Dispositivo EMG

BME 200/300 Final Design Report 12-10-03

Abstract
The following report outlines a design of an electromyogram (EMG) controlled massaging pad intended for use by a child with lissensephaly. The device was designed using criteria and constraints suggested by a client familiar with lissensephaly. The final design consists of an electrode attachment device, an analog circuit to amplify and process the patient’s EMG signal and a massaging pad to provide positive tactile stimulation to the patient. A prototype circuit was built and tested and the design functions properly. The circuit was constructed on a printed circuit board to consolidate the circuitry, however future work is needed to complete the final printed circuit board design.

Problem Statement
The purpose of this project is to design a device that will serve as an EMG biofeedback device to activate a vibrating pad. A child with Lissencephaly will use this device to activate the pad by flexing a muscle in his thigh. The vibrations will provide a

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This process of learning would serve to improve the quality of the patient’s life Lissencephaly Lissencephaly is a brain disorder exhibited when the brain fails to correctly develop. The device could be modified to give more options to the child. For example. The deficiency in development also accounts for the lack of ridges normally present [1]. This could provide a basis for further learning. 2 . should the child associate flexing his muscle with activating the massage pad it will demonstrate a capacity for cognitive activity. which in turn prevents cells from making necessary connections. By allowing him to activate the pad on his own the child will be given freedom that he currently lacks. During development. providing him some control over his life which he currently lacks. nerve cells are not able to reach the outer cortex of the brain. This device will give him a way to take some control. We would observe this association through a deliberate increase in the flexing of the targeted muscle. Lissencephaly is also referred to as smooth grey matter due to the smooth appearance of the brain in patients with this condition (Figure 1). An EMG signal of a chosen magnitude will activate the pad and the pad will deactivate after a chosen time period. Our device will also allow us to observe whether the child is capable of simple operant conditioning. Motivation The child with Lissencephaly currently has no control over his life.pleasurable tactile sensation at his command. a component of the circuit could be added so that the child could also turn the device off with a second flex.

Notice the smooth appearance of thisbrain[2] 3 . but since the disorder is quite rare and provides few recorded cases the lifespan is difficult to gauge [1]. severe mental retardation. Figure 1: (above) A normally developed brain. regular seizures and reoccurring pneumonia. The lifespan of a person with Lissencephaly is projected at around two years. (below) A brain from a patient with Lissencephaly. The severity of these symptoms varies greatly.Symptoms of Lissencephaly can vary from case to case. loss of bodily control. Some of the common problems experienced are difficulties eating.

Either needle or surface electrodes can measure EMG signals. reusable. Reusable EMG electrodes are already in use with the child for his apnea monitor. The EMG pads need to be easily attached to the child’s body. the client has specified that the EMG electrodes need to be reusable. and require minimal training for application. Surface electrodes are often composed of a Ag+/AgCl disk and an adhesive attached to the skin [3].Design Problem The EMG biofeedback device needs to detect a proper EMG signal and then activate the massage pad for a predetermined amount of time. Figure 2: Schematic of chair Figure 3: Patient’s actual chair 4 . A total of three EMG electrodes will need to be attached to the patient’s body. We will be using the less invasive surface electrode. the EMG amplifier circuit and the massage pad. the EMG electrodes. However. There are three major components to the EMG biofeedback device.

the device will need to distinguish between voluntary and involuntary muscle contractions. Finally. ranging in function from full back massage devices that fit inside a chair to simple massage pad motors. and/or pictures of the patient be released to the public. This patient will occasionally have seizures which result in involuntary muscle contractions. Figure 2 is a schematic of the chair with its dimensions and figure 3 is an actual picture of the chair. Design Constraints Designing our device specifically for this patient introduced a number of design constraints. Once a proper EMG signal is detected the massage pad will be activated by a timer for a predetermined amount of time. The massage pad used in our biofeedback device must fit the unique shape and size of the patient’s chair. There is a wealth of small vibrating devices available through retail. Therefore. personal information. The final component in the EMG biofeedback device is a massaging pad. Overall. The first constraint was that our device must not interfere with any of the pre- 5 . The pad is the device that will deliver the pleasurable stimulus to the patient. the entire device must be safe and reliable for years of use by the child and his caretakers. At no time can the patient’s name.The EMG circuit needs to detect a proper EMG signal and respond by activating the massage pad. The controls on the device also need to be easy to learn and operate. throughout the design process the patient’s confidentiality must be maintained. A proper EMG signal is defined as a voluntary muscle contraction. More detailed discussion of each component in the EMG biofeedback device is found in the latter parts of this report.

To further complicate matters. reusable carbon rubber electrodes will be used and placed on the child’s thigh per the request of our client. Even though the BK-150 is smaller then many of the other massage pads on the market. Proposed Solutions All of our proposed design solutions include the same circuitry and electrodes. This includes his apnea monitor. For privacy reasons. components that provide little area for variation. Also. the mother of the child has not given the team permission to work directly with him. The first alternative design is to use a portable. Additional design specifications and constraints can be found in appendix A.25”. The EMG amplifier designed for this project also needs to be designed for the patient’s limited musculature. The quadriceps is the best option for electrode placement because it is a large muscle that the child can easily isolate and signal. The model of the massage cushion is the Homedics BK-150 Back Master and measures 19” x 16” x 3. the thigh is not highly prone to involuntary muscle contractions. Most EMG amplifiers are designed assuming that the subject has normal muscle tone. the team’s access to the patient for testing and EMG measurements is very limited. shape and application of the vibrating pad.existing equipment already in use with the patient. Our design proposals vary in size. We will describe our best design solution in detail later in the report. prefabricated massage cushion for the vibrating pad. feeding tube. however for this project that assumption is not valid. and oxygen tank. it is still too wide to fit perfectly in the child’s 6 . Instead all matters involving the child must first go through our client. Arleigh Birchler. As mentioned previously.

Table 1: Design Matrix Cost Homedics BK-150 3 $25. A Velcro™ piece attaches the two ends of the pad in front of the child. A second alternative design is a pad that wraps around the child. The form of this design is similar to a wide belt. durability and ergonomics/comfort (Table 1). Also. The apnea monitor and feeding tube would most likely experience some interference from the front portion of the pad. simplicity of production.00 plus costs to modify and cost in time Wraparound 2 similar to Modified pad plus fastening pieces Simplicity 3 requires only the modification to connect to EMG circuit 1 requires disassembly and reassembly of pad and modification to connect to EMG circuit 1 requires disassembly and reassembly of pad and modification to connect to EMG circuit Durability 2 durability assured without testing 1 would have to test for durability of pad components 1 would have to test for durability of pad components Ergonomics (x3) 3 no chance for modification 9 can be very specifically designed for child 6 marginal opportunity for specification Total 11 12 10 In order to decide which massage pad design alternative would be best we ranked the solutions on the criteria of cost. A drawback to this design comes from the additional equipment already in use. The child will be sitting with the pad behind him at all 7 . It is assembled from different parts including a small vibrating motor. It will be built into a pad that can be wrapped around the child’s waist as opposed to attached to his chair. this solution leaves little opportunity to modify the padding or change the location of the vibrating motors.chair.00 Modified/Customized 1 $25. and padding.

2. Figure 4: Block diagram of circuit design Power is supplied to the integrated circuit (IC) components by two nine volt batteries. A functional block diagram outlining the basic circuit design is shown below. Due to certain specifications of the IC components. EMG Circuit Design The final circuit design contains seven main components. or 3. so we deemed ergonomics the most important criteria weighing it three times higher than the others.times. Modification of the ConAIR HP08 to create a custom fit for the child received the largest total points making it our best design option. 8 . 3 being the best. two voltage regulators were necessary to drop the power supply voltage from 9V to 7V. depending on how well it fit each criterion in relation to the other alternatives. All components are named and all their values are shown. Attached in appendix B is the precise circuit schematic. Each design option was ranked with a 1.

This signal now can be easily compared to a set threshold voltage. After the rectifier is a passive low pass filter. The next stage in the circuit. This value is determined by one external resistor. The final stage of the instrumentation amplifier is an active low pass filter that has a gain of 158 and a 2027 Hz corner frequency. At this point in the circuit the EMG input signal has been processed from a signal similar to high frequency noise. A differential amplifier then amplifies the potential difference across the two electrodes and has a gain of 13. A third electrode is attached to ground to and serves as a reference voltage. The signal is then passed through a passive high pass filter with a low corner frequency of 1. Overall. performs the threshold operation. The potential difference created by the patient’s EMG signal is then input into an instrumentation amplifier. R1 on the circuit schematic. The instrumentation amplifier has high input impedance so it does not draw any current from the patient. The rectifier takes the absolute value of the amplified signal. The low pass filter serves to effectively average the signal. The next stage of the circuit is a precision full wave rectifier [4]. The reference voltage set on the 9 .6 Hz. to essentially a DC signal with amplitude proportional to the strength of the patient’s muscle contraction. can be manually controlled via a potentiometer that feeds the positive input of the comparator.Two carbon patch input electrodes measure the potential difference created when the patient contracts his/her muscle group. the gain of the entire circuit is about 2050. This filter blocks any DC offset present in the signal. or reference voltage. a comparator. The threshold voltage.

a solid state relay device. The relay serves as a switch that safely activates the massage pad unit upon receiving a high input from the timer. However. The high output of the timer is about 7 volts and is sent to the next stage of the circuit. If the timer receives a positive signal from the comparator the output will be high for about two and half minutes.comparator stage of the circuit determines the strength of muscle contraction needed to trigger the timer device. After the duration of one time constant. If the signal is strong enough. the comparator outputs positive saturation (+7V) to the timer stage of the circuit. The input to the timer determines whether the output is either high or low. The relay is optically isolated so that there is no opportunity for the high voltage and current supplied by a wall outlet to reach the patient. The time constant of the timer stage is determined by the product of the values of R9 and C10 on the circuit schematic. The pad contains a transformer that steps down the 120 volt wall voltage to 12 volts for pad operation. The final stage is the massage pad unit. if the amplitude of the input signal is not greater than the set reference voltage then the output of the comparator will stay at negative saturation (-7V). the output of the timer will return to low. One of the massage pad cord wires was severed and the two output wires of the relay device were attached across 10 . A high output passes the signal to the next stage of the circuit and triggers a timed countdown. while a low output gives no input to the next circuit stage. A 555 timer IC component was used to establish a specific time to trigger the massage pad.

no closed-loop ground trace. Most of the components for the schematic were ordered as SMT (surface mount) components through Digi-Key. Circuit Board A circuit board was drawn to match specifications laid out in the circuit schematic. The design of the circuit board condensed the circuitry in to as little space as possible.the severed lead to complete the design. PCB Express was the program used to draw and order the circuit boards used in the final design. potentiometers and capacitors used with the voltage regulators. Consolidated Circuitry A black plastic box was selected to house the various electrical components separate from the pad. Components were attached to the circuit board in the final design using a simple soldering procedure. thicker traces for power supply and ground. The physical dimensions of the box were approximately 3” × 3” × 6”. 11 . These batteries were used to power the circuitry components independent of the wall source. wire terminals. and sufficient spacing for traces and pads. and protects a user from accidental electrical exposure. Guidelines for drawing a circuit board were used [5]. The remainder of the board was used as space for the battery casing. which powered the vibrating pad. The limited volume was used to contain the circuitry. This protects the components from damage. See appendix C for printed circuit board design. Custom “footprints” were drawn for components that were unavailable in SMT. requiring common “push-through” parts such as diodes. See appendix B for an exact schematic of the circuit design.

These holes were not completed in the prototype due to the unfunctional operation of the circuitry upon assembly. Openings in the black box would have been drilled for the electrode leads. and this was mostly accomplished through condensing the circuitboard design. Massage Pad The massage pad is the second major component of the biofeedback device. which provides a stimulating and pleasurable feedback.batteries. In addition. and the massage pad wire fed in series through the SSR. The circuit board was mounted inside the black box using four bolts attached to the corners. Figure 5: Printed circuit board mounted in black box. This particular pad was chosen because its dimensions (11 ½“ x 24”) match the child’s unique chair. an off-the-shelf massage pad to modify for the project. The three components needed to be as compact as possible. We chose the ConAIR HP08. the pad is less than one inch thick so it should not disturb the comfortable fit of the chair that the 12 . The SSR was attached alongside the circuit board. and SSR in a protected compartment.

it appears less like a medical device than the plain massage pad would and new covers can be made as the child’s interests change. More importantly. The ConAIR HP08 offers two massage intensities and a heat option that can be adjusted to create the most pleasurable sensation for the child. We chose to use carbon-rubber electrodes to fulfill the request of our client that they be reusable and inexpensive. The child is already using carbon-rubber electrodes on other devices so he and his caretakers are already familiar with them. the carbon13 . Made with a fabric with a child friendly pattern. Moreover.child is accustomed to. To improve the quality and functionality of the pad we created a fabric cover similar to a pillow case to put over the pad (Figure 6). The cover serves many functions. Finally. seven days a week. the cover is removable and washable to increase sanitation since the child will be sitting on it twenty-four hours a day. Electrodes Electrodes and means of attaching them are the final component of the full design. the cover will reduce the amount of wear on the pad increasing its useful life. Figure 6: Modified massage pad with protective cover.

rubber electrodes are an excellent choice because they are non-invasive. felt strap that will Velcro™ around the child’s thigh and can be adjusted for a perfect fit as the child grows (Figure 7). Figure 7: Electrode attachment device. Of utmost importance was honoring the client’s request that all sensitive patient information be kept confidential. This is important because the electrodes must be in approximately the same place each time in order to obtain consistent results. Additional 14 . These considerations stem from the fact that our device is designed for a specific patient rather than the general public. With the addition of a thin layer of conductive gel they work nearly as well as an adhesive electrode. Ethics Our project has presented us with some important ethical considerations. The strap is washable for the same reason as the massage pad cover. All operating components of our design must be safe for use within specific design parameters for this patient. The electrodes attach to the strap with Velcro™ to assure simple replacement in the correct position after they have been removed. The electrodes will be attached to the child with a soft. The electrodes can also be removed from the strap for washing. They simply rest on the skin rather than penetrate it or adhere to it.

Conclusion The EMG biofeedback project has been very successful in proving that an EMG signal can be obtained. This measurement needs to include measurements in multiple locations to find an ideal position on the body. The patient will finally need to be monitored to see if he is adapting to the device. If client’s predictions are correct. amplified. and used to control the activation of a massage pad. Voluntary and involuntary EMG signals will also need to be measured. but is possible with such exclusive patient use. There are. 15 . From these measurements the EMG amplifier can be calibrated to properly amplify his biological signal to proper amplitude to activate the massage pad. These measurements could allow the design of an IC to distinguish between a conscious versus involuntary muscle contraction. The first step towards completion is an accurate measurement of the child’s EMG. however.technical support could be necessary. a number of steps that need to be taken before this prototype can be implemented with the child. This will be the ultimate test of this project’s success. Our large degree of accomplishment shows that a project of this sort can be completed to the given specifications. such as during a seizure. the patient will eventually condition himself to understand that a particular muscle contraction will elicit a pleasurable stimulus. All possible emphasis was placed on meeting these ethical requirements.

Lissencephaly: Information for Parents. John. Paul. 12 Sept. Acessed: Oct 2003. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Oct-Dec 2003. Personal consultaion.htm [2] Lissencephaly Newsgroup. Sources Consulted Webster. [5] Victorey. Online: http://www. Bioinstumemtation. NY 1998. Chapter 2 [4] Medical Instrumentation – Application and Design. Personal consultation. John. 2004. John G. 1991. New York: John Wiley and Sons.org/about/lissen. William. Arleigh.Lissencephaly.yahoo. Personal consultation. Oct-Dec 2003 Birchler. Webster – Editor.com/group/Lissencephaly/ [3] Webster. http://groups. 2003 16 . 3rd Ed.References [1] Dobyns.

Client Requirements: Client would like the device to serve as a learning tool for the child. The electrodes must not be intrusive or irritating to the child.Appendix A Product Design Specification: EMG Biofeedback Device Team Members: Brent Geiger – Leader Jason Ethington – Communications Tom Chia – BSAC Kim Treml – BSAC Tim Rand – BWIG Advisor: John G. Electrodes Two/three carbon patch electrode placed on skin on child’s thigh muscle. Webster Revision date – December 7. The processor will terminate the massage after a specified time period. amplifier. and record how many voluntary contractions occur in a certain time period. The pad should be comfortable for the child and not change the environment to which he has became accustomed to. information processor. 2003 Function: An EMG biofeedback device will allow a child with Lissencephaly to exhibit some control over his life. and massage pad. Massage Pad The massage pad must fit in the child’s chair. The device will consist of four components: electrodes. The amplified EMG signal will trigger the massage pad. They must require little skill to attach and remove. It should regulate massage pad to eliminate over stimulation by child. Amplifier A basic EMG amplification circuit will be used. The massage must not be too strong and must not cause the child any discomfort. Information Processor This stage must distinguish between voluntary and involuntary muscle contractions by establishing a baseline. This stage will control the duration of vibrations. 17 .

Operating Environment This device will be used in a home environment. The device must fit between two side guards that are 9. g. h. Accuracy and Reliability Massage feedback must trigger every time an intentional muscle contraction is performed. The bottom of the chair is 11. 18 . Weight The information processor should be no more than 5 pounds so that it is easy to transport with the child.Design Requirements: Physical and Operational Characteristics a. Major calibration checked for every 6 months. The back of the chair is 15” tall. protective pad will cover the massage pad to minimize wear and increase sanitation. Entire device must not interfere and be compatible with current devices he is hooked up to. i. Must be easy to operate and have minimal learning curve for operator. EMG pads will not draw current from the patient’s body. Proper operation should be checked for each week. f. It will be subjected to constant pressure caused by the patient sitting on top of the vibrating pad. Life in Service Must be in service for as long as patient is able to utilize the device. Shelf Life The shelf life of our product will be five years stored at room temperature in a dry location. The device may be subjected to fluids and dust caused by everyday use. The electrodes and device used to hold them in place should be just a few ounces so that they do not inhibit or encumber the child. Size The device must fit in the current chair of the patient. Device will not have any sharp areas. or abrasive material. There are no weight specifications for the massage pad because we will assume whichever model we use is already at a suitable weight. b. exposed wires. e. This device will be handled by a nurse or caretaker for the patient. Safety Must not harm patient in any way. Performance requirements Must be able to perform at any given time 24/7.5”x11. Device must accurately distinguish between involuntary (C-posturing) and voluntary muscle contractions. c.5” apart and 8” above the bottom on the back of the chair.5”. Massage mechanism will be activated 5-6 times a day. The device must as comfortable as the chair that the patient currently uses. A washable. but not cause pain. Vibrational feedback must only be turned on for 5 minutes each time a voluntary muscle contraction is detected. Massage pad vibration will be noticeable. Ergonomics The patient will be sitting on this device for most of the day so it is important that the device does not change the current environment as to annoy or agitate the patient. d.

b. all patient information must be held in confidence. Materials There are no restrictions on materials. Production Characteristics a. More if digital microcomputer processors are incorporated into design. b. Child could possibly find device uncomfortable and irritable.j. Device must be able to be cleaned periodically due to constant contact with child. Aesthetics. Patient-related concerns Child’s EMG signal may be somewhat irregular. Child’s guardian gets to keep prototype if she wishes. c. Standards and Specifications Human subjects testing approval may be required. No information whatsoever regarding their whereabouts can be disclosed. d. Device must fit into child’s chair. Miscellaneous a. Target Production Cost $100-$200. amplifier must be able to properly amplify signal. Appearance. The apparatus for applying the electrodes must also be comfortable so that it does not bother the child in any way. There are no devices designed for this purpose. Approval from child’s doctors and mother also required. Quantity One. and Finish The massage pad must be soft and comfortable. k. 19 . The massage pad cover has been designed with a colorful pattern that is child orientated. Again. Customer Confidentiality is of utmost importance for both the child and the child’s mother. Competition Lissencephaly is an extremely rare.