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B. WILLIAM P. A. O'CONNOR. Archdiocese of Milwaukee 1921 . BY REV.The Concept of the according to Human Soul Saint Augustine DISSERTATION Submitted to the Faculty of Philosophy of the Catholic University in Partial Fulfillment of America af the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy.


for Saint Augustine an object of He was not particulife-long concerned about the soul as larly such. . but he never attempted to construct an organized philosophy of the soul. but the elements that enter into its make-up are found widely scattered through his various matical works. however. The treatises. and dogHe wrote a few special treatises on the soul.PREFACE. His interest in the not actuated by mere curiosity to know for the sake of knowing. but he sought to know the human soul as a means whereby he might arrive at a clearer and better understanding of the Supreme Being. The present thesis proposes to collect and coordinate the philosophical fragments of Saint Augustine's doctrine of the human soul and to interpret these in the light of his mental progress. polemical. which belong to that period when he was Bishop of Hippo and one of the most renowned scholars of his day stamp him unquestionably as a Christian It is indispensable to the correct underphilospoher. except insofar as a study of these might serve to throw some light on the nature soul of The man was study and investigation. or the irrational soul of the brute. and activities of the human soul. soul of man was The concept of the human soul as it appears in the writings of Saint Augustine is not set forth in a systematic manner. It is true that those works which were published during the first few years of his career manifest the strong influence of his recent study of Neo-Platonism. apologetical. The aim of this dissertation is to present and explain the concept of the human soul as it is found in the writings of Saint Augustine. There is a tendency on the part of some commentators to over-emphasize the Platonic human character of Augustine's doctrine of the human soul. the plant soul. philosophical. standing of Augustine's concept of the human soul that due regard be paid to the development which characterizes his doctrine. exegetical.

therefore. to redirect attention to the work of a great scholar and thinker like Saint Augustine.PREFACE apology seems necessary for a piece of work such presented here when one considers the unique position held by Saint Augustine in the world of Christian thought. to the better understanding of his doctrine. Through him the Christian Schools of the Middle Ages were to meet the great minds of Pagan antiquity and to learn what they had achieved in the field of philosophical endeavors. as is No . any contribution. He was under Providence the instrument by which the philosophical riches of the past were transmitted to the new world which rose upon the ruins of the Roman Empire. deserves the consideration at least of all those who are interested in the promotion of what is best in the history of human achievement. His influence on the entire trend of Christian philosophic thought since his day has been tremendous. The debt of Scholasticism to the Bishop of Hippo not only in Theology but also in Philosophy is inestimable. Any effort. however meager it may be.

The Immortality of the Human Soul VI. Introduction. .CONTENTS. The Origin of the Human Soul I. II. The Existence and Nature of the Human Soul IV. 10 21 33 48 57 67 - ' * . . The Human Soul is Incorporeal V. The Life of Saint Augustine 7 Chapter Sources His Notion of Philosophy III.


the atmosphere of his native town becoming unbearable. his father's efforts did not meet with success. With this end in view Patritius endeavored to save a sufficient sum of money to enable him to send his son to the University of Carthage. and the journey to Carthage was made towards the close of the year 370. were of the patrician class but in reduced circumstances. Recognizing the marked talents of the boy. gave a new trend to his thoughts and aspirations. With the aid of Romanianus. This was a period of mental unrest and incipient religious doubt for Augustine. an ardent Christian. Patritius. The reading of Cicero's Hortensius in the year 373. the year 354. Unfortunately for Augustine. in Numidia. and ere long he had achieved some reputation as a rhetorician. THE LIFE OF SAINT AUGUSTINE. and Monica. an AfroRoman pagan. he became a convert to Manicheism.INTRODUCTION 7 INTRODUCTION. and enkindled in his breast a love for philosophy. Aurelius Augustine was. and he was forced to spend his sixteenth year in idleness. dragging months. he abandoned the idea of becoming a lawyer and took up the He returned to teaching of rhetoric as a profession.born at Tagaste. Having finished his studies at the University. he closed the school and returned to Carthage. The latent genius of the new student was soon recognized by the University. After a few tedious. His parents. The same year or in the beginning of the following year. a wealthy friend. where for nine years he taught rhetoric. the necessary funds were finally provided. his father determined at any cost to prepare him for the forum. He received his early training in the grammar school of his native town. Tagaste in 374. and in a school of rhetoric for beginners in nearby Madaura. He had embraced Manicheism chiefly because it promised to satisfy his strong curiosity regarding the mysteries of in . where he opened a school of grammar or rhetoric.

While in Rome he had been favorably impressed for a time by the skeptical philosophy of the New Academy. only resulted in his recognizing the inconsistencies of Manicheism. whence he intended to embark for Africa. Towards the beginning of Lent. both his host and his friends were members of the sect with which he had but recently severed relations. the most renowned exponent of the Manichean doctrines. however. the following year. a country place near Milan. which he determined forthwith to abandon. During his sojourn in Rome. where he spent the following three years in . however. particularly in his earlier writings. after paying a hurried visit to Carthage. Augustine had been assured again and again by his co-religionists that this learned presbyter would be able to remove all His meeting his doubts and to solve all his difficulties. On his arrival there. are traceable to this period. After his baptism. Faustus. came to Carthage. where he resumed the teaching of rhetoric. but after nine long years of painstaking effort on his part. The voyage to Africa was made in the following year. Through the influence of these friends he was appointed Master of Rhetoric for Milan by Symmachus. He was bapby Ambrose about Easter time in the year 387. he probably remained in Milan for some months before setting out for Ostia. who was directly responsible for his becoming a catechumen in the Catholic Church. caused him to change his plans and he returned to Rome. he resigned his post as Master of Rhetoric. 388. he tized returned to the city to prepare for Baptist. The same year he left Carthage for Rome. but shortly after his arrival in Milan he discarded this for the study of Neo-Platonism. The strong Platonistic tendencies so manifest.8 INTRODUCTION nature. he retired to Tagaste. and after a short visit to Rome went into solitude at Cassiciacum. At Milan he met the saintly Ambrose. Prefect of Rome. Finally. in the year 383. At the close of the fall school-term in the year 386. with Faustus. although he no longer considered himself a Manichean. The sudden death of Monica at Ostia. this promise remained unfulfilled.

T. 1912. H. J-P P. and study. he was ordained to the priesthood by Valerius. Migne. Confessionum. University Press. eccl. t. Weiskotten. he was consecrated bishop. Vita. Classical Library. libri xiii Corpus St. libri xiii. which he filled with great honor and distinction until his death in the 1 year 430. 659-868. I xxxii. meditaAbout the year 391. Augustine's Confessions. edited by. Sancti Aurelii Augustini Hipponensis Episcopi. which occurred in the same year. he was raised to the see of Hippo. Vita Sancti Aurelii Augustini. Five years later. . col. Watts. Sancti Augustini vita Princeton scripta a Possidio episcopo. xxxii. a biography written by one of his intimate associates. where. London. script. 33-578. by popular request. devoting his time to prayer. lat. in 396. The Loeb II. There are two chief sources of the life of Saint Augustine: Confessionum. : I. L.INTRODUCTION 9 monastic seclusion. Acad. sec. the Bishop of that place. Vind. W P. which chronicles his career from the time of his conversion until his 'death. II. t. 1919. 1631. he was summoned tion. ed. auctore Possidio. The following texts were consulted 1 I. an autobiography which records the principal events in his life up to the time of his conversion. xxxiii. Migne. Knoll. t. pars. Hipponensis Episcopi auctore Possidio. to Hippo Regius. On the death of Valerius. I. L. J-P P. 1896. col.

CHAPTER I. Polemical. the investigator must be careful to consider the historical order of his writings. he tells his readers that in order to understand the development of his doctrine they should read 2 Ep. Ego proinde fateor me ex eorum numero esse 2 conari. An effort will be made here to point out only those works which have a more direct bearing on the theme at hand. CXLIII. it is necessary to make the following general observation in order to determine accurately or to interpret intelligently Augustine's doctrine on any subject whatsoever. He himself informs us He wrote as his that his was a progressive science. 2. It seems hardly necessary to advert to the fact that the list presented below is far from being a complete list of all the works in which Augustine touches on questions pertaining to the human soul. SOURCES. Augustine's philosophy of the soul is not to be found in any one work or in any particular class of writings. Dogmatical and Exegetical Writings must be examined. during which time his views naturally underwent considerable change. It is not only in his Philosophical Writings that his doctrine is to be looked for. . As a preamble to this task. qui proficiendo scribunt et scribendo proficiunt. of the Retractationes which was In the Prologus written about 427. Apologetical. The reason for this becomes obvious when one remembers that his literary career extended over a period of fortyfour years. One can reasonably look for greater accuracy of statement and maturer thought and judgment in the learned Bishop of Hippo than in the struggling catechumen of Milan. knowledge increased as he wrote. The purpose of marize this chapter is to indicate and sumthe chief sources to be used in the present study. but also his Letters. and his knowledge increased.

the earliest of this extant works. one of his intimate companions and associates. a country place near Milan. xi) quo ordine anima provehitur ad cognitionem . libri II. v) authority and reason (c. xix). therefore. Contra Academicos. xviii) . were written before his baptism in They are in the form of a which Augustine represents himself as dis- he touches upon the immortal character of Truth. dialogue in cussing certain questions with his own Reason. one must be careful to consider the chronological order of his writings. They contain a refutation of the Academician principle that the human mind in its search for truth cannot attain The certitude. was written towards the close of the year 386. libri III. quo scripta sunt legerit. (c. Ordine. The following list has been drawn up for the purpose of acquainting the reader with the principal sources of his doctrine on the human soul. ix) (c. Inueniet enim fortasse. . in conclusion. quisquis opuscula mea ordine. at These diaCassiciacum. De .SOURCES 11 his works in the order in which they were written. In the Second Book he touches upon some questions that enter into our study. This last consideration leads him to the main topic to be dis- . libri II. They are dedicated to Zenobius. but only a high degree of probability. logues are dedicated to his friend and patron Romanianus. Soliloquia. These two books were also composed towards the close of 386 at Cassiciacum. Divine Providence and the Order of the Universe are the chief topics discussed. to determine the true doctrine of Augustine. sui et ipsius unitatis tantior? (c. such as the relation of philosophy to theology quid sit Ratio? (c. In the First Book he considers the qualities of mind and heart requisite for attaining the vision of God. chief value of the work to the present treatise is that it furnishes some of the fundamental notions of Augustine's philosophy. and in order that their chronological position among his works may be located. quomodo scribendo profecerim. homo unde brutis praes- the year 387 at Cassiciacum. In any attempt.

he formulates the argument. libri HI. The first of these books was written about the year 388 while Augustine was sojourning in Rome. the immortality of the human soul. quanta sit. in this work are neither clear nor convincing. either at Milan during the time of his proximate preparation for Baptism. an idea borrowed from Neo-Platonism. but it is present in the body which it animates vi ac potentia (c. qualis questions pertaining to the human soul sit. which is in the form of a dialogue with a friend named Evodius. cum ad corpus uenerit qualis efficiatur. so that different parts of the soul correspond to different parts of space. Ret. c. is devoted to an examination of the question: Quanta sit anima? According to Augustine. He introduces the meditations on immortality by explaining the nature of Truth and Error. vil . xxxii. I. as the title indicates.* The : major portion of the work. undoubtedly Platonic in origin. cur corpori fuerit data. The last four chapters deal with the seven stages in the progress of the individual soul towards God. c. I. contains an account of several discussions on the following unde sit. namely. the human soul is a simple substance. 69).12 SOURCES cussed in the Second Book. v. Having discovered Truth to be immortal. De Immortalitate Animae was written in the year 387. that the human soul is immortal because it is the dwelling place of immortal Truth. it is inextended . De Libero Arbitrio. 3 De Quantitate Animae was begun in the year 387 and finished in 388 at Rome. or at Cassiciacum shortly after his return from Milan. that he himself could scarcely understand them. that is to say. This book. the second and third books were 3 4 Ret. it does not occupy space like material objects. and confessed that the proofs developed therein are so obscure and involved begun in the Soliloquia. qualis cum abscesserit. It is a continuation of the medi- tations The arguments employed Some he later that the book had expressed regret forty years been published against his will.

This work. Utrum anima a se ipsa sit. XXXVIII. but that evil exists in conse- quence of man's exercise of free will. Quae proprie in animante anima Utrum per se anima moveatur. The following questions are of importance in the present study: Quaestio prima. dicitur. De conformatione animae. was published in Hippo in the year 400. containing an intimate description of the author's mental and moral experiences from his infancy up to the time of his conversion. is not the author of evil. For our purpose and XXI of the Third Book are important. but he seems to have been inclined to favor Generationism as the theory most readily reconcilable with the orthodox doctrine of original sin. They contain a series of dialogues with his friend Evodius in which they discuss the problem of evil and its relation to human liberty. VIII. Chapters XX because they give a concise statement of his difficulties regarding the origin of the souls of the descendants of the first man. unde hominum diversae voluntates. The tenth book contains an acute analysis of Memory and Remembering a splendid piece of psychological work. Augustine's literary masterpiece. The autobiographical part of the work reveals the remarkable introspective powers of its author. libri XIII. De lished at Diversis Quaestionibus Octoginta Tribus. The work was intended primarily as a refutation of the Manichean tenet that God is the author of evil as well as He maintains against the Manicheans that God of good. Augustine always hesitated about taking a definite stand on this question. The first ten books are an autobiography. XL. Cum animarum natura una sit. was pubHippo in the year 396. being chiefly a commentary on the history of the Creation as recorded in the Book of Genesis. VII. and his ability to commit to writing his observations. This study is of .SOURCES 13 composed about 395 in Hippo. Confessionum. The last three books are exegetical in character. This work is a com- pilation of answers given by Augustine to various questions proposed by his companions in the religious life at Tagaste and Hippo.

Epistola CXVIII. This young man who was studying the Latin classics evidently had encountered was unable to solve.14 SOURCES value because he builds up an argument for the spirituality of the soul on the power of Memory. to the Fifteenth Book inclusive. The writing of this of fourteen years from 401 to 415. These seven books in particular are replete with much that is of value t to the present study. that many useful items. Two of these twelve books have a the Seventh which disdirect bearing on our problem cusses the nature of the human soul. libri XV. being a defense of the literal interpretation of the De Genesi ad work extended over a period first three chapters of the Book of Genesis. and aids in the investigation of Augustine's concept of the human furnishes soul. This is. His chief motive in seeking the desired information was one of several difficulties which he . rather than any specific part. was written about the year 410 in reply to a communication forwarded to Augustine by a Greek scholar named Dioscorus. It is the work as a whole. These twelve books are chiefly exegetical in character. The main purpose of the work is to prove that there is nothing in the history recorded in these chapters which cannot be literally true. motive in writing this treatise was to convince those who attempt to demonstrate the truth of this great mystery by reason alone that the. he skillfully examines the various trinities which are found in man. however. and the Tenth. His it discusses the mystery of the Most Holy Trinity. perhaps. libri XII. which deals with the origin of the human soul. As the title indicates. De Trinitate. nothing which is contrary to reason or to the nature of things. Litteram. was begun about the year 400 and completed about 416 at Hippo. and hence that the Trinity From the Ninth is a matter for faith and not for reason. suggestions. his most profound dogmatic treatise. He submitted these to the Bishop of Hippo in the hope that he would take the trouble to answer them. human mind is incapable of fathoming the nature of God.

for imposing so great a task upon an already overbur- from such a blameworthy. LXVIIII. that in this 5 Ret. probably Augustine's greatest work. trivial answers his difficulties in a general motive. De Civitate Dei. arid other things. According to the author himself the first ten books are devoted to a careful study of the pagan form of worship and its relation to human welfare both in the present life and in the life to come. 5 The remaining twelve books constitute a history of the rise. II. the progress and the destiny of the two cities the City of God and the City of the World. The great disaster which had befallen Rome was attributed by the adherents of polytheism to the neglect of their gods consequent upon the introduction of Christianity. suffice it to say.SOURCES 15 After severely rebuking his correspondent vainglory. The third and fourth chapters especially acquaint us with his views on the relation of philosophy to religion. was written about the year 412 in reply to a letter sent him by a friend named Marcellinus. Augustine This us because it shows. was begun about the year 413 and completed in or about the year 426. In this short letter he defends the attitude he had as- among sumed towards the problem of the origin of the soul. Ibid. Augustine in this work undertakes to show the real causes of the fall of the earthly city. libri XXII. interests way. 6 It does not fall within the province of this dissertation to give a detailed criticism of this noteworthy contribution to Christian Apologetics. and at the same time to vindicate the Kingdom of God on earth against the misrepresentations and unjust accusations of its enemies. This monumental dissertation. 6 . c. It is the earliest known effort to formulate a philosophy of history. lengthy epistle dened ecclesiastic. how well acquainted its writer was with the current philosophical theories of his day. Epistola CXLIII. The invasion and sack of Rome by the Goths under King Alaric in the year 410 had aroused the animosity of the pagan population of the Empire against the Christian religion.

as one investigation. much light is thrown upon the philosophical opinions of the eminent thinkers of antiquity. Although it is true that here as elsewhere we do not find any attempt at a systematic treatment of philosophical questions. in line with the general observation made in the beginning of this chapter apropos of Augustine's mental progress. Augustine still troubled by the same doubts regarding the origin of the soul which had disturbed his mind some twenty years previously when he wrote De Libero Arbitrio decided to submit his difficulty to Jerome. might expect in a work of this kind. 1908. gau and St. Louis. he nevertheless regretted . Moreover. yet there is a wealth of material scattered through the pages of this work which the student of Augustine's philosophy cannot afford to overlook. 7 Bardenhewer-Shahan. Mo." The value of the work for the present purpose consists in this. was written to Saint Jerome about the year 415. Again as in the case of the Confessions it is not so much to a particular part as to the general development of the thesis that one must look for his doctrine. In the Retractationes we are informed that while the latter wrote to him approving the course he had taken in asking the advice of another. Epistola CLXVI. p. His apology for Christianity rises at once to the dignity of a magnificent philosophy of history.16 SOURCES work Augustine glimpses the whole course of human history and "from the beginning to the end he interprets it with power and insight. Freiburg im Breis- . and side by side with these are found the author's views on the various problems they suggest. 479-480. particularly in Books VIII and XVIIII. a work that towers 'like an Alpine peak' over 7 all the other apologies of Christian antiquity. it is useful to note that the views expressed in this work represent the results of life-long study and His doctrine of the human soul. that incidental to the main thesis. It is only as occasion may demand that he digresses from the main theme to touch upon this or that particular aspect of our question. Patrology. is diffused through the whole dissertation.

sending one to Renatus. libri IIII. 8 II. other than that both from the standpoint of chronology and content it is sufficient to enable one to . No further claim is made for the work presented here. and correction. It makes available a synopsis of his chief works. is invaluable. if not indispensable. is by no means complete in point of fact. . a complete list would probably include a large part of the vast library of Augustinian literature which fortunately has come down to us. as was remarked in the beginning of the chapter. cussion of the origin of the soul. It enables one to study the development of his doctrine. De Anima et ejus Origine. and two to Victor. Retractationum. . one. to the student of Saint Augustine. contains in the second chapter a short summary of what Augustine explicitly held regarding the human soul. libri II. These books fell into the hands of a monk named Renatus who forwarded them to AugusIn his reply. The author takes up each one of his works in the order of its composition. the latter pens four separate books on the subject.SOURCES 17 that he did not have sufficient leisure to pen a fitting 8 This epistle. c. he subjects it to careful revision. and aims at justifying tine. This list. an account of Augustine's indecision in the matter of the soul's origin. to Peter. and after a brief statement of the purpose for which it was written. The main argumlent in all four books is the same. a recent convert from an offshoot of the Donatist heresy. This work appeared about the year 427. It affords the opportunity to ex- The work amine the author's personal criticism of his own writings. Vincentius Victor. their author's hesitancy in expressing himself definitely upon the manner of the soul's origin. while largely given over to a disreply. had found among the books of a certain Spanish priest named Peter. and contains a critical review of the literary products of a long career. Victor wrote two books on the question to Peter. These four books were written about the year 420. in the form of a letter.

(De Immor. xxxii. xxxii. 9 Wherever orum . I. II 387 387 Soliloquia. xxxii. 1221- I. 1020 Migne. L. Vind. Arb. Ret. lat. Patrum opuscula selecta. . IIII. For the purpose of facilitating reference to this list. XLI.) 1098. L. 977Ret. 905958 Ret. Knoll. t. c. t. c. ed. XXXII-XLVII Paris. I. xxxii. 904 Migne.18 SOURCES pursue intelligently the work that has been undertaken. 1896. XLII. c. Ill Migne. I. P. t. P. . Innsbruck. 659868. I Migne. XIII (Conf. III. I. (De Trin. viii. Ill Academicos. L. t. Migne. Ret. 11-100. I. L.) 386 De Ordine. 819- 400-416 De XV Trinitate. 1868. Ret.) 387-388 De Quantitate Animae. has been followed. P. xxxii. I. Corpus script. Quaes. L.) De Immortalitate Animae. LXXXIII) 400 Confessionum. XLII. c. 396 Diversis Quaestionibus LXXXIII. L. and in order to designate the texts which have been used in this study. I. Migne. v. t. vii. De Libero Arbi(De Lib. XL. t. xxxiii P. 1310 Ret. P. XLIII. L. the following chronological is and textual list added. P. I. sec. XXXII. An. Hurter. L. possible the Corpus scriptorum ecclesiasticorum latinof the Vienna Academy of Sciences (Corpus script. P. I (De Quan. P. lat. Acad.) trio. xxxii. Migne. Acad. L. L. L. eccles. c. I. L. . . 1845-1849 (Migne.). H. L. 1080 Ret. II. P. L. . t. c. De Migne. II. c. Vol. sec. t. An. xxxii. (Contra Acad.) has been consulted. 1034 . SS. 9 386 Contra L. 1035- I. P. c.) L. P. t. ed. pars. II (Solil.) 388-395 Migne. 869Ret. in all other cases the Opera Omnia Sancti Aurelii Augustini Hipponensis Episcopi. I (De Div. xxv. t. L. 1021Ret. eccles. Vind. L. L. t. which is part of the Patrologiae Cursus Completus of J-P Migne. c.

lat. P. XLIV. 412 Epistola CXLIII. t. t. 245486. Migne. sec. xxxiiii. 13-804. Al. et ejus ejus Origine et Corpus script. Corpus script. P. Corpus script. 415 Epistola CLXVI. eccles. pars III. L. CXLIII) Corpus script. eccles. Ret. Urba et Zycha. L. lat. In preparing this suited : list pars II. t. 585590. xxxiiii. t. (De Civ. ed. 1904. sec. xxxii. L. P. eccles. t. pars I-II. Migne. t. eccles. 1913. LXXXII. CXVIII) Corpus script. Migne. Goldbacher. II. P. 720733. eccles. ed. CLXVI) Hoffman. t. ed. ad. xxxxiiii. II. the following works were con- . 410 Epistola CXVIII. viii. sec. t. ed. Acad. t. t. Ret. 432449. 1898. Acad. Ill. L. 1904. E. II. XII (De Gen. Vind. xxxvi. Knoll. C. sec. xxviii J. Dei) xxxx. L. Migne. Acad. t.SOURCES 401-415 De Genesi ad Litteram. 1902. L. c. ed. II. ad Dioscorum (Ep.) II Corpus script. Zycha. Vind. Acad. P. lat. Vind. Al. Ret. 420 De Anima (De An. pars I. 1899-1900. Migne. lat. ad Hieronymum (Ep. xxxiii. L. J. II. De XXII Civitate Dei Corpus script. Origine) pars I. c. eccles. t. ad Marcellinum (Ep. ed. t. ed. XLI. eccles. 427 Retractationum. LXVIIII. L. sec. Vind. P. xxxiii. Litt. II. sec. P. xxxiii. Acad. Vind. 583656. t. Vind. pars III. Al Goldbacher. 475548. pars II. 413-426 L. lat. c. Migne. LXXI. Acad. c. L. sec. 1894. Migne. lat. II. xxxiv. Goldbacher. L. Ret. P. LX. t. Vind. v. Acad. (Ret.) 19 lat.

Portalie.20 Notitia Litteraria in SOURCES vitis. 2. 1. (Numerical References are not always accurate and must be verified. E. Augustlni. Berlin. p. 477-498. Lipsiae. Schoenemanni Bibliothecae. 1905. t. Grundriss der Geschichte der Philosophic II. 26-34). L. Augustin. XLVII (p. Migne. Vacant et Mangenot. Dictionnaire de Theologie Catholique. scriptis et editionibus ope- rum S. .p. . Patrology. Art: St. 9 ed. 2311-2314. 125. Bardenhewer-Shahan. Ueberweg-Heinze. P.) 1794.

325) were engaged in establishing Christian a firm foundation of revelation and reason. they sought to learn the best that pagan thought had attained in order that they might enlist it in the service of Christianity. The philosophy they accepted and defended was not of their own fashioning. They did not attempt to formulate any special theory of causes or ultimate explanations to solve the riddle of the cosmos and human existence. Jew- Dogma on ish. HIS NOTION OF PHILOSOPHY. and to combat the prevailing heresies of their day. and in warding off the sinister influences of pagan. Pagan philosophy? ignored entirely the achievements of the great pagan minds in the domain of human philosophy on the contrary. They devoted themselves to the task of fixing. We must not think that they . philosophical and religious ideas. developing. The writers of the Post-Nicene Period had their work mapped out for them by the dogmatic definitions of the Council. explaining. It fell to their lot to explain the articles of faith which had been defined. With these facts in mind.HIS NOTION OF PHILOSOPHY 21 CHAPTER II. and heretical. Like the Neo- What was their attitude towards . The pioneers among them those who labored before the Council of Nice (A. Christian philosophical world-view were interested in theology rather than philosophy. They were not ex professo philosophers in the ordinary meaning of the term. it had been handed down to them embodied in the doctrines of Jesus Christ. D. it is not difficult to understand why the Patristic thinkers have not left any purely philosophical system or systems such as were created and developed by the great thinkers of pagan antiquity. The history of Christian Philosophy begins with the These early champions of the Fathers of the Church. and defending the doctrines of Christianity.

nescit. c. and one of the really profound thinkers of all What has been observed times. . occupies the highest rank in the hierarchy of the sciences. and although the tendency to separate the two sciences appears towards the close of the Period. Conf. exposition. qui Infelix enim homo. to divorce the one from the other. we do not find any accurate definition of their respective fields until the thirteenth century. merely an ad- junct to Theology. but does not know God. v. This is brought 10 11 autem. was Saint Augustine. and perhaps the greatest of them all. Theology. te te scit. 11 The relation of Philosophy to Theology as conceived by Augustine is one of reciprocal service. is indeed miserable. they looked upon human philosophy and all secular learning as existing for the sole purpose of unfolding the impenetrable mystery surrounding the Supreme Being. c. that we find in the writings of these early Fathers of the Church so close a union between Philosophy and Theology that it is difficult. To know God is the most desirable good in life. but if he knows God. Referring to Philosophy in particular. above regarding all the Fathers in a general way. That man who is versed in all the human sciences. It is not strange. he observes that the unique affair of true and genuine philosophy is to aid man in his quest for knowledge of the 10 Uncaused Cause of all things. The value of all human knowledge is to be reckoned in term$ of the service it renders the science of God. 16. etiamsi ilia nesciat.22 HIS NOTION OP PHILOSOPHY Platonists. in his opinion. and at times almost impossible. He was first and foremost a theologian. then. It is in this knowledge only that man can find true happiness. beatus De Ordine II. This intimate association of Phi- losophy with Theology is noticeable especially in the earlier half of the Patristic Period. qui scit ilia omnia. may be applied to Augustine in particular. for them. Philosophy was. v. and defense of Christian Dogma. autem iv. His chief interest centered in the development. though he be ignorant of all else he is happy. The outstanding figure among the Patristic philosophers.

Authority precedes Reason. c. . Cf. 43. both the cultured and the ignorant. Reason may be said al- ways until to precede Authority. but in the order : of reality. genthose men are to erally speaking. c. is Christ. Contra Acad. ix. xx. So far as human authority is concerned. II. xx. 13 Of these two. ix. 21 Authority xx. c. 43 : takes precedence II. 14 The authority upon which he places the greatest reliance. De Ordine De Ordine Ibid. Reason precedes Authority. since no one believes anything he has determined in his mind that it ought to be Finally. (Tempore aucto18 Reason appears to be ritas. 27. Sanct.HIS NOTION OF PHILOSOPHY 23 out clearly in his exposition of the relations between Authority and Reason. Authority and Reason ? In the order of time. are the relations between these two. ix.) to the capabilities of the learned for the of knowledge but Authority is necessary for acquisition 19 Reason preall. De Praed. because it is subject to error. c. Authority and Reason. 46. Contra Acad. re autem ratio prior est. II. in so far as it lies within its province to . divine authority is the highest because it is infallible. 27. No one doubts that there are two means by which we acquire knowledge. c. Ill. since I am eager not only to believe but also to understand the truth. 20 21 De Vera Rel. II. cedes Authority. divine and human. ix. human authority is less reliable. c. c. more adapted examine the warrants of credibility of this or that author or work. and who carry out in their lives the 16 As regards Reason. means by which we acquire knowledge. over 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Contra Acad. c. c. 43. although. he writes "I am influenced also by whatever has been attained by subtle reasoning. 26. Ill. De Ordine II. believed. xxv. it is not trustworthy be preferred before all others who give the best evidences of greatest learning. then. Ill. the other precepts they teach. 26. 5. De Ordine Ibid. 12 There are two kinds of authority. 20 In a certain sense. and from which he is ab15 solutely certain that he will never deviate." 17 What.

x. . sed etiam diligens inquisitio. To know God and the human soul is not only Augustine's chief aspiration. Ibid. quae ad beatam vitam pertineant. according to Augustine. I. c. 29 : He desires to De Trin vfii. xv. xx. Nihil te eerie dicis et Deum velle cognoseere? Hoc est totum prorsus. viii. but also the diligent inquiry into those human and divine things that pertain to a happy life. 8 Cf. an insatiable longing for perfect happiness. . Dei xi. comes the human soul. c. vi. may be defined as the "love of wisdom" (amor sapientiae) 24 Wisdom seems to be not only the knowledge. New Contra Acad. I.. It would be an unwarranted assumption to claim for the Bishop of Hippo the honor of having defined exactly the relations between these two sciences. but also his sole concern in life Deum et animam scire 26 cupio. (Sapientia mihi videtur esse rerum humanter. While it is certain that he appreciated the great service which the former renders the lat- Reason nevertheless he considered Philosophy as occupying a secondary place to Theology. 23. Nihilne amplius? He desires to know God because He He possesses 22 23 God who is the Absolute Good. 91. 7. cxx. Nihilne plus? Nihil omnino. but reason tells him that this longing will be satisfied only then when he meum. moreover. II. 27. York 24 25 26 27 28 29 Philosophy. and after God. 22 This brief sketch of the relations between Authority and Reason helps one to understand Augustine's attitude towards Philosophy in respect to Theology. Solil. De c. 23 Philosophy. c. Ep. II. c. 28 is the Supreme recognizes within himself. v. p. Civ. non scientia solum. c. It is not overstating the case. De Wulf Coffey History of Medieval 1909.24 HIS NOTION OF PHILOSOPHY in matters of revealed truth. to maintain that he seems to have traced at least the outline of that system of relations which was to be completed many centuries later by Saint Thomas. however..) 25 The highest object of all knowledge and investigation is God. Ill. arum divinarumque. Ibid. Ibid. I. 7. c. 27 negotium Being. c. Animam : .

De Trin. c. -De Immortalitate Animae. Conf. Cf. What is true of his philosophy as a whole in this respect is true also of that portion of it which pertains to the soul.HIS NOTION OF PHILOSOPHY 25 know God. Even in those of his works which are usually included under the heading Philosophical Writings. 32 theological themes. He did not conit struct an organized system of philosophy which is set down in any one work or class of works on the contrary. Jan. viii. Although there are at least four special treatises on the soul among his numerous writings. but in conjunction with his theological studies. . coherent philosophy of the soul is not to be found in the writings of Saint Augustine. The study of that which pertains to the first and more important of these two central ideas belongs to Theology rather than to Philosophy. De Quantitate Animae. and because it is the medium through which he acquires a knowledge of God. III. in order that he may one day possess Him. therefore. All other problems group themselves naturally about these two focal points God and the human soul. 30 He aspires to know the soul both because it bears the image of God. fragmentary it is found scattered here and there through his voluminous writings emmeshed in his philosophy is . Before entering upon the study proper of this question. seems advisable to emphasize one very important fact which has a more or less direct bearing on the correct interpretation of his entire philosophy. Brownson's Quarterly Review. p. Cf. and so attain perfect happiness. De Anima et evident from the contents of these Ep. 18591. 420. the dogmatic viewpoint is evident. c. c. . A systematically developed. cxviii. 31 Here we have the key to the understanding of his whole philosophy. x. He did not investigate the soul as an isolated philosophical problem. Philosophical problems as such command his attention only then when they appear to be necessary to throw light on some obscure dogma. The ticular interest of the student of Philosophy fixes itself in parupon Augustine's concept of the human soul. Epistola ejus Origine 30 31 32 it CLXVI is ad Hieronymum. xvii. III.

This lack of a connected. not Augustine's. p. Avant d'etudier d'une maniere particuliere 1'ame de 1'homme. There is no evidence to sup- port the claim of Nourrisson that Augustine in the first place did not consider the human soul. Augustine's prolonged interest in this perplexing difficulty was due not to mere curiosity. 1'ame principe des animaux. Epistola CLXVI ad Hieronymum and De Anima et ejus Origine deal with the problem of the origin of the souls of the descendants of the first man. they do not by any means afford a complete and systematic exposition of Augustine's philosophy of the soul. 166. is only a means by which the author aran explanation of the various stages through which the soul must pass on its mystical return to God. what is soul in general ? 33 This method of approach to the study of the soul is evidently Nourrisson's. but rather to its important bearing on the orthodox doctrine of original sin. 1865. L'ame humaine reste d'ailleurs comme le type. 33 II importe de le remarquer. view in composing them De Immortalitate Animae was written not merely to restate the metaphysical proofs of immortality formulated by Plato. De Quantitate Animae had for its principal purpose the demonstrating of the incorporeal nature of the human soul. This philosophical investiga- however. il commence par se demander ce qu'est Tame en general. While these four works furnish much valuable information. et sur lequel il ne cesse d'avoir les yeux fixes. renders it necessary to reach out in many tion. but also to confirm the Christian tenet that man is destined for unending communion with God.) . rives at different directions to gather together its widely scattered elements.26 HIS NOTION OF PHILOSOPHY in works that the object he had was not purely philosophical. Augustin ne considere pas tout d'abord dans 1'ame uniquement 1'ame humaine. scientific treatment of the problem about to be investigated. Augustine preter. (Philosophic de Saint Augustin I. but commenced his inquiry into this problem by asking himself. d'ou il part pour y revenir. Saint Thomas Aquinas unlike Aristotle and his Christian interdid not begin by formu- lating a general theory of soul from which he passed by stages to the human soul. Paris.

36 Ainsi. In another passage in the same work. xvi. p. attempt. but He makes no stating what is purported to be a fact. 308. it is alleged that this general theory of soul was formulated in imitation of Aristotle. 35 ing was said about It is interesting to note that noth- presuming this plan in the first in- stance. general scheme. one may demand to know at least upon what grounds it is based. the World-soul. depuis Tame dcs plantes qu'il nie. it is not known for certain 34 35 sent. he does not tell us how Augustine defined the soul as such.HIS NOTION OF PHILOSOPHY 27 The French savant proffers neither direct evidence from the writings of Saint Augustine nor proofs of any kind to substantiate his claim. but begins his explanation by quoting a definition of the human soul. Ainsi Ill. Augustin s'engage dans une theorie generate de Tame. 39. 36 Again. c. he asserts that one must presume that these considerations lead to a study of the human soul in particular. however. cit. a une etude de Tame humaine en particulier. the French philosopher admits that his interest centered in the latin question as In his attempt. sur Tame. Op. Chap. 160. ou il s'enquiert de la nature de toutes les ames. Aside from the fact that he himself records that he read the Ten Categories when he was 37 scarcely twenty years of age. and proof is necessary in this case as in every other where there is question of Aristotle's influence on the philosophy of Saint Augustine. II. qu'au lieu de s'attacher a 1'etude de I'amc humaine en particulier. and the animal soul. jusq'ua Tame du monde sur laquelle il ne se prononce pas. aboutispresumer. c'est a 1'imitation d'Aristote. might possibly be overbut when he looked. p. 34 After presenting a few brief statements regarding the plant soul. but it was stated as a fact that Augustine followed this mode of procedure. Had he offered the statement this lack of substantiating proof an expression of his own personal opinion. presents it as an unqualified fact. I. to prove this assertion. to sketch this supposed ter. After asserting that Augustine at the outset did not consider the human soul in particular. . iv. it may be observed that the author is not venturing an opinion. 37 Conf. p. moreover. les considerations comme on devait le generates d'Augustin.

that while general theory of soul. since he preferred to read the Neo-Platonist writings not in the original. and none that mentions the Aristotle 38 We know. cit. 39 De Civ. he did not consider him the equal of Plato. xii. moreover. 41 but is it not causing his philosophy to appear as having been organized. one is fully justified in rejecting the statement that Augustine formulated a general theory of soul in imitation of Aristotle. p. to the general theory of soul as expounded by Aristotle.28 that he HIS NOTION OF PHILOSOPHY was acquainted with any other work of the There are exceedingly few references to Stagirite. still one may reasonably presume that he was not given to reading works written in Greek. we do know that Augustine was by preference a PlaIn the light of these tonist and not an Aristotelian. 41 Op. Dei viii. p. in his writings. II. Nourrisson admits that the Bishop of Hippo did not construct an organized philosophy of the soul. he refers to Aristotle as vir excellentis ingenii et eloquii. and seems not have known his system" De Wulf-Coffey op. We do know that there is no direct reference in the fifth century. c. but This in the Latin translations of Marius Victorinus. . 307. and the animal soul to the soul of man? To him to causes interpret Augustine after this fashion appear as having been interested in philoso- phizing about the soul after the 38 to manner of Aristotle. to assert that Augustine first considered the soul in general. we do not know whether or not he was familiar with his *De Anima. and then proceeded by way of the plant soul. and although this has probably been underestimated at times. c. viii. II.) versy in regard to Augustine's knowledge of Greek. 40 Conf. facts. and in the absence of substantiating proofs. (Platoni There has been considerable controquidem impar. 40 latter is significant in the present discussion because in all probability Aristotle's De Anima had not been translated What is suggested by these few items ? We do not know for certain the extent of Augustine's acquaintance with the philosophy of Aristotle. 90. when "He makes mention of Aristotle only three times. the world soul. cit.

One will search in vain. the World-soul. II. II). quam solam curare debemus. amputem latissimam quamdam et infinitam expectationem. study in There can be no doubt about the object of his since he bases his for on the reasoning faculty strongest proof immortality which he conceives as belonging to man alone among terrestrial creatures (c. tality. xxxiii. I. Deum et we cannot fail to perceive that the animam scire human soul as such. De Immorto the Supreme Being. French savant. All the evidence that we have been able to gather points in the opposite direction to that indicated by the The human soul was for Augustine the starting point as well as the finis in his investigation of Whatever he may have had to say the soul problem. c. about the soul in general. when we view his doctrine in its to- and 42 recall his clear statement of purpose at the outset of his Christian career. talitate Animae and De Quantitate Animae. 70). si nobismetipsis curae sumus (c. soul. and the animal soul was introduced merely to better explain this main theme. and not the soul in general or was in the beginning any other kind of and throughout his life the 42 Solil. Finally. the first three works in which he treats the problem of the soul at any length. . in works of a later date for evidence that would justify him in presuming that Augustine arrived at a study of the human soul in particular through a general theory. was for him second in importance only to the understanding of all that pertains In the Soliloquia. 7. cupio. he 29 was actuated in this as in all his philosophical investigations chiefly by religious motives. ne me de omni anima dicturum putes. sed tantum de humana. tibi moreover. there is no mention of a general theory. the plant soul.HIS NOTION OF PHILOSOPHY as a matter of fact. On the contrary. in the first book of the Soliloquia he declares expressly that he is interested only in the human soul (7). In De Quantitate Animae he makes the following explicit statement which places the matter beyond all question of doubt: In primis tamen De Immortalitate Animae. which.

Augustine may be said to have been an eclectic in philosophy. but it is . It is the soul of man. and that he wove into his own philosophy many of the ideas which came to him through these channels. His study of the soul is not a purely philosophical or psychological study it is a religious study. He had become familiar with the writings of Plotinus and Porphyry.30 HIS NOTION OF PHILOSOPHY to this primary object of whatever study he devoted problem. the soul for the sake of knowing God. however. 44 While it is quite certain that Neo-Platonism influenced him more immediately and directly than did Platonism proper. What has been said thus far in regard to Augustine's notion of philosophy may be summed up in the following few sentences There is a philosophy of Saint Augustine. Portalie. VIII. Dictionnaire de Theologie Catholique Art St. The philosophy. Dei Conf. : a religious philosophy. a well-known Roman rhetorician. 1. Civ. 2268-2561. : Vacant et . He desires to know only God and the human soul. through reading the latin versions of Marius Victorinus. and the manner of learning and of living. Augustin. 45 plained by the fact that he considered their philosophy to be more in harmony with Christianity than that of the other pagan thinkers. There is no doubt but that he was acquainted with both past and 43 contemporary schools of philosophy. c. col. the Platonists have discovered in God the First Cause of the 43 44 45 De E. it appears that the ideas which made the deeper and more lasting impression upon his mind were not those peculiar to Neo-Platonism. but those of His preference for the Platonists can be exPlato. that chiefly engages his attention. Unlike other philosophers who spend their talents in seeking to learn the causes of things. the leading exponents of Neo-Platonism. t. 2. II. and not the soul in general or any other aspect of the soul question. Like the other early Christian thinkers. which dominated and influenced his thought more than any other was Platonism. He desires to know God for His own sake. Mangenot. viii.

46 The influence of Plato on the thought of Augustine was enduring. and although it is not so evident in his later writings as in those composed during the first few years after his con- be truthfully stated that it never disapHis attitude towards Plato his life. it may from wherein he expresses his displeasure at having unduly praised these philosophers in his work Contra Academicos (386) laus quoque ipsa. 46 alii Ibid. cum sua studiaque contriuerint in requirendis rerum philosophi ingenia causis. as may be learned from the Retractaversion. cipal errors of the Platonists guard against so far as the soul is concerned are the magnos The I). underwent a change in the course of time. praesertim contra quorum defendenda est Christiana doctrina (I. quantum inpios homines non oportuit. the preexistence of the soul in an imaginary world of ideas together with the theory that its union with the body is in consequence of a previously committed crime the transmigration theory whether understood in the sense of Plato or Porphyry. errores following: the eternity of the soul. This general consideration of Augustine's notion of Philosophy has shown among other things the importance he attached to the study of the human soul. In judging the influence of Platonism on the mind of Augustine it is important to remember that he prefers this philosophy to the other pagan philosopohies. isti Deo cognito reppererunt ubi esset et causa constitutae universitatis et lux percipiendae ueritatis. prinwhich the Christian must c.HIS NOTION OF PHILOSOPHY 31 Universe. et fons bibendae felicitatis. Dei viii. peared entirely and the Platonists. x. qua Platonem uel Platonicos sen Academicos philosophos tantum extuli. and the indirect creation of the soul by God through the agency of inferior beings. 47 Wherever Platonism and Christian philosophy conflict. Dei viii. The under. C. c. the light by which we preceive truth. Cf. . : displicuit. 47 De Civ. c. however. I. x. Augustine unhesitatingly chooses the latter. quia. but not to the Christian philosophy. et quinam esset modus discendi adque uiuendi. non immerito mihi tiones. X. De Civ. Haec itaque causa est quur istos ceteris praeferamus. and the source whence we quaff happiness.

Writings. Rainy. art: St. R. of his concept of the human soul is not only useful but even indispensable to the proper ap48 preciation of his whole philosophy. Introduction to Anti-Manichean . Kampfe. 1865. Zu entwicklung Jena. Paris. . ix Edinburgh. 48 For further information on the question of Platonism and its influence on Augustine. therefore. II. 101 ff. Augustin. F.32 HIS NOTION OF PHILOSOPHY standing. col. A Augustinus verhaltniss. Augustin. iv. : . A. one may consult the following writers Grandgeorge L. J. 2325-31 Newmann. 1902. Portalie. Nourrisson. E. Augustin et le neo-platonisme Paris. La Philosophic de St. Vacant et Mangenot. 1897. 1896 Dictionnaire de Theologie Catholique. 27 ff The Ancient Catholic Church c. p. The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Vol. H. Plato in genetischer .-S. p.

c. who finds himself face to face with the agnosticism and materialism so evident in certain quarters of the academic and scientific world. there is no one who questions the existence of the human soul. X. Harking back to his University days. therefore. "Does the human soul exist?" Saint Augustine apparently did not have to contend with this particular aspect of the soul problem since. x. THE EXISTENCE AND NATURE OF THE HUMAN SOUL. quae utrum sit. c.) soul as a special problem and in a formal manner. xxiii. Augustine recalls that there are three essential queries to be considered in anything one may undertake to investigate. perhaps. VII. nulla fit quaestio. Does the human soul exist? What answer. Quasi non evidentior sit in hominibus anima.EXISTENCE AND NATURE OF THE HUMAN SOUL 33 CHAPTER III. for some of the basic arguments employed today in demonstrating the existence of the human soul are to be found in the writings of Saint Augustine. To do this however would be to follow the line of least It resistance. could he give to this question. quale sit.^ would be very convenient on the strength of this statement to pay no further attention to this question but to proceed at once to consider the nature of the human soul. Dei. one may reasonably conjecture that he would have begun by asking himself the question. feels constrained before all else to formulate an answer to the question. as he. . and how would be go about the framing of r ' answer? Every one who has even a casual acquaintance with the principal works of Saint Augustine knows the great value he attached to the introspective method of studythis 40 50 De Civ. whether the thing be? what it is? what is its nature? Had he studied the human (An sit. The present day champion of the soul theory. quid sit. if any. Conf. himself assures us.

to search for itat veritas. His writings bear witness to his own remark- able powers of introspection. 89. B bridge. 51 52 53 : . Ency. 1912. II. this is the original method of all psychology. 53 Many of the early Christian philosophers who antedate the Bishop of Hippo sufficient that obtainable only by introhe was not merely ac- undoubtedly employed this method particularly in their study of the affective side of man's life. Vol. combined with a talent for analysis and the ability to record in expressive terms the results of his self-examination.) 51 truth elsewhere than within ourselves for truth dwells within us. 155. and there is no one who would be so rash as to maintain that Augustine was the first psychologist. 54 Gonzalez-Pascal. Paris. As every student of the History of Philosophy knows. he has been referred to as "the founder of the introspective method. Plato and Aristotle who were familiar with this method centuries before the time of Augustine. in interiore homine habIt is not necessary. J. one can assume that had he undertaken a formal inquiry into the problem of the existence of the human soul. Cath. Afaher-Boland. if at all possible. 72. It would be more in conformity with fact to say that Augustine was probably the first Christian philosopher to understand and appreciate the scientific value of facts obtained by this method. p. As a matter of fact. then. p. p. to prove this statement. 1898. He appears to have been endowed with a rare faculty for keen and precise interior observation. p. There were at least three eminent thinkers among the Greeks Socrates. he would have commenced De Vera Religione.34 EXISTENCE AND NATURE OF THE HUMAN SOUL (Noli foras ire in teipsum redi. XIV. 4 New The Classical Psychologists. c. Rand." 52 It would be very difficult. His account of some of the more subtle life phenomena spection is of the inner proof quainted with the introspective method but even a master of it. 10 ft. Histoire de la Philosophic. Art Soul. 1890. Cf: Driscoll. 54 From what has just been said regarding Augustine's ability as an jntrospectionist and his appreciation of the introspective method of study. xxxix. Christian Philosophy The Soul. CamYork.

7!5 De Lib.EXISTENCE AND NATURE OF THE HUMAN SOUL 35 with an examination of the testimony of Consciousness. ergo sum. others that it is the brain or the blood. X. c. Quid. to Augustine. but According what if you are deceived? for. 7. : . x. c. that I see no difficulty whatever in the objection of those who say to me. there is no one who questions its existence there is no one who . Descartes. This line of reasoning is familiar to readers of Modern Philosophy. be deceived. Si enim 55 I am aware. idque nosse ct amare certissimum est. if I am deceived. 57 However much the opinions of men may differ respecting the nature of this force. Vcra Rel. 57 Ibid. under56 There is a stands. the distinguished French philosopher. and the indirect argument. qui non est. Nulla in his veris Acadernicorum a^gnmenta formido. c. si falleris? Si enim fallor sum. xxvi. X. c. I may be doubtful and uncertain about many other I am. who has influenced so powerfully the trend of modern speculation. sum. . utique nee falli potest ac per fcf. over. mihi esse me. 7. De Civ. x. xxxix. that I am. si fallor. c. iii. De Beata Vita. sciousness is to be relied upon. and judges. of the Bishop of Hippo. Some have thought that this force is of the nature of fire or air. xxvii hoc sum. knows. divergency of opinion among philosophers regarding the nature of the force by which we live and exercise these various other operations. Nam . Arb. but of this much at least I am most certain This is an intuitive datum implied in all conscious acSo positive am I that this testimony of Contivity. De Trin.">. a living being who remembers. c. others that it is merely a combining together of the bodily elements. thinks. De . Tbid. things. Cogito. morefallor. I am. Consciousness assures me that I exist. c. wills. XT. Some have held that it is nothing more than a concursus of atoms or some kind of a fifth essence. lived at a time when Augustine commanded considerable since. I could not attention among French in the thinkers. Dei. if I did not exist. II. The position occupied world of French thought at the beby Augustine of the seventeenth ginning century may explain in part the striking similarity between the direct proof or demonstration embodied by Descartes in his famous axiom. ii. dicentium.) 56 De Trin.".

but certain activities which we recognize as resembling those which we experience in our own lives. 62 Ibid. and knows.36 EXISTENCE AND NATURE OF THE HUMAN SOUL doubts that he wills." 59 Augustine would prove the existence of the human soul. We observe in them directly not a soul. VIII. 299-300. We infer. Edinburgh. et judicare quis dubitet?) is the soul. c. first of all by having each one consult his own inner experience. This argument based on data furnished by Consciousness was a noteworthy achievement for a philosopher of the fifth century. and and thinks. 4. Letters of St. CLXVI. The historian of philosophy who cherishes the view that this method of handling the problem is a modern discovery could read with profit both to himself and others the writings of this Christian 60 Bishop of the early ages. p. A . (Vivere se tamen et meminisse et intelligere. J. ii. 61 De Trin. therefore. 114. 1913. A. that these other beings have a soul like our own. and understands. p. 1875. Augustine. Cf. ii. Cunningham. 62 58 59 Ibid. it is obvious that I cannot employ the same method in establishing the existence of a soul in other men. While I may be able to prove the existence of my own by the introspective method. G. for inner experience is something personal and exclusive. 60. vol. vi. 61 Reason tells us that similar effects demand a similar cause. but we know that in our own case these vital activities proceed from a soul. Boston. therefore. et velle. Critical History of Philosophical Theories. Schuyler. then. et cogitare. "but which is apprehended by the understanding and discovered to our consciousness by its living energy. and judges. Ep. an this force of vital the principle gustine which be cannot substance perceived by incorporeal means of an image. and remembers. lives. et 58 According to Auscire. We are surrounded on all sides by human beings like ourselves. In seeking to demonsoul strate the existence of a soul in other is men. it necessary to have recourse to the objective method of investigation.

a cursory revision of the text will show that the materials used were drawn in the main from two sources. By way of introduction to the problems suggested by the questions. where they appear only as incidental to the discussion of the doctrine of righteousness in the first instance. c. To do this would be to merit the rebuke he directed against the Semi-Pelagians when he wrote: Non sicut legere libros meos. not only those works which belong to the so-called Philosophical Period of his career will be examined. De Praedestinatione Sanctorum iv. The above arrangement is my own. 8. therefore. The various items which have been brought together in this short sketch are not found in any single treatise composed for the express purpose of demonstrating the existence of the human soul. It was insinuated there that many of his earlier views were modified and even This point must be radically changed in after years. the treatises composed later 63 in life. ita etiam in eis curaverunt proficere mecum. On the contrary. be well to stress the point that Augustine did not arrange the presentation of this question as it has been given here. but also. what is the human soul? and what is its nature? it may be helpful to recall what has been said in the first chapter apropos of the progressive character of Augustine's doctrine. and in the second. To be more specific. . what is the human soul ? calls for a definition. De Civitate Dei and De Trinitate. and especially.EXISTENCE AND NATURE OF THE HUMAN SOUL 37 it For the sake of avoiding possible misunderstanding. in connection with the dissertation on the Trinity. 63 In the present study. without making any allowances whatsoever for the changes and additions which naturally developed in the course of time. borne in mind in connection with the statement and explanation of the subject-matter of the present section. It would evidently be unfair to Augustine not to say anything about the may first utter disregard of his expressed wish to take up his attempt at defining the human soul and proceed to construct around this his doctrine. the answer to the question.

they use the term also in the beast. XVIIII. c. De Agone Christiano. aliquando ita. 64 At least three terms appear in his writings. . the principle of rational life. 66 XV. Bestiae namque carent ratione. spiritus. Quaes. Cf. By what term did Augustine designate the soul? The correct answer to this question cannot be given in a single term." 66 anima to designate the principle of sensitive life. As regards the use of anima and spiritus. animus. Augustine distinguishes in the human soul a pars inferior and a pars superior. 21. quae mentis semper est 65 propria. De Div. while the former signifies that which is In other words. as he himself acknowledges.38 EXISTENCE AND NATURE OF THE HUMAN SOUL At the very outset of this investigation one is confronted by a difficulty arising from the lack of a fixed terminology. Sed cum excepta mente dicitur. In his reply to Vincentius Victor. I. VII. any one of which may mean the human soul. according to their own peculiar mode of speech. he explains that if one distinguishes 64 65 De Gen. ad Litt. which are merely relative terms. because. he was unable to discover a term which would properly specify the soul of man. To determine the exact meaning he attached to these terms one must examine them in the context. LXXXIIL De Trin. ex Us operibus intelligitur quae habemus cum bestiis communia. veluti cum dicimus hominem ex anima et corpore constare. ut human cum mente intelligatur. and is not in the beast. VII. ut excepta mente dicatur. and animus. c. he is more explicit. anima. so that the latter signifies that which excels in man. To the former belong the vital and sensitive powers. Anima is sometimes used to include both pars inferior and pars superior. Concerning the use of animus he has this to say: "There are some Latin writers (he does not say that he is among them) who. to the latter the rational or intellectual powers. sometimes it is employed in a restricted senfee to designate the pars inferior and to exclude the pars superior: Anima aliquando ita dicitur. distinguish between anima and animus.

He is careful. he restricts spiritus to the higher life of man. follows: ing a general theory of soul. c. 166. the omission of the qualifying humaine is misleading. 22. he says: Si autem definiri tibi sit may be taken as a In the course of a dialogue with Evodius. XIII. II. however. This is the definition referred to in the comment on Nourrisson's statement that 69 From Augustine formulated a general theory of soul. p. therefore^ a certain substance participating in reason and adapted^ to the governing of the body. to the soul as such. et ejus Origine. xxiii. The human soul. regendo corpori accommodata. animum vis. Nam mihi quaeris quid videtur esse substantia quaedam rationis particeps. The use of the phrase rationis particeps shows that the definition is applicable attribute only to the 67 68 69 70 human soul and not IV. when used in a generic sense. 67 terms What has been said in regard to the use of these three may be summed up briefly in the following manner Anima vel animus == the human soul Anima (in a limited sense) = pars inferior : Animus Spiritus = pars superior (in a limited sense) = pars superior The meaning of these terms will become clearer in the soul light of the discussion that follows. re68 gendo corpori accomodata. also includes spiritus. Op. et ideo animus. 17 c. substantia quaedam rationis 70 In view of particeps. the statement immediately preceding this passage regardsoul.EXISTENCE AND NATURE OF THE HUMAN SOUL 39 between these two terms. preposee au gouvernement du corps. . xxii. cit. a tion found in De Quantitate Animae human much-quoted defini- starting point. I. to point out that anima. 19 The De An. c. facile respondeo. is the wording of the definition it is evident that it was not intended to apply to the soul as such but to the human Concerning this definition Nourrisson writes as Uame peut etre exactement definie. suivant saint Augustin. In seeking after an exact definition of the in the writings of Saint Augustine. une substance raisonnable.

17. 16. 75 Ibid. c. 73 quaedam. c. substantia is limited by this indefinite pronoun because at the time this definition was formulated Augustine was unable to specify the substance of the human soul. simplex quiddam et propriae substantiae. An. 74 Although he is unable to say what the substance of the soul is. 72 The soul of man. i. . in quibus subjectis sunt ea quae in aliquo subjecto esse dicuntur. Finally. v. xvi. X. sicut color aut forma in corpcre. and was to undergo considerable development in later years. 71 72 Conf. substantia vero ejus nominare non possum. that the human soul is a simple entity having its own proper substance. de his enim rebus recte intelligitiir. xx) De Trinitate (X. IV. VII. quas istis corporis sensibus 75 Further on in the same passage he explains tangimus. . Augustine. The human soul 71 following Aristotle. non enim earn puto esse ex Us usitatis notisque naturis. therefore. 21 X 22-26) is . c. De Trin. An to set forth the various elements analysis of this definition will furnish the occasion brought out in the course of this development. . understands by the term "subis not in any sense qualitatively related to it. is not an accident of the body it . vii) De Genesi ad Litteram (VII. 74 De Quan. iii) it is also frequently referred to in many later works such as De Agone Christiano (c. iv X. stance" a being capable of subsisting in and by itself which does not need a subject in which to inhere. a substance. . . Cf. He had explained this notion in a previous work. x De Immor. He apparently assumes that everyone understands that the human soul is a living substance. c. . xvi. IV. he is careful to point out that he does not consider it to be corporeal. IX. 10. c. it must be remembered that this definition is found in a work belonging to the period of beginnings in the philosophical life of Augustine. substantia. c. 73 De Trin. c. When he teaches that the human soul 18. An. De Immortalitate Animae (c. 2.40 EXISTENCE AND NATURE OF THE HUMAN SOUL use of the adverb exactement is entirely unwarranted as appears at once from the phrases mihi videtur and substantia quaedam. c. Conf. .

nisi that possesses faculties capable of receiving impressions from sensible objects and of vitally reacting to the same. 78 in soul is the first principle of life the source of bodily unity. XXII. which inuiuat) cludes the three principal faculties of the human soul. VII. Ibid.. it belongs to the very nature of its being. Arb. and of the sensus interior. there is in man the vita intellectualis. iii. Dei. . XIII. quoniam non sunt tres vitae. memoria. xi. . c. it prevents bodily disintegration it presides over the vital functions of nutrition. 71 De Civ. 79 De. Dei. c. CXXXVII. ex anima. Anima totum corpus nostrum animat De Agone Christiano. . it is the source of bodily vitality. sed una substantia. 22 uiuit autem corpus et uiuificat De Civ. iv. ad Litt. man. IX. ter utique nee tres substantiae sunt. 5. c. 76 The human but it is soul is not only a living substance also a vivifying principle. De Div. taste. 79 The vita sensualis^ embraces the activities of the five external senses. touch. 8. LXXXIII. XIII. 76 77 . xxii . sed una vita nee tres mentes sed una mens consequenDe Trin. xi. Dei. xx. c. Dei. 83 De Quan. vita sensualis. c. . c. but its motion is intrinsic to itself. These three faculties are not separate distinct entities but they are functions of the soul that share in its substantiality. cum anima uiuit in corpore 78 De Civ. and smell. 80 It includes also imagination. and sense appetite. hearing. 70. V. 70. . . vita intellectualis. ii. Conf." he means that it is capable of imminent and spontaneous motion. . and Voluntas. XXXIII. 84 There . V. it is not moved by being acted upon from without. 77 Augustine distinguishes three grades of life in man vita seminalis. and generation. . and . The rational soul in man is the ultimate prin83 ciple and guide of all the activities of the vita sensualis. c. An. . xi. II. . (certe sentire homo non potest. 81 The functions of sense require a istis living organism 82 . At}. An. Intelligentia. c. xxxiii. c. Memoria. intelligentia. xxxiii. De Civ. c. XV. The . voluntas. II. c. xxxiii. corpus hoc terrenum atque mortale praesentia sua vivificat. Finally. 82 Ep. De Quan. c. except in so far as its activity comes ultimately from God.EXISTENCE AND NATURE OF THE is HUMAN SOUL 41 a "living substance. sense memory. 81 De Quan. viii De Gen. . It is sight. cf. 80 De Lib. 16. Quaes. ad quern ab quinque notissimis cuncta referantur. iv. Quan. An. growth. viz. 71 84 Haec igitur tria.

De Trin. id est. VI. VII. of the soul of man is incorporeal. The substance of the human soul since it is not extended and has real existence is spiritual. An. incorporea. as- 90 Ratio pectus illius. motio. II. et the following form: spiritualis. ea quae discuntur distinguendi et connectendi potens. not a body but a spirit. De Quan. while Ratiocinatio is the power of discursive reasoning the one enables the mind to see. ad De Ordine. breadth. and feel. c. xi. as a vivifying principle. may be defined: rationis inquisitio. 28. dowed with reason. . Cf. c. that is. inextended substance. therefore. 30.) 87 The influence of the Neo-Platonist idea of Reason appears in De Quantitate Animae where he mer may be distinguishes between Ratio and Ratiocinatio. . c.42 is EXISTENCE AND NATURE OF THE HUMAN SOUL no real distinction between the soul and these faculties. Litt. c. 53. is the power of intuition. per ea quae aspicienda sunt. The category of quantity can in no way be applied to it. 85 The soul essentially one but relatively three. viii Cf. II. (Ratio est mentis motio. Augustine defines Reason as a movement of the mind by which it is able to distinguish and connect those things which are learned. The for88 defined it is quidam aspectus mentis : that power of the cinatio mind by which it is able to see truth 89 Ratioimmediately without any bodily concurrence. for Extension is the it is a simple. is that by which we live. De Immor. and carry on the operations of intellectual They are life. It has neither length. An. XXVII. 10. 53. De Gen. The human soul is a substance enrationis particeps. nor is it extended in space. nor thickness. 86 The obscure idea expressed by the complex term substantia quaedam evidently was gradually clarified and developed by Augustine until it assumed something like substantia viva. c. 85 86 87 88 89 90 Ibid. XXVII. The substance is it distinguishing characteristic of matter and whatever is not extended and yet has real existence is spirit. .

c. 8. reason sessing This last phrase suggests one of the most difficult problems in all philosophy the union of soul and body. c. animam Deus hominem ad imaginem suam. et animalia fiunt. and sky. to search for and investigate the truth. The human soul is a regendo corpori accomodata. De An. man alone possesses a rational soul that enables him to reach out beyond the world of sense and to penetrate the realm of eternal. et hoc ipse homo est. and a Ratio superior. 93 universal. De Trin. Man may Fecit ergo creanit. ilia ad videndum. The solution of this difficulty was as much a mystery to Augustine as it has been to philosophers since his time. xvii. 92 Among all the creatures of earth. quafc mentem huiusmodi non haberent. 37 De Genesi contra Manichaeos I. vivifying. he distinguishes between Ratio inferior and Ratio superior he does not mean that these are two distinct entities but merely that they are two functions of one which When and the same subject istic (c. It sets Reason is character- of the human soul. by which the studies temporal things. omnino mirus est. VI. xxiii. c. (Quare In ista opus est ad quaerendum. .) 91 De mind Trinitate he mentions a Ratio inferior. (Homo 91 92 Ibid. Dei XII. He states frankly that the mode of union between the corporeal and the spiritual creatures in man is beyond human ken: Quid et iste alius modus. 4). incorporeal. Talem quippe illi qua per rationem adque intelligentiam omnibus esset praestantior animalibus terrestribus et natatilibus et uolatilibus. iii-iv). IV. quo corporibus adhaerent spiritus. as a substance rational consisting of soul and body. by it contemplates eternal things (XII. but we shall try to indicate its more salient living. De Gen. xxiii. 12. IV. according to Augustine. Dei XXI. De Civ. .EXISTENCE AND NATURE OF THE HUMAN SOUL 43 the other. c. et ejus Origine. features. ad Litt. ii. 94 De Civ. sea. Ill. nee comprehendi ab homine potest. man apart from and above all the rest of terrestrial creation. spiritual substance posand adapted to the governing of the body. c. 94 It does not fall within the scope of this treatise to present an exhaustive account of Augustine's teaching on this subject. be defined. 93 Cf. and necessaiy truth. x.

97 98 99 Ibid. c. 52. De Civ. Civ. It cannot be denied that at one time.he body is nothing more than an external aid or trapping of the soul. ii. Dei.44 EXISTENCE AND NATURE OF THE HUMAN SOUL 95 est substantia rationalis constans ex anima et corpore.) 96 The body is governed by a rational soul which has been breathed into it. quisquis ergo a natura Humana corpus alienare 101 This union of soul and body that results uult. ix. XV. xiii.) The body has a certain quantity of flesh. in man is a personal union. natura nostra ipsa teste cognoscimus. IV. vii. corpus uero animae cohaerere. quod De adhibetur extrinsecus. III. eademque ration97 The whole corporeal part of man is under the dominion of the soul to which it is related as a servant or instrument. ut homo totus et 100 It is plenus sit. Dei. xxix. vi . IX. I. and a constitution of health. for the body is some99 On the thing that pertains to the very nature of man. alis. about the year 388. This unity of person it is. he employed a formula analogous to that of Plato. we know that there must be a union of soul and body to constitute the complete man. Haec (corpora) enim non ad ornamentum I. et ordo distinctioque membrorum et temperatio valetudinis. testimony of our own nature. An. 98 This relationship is not to be understood in the sense that T. 3. c. when he defined man as anima rationalis mortali atque terreno This decidedly Platonic notion of utens corpore. c. desipit. xxvii. X. (Est certe in corpore humano quaedam moles carnis et formae species.) (Hoc corpus inspirata anima regit. uel adiutorium. 8. c. folly for any one to try to separate the body from human nature. c. 103 De Moribus Ecclesiae Catholicae. ii. c. an order and distinction of members. X. . 103 man was very probably due to his then recent contact with the philosophical writings of the Neo-Platonists. et ejus Origine. sed ad ipsam naturam hominis pertinent. an external form. 100 101 102 Ibid. c. iii. 96 De Trin. De Ep. 102 that distinguishes Augustine's doctrine from the exaggerated dualism of Plato who regarded man as spirit joined to a body accidentally and guiding it after the manner of the charioteer directing his chariot. ii. CXXXVII. 95 De Trin.

T. as to the manner in which the soul acts upon the body in the exercise of this regimen. VII. Ibid. the sense centre. (Anima ergo quoniam res est incorporea corpus. sicuti est ignis. 15. but that it only uses them as the instruments of bodily con(Sed anima in istis tamquam in organis agit. This substance serves as a medium of articulation between the soul and the brain. tertius inter : utrumque. .) . how can the soul which is an inextended. Saint Thomas in answer .EXISTENCE AND NATURE OF THE HUMAN SOUL 45 This early formula was cast aside in later years for the one referred to at the outset of this explanation. Litt. another. animam uiuam. a quo sensus omnis. nihil horum est ipsa sed uiuificat et regit omnia. in quo memoriam uigere demonstrant. states that there are three compartments or ventricles in the brain one. the nature of which is analogous to light or air. spiritual substance affect these ventricles of the brain which are extended and material? He answers this difficulty by postulating a kind of intermediary substance. 104 The human soul exerts dominion over the whole corThe question now arises poreal nature that it animates. quod incorporeo uicinum est. the seat of Memory is placed between the anterior and posterior ventricles. XV. aH VTT 1 . vii. uel potius lux et aer.) 105 It is through these three ventricles of the brain that the soul rules the body. DP n*n ad. is situated in the anterior portion. primitus agit et per haec caetera. Homo est substantia rationalis constans ex anima et corpore. agrees with Augustine that the 104 106 107 1ft* De Civ"5di.itt c.) 106 The question naturally suggests itself. De Gen. . Augustine. Augustine takes care to point out that the soul is not identical with these parts of the brain. a quo motus omnis. is located in the posterior portion. to an objection founded upon this theory of an intermediary substance. referring to the prevailing theory of localization of function in the brain. et per haec corpori consulit et huic uitae in qua factus est homo in trol. while the third. : (Ideo tres tamquam uentriculi cerebri demonstrantur unus anterior ad faciem. ii. the motor area. alter posterior ad ceruicem. quae 107 crassiora sunt corporis.

contra Priscillianistas et Origenistas. Dei XI. as the Manicheans. sence. c. 108 109 Ep. therefore. it is needless to remark. xxii. r To what has been said heretofore in respect to the nature of the human soul. a. From this analysis and explanation of the definition is found in De Quantitate Animae. and Origenists maintained. The soul of man. administers the body proximately through the instrumentality of the brain. De Duabus Ammabus contra Manichaeos. II. c. I Ad Orosium. Had he gathered these elements together in the form of a definition one might expect to find something like the following: the human soul is a living. 7. 110 De An. 109 This view of the soul was positively re110 We jected by Augustine as blasphemous and heretical. .46 EXISTENCE AND NATURE OF THE HUMAN SOUL j ' grosser parts of the body are moved by the finer parts. q. incorporeal. the following few pertinent observations may be added. is not a part of God 108 it does not participate the Divine Es. it is quite evident that Augustine's notion of the human soul underwent considerable development during the years subsequent to the time it was formulated. Priscillianists. 76. De Civ. CLXVI. By collecting the various elements brought out in the analysis just presented. This definition together with the one found in De Moribus Ecclesiae Catholicae (p. This development. a fairly accurate idea may be obtained of what Augustine considered the human soul to be. . especially the latter. ii. (Summa Th. et ejus Origine II. must be carefully considered by any one who would form a correct idea of Augustine's concept of the human soul. are unmistakably Platonic in form. ad 1 um. iii. 44). c. and remotely through a medium that is akin to spirit.) The human soul. I. I. and to accept either the one or the other as final would expose one to the danger of misunderstanding and misinterpreting Augustine's whole philosophy of the soul. and that the first instrument of this motive power is a kind of spirit. rational substance which is vitally and potentially present in the body as the principle of all its which (. know that the soul is subject to change and is. spiritual. although it is fashioned in the image and likeness of God. operations. c. in a cer- Cf.

27. 3. other. X. he must be careful to guard The theory against confusing or identifying such a World-soul with God. which was then dominant in his intellectual life. (Introduction. entertained some doubts as to whether there is a universal soul for all men or a particular soul for each individual. De Civ. It is a For a time he seems to have single. 28. Although he shows some hesitancy in pronouncing for or against a World-soul. xxix. De Quan. evil.) After his conversion to Christianity he devoted considerable time and attention to the refutation of the tabilis 111 He is everywhere vigorous in his condemnation of the doctrine proposed by them that in man there are two souls the one good. individual entity. CLXVI. emanating from the tenets of this sect. 113 We have seen that Augustine was a zealous follower of the Manicheans for a period of about nine years. emanating from the Evil Principle. An. in all probability.EXISTENCE AND NATURE OF THE tain sense. Art. 117 Ep. but . while he during the first years of his career. 69. 112 This view. c. omni modo incommuatque incorruptibilis esset. in the Retractationes. Conf. v). An. Good Principle the . cannot be a part of God. De Duabus Animabus contra Manichaeos (392) . was due to the influence of Neo-Platonism. c. xxxii. Dei IV. but even insists most emphatically on the individual character of the human soul. ix. he does not hesitate to assert that if one accepts this theory. appears have been considered by him at least as a possibility 115 Later on. ii. A few years later. xv. De Immor. to 114 of a World-soul invented by Plato. xii. he declares that it is hardly credible. corruptible. c. HUMAN SOUL 47 God is in every respect immutable and incorruptible the soul. Dei X. . about 395. II. therefore. he warns his readers against rashly embracing such a doctrine (I. De Lib. 116 Finally. does not positively reject it. VIII. all doubt had evidently disappeared for he not only rejects this idea.) The human soul is not part of a universal soul. De Civ. (Si enim hoc esset.

he sought for a solution of the difficulty concerning the origin of the soul of man. appear in Augustine's lines of investigation search for knowledge of the human soul. De Trin. This is a point on which his doctrine never He was always foremost among those who devaried. was convinced at all times. even in his pre-Christian days. c. These three main lines of investigation will be traced in this and the subsequent chapters. quam Deus inspiravit homini snfflando in ejus faciem. sed spirjtus. The first of these has to do with the incorporeal nature of the soul of man. Ep. THE HUMAN SOUL Three main IS INCORPOREAL. 24. ii . ad Litt. 28. X. CLXVI. 119 The crux of this problem 118 Nunc tamen de anima. De Gen. et sit incorporea. nihil confirmo. 119 VII. spiritual substance. particularly that phase of the question which refers to the origin of the He studied souls of the descendants of the first man. according under the dominion of the imagination that they are unable to think of any substance as existing of which they cannot form an image. fended the spirituality of the soul against the attacks of materialism. hence they conclude that the soul of man must be a corporeal substance. c. is because they are so completely a body. In the opinion of these men. De Gen. The reason why the masoul is terialists hold that the human to Augustine. and what is not corporeal is nothing. this problem for over thirty years but never succeeded in solving it to his satisfaction. Saint Augustine maintained against the materialistic philosophers of his day that the soul of man is an incor118 poreal. . nisi quia ex Deo sic est. therefore. X. He teaches that the human soul is not a body but a spirit. that the soul of man is immortal in a sense proper to itself. The second main problem that engaged his He attention was the immortality of the human soul. id est. ad Litt.48 THE HUMAN SOUL IS INCORPOREAL CHAPTER IV. ut non sit substantia Dei. only bodies are real things. Finally. vii . non sit corpus.

the soul is a body. . because He alone it is . the use of the term incorporea is restricted to that nature is absolutely immutable and ubiquitous. inextended entity having neither 122 That Augustine underlength. 125 De Immor. . . 121 If.THE HUMAN SOUL IS INCORPOREAL 49 according to Augustine depends upon the meaning one attaches to the terms corpus and substantia. is not true. or to put it more aptly. II. and the whole is greater than any of its parts. c. c. Ill. et ejus Origine IV. he means a being in and of subsisting by itself one which does not capable in inhere. the soul is not incorporeal because it is not a nature of this kind. An. c. VII. stood the term corpus in this last-named sense is evident which from his definition of corpus: et quidquid majoribus et minoribus suis partibus majora obtinentibus constat. 40. c. If corpus is used to designate every substance or essence. ad. that every sub- soul is not a corpus. xii. but it is a substantia not spatially extended it has no measurable dimensions but it is a simple substance which is present simultaneously not only in the whole body but also in each of its parts. the soul is not a body. because it is a substance. Litt. c. that which is in some manner self -existent. non modo universae moli corporis sui sed etiam 1-5 When the unicuique particulae illius tota simul adest. CLXVI. 21 De. VI. the converse of this stantia is a corpus. 120 If then. because it is a simple. vi X. xvi De Gen. so that one of its parts is greater and another less. c. xii. namely. et ejus Origine IV. however. An. as understood by Augustine are not convertible. therefore. etiam De Trin. 124 Chap. 121 Ibid. 123 De An. . breadth nor thickness. 123 minora spatia locorum By substantia. soul is spoken of as a "simple substance. . xvi. Strictly speaking. God alone is simple. The human 120 Ep. vii De Immor. . . p. c. While every corpus is also a substantia." the term "simple" is used in a relative not an absolute sense. Cf. 17. An. 122 Ibid. 124 The terms corpus which to a subject require and substantia. the term corpus is employed to signify a measurable unity which is extended in space.

De Immor. xxxii.50 is THE HUMAN SOUL IS INCORPOREAL unchangeable. the soul is present in the body. Ep. tola singulis partibus simul adest. and of both at the same time. the whole soul is aware and aware of it as taking place at the In like manner. An. 13 and since it pervades the body in this in126 127 128 129 130 De Civ. . c. contacts simultaneously in different parts of the body. in what manner may it be said to be present in the body which it animates? Augustine formulates an answer to this question somewhat after the manner of Plotinus. not spatially. you will observe that although the contact is made only at one tiny spot on the entire surface of the body. but vitally and potentially. xvi. the whole soul is aware of each one separately. 1 If the soul is a simple substance. hoc est. If you touch any part of a living man ' with a sharply-pointed instrument. extended substance which occupies a larger or smaller portion of space according to its dimensions. XI. An. the soul pervades the body not quantitatively but 128 In connection with this by a certain vital intension. If this were the case. CLXVI. the leading exponent of Neo-Platonism. 127 or as he expressed the same idea elsewhere. if you that is touched. description of the manner in which the soul is present in the body. that part of the soul corresponding to the part of the body affected by manner the instrument would experience the sensation of contact but not the whole soul. c. II. c. it must be wholly present in each part of the body at the same time. he has recourse to the experimental method to confirm his theory. c. c. This simple experiment demonstrates that the soul is not diffused through the body after the of a material. Dei. quoniam quod habet. De Quan. particular spot the a little farther and establish two experiment carry of the contact. II. Ep. non spatio loci ac temporis sed vi ac potentia. CLXVI. 129 Since the whole soul and not merely a part experiences these sensations. devoid of parts and spatial extension. quae tota simul sentit in singulis. x. in Him alone there is perfect identity of essence and attribute.

and know. Chap. CXXXVII. Litt. neither to form these images were a body. ad c. says that the human soul if it is not deceived as to its own nature understands itself to be incorporeal. i:. Ibid. Nam si anima in sua natura non fallatur. This is true in particular of several arguments which are found in De Quantitate Animae and De Immortalitate Animae. p. and and think. et ejus Origine. 133 134 135 136 137 Ep. c. whence they up ing are reproduced in some mysterious manner when we wish 138 If the soul to recall the objects that they represent. 131 Some of the arguments presented by Saint Augustine prove the incorporeal nature of the human soul. that understand. Augustine. they may be omitted for the purpose of emphasizing those arguments which were to be appropriated by the Christian philosophers of the succeeding centuries. iii. etiam De Gen. 35 Ibid. 135 is An examination of the nature of these operations will their principle reveal the nature of the agent which Agere sequitur esse. are neither clear nor convincing. xvii. we live. it would be able nor to retain them. since they are so numerous and fre137 Therequently representative of such large objects. and judge. Ill. 21. vii. Ibid. in a letter which was written about the year 412 to Volusian. which are fashioned by the act of thinkbodies of images in the stored and depths of Memory. incorpoream se esse 132 As has been stated.L- THE HUMAN SOUL extended manner. 133 This interior vision bears tifies that the soul exists. Consciousness tescomprehendit.i 1:5:2 Ibid. spirWe know that we have innumerable itual substance. nature of the soul. moreover. Cf. and remember. De An. The phenomena of Memory prove to Augustine that the soul of man is an incorporeal. to it IS INCORPOREAL 51 must be an incorporeal substance. ff. As there is no real advantage to be gained from a restatement of these tive efforts of involved and subtle reasonings which represent the primiour author in the field of philosophical writing. 134 We substantial witness also to the are aware. a distinguished Christian layman. 11. . IV. and will.

there is is spiritual and not tamen dubio spiritalis est. 145 142 A words of explanation may throw some light on his rather involved theory of Memory. Ibid. viii. ix. to speak of images as if they were accumulated in a receptacle of some kind from which they are drawn forth whenever we remember. perceives the images of bodies which are formed by the mind and retained therein. such as thoughts (ibi reconditum est quidquid etiam cogita- mus). Ibid. non corpocorporeal. the second.52 THE HUMAN SOUL IS INCORPOREAL fore. vii. remains after the image has disappeared. few of the soul as desire. con138 139 140 141 c. De Gen. . c. 84. 138 This explanation of the Memory-processes of retention and reproduction is eschewed by the modern psychologist who points out. therefore. 1913. the third. 141 The former. De Civ. joy. the second. c. VIII. The perceives all sensible objects. Ibid. that "Since image means a conscious representation. Introductory Philosophy. 143 the princi144 and the notions of such affections ples of mathematics. viii. and rightly so. Ep. New c. corporeal. X. the simple exertion of the mind without any bodily co146 To these three grades of perception correoperation. ii. xii. no doubt that the soul Augustine appears to have held that Sense-Memory as well as Intellectual is an incorporeal faculty. c. York. ad Litt. spiritual. Dubray. He distinguishes three kinds of perception. 142 143 144 145 146 Conf. procul ralis. The image itself is not retained but "the disposition or aptitude" to 140 recall it. p. 21. three kinds of Memory: the first. Ibid. stores up the spond images which originate with the senses. fear. CXX. c. ix. c." correct. is immediate perception by first. C. v. X. Dei. is not a material faculty because if it were it could not contain images which are not bodies but only the likenesses of bodies. he reasons. The latter must be incorporeal since it retains the immaterial. and sorrow. Ibid. De Trin. c. and intellectual. the explanations of the liberal arts. the retention of 139 It is not images is but a metaphorical expression.

which we acquire through the instrumentality of the bodily faculties. retains those immaterial and purely 147 It would spiritual ideas which originate in reason. CXVIII. xiii. spiritual nature of the soul can be demonstrated also from the character of our intellectual knowledge and operations. c. X. as they know those things with which they come into contact by means 147 148 149 150 151 Conf. c. iii. the latter. in particular Democritus. know that philosophers dispute among themselves con1*1 cerning the meaning of Wisdom and Truth. and. c. De Trin. that he considers at least some operations of Memory to be spiritual in character. corporeum 1*8 He distinguishes between sense corpusve non esse. is obtained 149 In his refutation of directly through the mind itself. An. concludes logically that the soul of which Memory is a faculty is incorporeal and spiritual. besides the knowledge knowldge. which relates to immaterial ideas. the theory of knowledge proposed by the Stoics. not. he emphasizes this distinction between sense and intellectual 150 He shows that. IX. VI. Ep. X. therefore. knowledge and intellectual knowledge: the former is acquired through the instrumentality of the senses. Oportet animum quo videmus ilia incorporalia. in imitation of Plato. He leaves no room for doubt. and hence. yet they must be present to the mind in some way or they could not be discussed. it is impossible for them to form images corresponding to these realities. De Quan. . VII. seem from this that he did not always distinguish clearly between Memory and Imagination. but. we incorporaliter atque intelligibiliter. De Vera Relig. the third. argues that since the soul of man is capable of perceiving the incorporeal. Epicureans and Atomists. it must itself be incorporeal. For instance. however. there are many things that we know. Augustine. The incorporeal. Ibid. They know Wisdom and Truth. indeed. Ep.THE HUMAN SOUL IS INCORPOREAL 53 tains those images which are created by the imaginative faculty. iv.

It and one well worth noting that this question. VII. : Ibid. Ideas of this kind can be sible for us to think 159 Since the soul of apprehended only by pure reason. by pure thought. et ejus Origine. Ep. A lengthy discussion of this problem is to be found in his correspondence with his "beloved friend" (dulcis amicus meus). the notion of a being divine and supremely immutable 158 all of which are spiritual and hence in no way traceable to the activities of the bodily senses. Nebridius had stated it as his opinion that there could be no thought without some kind of an image. iii. c. ad Lht. understanding. 153 In a letter written to Augustine about the year 389. et ejus Origine. CXVIII. De An. IV. VI. as he expresses it elsewhere. We are able to think of Eternity. xiv. xiv. Hope and Charity. 156 the idea of God. was mooted in thought Augustine's day. thinking. spiritual substance. . Ibid. c. c. and judging. 24. man is capable of apprehending the purely spiritual. knowing. that operations of the soul. Ep. 152 This argument is interesting in view of the fact that the problem of "Imageless Thought" is receiving some attention at the present time in the field of Experimental Psychology. We know that we have such ideas as those of Faith. Ibid. iii. but directly. c. xx. without forming any image of it. X. De An. 155 He emphasizes this imageless character of some of our thinking in several works of a later date. Augustine logically infers that the soul must be an in160 corporeal. Ep. Conf. 154 Our author disagrees with this opinion and maintains that it is posis a curious fact very same about certain things without any concomitant image. as to whether there can be any without its concomitant image. IV. all of which As regards the higher man is 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 Cf De Gen. a word-image at least must be present in every act of thinking. Nebridius. IX.54 THE HUMAN SOUL IS INCORPOREAL of images. c. 157 or. he teaches of capable remembering. for instance. willing.

but idea with idea. Non enim tantum sentimus animum. so that it were. the act of judgment. VIII. vi. be looked at. 165 as it De 161 162 163 164 Civ. that "none are beautiful but the wise. et in earn. Therefore the rational soul of man is incorporeal. spiritual principle. c. extended entity. Ibid. Dei VIII. quae utique corpus non est. In refuting the Stoics and Epicureans who attributed the faculty of judgment to the senses (qui posuerunt iudicium ueritatis in sensibus corlGl he remarks. and a fortiori the faculty which judges whether the image is beautiful or ugly is not a body. then the faculty which is able to judge immaterial ideas must also be incorporeal. v. . Haec mens hominis et rationalis animae natura est. But this faculty belongs to the rational soul of man. then that faculty by which Jie is able to perceive this image is not a body. If the faculty of judging images is incorporeal. sed etiam scire possumus quid sit animus consideratione nostri habemus enim animum De Trin. But that which judges it is a faculty which pertains to the is the mind of man nature of the rational soul. c. By means of this act we not only know that we have a soul." since neither 162 "beauty" nor "wisdom" can be perceived by the senses. vi. To form a judgment of this kind one must compare not image with image. Take. c. 164 In this operation the soul does not form an image of itself. capacity to reflect upon itself. but we can also know what the soul is by a study of our own. quando se cogitat. De Trin. but it beholds itself by a certain process of incorporeal conversion which pertains to its very naIf the soul were a material. the strongest and most convincing proof of the incorporeal nature of the human soul is based upon its . non quasi per loci spatium sed incorporea conversione revocetur. ture. vii. 1611 Finally. simultaneously where it can both look and is. 165 Proinde restat ut aliquid pertinens ad ejus naturam sit conspectus ejus. but only the likeness of a body. which certainly is not a body. for example. how can these philosophers assert poris). . XIV. c. If the image which one calls to mind to aid him in thinking is not a body.THE HUMAN SOUL IS INCORPOREAL 55 presuppose an incorporeal. Ibid. Ibid.

De Trin.56 THE HUMAN SOUL IS INCORPOREAL however. This terminology was contributed by the Schoolmen and was a distinctive addition to the Christian philosophy of the soul. to bend itself completely back upon itself so as to be at one and the same time both the subject which sees and the object which is seen. Ibid. The place which this problem occupies in Christian philosophy is an important one. 167 The philosophical doctrine of Spiritualism as it is found in Christian Philosophy received much of its development from Saint Augustine. c. While it is very true that he borrowed freely from the Pagan as well as the Christian philosophers who had gone before him. Cf. it would not be able. . He was the channel through which the spiritualistic findings of the past were transmitted to the Christian thinkers of subsequent times. 166 Since the soul is capable of this operation of self-reflection which is incorporeal in character it must itself be incorporeal. yet he deserves not a little credit for the admirable manner in which he synthesized the best elements of their doctrine and brought them to a higher stage of development. IX. so to speak. 166 167 Ibid. because upon it rests the significant question of the immortality of the soul. Augustine's doctrine suffered from the lack of a fixed and sufficiently defined and expressive terminology. iii. Those who came after him in the great Scholastic movement took up the arguments which he had gathered together and both further developed and perfected them.

De Civ. Boston. W. to philosophy the doctrine of immortality. . c. "In one particular instance Greek religion contributed directly to Greek philosophy by handing over lation. We discover this belief among the great nations of antiquity intimately bound up with religious ideas. the word "immortality" signifies deathlessness or the state of not being subject to death. customs. With the rise of Philosophy among the Greeks the problem of human immortality enters the domain of rational specu- A but even here its religious aspect is never entirely submerged. p. 31. hence that is immortal which will never cease to live. ies 169 Turner. He begins his study of the problem by asking himself the what is immortality? Etymologically.. and burial. (Quod sit immortalis secundum quendam uitae modum. he seeks to demonstrate the immortality of the human soul on purely rational grounds. 1903. death is the cessation of life. quern nullo modo potest amitquestion. XIII. ii." 168 doctrine of immortality in the Christian religion retained the marks The is a fundamental tenet resting upon both revelation and reason.THE IMMORTALITY OF THE HUMAN SOUL 57 CHAPTER V. study of the popular and cultural traditions of all peoples of all times discloses a constant and universal conviction among men that the human being is destined to survive this present existence. 109 By the immortality of the human soul. a doctrine which in every stage of its philosophical development has of its theological origin. that there is a life after death. THE IMMORTALITY OF THE HUMAN SOUL. he means that the soul of man will never cease to have some kind of life. According to Augustine. The belief in an undying survival is as ancient as the race. rites of worship. The philosopher is interested in constructing a rational ' doctrine of immortality. History of Philosophy. The early Christian doctrine of immortality is well defined in the Vv f ijigs of Saint Augustine. Dei.

cease to live and feel. Ep. Ibid.) (Nam of the immortality of the soul with a qualification because as he recalls there is a kind of death which the deprived of happiness. Litt.) 17 THE IMMORTALITY OF THE HUMAN SOUL experience that the body of man 171 Although the separated from the soul. These two works contain several metaphysical proofs which are like in character to those formulated by Plato and developed by the Platonist Three of these proofs are deserving of philosophers. CXLIU. since He alone is immutable in his essence and The immortality of the soul. it does not. dies We know from it is when ideo dicitur inmortalis. This sort of death. however. c. iv. at least in a certain sense. 179 His earliest discussion of the immortality of the soul is found in the simulated dialogues of the Soliloquia and in De Immortalitate Animae. Ibid. Dei. vi. 28. quia modo quodam quantu173 He speaks locumque non desinit uiuere adque sentire. iv. death of the body ensues when the two cohering essences are rent asunder. c. CLXVI. XIII. some notice. 175 The human soul is not immortal in the same sense as we predicate immortality of God. Conf. . Civ. VII. De Civ. but it is immortal in a manner peculiar to itself. therefore. Dei. both of which were written about the year 387. 172 the soul does not die. does not affect the essence of the soul. c. not that they have any special intrinsic soul experiences when it is 174 . c. Civ. but God is above all death. x. ii. XIII. according will. Trin. 176 He alone possesses immortality stride loquendo. that is to say. Dei. X. XIV. for the soul even when it is most miserable does not cease to live. . ii. ad c. 177 to Augustine means that the soul is of such nature that it will live always that while it is created in time it will not perish in time 178 that it is not absolutely undying as is God.58 tere. He is absolutely immortal. 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 De De De De Gen. 7. ii. c. XI. c. There is a certain kind of death which the soul of man can suffer. Ep.



value, but because they represent the earliest efforts of Augustine to construct a rational doctrine of immortality.

In the


of these proofs his line of reasoning



Truth so exists in the soul that it is inseparable from it, but Truth is immortal, therefore, the soul is immortal. He introduces a resume of a very involved and
long-drawn-out discussion of this argument by reminding himself of the familiar fact that one thing may be said to be in another in a two-fold sense: either it so exists in its subject as to be separable from it; or it
exists in its subject in this distinction in mind

an inseparable manner. 180 With he argues if that which exists in

subject in an inseparable

subject also exists in the soul in an inseparable manner, but Science is Truth and Truth is immortal, therefore, the soul is immortal. 181 He concludes the exposition of this proof,

manner is immortal, the must be immortal. We know that Science

which he himself considered the best and strongest of all the metaphysical proofs, by depicting Reason his imaginary disputant as exhorting him to yield to this argument and give his assent to Truth when she insists that she is indwelling and immortal, and that therefore the soul is immortal, immortalis est igitur anima: jam jam crede rationibus tuis, crede veritati; clamat et in te esse habitare, et immortalem esse, nee sibi suam sedem qua182 cumque corporis morte posse subduci.

The meditations begun in the Soliloquia were finished De Immortalitate Animae. He opens the latter work with an argument similar to the one just stated; the
tains to
soul contains knowledge, but all knowledge persome science, and science is immortal, therefore

the soul

183 This argument is followed is immortal (c. i). which also another appealed strongly to the mind of by time it was formulated. The soul of Augustine at the man is immortal because it is the seat of Reason which Reason is another of those things which is immortal.

180 181 182 183

Solil. II, c. xii. Ibid. c. xix, 33.


Cf. Ep.


ad Nebridium.



an inseparable manner, but Reason can exist only in a living subject, and since it must exist always, its subject must be immortal, therefore the human
exists in the soul in

soul is immortal, quamobrem si anima subjectum est, ut supra diximus, in quo ratio inseparabliter, ea necessitate quoque qua in subjecto esse monstratur, nee nisi viva anima potest esse anima, nee in ea ratio potest esse sine vita, et immortalis est ratio; immortalis est anima
(c. vi).

The third and

last of these

metaphysical proofs

worthy of mention is nothing of one of Plato's arguments.

more than a restatement The soul of man differs

from the body

in this, that it is life, while the body is merely something animated. We know that what is merely animated may be deprived of life by separation from its life-giving principle, hence it is that the death

of the body ensues when it is separated from the soul. The soul, on the contrary, cannot suffer death because

belongs to its very essence, therefore, the soul is immortal, quidquid enim vita desertum mortuum dicitur, id ab anima desertum intelligitur; haec autem vita, quae deserit ea quae moriuntur, quia ipsa est animus et seiplife

deserit: non moritur animus (c. ix; c. xiv). This same line of argumentation is repeated many years later in De Trinitate. In considering the various opinions advanced by the pagan philosophers respecting the substance of the soul, he observes that those who have held that the soul is some kind of incorporeal life have attempted also, each one according to his ability, to prove that it is immortal, since they understood that life cannot exist without life (X, c. vii).
It is exceedingly difficult to follow the intricate mazes, of speculation in which these alleged proofs of immortality are involved. Augustine himself evidently realized this when he wrote his review of De Immortalitate

sam non


in the Retractationes, for he remarks, qui primo ratiocinationum contortione atque breuitate sic obscurus est, ut fatiget, cum legitur, etiam intentionem meam uixque intelligatur a meipso (I, c. v). He acknowledges,


some forty years after they had been proposed, that



these metaphysical proofs are not only vague and con-

Howevermuch deserved fused, but even unintelligible. this severe criticism of his own work may appear at
nevertheless one must not overlook the fact that some elements of real value are to be found in this
first glance,

early treatise on immortality.

This purely speculative line of reasoning was abandoned by Augustine in after years for the presentation and development of what may be termed the natural evidences of immortality. What is by far the best and most acceptable of all the arguments proposed by him in favor of the immortality of the human soul is based upon man's natural desire to continue in existence. Every man, he
writes, is

aware of a deep-seated, ineradicable, natural longing for being and life. We know, moreover, that this desire is not peculiar to ourselves, but that it is universal it is one of those fundamental cravings which 184 We belongs to our common, rational, human nature. 185 all desire to live. We wish not to be annihilated. Our nature shrinks from the very thought of annihilation. 186 So powerful is this longing for existence that were a man who is actually miserable to be given the alternative of continuing in a state of misery or of being annihilated, he would choose unhesitatingly the former. 187 We need not seek far for corroboration of this, for we know from personal observation the horror and fear men have of death and how mightily they struggle against its ap188 proach, even when they are in the greatest misery. This instinct of self-preservation that we find in man is not wanting in brute creation. Irrational animals from the smallest to the largest, show by their behavior that

189 they possess this tendency to cling to being and to life. Trees and plants, too, after their own fashion manifest something similar to this tendency as can be seen from

184 185 186 187 188 189


Trin. XIII,




Civ. Dei XI,





or to express the same idea in simpler 195 it implies that something becomes nothing. that is to say. XIII. of course. . that a physical body can be diminit ished and hence tend towards annihilation. means the perfect destruction of a being so that nothing of terms. for instance. it is not thereby anniIf this be true of the body of man which is a hilated. and plants. this natural tendency. 194 the supremely immutable Creator. c. and trees.62 the THE IMMORTALITY OF THE HUMAN SOUL way in which their roots dig down deep into the soil while their branches stretch skywards towards the sun in order that they may draw from these sources what is 190 Even inanimate necessary for the continuance of life. present existence. 192 Man desires not merely to survive his 193 actually desires to be immortal. but he This desire has been implanted in it man by will not therefore. vii. broken up into the smallest conceivable particles. Ibid. 190 191 192 193 194 195 Ibid. viii. We know. Finally. De Trin. does not imply conscious effort. but it does not follow that because a being tends towards annihilation that it is ever actually annihilated. remains. in the human being there is present not only conscious effort. but although it may be infinitely reduced. De Immor. An. matter seems somehow or other to assume that position 191 in which it can exist in most accordance with its nature. be frustrated. Ibid. Every loss that a being suffers tends towards its annihilation. it is interesting to observe that a trace at least of this analogy seems to be found in one of the arguments Annihilation for immortality advanced by Augustine. but also the rational desire to survive. tinue to exist forever. In the case of inanimate matter. The irrational animal on the other hand strives consciously in the struggle for existence. c. Ibid. and man will con- In view of the fact that there are those who reason by analogy from the accepted principles of the conservation of matter and of energy to the indestructibility of the soul.

Ibid. and He is unattainable in this mortal state. is shared also by every other human being. is God. we find another drawn from man's natural desire for happiness. This is evident from the fact that some men seek happiness in those things which pertain to the appetites of the flesh others search for it in the pleasures of the mind. c. while some few look for it in both of these. Ibid. since he would always live in fear of losing that which he possessed and en201 It follows from this that since man desires to joyed. moreover. Supreme Good. omnium certa sententia est. he desires also to be immortal for happiness 196 197 Ibid. i. if man is to be happy he must survive his present existence. i. c. 200 198 199 De De Civ.THE IMMORTALITY OF THE HUMAN SOUL physical something soul 63 how much truer must it be of his which has a nature so far superior to the body. that this desire happiness. however. The Supreme Good. 193 It would be presuming too much. Augustine says that there is no doubt among those who are able to reason in any manner whatsoever that all men wish to be happy. to lay any particular stress on the possible relation of this argument to the line of reasoning followed by some modern thinkers. iii. c. W7 Each man recognizes in himself this longing for is furthermore. iv. Trin. vii-viii. beatos esse omnes homines uelle. This survival. must be permanent for if it were not man would not be happy. Dei X. Dei. be happy. Side by side with the development of the argument based on the natural desire for existence. . 200 201 De c. therefore. c. qui ratione quoquo modo uti possunt. not proper to himself as an individual. all are not agreed as to how it is to be fulfilled. 198 While all men are aware of this desire to be happy. but that it He knows. X. 199 For his part Augustine agrees with the Platonists that this desire for happiness can be fully realized only in the possession of the . Civ. XIII. It is offered here merely for what it may be worth as an item of historical interest. perhaps.

aliter enim beati esse non possent. if left to themselves. est. Philosophers who have attempted to solve this problem by reason alone may have who have succeeded in establishing the fact of survival. 203 therefore. it is by no means satisfactory since it provides only for the immortality of the soul and not for the immortality of the whole man. Ibid. Ibid. Ibid. for example.64 THE IMMORTALITY OF THE HUMAN SOUL cannot be without immortality. XIII. Although the theory of Porphyry is more reasonable than that of the other Platonists. taught that the soul suridentity. De Trin. not indeed in the bodies of beasts. profecto et esse immortales volunt. viii. the ablest interpreter of Plato. si vere volunt. rejected this view and substituted the theory that human souls return. finally 209 enjoys immortal happiness in the possession of God. xxx. Nam Ibid. corpora bestiarum scripsisse certissimum 207 208 209 210 Platonem animas hominum post mortem reuolui usque ad De Civ. Ibid. 208 Augustine praises Porphyry not only for improving upon the theory of his Master but also for teaching that the soul after for it passing through a certain cycle of reincarnations. 207 Porphyry. c. 202 This two-fold desire for happiness and immortality has been implanted in the nature of man by the Creator. XIII. XIII. the pupil of Plotinus. 206 This same opinion was cherished by Plotinus. are unable to solve the 202 203 204 205 206 De Trin. 210 From these considerations it is clear that even the best equipped intellects. ix. . c. cum ergo beati esse omnes homines velint. maintained there are very few men that Augustine the ability and the necessary leisure and learning to discover the immortality of the soul by the unaided 204 light of human reason. c. it will not be frustrated. De Trin. but they have failed to grasp the idea of permanence of personal 205 Plato. ix. but it is most certain that he held also that the souls of men return in the bodies of beasts. c. but in human bodies. Dei X. vives the death of the body. however.

. 211 212 Ibid. 84. 687. in order that we might one tality He assumed our 213 day partake of that immor- which He alone can give. Ency. for they 215 There pass it by without even so much as a mention. 213 214 Ibid. c. p. in his Critique of Augustine's philosophy points out in a single sentence that our author saw a strong presumption for immortality in man's natural desire for being. Nourrisson. is a tendency in other quarters to lay particular stress on the Platonic proofs of his earlier years while the arguments set forth in De Trinitate and De Civitate Dei are given but scant attention. non argumentatione huniana. History of Philosophy. Geschichte der Christlichen Philosophic zur Zeit der Kirchenvater. 134-135. Stoeckl. for instance. Op. Fides autem ista totum hominem immortalem futurum. 1903. "it is faith that promises not by human argumentation. 303. Immortality. qui utique constat ex anima et corpore et ob hoc vere beatum. p. while he devotes some pages to the discussion of the proofs found in De Immortalitate Animae. 316-317. 215 216 Cath. ix. art: Augustine. De Trin. but by divine authority that the whole man. 232. 65 This whole question of immortality rests ultimately on faith. W. who. II. Ueberweg-Heinze II. cit. p.'214 Others writers there are who seem to be of the opinion that there is nothing worth while in Augustine's doctrine of immortality. II. Augustine's doctrine of immortality has some real This fact is sometimes overlooked by those who summarily dismiss this portion of his philosophy of the soul with a passing mention of the Platonic proofs stated in De Immortalitate Animae.THE IMMORTALITY OF THE HUMAN SOUL 211 problem of immortality. . sed divina auctoritate promittit. 216 Any one who essays to present the doctrine of immortality as it is developed in the writings of Augustine cannot afford to disregard those proofs to which he devoted merit. . VII. XIII. A. p. consists of will be immortal and therefore truly soul and body blessed. 304 Mayence. Boston. Turner. 1891. p." 212 One reason why the Son of God became mortality man was that He might build up this hope of immor- tality in the hearts of men. p. indeed.

1900 : The Argument of Thomas .66 THE IMMORTALITY OF THE HUMAN SOUL special attention during the best years of his career. A. for Immortality. This argument in one form or another has always made a strong and sometimes a convincing appeal to thoughtful men. E. He cannot fairly state this doctrine until he has investigated at least the principal arguments which are advanced in the two great dissertations. April. The argument based on man's natural craving for immortality as presented by Saint Augustine is deserving of some serious consideration. 217 Saint Catholic University Bulletin. Pace. De Trinitate and De Civitate Dei. 217 It was probably through Augustine that this argument found its way into scholastic philosophy where in the hands of Saint Thomas it was developed into a strong rational support of the Christian doctrine of Immortality.

THE ORIGIN OF THE HUMAN SOUL 67 CHAPTER VI. VII. (Propriam quamdam habitationem animae ac patriam Deum ipsum credo esse a quo creata est. Epistolae CXL. iii. De An. VII. ii. 210 4. De Civ. The problem of the origin of the human soul as it is found in the writings of Saint Augustine presents a twofold aspect. ii. c. II. XI. been advanced and supported by the Neo-Platonists. CXC. v. i. 221 When he had arrived at last at a clearer understanding of the nature of the Supreme Being. this theory. CLXV. . Conf. THE ORIGIN OF THE HUMAN SOUL. Origine 220 221 222 Rp. c. because.) 218 Then there is the question of the time and manner of creation. he was incapable at the time of differentiating between the Divine Substance and tnat of the soul. it must be noted also that he explicitly Gnostics. c. c. . There is first of all the fundamental question regarding origin itself. He believes that the human soul comes from God by way of creation. De Quan. c. CLXVI. IV. as he frankly acknowledges. et ejus i. xxiii. 7. Dei VIII. iii. which involves two distinct problems how and when did the first human soul originate? How can the origin of subsequent souls be explained? Augustine teaches very clearly that neither the soul of the first man nor the souls of his descendants have been created by God in the sense that they have been engendered from His own substance the human soul is not to be considered as emanating from the Creator so that in 219 The Emanation Theory had its essence it is divine. c. c. Manicheans. c. c. ad Litt. An. 220 Stoics. CXLIII. 3. pantheistic theory during his Manichean days. he understood that it was impossible for a mutable substance like the human soul to be identical with the absolutely 222 In connection with unchangeable substance of God. i. Ep CLXVI. 21 S i. De Gen. xvi. c. c. 2. and Priscillianists of Augustine admits that he subscribed to this Spain.

Proinde quaelibet adhibeatur interpositio. Ibid. ad Utt. it follows logically. id est humana. De Gen. quod neminem umquam scio ausum esse sentire. 223 De Gen. that no body. 4. one may reasonably inquire whence comes If the reply is given that it is this irrational soul? fashioned from corporeal matter. qua deus est. non de substantia del genitus nee de substantia del procedens. rursus quaeritur. 9. or that He created it from 226 After a lengthy discussion of different internothing. 224 If the human soul is in some manner drawn from the irrational soul of a brute. . ad Litt. Actis cum Felice Manichaeo II. conuerti et fieri animam humanam. 15.68 THE ORIGIN OF THE HUMAN SOUL warns us against entertaining the idea that the soul of man was begotten from the substance of God as was His Divine Son. iii. an ilia de materie corporali? cur non ergo et ista? Nisi forte quod uelut gradatim fieri conceditur conpendio posse deum facere quisquam negabit. or that it came by way of procession as did the Holy Spirit so that in its nature and substance it is identical with the Deity. c. procul dubio corpus est materies animae De rationalis. ne quaedam translatio animae fieri a pecore in hominem posse credatur quod ueritati fideique catholicae omnino contrarium est si concesserimus inrationalem animam ueluti materiem subiacere. ad Litt. si corpus est materies animae inrationalis et anima inrationalis est materies animae rationalis. et ejus Origine if. nisi qui et ipsam animam nonnisi in genere alicuius corporis ponit. VII. X. nor any irrational soul can be so transformed as to become a human soul. sed factus a deo. that the human soul is corporeal. 4. 226 De Gen. 2 -* The Evolutionary Theory of soul which came into prominence during the latter half of the nineteenth century was not unknown to Augustine. a conclusion which is contrary not only to known facts but also to the 225 explicit teachings of the Catholic Faith. xx. c. If God did not form the first human soul from his own substance or from any corporeal matter or irrational soul. X. Cf. Deinde cauendum est. 28. De An. VI. VII. nee corpus nee animam inrationalem nee substantiam. 225 Si autem anima inrationalis materies est quodammodo. Among the things which he holds most firmly regarding the origin of the human soul is this. quia et ipsam non facit nisi creator omnium naturarum. unde rationalis anima fiat. it remains that either He fashioned it from some already existing spiritual substance. Cf. de qua fit anima rationalis. ad Litt. etiam ipsa inrationalis unde fiat. 224 De Gen. then.

Plato. c. 119-120. xxiii. II. not an offspring of the first but was made in a different Since the first woman was man by manner natural generation from other human beings her soul was not from the first man but was created ex nihilo by God. : . 228 Concerning the time of origin of the first soul he teaches that the soul is not eternal and that it did not previously exist in the sense expounded by Plato and Origen. Faith. the Platonists. 227 The soul of the first woman also was created from nothing. De Civ. 7.THE ORIGIN OF THE HUMAN SOUL 69 pretations of several passages in the Holy Scriptures bearing on this question. Grundriss der Geschichte der Philosophic. teaches that the soul is not co-eternal with God but has been created by Him. c. 9. 229 For Augustine ex- ignorant of the ages race was created he is certain that nothing created is co-eternal with the Creator. i. Augustine expresses his preference for the view that the soul of the first man was created ex nihilo. quas humano ingenio peruestigare non possumus. 230 The statement in question. quae animam quoque ipsam non Deo coaeternam. This declaration likewise is not entirely accurate. xxxi. and Origen. c. 231 Quur ergo non potius diuinitati credimus de his rebus. The statement of Ueberweg that he maintained that "only God and the souls of angels and men are eternal" is evidently incorrect. CLXV. XI. 232 Ep. 231 The doctrine of Preexistence as advocated by Pytha232 is condemned goras. Dei. moreover. me saecula praeterierint antequam genus institueretur fateor ignorare non tamen dubito nihil omnino creaturae Creatori esse coaeternum. founded upon Divine Authority. 10. De Civ. 230 Quae humanum. p. XII. 6. does not harmonize with another which is found in the same paragraph in which it is declared that Augustine taught that the soul had no existence previous to its union with the body. Although human reason may not be able to comprehend how the soul can be immortal without being at the same time eternal. quae non erat ? De Civ. 8. c. Dei. sed creatam dicit esse. cf. Ibid. Concerning Origen. Ibid. xvii. is pressly declares that though he that may have passed before the human 227 228 229 lin. X. Dei. Ber- 1905.

There are two possibilities in the case: either it was created in the be- ginning when "He together . ad is Origine. This question engaged his attention at frequent intervals during his career. Ecclus. CLXVI (415). 236 Of these two opinions. 2. Dei. X).70 THE ORIGIN OF THE HUMAN SOUL in the by the Bishop of Hippo name of Reason and in 233 conformity with the express anathema of the Church. ix. i) about 427.the body. erable attention to it in De Genesi ad Litteram (VII. 24. 1. c. written about 395. Finally. 24-28. CLXVI. X. XII. c." 235 or it that liveth forever created all things was created on the sixth day at the moment union with . X. c. VII. vii. De Gen. XVIII. he holds the former to be credibilius et tolerof its abilius As to whether the soul. in his last work Opus imperfectum contra Julianum written sometime during 430. 25-27. De Anima et ejus Origine. ad Litt. problem VII. xxvi. c. The problem was unsolved when he wrote the Retractationes (I. xx-xxi). (A complete statement of this ento be found in De Gen. he acknowledges his inability to arrive at a decision in this matter. and Epistolae CXLIII (412). 238 The feature of this problem which caused the greatest mental anxiety to Augustine concerns the origin of the souls of the descendants of the first man. Litt. This theory which maintained that the soul is united to the body in the present life in consequence of faults committed in some previous state of existence is opposed chiefly on the grounds that it is entirely incompatible with the Divine Goodness. xxiii. 233 234 235 236 237 238 tire De An. et ejus Ep. 234 Augustine did not reach any definite conclusion as to the time when the first soul was created. He composed four books on the subject entitled. if it were created in the beginning entered the body on the sixth day through direct Divine intervention or in some spontaneous manner he was unable to decide. for if this were true. De c.) . We discover its beginning in De Libero Arbitrio He devotes consid(III. (401-415). about 420. CLXIV (414). CXC vel CLVII (418). VI. ad De Gen. Litt. Creation would be a punishment and not a blessing. Civ. Dei XII. III. VII. c. De Civ.

Augustine published the letter as an apology for his hesitancy in pronouncing in favor of any one of the four theories. CLXVI. St. natural force. 242 The one unanswerable and out- standing difficulty in this manner of accounting for the origin of the souls of the descendants of the first man. iii. c. Upon the death of the latter. CXLIII. 241 There are some objections proposed by others against this view in which he sees no difficulty. X. 240 These four theories are reducible to two which are generally designated Creationism and Traducianism. in the preceding discussion As any definite opinion concerning their proximate origin. v. (3) or enter them by some inherent. (2) all souls being created apart from their bodies are either infused into them by God. c. 242 Ibid. he writes that he is willing to adopt it if he can be convinced that it is true and in perfect harmony with all the teachings of the Church. Jerome. 241 Ep. Four theories present themselves to his mind as possible solutions of this question: (1) each soul may be produced by a special creative act of God at the time of its union with the body. according to his way of thinking. but he never answered it. CLXVI. viii. Arb. 3. (4) each soul may be derived from the first soul through the generative act of the parents. Litt. The ablest advocate of Creationism in the time of Augustine was the eminent biblical He supported the view that every scholar. soul that comes into being is produced by a special creative act of God. how is this theory of special creation reconcilable with the doctrine De Gen. ad Litt. (Ep.THE ORIGIN OF THE HUMAN SOUL 71 he entertained no doubt about the ultimate origin of these souls he believed that 239 but he hesitated to embrace they are created by God. . ad. As regards the opinion held by Jerome. Epistolae et ejus Origine. c. who at the time resided near Bethlehem. De Gen. c. De Lib. CLXVI. X.) This letter was forwarded to Jerome. 239 240 59. Augustine wrote a letter about the year 415 in which he gives a complete statement of the Creationist theory as he understood it. but he has his own objections which he is unable to solve. De An. I IV. is this. Ill. xxi.

Ibid. CLXVI. CLXIV. c. ad Litt.72 THE ORIGIN OF THE HUMAN SOUL of the Church on original sin. ix . vii. CLXVI. namely. 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 When c. c. CLXVI. his power 24r> to procure this Sacrament by his own ef- forts ? If this opinion is the correct one. c. Ibid. VII. In general Traducianism maintains that the soul of man is transmitted to the offspring in the generative act of the parents. ix. iii-iv. De Gen. Ep. c. since it does not lie within other. and how does he explain the unfortunate condition of those who come into the world absolutely devoid of reason ? 247 Augustine had hoped that Jerome would be cause ? 246 answer these objections in a satisfactory manner. that souls already existing elsewhere are infused into bodies by God. this term is employed in a specific Ep. if one accepts this theory how does he explain the great diversity of talents in different souls. Ibid. CXLIII. Ibid. Ep. vi. how does it explain the transmission of original sin and at the same time save the goodness and justice of God? 243 If the soul of an is created at the time of its union with the body. does he inherit Adam's sin so that he requires the 244 In the event that one replies redemption of Christ? that the sin is contracted by the mere fact that the soul is united to bodily members which are derived from an- infant how how is it compatible with Divine Justice that the infant be condemned to eternal punishment in case he should die without baptism. how are we to account for the penal sufferings of this life which children undergo without any evil of their own as the Finally. but since his communication remained unanswered. 9 . . 249 able to The remaining plausible explanation is Traducianism. vi. or find their way to union with bodies 248 If one is inclined to through some natural process. favor either one of the latter two opinions he must guard against preexistence as understood by the Platonists. 24-26. Ep. Ep. he always hesitated to adopt the Special Creation theory. He found himself face to face with the same difficulties when he examined the other two Creationist explanations.

p. iv. cum primus 2 2 it safeguards the goodness and the ille peccabit?) justice of God by furnishing an adequate cause for the 253 penal sufferings of infants both here and hereafter finally. ad Litt. Cf Cath. 2 that subsequent souls descend from the soul of the first man through the parents. 14. opinion with greater favor than the rest are these: it explains the transmission of original sin. . If one adopts this theory he must hold either that the soul of Christ. ex qua omnium hominum animae trahuntur erationism. by way of exception. but came into existence through an act of special creation or if it was derived in the same way as the souls of . quantum possunt se ipsos considerent et interim sapiant corpora non esse animas The other aspect of Traducianism which holds suas. . c. quantum ualleam. Lib. Dubray. C. Ep. CXC. was not derived in the same manner as are the souls of other human beings. is frequently designated Gen- ista sane. vi.THE ORIGIN OF THE HUMAN SOUL sense 73 it implies that the soul is propagated by means of a material germ. i. 250 251 252 253 254 De . vol. CLXVI. 24. vi. ut animas credant ex While Augustine's whole attitude towards the problem of the origin of the soul of the descendants of the first man was one of doubt and hesitancy. admoneo praeoccupauit quos parentibus propagari. 251 nascentium. quis potest dicere non se pecasse. This is sometimes referred to as Corporeal or Materialistic Traducianism. Ill. Ency. Gen. De Ep. CCII. this explanation seems to be more consonant with the teachings of the orthodox faith than the others. si opinio. Arb. XV. X. Ep. he seems to have been inclined to favor the theory of GenerationThe principal reasons he assigns for viewing this ism. ' . (Si una anima facta est. 254 In giving his preference to Generationism Augustine does not overlook the fact that this theory presents a special difficulty insofar as the soul of Jesus Christ is concerned. A. c. This theory which was defended by Tertullian was absolutely condemned by our author as militating against the incorporeal nature of the human soul. vi . xx. c. c. art : Traducianism. bis.

no such evidence or argumentation can be produced. CLXIV. If on the contrary. (2) When his indecision was me non fuerit ject of attack by those who tried to force himself to a definite view. or if they could adduce valid arguments founded upon evidently true premises. . he was forced to acknowledge in the end of his days that so far as he is concerned the origin of the soul of the descendants of 255 256 Ep. A single reference taken from Epistola CXC which was written about the year 418 covers this point in all the works pubDe qua re antequam aliquid lished previous to that time admoneam sinceritatem tuam.74 THE ORIGIN OF THE HUMAN SOUL other men. scire te uolo in tarn multis opusculis meis numquam me fuisse ausum de hac quaestione definitam proferre sententiam et inpudenter referre : in litteras ad alios informandos. sought untiringly in his own splendid intellect and in both past and contemporary philosophy and theology for some solution of this problem which would harmonize with the orthodox doctrine of original sin. c. he calmly informed if made the obhim to commit them that evidence in could unquestionable produce they support of any one of these theories from the Canonical Books of Scripture. 11. CXUH. he feels perfectly justified in maintain256 Although he ing a non-committal attitude of mind. caused Augustine considerable trouble and anxiety over a long period of years. he was ready and even anxious to embrace an opinion so well established. as was remarked at the He outset of this discussion. he was never able to decide definitely in favor of any one theory to the exclusion of the rest. quod apud explicatum. Whenever he refers to this problem he is always careful to to warn his readers of his own hesitancy in adopting any particular theory. one must believe that when He assumed it. so purified it that He came into the world sinless. vii. Ep. 255 The question concerning the origin of the souls of the descendants of the first man. and although he pursued his investigations with an admirable and praiseworthy tenacity of purpose.

body and substance. and furthermore was not ashamed to admit that he did not know. He collected and condensed the principal ideas and arguments which he found in Pagan philosophy. and it was ever with these uppermost in his mind that Saint Augustine studied the human soul. Profound philosopher and able psychologist though he was. et ejus Origine. Jesus Christ had directed attention to the mutual relations that soul exist human was neither relations between God and man. . 258 Quapropter dico etiam ego de anima mea nescio. 25. Saint Augustine fixed the Christian concept of the human soul and contributed largely to its development. He stands 257 Opus Imperfectum contra Julianum II. I." and lends an added sanction to the unanimous verdict of the ages which ranks him among the few really great thinkers of all times. . his primary interest in problems touching the philosophical nor psychological. and interpreted and developed these in the light of the teachings of Christianity. LXVIII. is 1 man . 258 This honest and open recognition of his intellectual limitations tends only to bring out in clearer perspective the rare quality The great care and sustained of Augustine's genius. but rather theological in character. xv.THE ORIGIN OF THE HUMAN SOUL the first 75 a profound mystery. De An. quomodo uenerit in corpus meuni neque enim ego illam mihi donaui scit ille qui donauit. c. His most noteworthy contribution to the Christian philosophy of the human soul was his development of the proofs for spirituality. He was probably the first Christian thinker to understand clearly the distinction between matter and spirit. nescio. devoted to this effort problem combined with that critical attitude of mind so indispensable in the searcher after truth. utrtim illam de patre meo traxerit an sicut homini primo nouam crauerit. si ipse docuerit. quandocumque uoluerit nunc autem nescio nee me pudet ut istum fateri nescire quod : . sciam etiam ego. 257 One cannot refrain from expressing his admiration at the high quality of a mind that could frankly confess that he did not know how to solve this difficulty. manifest to us how deservedly Augustine merits the title of "Philosopher.

and.76 THE ORIGIN OF THE HUMAN SOUL out conspicuously among the philosophers of his time as the fearless and uncompromising champion of the doctrine that the soul of man is not a body but a simple. the doctrine of immortality. been since this theory has long supplanted in Christian circles by the Special Creaphilosophical and theological tion theory as advocated by Saint Jerome in Augustine's day and many centuries later by Saint Thomas Aquinas. His appeal to the authority of consciousness in the elaboration of this doctrine. and his insistence on the scientific value of the data obtainable by introspection. to maintain his position constitute a permanent bulwark of defense against the ever-recurring attacks of materialism. was his own. A knowledge of the Concept of the human soul as developed by Saint Augustine is indispensable to the proper understanding of the whole trend of psychological . he was evidently under the influence of Plato when he proposed the so-called metaphysical proofs of the soul's immortality at As regards the beginning of his Christian career. he seems to have been inclined to favor Generationism as the theory best adapted to his defense of the orthodox doctrine of As is well known. original sin against the Pelagians. it is not an exag- geration to say. While he never pronounced in favor of any one particular theory of origin to the exclusion of the rest. and as a distinct contribution to this doctrine must not be overlooked. The arguments which he advanced spiritual substance. that so far as this aspect of Christian philosophy is concerned he was the richest contributor in the long history of Christian thought. The philosophical doctrine of spirituality outlined by the Bishop of Hippo is the equal of any which has been at- tempted since his day. perhaps. His protracted investigation of the question concerning the origin of the human soul resulted in his arriving at a clearer and better understanding of the soul's nature. His development of the argument based on the universal desire for being and immortality however. has merited for him an estimable place among those who have aided in the advance of psychological method.

but they were also influenced in no inconsiderable degree by Saint Augustine. were undoubtedly more and powerfully dominated by the philosophy of Aristotle. Albertus Magnus and Saint Thomas Aquinas. but also repeats many of the arguments which had been formulated by him. Every Christian thinker worthy of note who appeared during this period was more or less under the influence of the great Patristic philosopher. who graced the Golden Age of Scholasticism. . The Angelic Doctor directly not only appeals frequently to the authority of the African Bishop.THE ORIGIN OF THE HUMAN SOUL 77 thought from his day down to and including the thirteenth century. In the hands of this Master Scholastic of the thirteenth century the Christian concept of the human soul was perfected and woven into that "perennial philosophy" which has been the rich heritage of subsequent centuries.

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Summa Summa


Prima Pars.

Quaestiones Disputatae. Commentaria in Tres libros Aristotelis

De Anima.

Contra Gentiles.

De Vera Religione (De Vera Rel.). De Praedestinatione Sanctorum (De Praed.




De Agone Christiana. De Genesi contra Manichaeos (De Gen. contra Manich.). De Genesi ad Litteram imperfectus liber (De Gen. ad



De Beata Vita. De Moribus Ecclesiae Catholicae (De Mor. Eccl. Cath.). De Duabus Animabus contra Manichaeos (De Duab.

Anim. contra Manich.). cum Felice Manichaeo (De Actis cum
Manich.). contra Priscillianistas
et Origenistas.


Ad Orosium



William Patrick O'Connor was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, on October 18, 1886. His elementary training was received in St. John's Cathedral School of his native


studied the Classics, Philosophy, and Theology

Seminary near Milwaukee. He was ordained to the priesthood on March 11, 1912, and assigned as Assistant to the Pastor of St. Rose of Lima Church, Milwaukee. In the year 1915, he attended Marquette University, Milwaukee, where he studied Rational Psychology under the direction of Dr. G. Deglmann, S. J. He received the A. B. degree in June, 1916. The following September he entered the Catholic University of America where he followed courses in Metaphysics and History of Philosophy under Dr. W. Turner, General, Experimental and Abnormal Psychology under Dr. T. V.
at St. Francis

Moore, C. S. P., and Biology (Animal and Plant), under Dr. J. Parker. On June 29, 1917, he was commissioned First Lieutenant in the Wisconsin National Guard, and on August 3 of the same year he was assigned as ChapWhen lain to the First Regiment, Wisconsin Cavalry. this organization became the 120th Field Artillery of the 57th Brigade, Thirty-second Division, he was reassigned as Chaplain. He served with this organization in America, England, and France, participating in four major On operations of the French and American Armies. he was to advanced the November 19, 1918, position of A. E. F., with Senior Chaplain, Thirty-second Division,
of Occupation in Germany. In March, 1919, he was promoted to the rank of Captain, Chaplain Corps, A. E. F. On the mustering out of the Thirty-second



Division, he resigned his commission and returned to Milwaukee, where he spent the following three months as Assistant to the Pastor of St. Rose of Lima Church. In September of the same year he reentered the Catholic

University of America, following courses in Philosophy of Mind, Social Psychology, Philosophy of Evolution,

Pace. H. P. Pace and Dr. Smith. He is particularly indebted to Dr. A. 0. I. tion . E. J. A. Fox for valuable and execution of assistance rendered in the preparathis dissertation.VITA 85 and Genetic Psychology under Dr. and Philosophy of Saint Thomas under Dr. E.



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