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Project

Of
Performance appraisal

This report tells you how automobile company do


recruitment and selection I chosen TOYOTA
company this report tells you about selection and
recruitment in 2009 that is recession time

A report submitted to as a part fulfillment of the


Postgraduate Diploma in Management
Submitted to Prof.: Dr. Shubhash Gupta
Submitted by: Sheeba Agha
Section: P1
Roll #: 60
Name of Institute: Indian Institute of planning & Management
Year/Session: FW 2007-09

Acknowledgment
The M.B.A. programme is well structured and integrated course of business
studies. The main objective of practical training at PGDBM level is to develop
skill in student by supplement to the theoretical study of business
management in general. Industrial training helps to gain real life knowledge
about the industrial environment and business practices. The PGDBM
programme provides student with a fundamental knowledge of business and
organizational functions and activities, as well as an exposure to strategic
thinking of management.

In every professional course, projects are very important factor. Professors


give us theoretical knowledge of various subjects in the college but we are
practically exposed of such subjects when we get the project work. It is only
the projects through which I come to know that what an industry is and how
it works. I can learn about various departmental operations being performed
in the industry, which would, in return, help me in the future when I will enter
the practical field. Projects are the important part of PGDBM. In todays
globalize world, where cutthroat competition is prevailing in the market,
theoretical knowledge is not sufficient. Beside this one need to have practical
knowledge, which would help an individual in his/her carrier activities and it
is true that.

“Experience is best teacher”.

INDEX
TOPIC Page

Introduction to project

Objective of project
Acknowledgment

Recruitment

Selection

TOYOTA profile

Recruitment and selection process in TOYOTA

2009 recruitment plan of TOYOTA

TOYOTA world class work flow through best selection method

Impact of recession in recruitment and selection process in Toyota

Bibliography

Recruitment
Recruitment refers to the process of screening, and selecting qualified people for a job at an
organization or firm, or for a vacancy in a volunteer-based organization or community group.
While generalist managers or administrators can undertake some components of the recruitment
process, mid- and large-size organizations and companies often retain professional recruiters or
outsource some of the process to recruitment agencies. External recruitment is the process of
attracting and selecting employees from outside the organization.
Meaning of recruitment
Recruitment may be defined as the process of publicising information about job vacancies in the
organization and including the prospective candidates to offer themselves for appointment in the
organization. It is the process of searching for prospective employees and encouraging them to
apply for jobs in the organization .it is an important part of staffing and it is an ongoing process.
The objective of recruitment is to procure a sufficiently large number of qualified candidates so
that the most eligible employees can be selected. Recruitment brings together the job giver
(employer) and the job seekers (applicants).
Recruitment can be done either from inside or from outside the organization.
Thus recruitment involves the following steps:
1) Identifying the sources of supply of adequate number and right type of personnel required .
2) Publicising information about job vacancies in the organization
3) Assessing alternative sources of manpower and choosing the best source.
4) Contacting the chosen source of recruitment to secure applications e.g. advertising for
vacancies in a newspaper so as to stimulate the prospective candidates to offer themselves for
employment.
Below dig will more to understand the recruitment process
Recruitment Process
Contract
Requirement Contract to Hire
Fulltime

Job Boards
Vendors/Suppliers
Sourcing
Internal Database
References
Google/Yahoo Groups
Resume Screening Technology Forums

Suitabl
e
Yes
No

Internal Database
Telephonic Screening

No
Suitabl
e

Yes
Recruitment Process

Technical Evaluation
Internal Database

No
Suitabl
e
Yes
Rate Negotiation

Formatting
Submission Process
Consultant Details
NCA
Client Submission

Client Reject
Feedback

Telephonic
Interview
Face to Face

Interview Reject
Feedback

Accept

Background Check
Paper Work
MSA & PO

Joining Logistics
Recruitment process
Understanding the requirement contributes the most to our success in sourcing the
accurate resume.
Sourcing
Job boards: Job Boards are used for both resume searching and requirement
posting. Job boards mainly helps us in sourcing resumes for CTH and Fulltime
positions apart from contract jobs. (We have accounts with Dice, Monster and
Career Builder). There are few other free job boards like Corp2Corp.com, next job.
Vendors/Suppliers: These are the companies who market their own W2’s most of
the time. We usually mass mail these vendors with the requirement and they in turn
will reply with resumes of their consultants.
Internal Database: All the resumes we get from job boards search, vendors, and
other sources will form our internal database for future reference.
References: When we speak to a consultant about a particular requirement and if
they are not interested in that position; on request they will provide the references
of their friend/colleagues for the same position.
Google/Yahoo Groups: Entire world has access to these groups so our chances of
getting a resume will be high. We should identify technology specific groups or
location specific groups and register with those groups and then we can send our
requirement.
Technology Forums: Technology forum is the place where consultants will
answer each other queries. We should register and can send requirement, if
interested they will reply back.
Networking Websites: Networking websites like Linked In are also possible
source of recruiting.

Recruitment process screening


Resume Screening: At this time you should compare the resume with the
requirement and check whether all the required skills are present in the resume or
not. If the consultant worked on one particular skill which is a must have for the
requirement and failed to mention then we should ask him to update.
Telephonic Screening: We should give a brief of the job description; required
skills etc… and check with him on the same. While talking to him you should
evaluate him on his communication skill, relevant experience, confidence level,
willingness to take the position.
Technical Evaluation: Should technically evaluate them by asking technical
question. We can get lot of interview question form web.

Selection
Selection is the process of carefully screening the candidates to choose the most
suitable persons for the job vacancies to be filled. Under it the qualifications,
experience and background of applicants are evaluated in the light of job
requirements. itis the process of dividing the candidates into two categories,
namely (a) those who are to be employed ,(b)those who are to be rejected .
Selection always done after recruitment .the basic purpose of selection
is to choose the right type of candidate to fill various positions in the organization.
Selection is a multi step process. It involves a series of steps by which candidates
are screened to identify the most suitable persons for the job. Selection is a difficult
process as it involves discretion and judgment .the sector have to find out the best
possible fit between the job and the candidate . The candidates who meet the job
requirements in the most satisfactory manner are finally selected.

Common Process of selection

Methods of selection process


 Application forms
 Psychometric tests
 Group selection methods
 Skills tests
 Written and oral presentations
 Case studies
 Assessment centers
 Technical interviews
 Personality profile
 Interviews
 Practical tests
Application form This test takes the form of a multiple-choice biographical
questionnaire and is more likely to be used by large organizations. Take care
not to breach data protection or discrimination laws.
Psychometric tests There are three main types of psychometric test:
 Tests of ability, aptitude or intelligence
 Questionnaires to measure 'personality'
 Questionnaires to establish interests and preferences

Group selection methods Group selection methods are most frequently


used to assess candidates' leadership qualities and their ability to express
themselves clearly and get on with and influence colleagues

Skill Test Skills test are used where candidates need to possess a particular
skill in order to perform the job, e.g. word processing, use of software
packages, prioritizing workloads, driving a motor vehicle, or operating a
piece of machinery or laboratory equipment. Many such skills are taught and
tested by outside bodies, in which case candidates are likely to hold
certificates in proficiency but it is recommended that competency is checked
by use of appropriate short skills tests.
Written and oral presentations are often used to assess the qualities of
candidates applying for posts which require a complex set of skills, together
with specific professional/academic knowledge. By asking candidates to
prepare and deliver a presentation on a given subject, and in some cases to
participate in a discussion afterwards, selectors can see an example of the
individual's skills of written and oral presentation, analysis and reasoning, as
well as gaining some evidence of their professional/academic knowledge
and of their attitudes.

Case studies as with presentations, case studies can be a valuable way of


assessing candidates' knowledge of a particular subject area, and their likely
approach to handling a particular situation. This selection method is
sometimes used for candidates for managerial posts, or for posts requiring
knowledge of specific procedures, regulations or legislation.
Assessment centers It uses a variety of different tests, interviews and
exercises like role plays and group exercises to evaluate a candidate's
potential performance in a particular post.
Its duration is of several days during which time the participants are
observed, and at the end of which they are given feedback on their
performance. This selection method is extremely effective but costly. It is
generally used when large numbers of candidates are being assessed.
The focus is on behavior

Practical tests
 These test ability and are usually done for:
 Manual jobs - trade skills
 Secretarial jobs - word processing skills
Those working in call-centers or in telesales – telephone skills

Interviews Most common method.


Not always most valid method- depends on form of interview
Types of interviews:
 Structured (much higher validity than unstructured) (questions oriented to
past experience, and hypothetical questions)
 Unstructured
 Panel ((involving 2 or more interviewers, probably investigating some issues
in some depth)

Company profile
Toyota Motor Corporation

Toyota Motor Corporation is a multinational corporation headquartered in Japan, and


currently the world's largest automaker. Toyota employs approximately 316,000 people around
the world.
Toyota employs approximately 316,000 people around the world.
In 1934, while still a department of Toyota Industries, it created its first product Type A engine
and in 1936 its first passenger car the Toyota AA. The company was eventually founded by
Kiichiro Toyoda in 1937 as a spinoff from his father's company Toyota Industries to create
automobiles. Toyota currently owns and operates Lexus and Scion brands and has a majority
shareholding stake in Daihatsu Motors, and minority shareholdings in Fuji Heavy Industries,
Isuzu Motors, and Yamaha Motors. The company includes 522 subsidiaries.
Toyota is headquartered in Toyota City and Nagoya (both in Aichi), and in Tokyo. In addition to
manufacturing automobiles, Toyota provides financial services through its division Toyota
Financial Services and also creates robots. Toyota Industries and Finance divisions form the bulk
of the Toyota Group, one of the largest conglomerates in the world.
Vehicles were originally sold under the name "Toyoda" (トヨダ), from the family name of the
company's founder, Kiichiro Toyoda. In September 1936, the company ran a public competition
to design a new logo. Out of 27,000 entries the winning entry was the three Japanese katakana
letters for "Toyoda" in a circle. But Risaburo Toyoda, who had married into the family and was
not born with that name, preferred "Toyota" (トヨタ) because it took eight brush strokes (a
fortuitous number) to write in Japanese, was visually simpler (leaving off two ticks at the end)
and with a voiceless consonant instead of a voiced one (voiced consonant is considered "murky"
or "muddy" sound compared to the voiceless consonant, which is "clear"). Since "Toyoda"
literally means "fertile rice paddies", changing the name also helped to distance the company
from associations with old fashioned farming. The newly formed word was trademarked and the
company was registered in August 1937 as the "Toyota Motor Company
In predominantly Chinese speaking countries using traditional Chinese characters (eg Hong
Kong, Taiwan), Toyota is known as .In predominantly Chinese speaking countries using
simplified Chinese characters (eg China), Toyota is known as '(pronounced as 'Fēngtián' in the
Mandarin Chinese dialect). These are the same characters as the founding family's name
"Toyoda" in Japanese, which translate to "fertile rice paddies" in the Chinese language as well.
From September 1947, Toyota's small-sized vehicles were sold under the name "Toyopet" The
first vehicle sold under this name was the Toyopet SA but it also included vehicles such as the
Toyopet SB light truck, Toyopet Stout light truck, Toyopet Crown and the Toyopet Corona.
However, when Toyota eventually entered the American market in 1957 with the Crown, the
name was not well received due to connotations of Toys and pets The name was soon dropped
for the American market but continued in other markets until the mid 1960's.
History of Toyota
His Toyota started in 1933 as a division of Toyoda Automatic Loom Works devoted to the
production of automobiles under the direction of the founder's son, Kiichiro Toyoda. It's first
vehicles were the A1 passenger car and the G1 in 1935. Toyota Motor Co. was established as an
independent and separate company in 1937.

Recruitment and Selection planning of Toyota 2009 (sources Times of India)


TOKYO: Toyota Motor Corp. plans to halve recruitment of full-time workers in the next fiscal
year starting in April to around 1,800 employees

The hiring cut is aimed at reducing personnel costs to deal with falling earnings at the
nation's top automaker, which is suffering from a slump in global sales, the report said,
quoting unnamed sources.

It will be the first time in seven years that the major Japanese automaker hires fewer than
2,000 full-time employees, and compares to about 3,600 full-time workers Toyota is
taking on this financial year, the Nikkei said.
Toyota has also slashed thousand

Toyota to halve recruitment in 2009

Toyota plans to hire 1,400 new graduates in the year starting on 1 April, down from
an estimated 2,733 in the current year

Tokyo: Toyota Motor Corp said on Thursday it will nearly halve its hiring of new
graduates next business year to the lowest level in more than a decade as it copes
with weak global demand for cars by cutting costs.
The world’s largest carmaker, heading for a record loss in the year ending on 31
March, said last month it aims to slash fixed costs including labor but without
forcing job cuts.
Toyota plans to hire 1,400 new graduates in the year starting on 1 April, down from
an estimated 2,733 in the current year.
It will be the lowest number since 1996, a Toyota spokesman said.
Toyota’s US operation has introduced a work-sharing programme and offered early
retirement for those who leave instead of joining the programme.
Global auto sales have fallen by almost a quarter since January 2008 and by an
even steeper margin in the United States, the biggest single market for Toyota and
the struggling industry.
Toyota, which forecasts an operating loss of ¥450 billion ($4.69 billion) this
financial year, is set to incur a loss of around ¥482 billion next year, according to a
poll of 19 analysts by the Reuters Estimates.
Toyota shares closed down 2.2% at ¥2,965, against the Nikkei average’s fall of
0.3%.
Toyota Created a World-Class Workforce through selection

What was the pre- screen comprised of was it a standardizes off-the-shelf test?
Toyota uses select international’s App, which is an automated, interactive application process
that allows applicants to apply for open positions using a touchtone phone or the Internet. The
entire application process usually lasts just 10 minutes and automatically determines qualified
candidates for the next step in your hiring process. The EZ App process is customized through your
tailored questions and scripts, allowing candidates to get an accurate description of the job and your
company.

How did H.R respond to multiple languages of various applicants with your
virtual of the jobs?
English is the official language of Toyota, so it is a job requirement that all
applicants speak English.

Do you still utilize the IVR phone application?


Yes it is utilized in facilities across Toyota

Regarding the group exercise how long is the exercise? What are the objective of
the group exercise? What kinds of activities are performed?

The group exercise is a hands-on simulation where candidates must work together
as a team to build toy cars. They are given ambiguous data to encourage discussion
amongst the team members during the decision making process. The following
competencies are measured during the assessment
-Working with Others
-Positive Attitude
-Leadership
-Oral Communication
The simulation takes approximately two hours

Are these assessment tools customizable across different


Yes. Select International has a variety of tools designed for use in most industries.
The assessment tools can be further customized to account for organizational,
regional, and environmental differences within industries.
Who does the scoring on the email in-basket? Trained assessors or is this
somehow automated
All scoring is performed by a trained assessor

What was the scoring procedure for the 6-hour segment of the assessment? Was
there a report produced on each candidate’s performance?

Toyota’s simulation was computer automated so that they were automatically able
to retrieve candidate scores on such competencies such as Work Pace, Attention to
Detail, and Fine Motor Skills. Assessors’ primary duty was to monitor candidates’
Safety Orientation. Scoring was based on norms developed from a large data
sample that was collected from the first few hundred candidates, in conjunction
with a scoring profile that was based on an in depth job analysis of the position
being assessed.

When developing the virtual auditions, screening, simulations, etc., what did you
do in order to make sure you didn’t have disparate impact issues?
A validation study was performed to make sure there weren’t any disparate impact
issues.
1) Typically, how long does a candidate take to complete the web-based
assessment?
2) How do you set candidates’ expectations on the time it takes to complete the
assessment (and other simulations/exercises?
3) Finally, do candidates resist the amount of time it takes to go through entire
application process?

1) Generally, it takes a candidate between 90 and 120 minutes to complete the


web-based assessment.
(2) Select International recommends using proctored sessions, where the proctor
goes through a script with all participants prior to them beginning the assessment.
In addition, candidates are informed of what to expect when scheduling their
assessment session.
(3) No – candidates do not resist the amount of time it takes to go through the
entire application process. Select has performed several studies where we
survey candidates at various stages in the hiring process. These studies have
found that candidates have very favorable impressions of this type of
application process. In fact, most studies indicate that people prefer job-relevant
hiring processes where they are given ample opportunity to demonstrate their
ability. Further, applicants have and have them a favorable impression of Toyota
even if they were selected as an employee.

Specifically, what are the components of the Virtual Web Based Assessment?

The Select Assessment for Manufacturing is modular and is tailored to individual


companies and positions within those companies

What happens if the candidates injure themselves during the VJA process?
All candidates are given a safety orientation and sign a waiver prior to
participating in the VJA. In addition assessors monitor each candidate’s behavior
and advise them when they are unsafe. The VJA was conducted near the Toyota
plant, so there was also an EMT nearby for quick response as a precaution.

How long did it actually take to put together the actual simulations?
For Toyota, it took about 18 months to develop the simulation process. A typical
production simulation takes 4-8 months, depending on the complexity of it.

Are there any jobs that you wouldn’t suggest be candidates for web-based
assessments?
If you are not an employer of choice in the area where you have a facility or if the
work is such that you have trouble finding applicants at all, then web-based
assessments generally aren’t a good fit for your problem.

How often do the simulations get updated? Do they get outdated quickly or
often?
Select constantly monitors the utility of the systems and modifies as necessary
Typically modifications are made to the scoring profile and not to the simulation
itself as they are designed with the future in mind.
Do you have an assessment tool that you use to actually create the simulation?
And how do core competencies come into effect with the design of the simulation
and are responses weighted?
The simulations are all developed by Select International using our in-house
technology.
The Virtual Job Audition is tailored to each client weighing competencies that are
important to each job family. It is a modular system, so it is easily customizable for
each client or specific job.

What is the most effective way to sniff out a cutter?


The most effective way to sniff out a cutter is through a very thorough assessment
process, like the Virtual Job Audition

Can you give an example of a question that can identify a cutter? How do you
screen out someone faking their answers, per regular behavioral interviews?
There is no magic question that can identify a cutter. Select Interviewing™ is an
in-depth interview training program that equips interviewers with questions,
techniques and resources to aid them in identifying cutters

How were the Job Fit questions developed? Is this customized or off-the-shelf?
The job fit questions are developed from the thorough Job Analysis performed by
Select International, where they walk the floor, meet with focus groups, etc. The
job fit questions are customized for each client based on this job analysis

At what point in the process is a candidate considered an “Applicant” for


Affirmative Action reporting purposes?
Select International uses the definition outlined in 2005 by the OFCCP concerning
who is an "applicant" in the context of the Internet and related technologies.

How do you verify who you are assessing is the real candidate you are
considering hiring (that they don’t have another person complete online
requirements for them)?
For Toyota, the initial application process is the only phase where the applicant
isn’t in a proctored environment. All applicants are required to bring a photo ID to
the assessment center for testing and the assessment itself as well as the production
exercise is proctored

Please describe the process you went through to validate that your selection
process was not discriminatory or result in adverse impact.
Select implies rigorous content and criterion-related validation studies to ensure
that all pieces of the selection process are job-related and predict performance.
Additionally, Select takes special care to ensure that the hiring systems do not have
adverse impact

Do you use a job fit survey of some kind to determine the patterns of your star
performers and then survey candidates and try to find people that match the
pattern of the star performers? How do you, if you do at all, focus on a person’s
talent rather than just skills?
(1) Select analyzed the jobs for which the process is being created using an in-
depth job analysis process. This included: a work environment analysis,
interviews with high performing incumbents, supervisors, and other people
with expert job knowledge; surveying incumbents, supervisors and
managers, and a job visioning meeting. This data was analyzed and used to
set the hiring profiles and cutoffs. (2) Select International’s selection
systems are competency-based, focusing on an individual’s aptitude (talent).

What are your thoughts on using recruiters for certain positions?


If you have trouble getting people in the hiring funnel or if you are hiring someone
in a very competitive labor market for a specialized position, then recruiters are
effective.

How can I find “structured behavioral interviewing training” for managers?


Select International offers both 1-day and 3-day certification trainings for
behavioral interviewing. Select’s behavioral interviewing program is called Select
Interviewing and can be delivered either on-site at your location or in a public
workshop setting several times throughout the year

Is there an automated way that applicants are informed that they have not
“passed” into the next stage or how is this communicated to them?
Letters are mailed out automatically to applicants in most case letting them know
that they haven’t passed into the next stage of the application process

Do you think that this employee selection process should be used by state
government agencies?
This process can be used to hire people for any organization and in any industry.
State and government agencies could drastically reduce their administrative costs
associated with hiring and also decrease several undesired employee behaviors
(turnover, absenteeism, etc.)
How does the virtual assessment process address Affirmative Action reporting
requirements?
SelecTrak, Select International’s Applicant Tracking System can show comparative
pass ratios for EEOC and standard deviation for the OFCCP.

CURRENT TRENDS OF HIRINGIN 2009

As organizations prepare for a challenging year ahead, there are several manpower
tends that are set to impact them and will play a part in affecting their
competitiveness and perhaps even their viability.
The global recession in 2009 will be a testing time for most organizations. The
year 2008 also proved to be a difficult year for the job market. Though employers
were cautious in the beginning of the year, they still anticipated a slow, yet steady
hiring environment with continued job creation throughout 2008. But as the global
economy weakened and entered into a recession, organizations are expected to
maintain hiring prudence While job creation and recruitment in
2009 are expected to be lower, organizations cannot all be
freezing headcounts. According to CareerBuilder.com's 2009 Job
Forecast survey which tracks projected hiring trends for 2009,
organizations are taking a "wait and see" approach to hiring. The
survey, conducted by Harris Interactive, surveyed 3,259 private
sector hiring managers and human resource professionals
It revealed that 14 per cent of employers plan to increase full-time, permanent
employees in 2009, compared to 32 per cent who expected to expand their staff in
2008. Sixteen per cent plan to have staff reductions, 56 per cent foresee no change
and 13 per cent of employers are unsure of their hiring plans.
As employers approach the job market with a cautious attitude, they also plan to
utilize the resources already at their disposal. Here are seven major hiring trends to
expect from employers in 2009.
Paying More to Keep Talent
Despite the fact that many employers are looking for ways to cut costs, they don't
anticipate trimming salaries as a way to do so. As more firms try to compete in the
global market, they learn that the quality of their people is critical to winning
business.
Those firms often start by asking "How do we select talented employees?". But a
smarter question would be "How can we keep our talented employees?"--because
the financial implications of losing a single talented worker can be enormous.
If you think global giant Microsoft and a local small or medium enterprise (SME)
in a flatted factory have nothing in common, you might be surprised to learn that
they share the same dilemma day in and day out. The problem is a shortage of
skilled workers, and it exists throughout the world in a wide variety of industries,
information technology, engineering, and even the fast-food industry. This
challenge is especially pressing for small to medium sized businesses that need to
compete for talent with the big guys but may not have extensive internal resources.
So the solution appears to be rewarding talent well.
Paying employees higher-than-average salaries and show them that their
exceptional performance is being recognised helps keep talent within
organisations. If your employees are getting rewarded for the hard work they are
putting into, they will be less likely to leave the company.
A talented employee who is only getting an average salary may leave because they
know they are capable of getting a higher offer from another company. By paying
higher-than-market salaries, you eliminate that risk.
Flexible Work Arrangements
Flexibility has become a watchword for both employers and employees in today's
demanding and fast-changing business environment. Many companies are looking
at contingent work arrangements, outsourcing, and offshoring to give them more
flexibility in terms of labour costs and fluctuating staffing needs.
Meanwhile, many employees want greater flexibility in terms of where and when
they work. Companies are increasingly catching on that flexible work
arrangements allow employees more freedom in the office. Part-time work, leaves
of absence, flexi-time, job sharing, and telecommuting are the new work
buzzwords. What do these terms mean, and can these types of arrangements work?
Some organisations are open evenings and weekends and hire staff to work on a
part-time basis to cover operating hours. Part-time staff are generally paid less on a
prorated basis than their full-time counterparts and often are not eligible for
benefits, such as health insurance and paid leave. Despite these drawbacks, part-
time work is highly desirable for many people who do not wish to work full time
for their own reasons.
Flexible scheduling or flexi-time usually involves some kind of alternative work
schedule that falls outside of core work hours. It may involve longer workdays but
fewer days worked per week, or scheduled hours outside of a normal day
workweek. For example, a flexi-time schedule might include more evening or
weekend hours with time off during the week.
In recent years, telecommuting has become a viable option for workers. Given
technological advances, work normally done in offices can easily be done from
home with a PC and Internet access. Tasks that require specialised software can be
done if the organisation or individual is willing to purchase the software or licence
for a home computer.
Job sharing normally involves two colleagues dividing their responsibilities,
workload, workweek, pay and benefits evenly to perform as a single employee.
This is probably the most difficult arrangement to negotiate, as there must be two
employees at an equal level in rank and pay, who are able to do the same job and
have compatible schedules.
Leave of absence is an arrangement where, for a negotiated period of time, usually
weeks or months, the employee will not be working at all. Such leave is unpaid. It
is quite common in larger organizations and in the public sector and personnel
departments generally outline policies and procedures for them.
Retaining Retirees
The first survey on baby boomers in Singapore has shown that just three in 10
expect to retire at 65 years or older. The current retirement age is 62, but new
legislation is pushing for Singaporeans to keep working, at least until 65.
Those surveyed were already working or looking for a job and were asked to
specify their desired retirement age. The survey was commissioned by the Ministry
of Community Development, Youth and Sports (MCYS).
Though baby boomers are approaching retirement age, many are continuing to
work--both out of desire and necessity. Employers are looking at ways to retain
these workers and besides rehiring retirees from other companies in 2009 and
several plans to offer incentives for baby boomers to stay on with the company
longer.
In difficult economic times, older workers are often among the first to be
retrenched. The Singapore government plans to compel firms to re-employ workers
aged 62 for another three years. Even before the new legislation comes into place,
some companies and unions are already pushing for it to be implemented.
Stephen Lee, president of Singapore National Employers Federation, says: "When
you extend employment opportunities to those 62 and above, the workers
themselves would like to work in some alternative fashion rather than eight hours a
day, five days a week and companies which can make their employment and work
patterns more flexible usually find it easy to engage older workers."
This seems to have been borne out in the MCYS survey of baby boomers that
shows that just 36 per cent of them wished to work part-time. Even then, they
listed flexible work and similar income as top conditions for post-retirement work.
Interestingly, under new legislation which takes effect in 2012, employers need not
employ older workers at the same job or the same pay. Wages would reflect their
productivity, as authorities want to encourage companies not to undercut the older
workers but pay them what is reasonable in accordance to their productivity as
well as their performance. But as with any new law, the devil is in the details.
Companies will have to redesign job specifications and operations to fit older
workers.
One way to retain potential retirees is to offer incentives. Successful strategies
include making workers feel appreciated, offering them a full or gratuity while
working part-time, and making seasonal or contract work available. But potential
retirees need to know the options available to them well in advance of retirement--
up to two years. Diversity Recruitment
Over the next coming years, demographic changes will mean that the workforce is
set to become far more diverse, reflecting trends towards an ageing population,
greater ethnic diversity, and more women taking up positions in the work force.
Human resource managers will also focus recruitment efforts on employing diverse
workers. More companies would be planning to hire women and mature workers in
2009. Much of the argument for diversity-positive recruitment is common sense.
After all, it offers an organisation the opportunity to tap all available human
resources and maximise their potential.
More Freelance or Contract hiring
To continue their cost-cutting efforts, employers will increase the use of freelance
or contract workers to help support their businesses. Twenty-eight percent of hiring
managers expect to utilise these workers in 2009.
Freelance workers may be in-between jobs, permanent full-time freelancers, stay-
at -home parents looking for flexible work options, or any combination of the
three. They usually will work from their own home or office space, but in certain
cases can also be onsite.
As many business opportunities grow, firms may want to consider
hiring freelancers or other contract alternative workers for projects that don't
require the a full-time employee. This includes long-term projects or a more
labour-intensive projects that might last only a few weeks.
Creative fields such as writing, graphic design and Web design are often full of
freelance workers, and freelance labour is likewise common in computer
programming, consulting, and project administration.
Whether dealing with headcount limitations, budget reductions, fluctuating
workloads, or marketplace uncertainty, wellrun companies can turn to freelance
help to bridge the gap while analysing the needs for future fulltime employees.
Using qualified freelance talent also provides continuity during staff transitions,
such as maternity leaves, retirements, and layoffs.
Factoring freelancers into their hiring strategy helps organisations get the benefits
of top talent while taking a load off their bottom line. Freelancers cut benefit costs,
eliminate administrative costs, and can reduce costly hiring mistakes. Given the
rising cost of employee benefits for full-time employees which is currently
estimated conservatively at 36 per cent, the hourly cost of freelance help is below
that of a full-time worker with comparable skills.
New Recruitment Tools
As companies restrict hiring, recruitment budgets will shrink as well. As a result,
more employers will increasingly turn to the Internet as an employment medium.
To ensure they are recruiting the right talent, more employers are leveraging the
Internet as a vehicle for screening potential employees.
Twenty-three percent of employers say that although their hiring budgets will
decrease in 2009, they will spend money on the following staffing vehicles: online
recruitment sites (19 per cent); newspaper classifieds (15 per cent); career fairs (12
per cent); staffing firms and recruiters (12 per cent); and social networking sites (7
per cent). For all intents and purposes, the world today operates online. Everything,
it seems, has some sort of relationship to the Internet. Sites like Myspace,
Facebook, and LinkedIn, have defined the current Generation Y's evolution as the
Web 2.0-linked generation.
Several companies are using recruitment pop-ups that apply social networking
principles to specific industries. For example, a new site called scopings.com
focuses on advancing the online recruiting model to include participation from
would-be employees and involves them in a way not done before on recruitment
portals Monster.com and CareerBuilder.com.
Green Jobs
Over the next decade, the potential for "green-collar" jobs, which some define as
blue-collar work force opportunities created by firms and organisations whose
mission is to improve environmental quality, could be very prominent.
This is because many governments are proposing and passing policies and
programmes designed to improve environmental quality. These include policies
related to zero waste, energy and water conservation, residential solar energy, and
more.
Employers have tried to gain traction using environmentally friendly policies for a
while and 2009 will be more of the same. In 2008, one-in-ten employers added
"green jobs," which are environmentally conscious positions, compared to 13 per
cent of employers who plan to add them in 2009.
A post-recession scenario will see a shift in patterns, with companies focussing
on ensuring quality rather than quantity in recruitment and a pronounced thrust on
the all-round ability of those recruited to deliver.
As the global economy recovers, we are going to see companies getting
smarter about recruitment," according to Sheeroy, CEO, Aptitude Council (PAC), a
leading global network of pre-qualified knowledge workers, who are ranked and
differentiated by globally standardised exams.

Focus on technology skills as a hiring criteria would give way to all-round ability
to deliver, he said. "We are going to see a big difference in quality and marked
changes in recruitment policies of companies," he said.

There is going to be a massive demand for outsourcing and companies would not
just leverage the cost ,arbitrage but also look at the quality arbitrage, he noted. The
earlier focus on hiring 'larger numbers' would shift to quality,

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