Concrete Pavements

John Harvey University of California, Davis

• • • • • Concrete Pavement Types How Concrete Pavements Fail Concrete Pavement Design Concrete Materials for Pavements Construction, Traffic, Delay, Money

What is the Objective of Pavement Engineering and Management?
• Provide adequate serviceability at minimum cost • Provide best serviceability possible with funds available • Maximum mobility at minimum cost

Rigid Pavements .Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement Portland Cement Concrete Fast Setting Hydraulic Hydraulic Concrete Slabs Cement Concrete Base/Subbase Layers Subgrade Compaction Fabrics Mineral Admixtures Chemical Admixtures Lean Concrete Base Treated Permeable Bases Aggregate Bases Asphalt Concrete Base Cement Treated Bases Slab dimensions designed to not crack .

Other Rigid Pavement Types • Jointed Reinforced Concrete Pavement (JRCP) – reinforcing steel in slabs – steel holds cracks tightly together – longer slabs than for plain concrete • Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement (CRCP) – no sawed joints • Prefabricated/Post-Stressed Concrete Pavement • Pre-Stressed Concrete Pavement .

Pavement Performance (Life) Curve Field Maintenance Ride Quality Structural Capacity Unacceptable Traffic Repetitions (=Years?) Capital Maintenance .

Full-Scale Testing (months) Laboratory Testing (weeks) Computer Analysis (days) Reliability of answers Time & Cost Long-Term Monitoring (10-30 years) .

HVS on SR14 near Palmdale .

Side View of HVS .

how long was it designed for? • Mostly deployed • Mostly maintenance and rehabilitation • Some new lanes.Where is Caltrans Pavement Network in its Life Cycle? • When was it built. realignments • Beginning reconstruction .

design . materials. construction quality.What Causes Pavement Distress? • Traffic • Environment • Interaction of traffic/environment.

low at high temperatures – temperature changes cause expansion/contraction stresses in all asphalted and cemented materials . pumping • Temperature – asphalt concrete stiffness/strength high at low temperatures.Environment = Water. Temperature • Increase in water content – decreases soil stiffness – decreases soil shear strength – decreases resistance to erosion.

Traffic Variables It’s the trucks • • • • • Loads Tire pressures Speeds Dynamics (interaction with roughness) Which are most important? .

Big Truck .1960 .

1960 .Big Truck .

Big Truck .2001 .

Super Single Tires .

More Numerous Different Suspension. Faster.Trucks are Heavier. Different Tires .

5*Ltandem/80kN) 4.2 – ESALs = 2*(0.2 – ESALs = 3*(0.33*Ltridem/80kN) 4.2 • Current California legal load limits: – single axle: 89 kN – tandem axle: 151 kN .An Approximate Load Equivalence Factor Equation • Standard axle load = 80 kN single axle • Caltrans current LEF equation for ESALs: – ESALs = (Lsingle/80kN) 4.

carry nearly all load stress Load transfer between slabs important Base must provide uniform. continuous support to slabs. often stabilized with cement or asphalt Granular sub-base to provide support to base and slabs. must not expand or contract to provide uniform support to layers above .Rigid Pavement Overview Concrete slabs. expansion/contraction Compacted subgrade. without pumping.

and can result in rougher ride • Typical slab width is 3. curling and warping • Shorter slabs require more joints.7 m (12 ft) = one lane • Slab length is a design variable – Caltrans joint spacing has varied over the years .Slab Dimensions • Concrete slabs have engineered length and width • Longer slabs are more prone cracking due to shrinkage. which cost more to build and maintain.

Environment and Loading • Tensile stresses crack concrete slabs • Environment-related mechanisms causing tensile stresses – shrinkage and warping – curling • Load related mechanisms – load mass – load location on slab • Environment and load stresses are additive .

Shrinkage and Warping Warping of slab: Top of slab cures faster. higher tensile stresses . drier. shrinks more than bottom Hot and dry above Tension Base Cool and moist below Concrete Slab Self-weight Concrete typically shrinks when curing Uniform shrinkage causes some tensile stresses Non-uniform shrinkage causes warping.

Shrinkage Crack (Top-Down) Slab core laid on its side Top-Down crack .

hotter on top Tension Base Concrete Slab Self-weight Concrete Slab Self-weight .Curling Curling of slab: caused by temperature difference between top and bottom of slab Night .cooler on top Tension Base Day .

North Coast 2500 mm

High Desert/ Mountain

Bay Area Central Valley South Coast

Desert 4 mm

Average Maximum Air Temperatures, April-September 18-24 C 24-29 C 29-35 C 35-41 C

-6.5 to -1.5 C Average Minimum Air Temperatures, October-March -1.5 to -3.5 C 3.5 to 8.5 C 8.5 to 13.5 C

weight cancel • Shrinkage. bending resistance.Slab Size and Environmental Region Effects • Longer slabs result in greater – shrinkage stresses – warping stresses – curling stresses • Thicker slabs have larger temperature gradients. curling worst where large day-night temperature changes – desert – central valley . warping.

Top-Down Thermal/Shrinkage Cracking at Palmdale .

Load Transfer • Load Transfer: – load on one slab partially carried by adjacent slabs – reduces tensile stresses in slab – reduces deflections at joints • Load transfer comes from: – aggregate interlock – tie bars (rough steel bars) – dowels (smooth steel rods) .

Load Transfer Locations Longitudinal joints Dowels Dowels Dowels Dowels Ties Ties Ties Ties Dowels Dowels Dowels Dowels Dowels Dowels Ties Ties Ties Dowels Dowels Dowels Dowels Dowels Dowels Ties Dowels Transverse joints Dowels Aggregate interlock wherever joint sawed in larger slab .

Load Transfer Devices Sawed transverse joint Dowel Aggregate interlock Sawed longitudinal joint Tie Bar Aggregate interlock .

Joint Saw Cut with Aggregate Interlock .

Dowel Bar Basket Alternative: Dowel Bar Inserters .

Tie Bars in Longitudinal Joint .

Load Transfer Efficiency (LTE) A B LTE = deflection at B deflection at A when load is at A A B .

0E+05 6.0E+05 Load Repetitions 9.10 0.20 0.60 0.0E+05 2.0E+05 Dowel (90kN) No dowels (70kN) h = 200 mmm CTB = 100 mm 8.0E+05 7.00 0.LTE vs Repetitions Dowelled and Undowelled HVS Sections 1.30 0.0E+05 5.90 Load Transfer Efficiency 0.0E+05 .50 0.0E+00 1.00 0.40 0.70 0.80 0.0E+05 3.0E+05 4.

Load Transfer Questions • Why are dowels smooth? – permits slabs to shrink and thermally contract with small tensile stresses • What happens if too many lanes are tied together? – shrinkage. temperature contraction can cause a crack – same when slabs are too long • Is there aggregate interlock and load transfer – with asphalt shoulders? No – with cold joints between adjacent lanes? No .

corners – locations of largest deflections if poor load transfer efficiency • Also occurs at longitudinal joints and transverse cracks .Base Erosion • Mechanisms: – Water enters joints and cracks. erodes base material – Vertical deflections of truck loads create hydraulic pumping action • Primarily occurs at transverse joints.

creates step-off Faulting development controlled by: load transfer efficiency erodability of base . thump Faulting A B Base material moves from B to A Slabs become tilted. thump.Severely effects ride quality thump.

Pumping. and corner cracking . Voids Base A B Water and large vertical deflection pump base. subbase and subgrade material out. leave void Voids result in less support to slab. higher tensile stresses under load.

Concrete Cracking • Traffic and environmental loads cause tensile stresses • Higher stresses result in fewer repetitions before cracking (fatigue) • Types of cracking: – transverse – longitudinal – corner .

h. k.Fatigue Life Calculation • 1. P) σ = slab bending stress E = concrete elastic modulus k = subgrade support value h = concrete thickness L = slab length • 2. Stress Ratio = σ/MR MR = concrete flexural strength • 3. σ = f(E. L. Plot σ/MR versus Repetitions to Failure .

FSHCC Fatigue Resistance Results 1.00 1.E+00 Pumping 1.E+04 1.60 Stress Ratio Beam PCA Curve PCC Slab FSHCC AASHO Did not fail 1.40 0.E+06 1.80 0.20 0.E+02 1.E+08 Repetitions to Failure .

Transverse Cracking • Critical load conditions: – heavy single axle at mid-slab at edge – day-time curl (additive with load) – no load transfer at edge • Stresses reduced by: – – – – shorter joint spacing thicker slab (Eh3) stronger flexural strength of concrete load transfer at edge (tied shoulder. wide lane) .

Transverse Cracks .

Corner Cracking • Critical load conditions: – – – – – heavy tandem axle at corner night-time curl (additive with load) warping no load transfer at edge and transverse joint erosion of base under corner • Stresses reduced by: – thicker slab (Eh3) – stronger flexural strength of concrete – load transfer at joint and edge (dowels. tied shoulder. wide lane) .

Corner Cracks .

Longitudinal Cracking • Critical load conditions: – heavy single axle at mid-slab about 0.5 m from edge – night-time curl – warping • Stresses reduced by: – thicker slab (Eh3) – stronger flexural strength of concrete .

Longitudinal Crack .

• Critical (worst) load location for transverse and corner cracking – wheels along slab edge – best location is down middle of slabs • For outside truck lane can use wide lane (4.3 m instead of 3.7 m) – put stripe at 3.7 m to get trucks off edge – potential alternative to tied shoulder • Always try to keep trucks off edge and corners Wide-Truck Lane and Lane Striping .

6 m should go completely across joint 3.Wide Truck Lane (with dowels) Wide lane This is a test section! In practice. dowels extra 0.7 m lane .

Long-Term Durability • • • • Concrete strength gain Sulfate attack Alkali-aggregate reaction Spalling. mechanical abrasion resistance .

Type I/II cement usually required . degrades some kinds of concrete crystal structures • Controlled by concrete chemistry.Sulfate Attack • Sulfates in soil and water can create a sulfate (acidic) environment for concrete slabs • Sulfates reduce pH of cement. water/cement ratio. access to water • First identified in California.

Lab Mortar Samples after Sulfate Exposure Hydraulic cement A Hydraulic cement B .

particularly those with certain siliceous minerals • Continued reaction (requires water) creates gel which expands • When expansion strain greater than failure strain. destroy concrete • First identified in California in 1920s .Alkali-Aggregate Reaction • High pH of cement causes reaction with aggregates. concrete cracks • Can completely crack.

Concrete Strength Gain. spalling. reduce strength • Hard aggregate. Chemical Conversion. strong cement needed to resist chipping. chain wear . Mechanical Abrasion • Portland cement – typically continues to gain strength with time – hydration products (crystals) are stable • Other cement types (such as FSHCC) – may not continue to gain strength after initial high early strength – may have hydration products that change with time.

Soils Expansion • Certain clay soils will expand when have access to source of water • Can cause distortion in pavement • Uniform support to slabs is key to good concrete pavements – do not use unless completely mitigate risk of soils expansion .

warping • Load transfer: dowels. shrinkage contraction. ride quality • Adequate thickness to resist bending • Base type: non-erodible. stresses. thermal. wide lanes . lane tieing: load transfer.Influence of Materials Selection and Design on Each Distress • Understanding of climate and traffic essential • Materials selection effects on performance: – high enough flexural strength for cracking – not such high strength or early strength that shrinkage cracks occur • Balance in joint spacing. accommodate curl. tie bars.

Typical Properties for QC/QA 1) Fresh Concrete Properties 2) Hardened Concrete Properties 3) Surface Roughness 4) Thickness 5) Surface Friction .

MR 2) Shrinkage Tests – mortar bar – concrete prism 3) Maturity – ASTM C 1074-93 .Hardened Concrete Properties 1) Strength Tests – f’c.

third-point loading) .Flexural Strength Apparatus ( ASTM C 78 .

5PL/(bd2) ASTM C 78: MR = PL/(bd2) .Calculation of Modulus of Rupture (MR) CTM 523 or ASTM C 293: MR = 1.

Why use flexural strength test? 1) Required for pavement design 2) Most realistic to slab bending action 3) Conservative estimate of slab strength Cons of flexural beam tests • moisture sensitive • temperature sensitive • size and loading configuration effects .

Maturity Testing • ASTM C 1074 • Internal temperature of concrete relates directly to concrete strength • Develop correlation curve in lab • Precision to baseline cylinders: ±5% .

(-10oC) . M(t) 5000 4000 3000 2000 Compressive Strength (psi) M(t) = Σ(Ta-To) ∆t M(t) = temperature-time factor ∆t = time interval Ta = average concrete temp. To = datum temp.Maturity Testing Compressive Strength (MPa) 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1000 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 Temperature-Time Factor.

Dowel Bar Retrofit .

Dowel Bar Retrofit of Transverse Joint .

Dowel Bar Retrofit of Transverse Crack .

Completed DBR .

Replace with 200-300 mm Concrete Slab 100 mm CTB or other base type (Recompact) ASB .Rigid Long-Life Strategies Currently Under Investigation 200-225 mm PCC 100 mm CTB 150 mm ASB Remove PCC.

Window Cont.4 6.1 2. (3 shift) Cont.6 11.2 2.Effect of Pavement Thickness and Construction Window on Project Duration 20 lane-km project Const.0 6. of Weekend 1.9 10. which determines amount of old material to be removed and new material to be hauled in .1 5.4 254 and 305 mm slab require new base (more time) For both AC and Rigid Long-Life Strategies most critical element controlling construction duration is reconstruction thickness.4 4. (1 Shift) Weekend 203 mm 254 mm 305 mm Duration Weeks Weeks No.

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