press keys on the keyboard.
If you don't need to make any change just press next.
If you do need to make changes press Customize and add your
System Local etc.
You can now go to the Regional Options tab and select India in
the Location drop-down list and Hebrew in the Standards and
Formats drop-down list. Click Ok.
2. Type your name and organization.

3. Type the product key.

4. Type the computer name and a password for the local
Administrator account. The local Administrator account
resides in the same of the computer, not in Active Directory.
If you will be installing in a domain, you need either a pre-
assigned computer name for which a domain account has
been created, or the right to create a computer account
within the domain.

5. Select the date, time, and time zone settings.

6. Setup will now install the networking components.

After a few seconds you will receive the Networking Settings

window. If you have a NIC and XP cannot detect it, or if you
don't have a NIC at all, setup will skip this step and you will
immediately go to the final phase of the setup process.
Press next to accept the typical settings option if you have one
of the following situations:

Otherwise select Custom Settings and press next to customize

your network settings.
7. Next the setup process will finish copying files and
configuring the setup. You do not need to do anything.

8. After the copying and configuring phase is finished, if XP

finds that you have a badly configured screen resolution it will
advise you to change it and ask you if you see the new settings
9. The minimum supported screen resolution in XP is 800X600.
10. Setup finishes and boots Windows XP. A Welcome screen is
the first thing you see. The computer checks your Internet
connectivity (required for the mandatory Activation and
voluntary Registration processes).
You will be asked to register your copy of XP. You can decline if
you want.
XP will ask you for the default username that will log onto this
computer. You can enter as many as 5 users, but you can
create more after the installation is finished.
11.That's it! You’re done!

Installation of the Device Drivers

A driver is a program that interacts with a particular
device or special (frequently optional) kind of software.
The driver contains the special knowledge of the device or
special software interface that programs using the driver
do not. In personal computers, a driver is often packaged
as a dynamic link library (DLL) file.

A driver is a program that controls the behavior of the devices
connected to a computer. It provides a connection between
peripheral devices and the operating system. All devices such as
monitors, modems, LAN cards, scanners and printers require
drivers for their functioning. Drivers for certain devices such as
the keyboard form a part of the operating system where as the
other devices mentioned above require unique drivers provided
by their manufacturer to be loaded in the system separately.
When the operating system is loaded first time or as a fresh copy,
then the system itself asks to provide the driver disk under the
New Hardware Found just before showing the desktop screen. All
you have to do is to insert the proper disk in the CDROM drive and
follow the screen instructions.

Product key: