The Supermarket Effect – Analysing the emerging supermarket trends in New Delhi (India) and study the consumer

perception towards it !

Brunel Business School Business & Management (Marketing) Student Number: ******* MG3116 Strategic Marketing ro!ect

"utor Name: ********** #ord $ount: %&'(( Submission )ate: 1(th March *((%


+n the com,letion -or this ,ro!ect su,,ort and hel, o- man. has been ackno/ledged0 1irstl. + /ould like to e2,ress gratitude to m. ro!ect su,er3isor& /ho dedicated time and ,ro3ided me guidance throughout the semester0 + /ould also like to thank and a,,reciate all those /ho ,artici,ated in the sur3e.s that hel,ed me carr. out the research and achie3e the ob!ecti3es0 #ould also like to ackno/ledge the contribution and /ork o- other researchers used as secondar. resources0 1inall.& + am great -ull to m. -amil. and -riends as /ithout their su,,ort and encouragement it /ouldn4t ha3e been ,ossible to achie3e the set goals0


Abstract…………………………………………………….5 Chapter 1 1 Introduction………………………………………………6 101 +ndustr. Background 10* ro!ect 5ationale 103 5esearch 7b!ecti3es 10' 5esearch 8uestion 109 Structure o- Stud. Chapter 2 2 Literature Review………………………………………..9 Chapter 3 3 ethodo!o"#……………………………………………...16 16 16 16 1% *( *1 6 6 % % %

301 5esearch Methods 30* Secondar. 5esearch 303 rimar. 5esearch 30301 8uantitati3e a,,roach 3030* 8ualitati3e a,,roach 30' :imitations & roblems Chapter $

Research %indin"s & Ana!#sis ……………………………23 '01 8uantitati3e ;nal.sis '0* 8ualitati3e ;nal.sis '03 Summar. *3 33 36


Chapter 5 Conc!usion…………………………………………………..3' 901 5ecommendations 90* :imitations & 1uture 5esearch 3< '(

Chapter 6 601 ;,,endi21 8uestionnaire 60* ;,,endi2* 8ualitati3e -indings 60*01 1ocus Grou,1 60*0* 1ocus Grou,* 603 ;,,endi2 3: 8uestionnaire $omments 60' ;,,endi2 ': Gra,hs& $harts & ictures 609 5e-erences

$1 $( '< 91 9' 96 96


+ndia is /orld4s one o- the -astest gro/ing economies /ith a ,o,ulation o- 101 billion0 )ue to recent economic escalation s,ending and ,urchasing ,o/er o- consumers is at an all time high0 "his has had a remarkable im,act on the -ood retail industr. as the standard o- li3ing is im,ro3ing s/i-tl.0 Su,ermarkets in Ne/ )elhi /ere introduced in earl. *(((s /hich initiall. recei3ed limited success but drasticall. gained market share in the recent .ears0 ur,ose o- the stud. is to determine i- this !ourne. is likel. to ,ro3e success-ul and identi-. the consumer ,erce,tion to/ards it0 1urther& im,act o- su,ermarkets on small traders has been discussed0 8uantitati3e anal.sis has been used to gain insights on the consumer ,erce,tion to/ards su,ermarkets0 "his also includes the -actors that a--ect their store choice beha3iour and dra/ their attention to/ards di--erent retailers0 8ualitati3e stud. has alternati3el. been undertaken to determine the beha3iour and attitudes o- consumers in=de,th as this /ould allo/ res,ondents to e2,ress themsel3es -reel.0 1indings -orm ,rimar. research has been correlated /ith that o- secondar. sources to achie3e the ob!ecti3es0 1indings suggest that the ,rimar. dri3ers o- su,ermarkets are likel. to be .oungsters also re-erred to as generation=> as the. are the ne/ -ace o- the nation /ho are e2,eriencing a trans-ormation o- beha3iours and cultural ada,tation to/ards the /est0 ;tmos,herics& ,rices and con3enience ha3e been identi-ied as the -actors that /ould a--ect store choice o- consumers in )elhi0 1urther -indings in conte2t /ith the traders suggest that corner sho,s are e2,eriencing di--icult times due to the introduction o- su,ermarkets because o- lack o- in3estment /hich dose not allo/ them to o--er im,ro3ed ser3ice as that o- the big retailers0 +t is recommended that i- su,ermarkets as,ire to gain ma2imum market share the. /ould need to understand the changing culture and beha3iour o- consumers0 "he. -urther need to o--er ser3ices that is restricting consumers ,resentl. to shi-t -orm corner sho,s to su,ermarkets0 :astl.& -or traders go3ernment inter3ention has been recommended in order -or them to sur3i3e and create health. com,etition0


$hapter %" Introduction
+ndia toda. is one o- the largest and the -astest gro/ing economies o- the /orld /ith an a3erage G) nearing <? in the ,ast decade0 5a,id modernisation and constant economic de3elo,ment has made it a 3er. attracti3e region -or local and 1oreign )irect +n3estors0 1or this ,ro!ect the emerging su,ermarket trends /ill be in3estigated in this mammoth econom.4s ca,ital& Ne/ )elhi0 "he reasons -or choosing )elhi is the 3ast si@e o+ndia0 #hich i- chosen as a /hole /ould make the research 3er. com,le2 and time consuming0

%!% Industry &ackground"
"he su,ermarket industr. has recentl. been introduced in )elhi4s retail sector /here some o- the ke. ,la.ers /ould include 5eliance=1resh & S,encer4s0 "hese stores are looking to ma2imise market share b. attracting consumers on the basis o- ,rice and atmos,herics0 resentl.& corner=sho,s kno/n as Airanas account -or ma!orit. -ood= sales and dominate the sector /ith o3er 9million grocers all=o3er +ndia -ollo/ed b. inde,endent=3endors0 "he. ,ro3ide sales in smaller Buantities (e0g0 1((gm=lentils) along /ith highl. ,ersonalised relationshi,& mainl. ser3ing to middleClo/=income grou,s0 #here as organised retailers o--er e0g0 1AG ,acked=lentils ser3ing to middleCu,,er class0 (GM+)=Duro=monitor) Nonetheless& onl. 3? o- +ndian market is organised retail (Business "oda.& 1<<<) /hich lea3es a gigantic ga, -or su,ermarkets to -ill0 ; recent rice#aterhouse$oo,ers stud. suggests that the si@e o- organised retail in +ndia is onl. E666million /hich is likel. to gro/ 3(? ,er=annum (Dconomic="imes& ,g16)0 Fo/e3er& ,otential o- organised=retail soars high as it is a E3((billion industr. /hich has set the stage -or organised retailers to gain substantial market=share0 (htt,:CCeconomictimes0indiatimes0com)0 +n recent .ears there has been considerable gro/th amongst middle=class sector in Ne/=)elhi& increasing the s,ending ,o/er o- consumers ()elhi=economic=sur3e.)0

6 “With growth in disposable incomes and improving infrastructure, consumers have a wide choice of stores where they can choose to shop. It is therefore, necessary for retailers to understand shoppers’ motivations” (Sinha & Banner!ee& *((')0 Moreo3er& signi-icant changes in li-est.le /ith ne/ tastes and ,re-erences ha3e de3elo,ed amongst consumers (Dconomic="imes& ,g1*)0 ;s ,eo,le gain ,urchasing ,o/er the market is shi-ting -rom ,rice=linked to 3alue=linked /here more 3alue is gi3en to design& atmos,herics and di--erentiation suggests ($hand& *((%=D"=,01*)0 Su,ermarkets are o--ering a ne/ sho,,ing=trend to all demogra,hics b. ,ro3iding ser3ices that o--er con3enience and e2,erience along /ith great=3alue0 +n the cultural= conte2t there has been trans-ormation and ada,tation to/ards /estern /a.s o- li-e /hich has s,eci-icall. in-luenced generation=> and the middle=age grou,s0 "raditionall.& !oint=-amil. culture ,ersisted at +ndian homes ho/e3er statistics determine a drastic shi-t to/ards nuclear -amilies0 5ecent census o- )elhi -urther states the a3erage si@e o- -amil. in )elhi is 9 (htt,:CCdelhi,lanning0nic0in) /hich has reduced -rom 1(=19 members in one house=hold0 Standard o- li3ing is increasing because ,eo,le as,ire to li3e a better li-e hence& usuall. both members o- -amil. /ork -or higher earnings0 "his has increased the ,ace o- li-e and time is o- great 3alue0 "rans-ormation to this li-est.le demands ser3ices that kee,=u, /ith the ,ace and o--er con3enience & com-ort0 ;s a result& the /hole idea o- all commodities a3ailable under the same roo- is likel. to -it=in the ne/l. -ormed culture0 Fistoricall.& consumers solel. relied on corner=sho,sC3endors and most international su,ermarket retailers /ere turned a/a. in the ,ast to ,rotect the domestic retail industr.0 D3en -or local in3estors it4s been di--icult to enter this industr. due to 3arious ,olitical ,roblems0 Moreo3er& most traders4 li3elihood along /ith man. !obs de,endant on them /ould be lost due to su,ermarkets0 Such -actors ha3e added to the dela. o- organised retail e2,ansion0

%!' (ro)ect *ationale"
1ood=retail sector is one o- the -astest gro/ing industries& .et the nature o- sho,,ing beha3iour has not been studied in=de,th0 "his has created a need to identi-. the as,ects in-luencing these beha3iours and the ,atterns that /ill be -ollo/ed0 :atel.& man. ne/ retail=-ormats ha3e been introduced in )elhi hence it is crucial -or +ndian

% cor,orations to understand consumer along /ith their ,re-erred store=choice0

%!+" *esearch,-#)
10 1ind out i- the consumers are read. -or a trans-ormation -orm the local corner sho,s a-ter almost si2 decades o- ,ractice and identi-. the -actors a--ecting this change0 *0 D3aluate the consumer trends and their ,erce,tions to/ards the ne/ sho,,ing st.le0 30 +denti-. the -actors that ma. dra/ consumer interest and determine the success or -ailure o- su,ermarkets0 '0 ;ssess the e2tent to /hich su,ermarkets are ha3ing an im,act on the local traders and inde,endent sho, o/ners0

%!/ *esearch,0uestion"
• • #hich t.,e o- consumers /ill be the main dri3ers o- su,ermarkets i0e0 .oung=middle=aged=eldersG )o su,ermarkets raise a serious concern -or inde,endent sho, o/ners and tradersG )ue to time constrains it4s onl. ,ossible to generate an o3er3ie/ ,erce,tion o)elhi4s consumers and use -indings as a basis to identi-. market,lace -or su,ermarkets0 D3en though this research is limited to Ne/=)elhi& the -indings should allo/ us to gain an understanding o- the su,ermarket trends in other metro,olitan cities o- +ndia as the cultural=in-luences ma. be similar0

%!1 Structure of Study"
1ollo/ing cha,ter /ill ,resent the literature search /hich /ill be com,ilation osecondar.=sources in conte2t o- retail=sector that /ill hel, in determining the -actors in-luencing store=choice0 "his /ill be -ollo/ed b. methodolog.=section that /ill establish Bualitati3e and Buantitati3e techniBues to gather data0 1urther& -indings and anal.sis section /ill ,resent the data and e3aluate it0 +nter,retations -orm this section /ill be used to suggest recommendations and come to a conclusion0


$hapter '" 2iterature *e.iew
"he sub!ect matter o- changing attitudes and cross culture in-luences has had a considerable im,act on the consumers o- +ndia0 “Cultural meanings include common affective reactions, typical cognitions, and characteristic patterns of behaviour” stated in ($onsumer Beha3iour & Market Strateg. *((9 ,0*%%)0 "here ha3e also been common cross cultural changes o3er the /orld /hich can be a,,lied to the +ndian market due to considerable cultural trans-ormation0 "he /estern market4s im,act has created similar o,,ortunities -or the su,ermarkets in +ndia0 7n similar lines ($urrah and #rigle.& *((') suggest that su,ermarkets are more ,re3alent across a broad range o- de3elo,ing countries0 Fo/e3er& (Sinha & Banner!ee& *((') argue that high le3els o- ,ersonalised ser3ices such as credit and home=deli3er. o--ered b. Htrans-ormed kirana stores4 (corner=sho,) are making sho,,ers reluctant to the su,ermarket -ormat as a result se3eral success-ul chains are their e2,ansion0 Reference-Groups: Store=choice decisions are in-luenced b. di--erent attitudes across the societ.0 +ndia is rated relati3el. high on Fo-stede4s uncertaint.=a3oidance dimension sho/ing increasing use o- o,inion leaders& grou,=sho,,ing& and re-erence=grou,s (Schutte 1<<<)0 "his certi-ies high intolerance o- uncertaint. and slo/ ada,tation to/ards change /hich can -urther be su,,orted b. di--usion o- inno3ation& a -rame/ork de3elo,ed b. D3erett 5ogers (Aeegan *((9)0 +n the ;sian conte2t the im,ortance ores,onse b. re-errals along /ith acce,tance o- an inno3ation reduces the ,ercei3ed risk o- ,roductCstore choice0 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs – Asian-Context v Western-Context: as!ow)s hierarch# ,ro,oses -i3e le3els o- human needs /hich an indi3idual ma. e2,erience and -ul-il in order to reduce tension and return to a balanced state ohomeostasis (Schutte 1<<<)0 +t is /idel. acce,ted across man. social disci,lines& and ,articularl. suitable -or the /estern culture0 Maslo/ him sel- dismissed the Buestion o- cross=cultural trans,osabilit. added Schutte0 Fo/e3er& this does not make the hierarch. ina,,licable& but /hen a,,lied cross=culturall. some ada,tation ma. be

1( reBuired to identi-. ho/ needs o- )elhi consumers 3ar. -orm that o- the /estern conte2t0

3igure'!%" 4aslow5s hierarchy of needs ($onsumer &eha.iour in Asia" Schutte6 %777)

1igure*01 and *0* demonstrate the same ,h.sical needs& as needs to be -ed and ,rotected in order to sur3i3e0 Fo/e3er& higher le3el needs in a collecti3ist societ. like +ndia ma. di--er -rom /estern societies /ho are more indi3idualistic0 Fence& indi3idual=and=,ersonal needs at the highest le3el ma. not be acce,ted ,ositi3el. but can be achie3ed b. res,onse -orm others and not b. sel- actions0 $iarlante (1<<<) -urther e2,lains that hierarch. in ;sian conte2t /ould be one /here social needs are

11 higher than indi3idual needs and sel-=actualisation /ould be re,laced b. status0

3igure'!'" 4aslow5s hierarchy of needs" Asian E8ui.alent ($onsumer &eha.iour in Asia" Schutte6 %777)

Attitudes & ehaviours: Samo3ar and orter (1<<1) belie3e that 3alues held in a societ.& strongl. in-luence an indi3idual4s beha3iour in cultural grou,s0 $onsumer attitudes are a combination obelie-s& -eelings and beha3ioural intentions0 +- consumers -orm a belie- about a ,articular trend and -eels good about it then their beha3ioural intentions are 3er. likel. to -ollo/ those trends -reBuentl. (consumer ,s.chologist)0 ;lthough& de Mooi! (*((9) -eels that in collecti3ist societies ,eo,le -orm attitudes that accom,lish their social identit. -unctions -orming an inconsistent correlation bet/een attitudes and -uture beha3iour0 Fence& their beha3iour cannot be ,redicted b. their attitudes to/ards certain ,roducts0 1ishbein4s beha3ioural intentions model measures this relationshi, bet/een attitudes and beha3iour& also kno/n as theor. o- reasoned action0 "his assumes that consumers consciousl. consider conseBuences o- di--erent beha3iours and decide on the one that

1* leads to the most desired result (7lson & eter& *((9)0 +n )elhi this can be used to asses the ,erce,tion and o,inion o- others0 +n sum& beha3iours are ,er-ormed and a,,raised b. ,eo,le that are ,o,ular /ith other ,eo,le0 Means-end chain -ollo/s similar grounds& /here consumers asses the outcome otheir actions0 "his includes attributes along tangible characteristics -ollo/ed b. logical outcomes /hich conclude /ith the 3alue being satis-ied0 Similarl.& i- )elhi consumers use su,ermarkets and seek bene-it& the. /ould re,eat that beha3iour0 Fence& the ser3ice attributes /ould be ,ro,osed sub!ecti3el. in relation to ,ersonal ,ercei3ed conseBuences ($onsumer Beha3iour: Building Marketing Strateg.& 1<<%)

Nonetheless& means=end chain re,resents ,ersonal meanings o- ,roductsCser3ices b. indi3iduals /hich might be uniBue to each one o- them0 (7lson & eter& *((9) 1urther suggested& consumers are likel. to ha3e di--erent means=end chain -or the same ,roducts leading to dis,arit. in o,inion0 !resh !ood v "ac#a$ed !ood: "raditionall.& +ndian consumers ha3e gi3en ,riorit. to -resh -ood o3er con3enience& ho/e3er recent researches sho/& as number o- /orking members increased in a -amil. the. ,re-er more ,rocessed -ood (Bullis& 1<<6I +nternational="rade= ;dministration& *((()0 "his sho/s inclination in -a3or o- the su,ermarkets b. generation=>0 "he Dconomist (1<<6) contradicts the abo3e b. sho/ing more than '(? o- the +ndian ,o,ulation is 3egetarian and consumers dislike -ro@en ,roducts including bee- & ,ork0 Fence& a trend that bends a/a. -rom the su,ermarket=culture0 5eardon et al (*((3& 11'3) -urther adds that sales -or ,rocessed and ,ackaged -ood at the su,ermarkets are relati3el. lo/ as com,ared to -resh -ood0 "his ma. ,ose a serious threat to the su,ermarkets due to the lack o- interest in ,rocessed -ood0

13 Fo/e3er& demand -or -oreign -ood ,roducts is high and continues to gro/0 ;bout a decade ago ,eo,le used to bring -oreign goods -rom tri,s abroad Bullis (1<<6)0 No/ these ,roducts are a3ailable in the su,ermarkets as ma!or attractions -or the e3er= changing +ndian societ.0 Affect on %raders and &'all !ar'ers: Su,ermarkets ,ose great threat to the small -armers as a ne/ su,,l.=demand chain ma. be -ormed0 Big stores /ould mo3e to/ards ,re-erred su,,liers& and set ,ri3ate grades and standards /hich ma. be 3er. di--icult -or the local and small -armers to achie3e (Fum,hre.& *((6)0 Fe -urther adds that JA su,ermarkets selling a lot o-resh=-ood acBuire it in /a.s that a,,ear to be small=-armer=un-riendl.0 Similar trend ma. be -ollo/ed b. the +ndian su,ermarkets& conseBuentl.& small traders0 Karious su,ermarkets in +ndia like 5eliance=1resh & S,encer4s ha3e alread. had this im,act on the li3el. hood o- traders ("he Dconomic "imes& *((6)0 Moreo3er& due to mass ,rotest some su,ermarkets had to ,ull out o- t/o ma!or states o- +ndia (Jttar= radesh and #est=Bengal) negati3el. e--ecting -armers& traders& su,ermarkets and em,lo.ees /ho lost their !obs0 htt,:CCeconomictimes0indiatimes0com

&ocio-(cono'ic !actors: Social=classes /ould be another as,ect a--ecting the consumer beha3iour0 "his re-ers to national status hierarch. b. /hich grou,s and indi3iduals are distinguished in terms o- sel-=esteem and ,restige ($onsumer Beha3iour & Market Strateg. *((9 ,033<)0 ;ccording to Dconomic sur3e. o- )elhi (*((1) the urban ,o,ulation is o3er <3? /ith ,er=ca,ita income o- <01? /hich clearl. demonstrates gro/th amongst social classes0 ast ,urchase e2,eriences can in-luence the store choice o- consumers /hich are -urther a--ected b. these Socio=economic -actors such as income& geogra,h.& ,ersonalit.& age& etc0 ()odge and Summer& 1<6<)0 Moreo3er& :um,kin et al0 (1<%9) ,ro,oses that elderl. ,eo,le are less ,rice conscious in com,arison to .oungsters0 "his im,lies that as,ects such=as con3enience and -amiliarit. o- corner=sho,s /ill be o- greater im,ortance than sa3ings made at su,ermarket0 ( ettigre/ *((9) -urther adds -rom re,orts that su,ermarkets do not interest seniors0 Fo/e3er& the con3enience -actor is contradicted b. :um,kin et al0 (1<%9) itsel-& as -or seniors4 ,ro,inBuit. o-

1' store to house is not a concern0 +nstead& sho,,ing is considered as leisure acti3it. and hence is e2,ected to be high on entertainment 3alue ("ongren& 1<%%)0

At'ospherics & &tore (ntertain'ent )alue: Aotler (1<63) suggests atmos,herics as an im,ortant as,ect -or retailers0 Most sho,,ers -ind multi,le moti3es in a single tri, to stores /hich ma. include socialising or bro/singI not necessaril. ,urchasing (Bloch et al0& 1<<')& according to /hich atmos,herics and entertainment as,ects should be -ocused u,on0 (;rnold and 5e.nolds& *((3) suggest that in=s,ite o- this trend less signi-icance has been ,aid to the Fedonic Sho,,ing Moti3ations0 +n addition& sta--=attitude& Bueue=lengths& etc in-luence their store choice ,attern (Good/in and McDl/ee& 1<<<)0 Fence& tangible and intangible -actors such as sta--= attitude& location and ambiance are 3ital -or consumer a,,reciation0 +n com,arison otraditional sho,s to su,ermarkets& the latter has an ad3antage in terms o- s,ace& ambiance and other ,h.sical characteristics& creating a better en3ironment to attract more customers0 +n addition& ser3ices such as co--ee=sho,s and restaurants are also o--ered at su,ermarkets (Ngu.en and Ngu.en& *((3)0 ;ccording to the o3er all economic condition o- +ndia& it ma. not be ,ossible -or man. consumers to a3ail such -acilities& as their ,rimar. aim /ould be to -ul-il the basic needs0 Boone & Bonno (1<61& ,0 %*) suggest that con3enience& -riendshi, and credit are the ke. basis ochoosing a store -or lo/=income consumers0 Fo/e3er& su,ermarkets ,ro3ide the bene-it o- h.giene in com,arison to corner=sho,s0 F.giene -actors are one o- the ke. considerations& but it is not ,ossible -or all retailers (in lo/=income areas) to maintain them0 Su,ermarkets ,re3ent these climatic and h.giene ,roblems -aced b. the consumers& as regular sho,s don4t ha3e suitable tem,erature control eBui,ment nor are backed u, b. *' hour electricit.0 &u''ary: "his cha,ter has identi-ied the ke. models correlating their insights to su,ermarket ,erce,tion in Ne/=)elhi0 Maslo/4s hierarch. suggests that +ndian sho,,ers ma. a3ail the ser3ices o- su,ermarkets to gain social status0 5e-erral=grou,s /ere also discussed as it has been suggested that +ndian societ. ,er-orms beha3iors b. using o,inion= leaders and re-erence=grou,s as their ada,tation to/ards ne/ ideas is slo/0 "hird

19 research=ob!ecti3e has ,artiall. been achie3ed as di--erent -actors such as atmos,herics and ,h.sical attributes ha3e been identi-ied as ,rimar. attractions osu,ermarkets0 $ontraril.& ,rocessed& ,ackaged & non=3egetarian -ood has recei3ed negati3e commentsI hence su,ermarkets are un,o,ular amongst 3egetarians0 $onsumers /ith di--erent socio=economic backgrounds are likel. to ha3e di--erent ,erce,tion to/ards same ,roducts& there-ore making it di--icult -or su,ermarkets to target correct grou,s0 :astl.& im,act o- su,ermarkets on traders has been discussed /hich ma. cause mass=unem,lo.ment and huge losses -or corner=sho, o/ners0 7b!ecti3es o- the research are not entirel. achie3ed and -urther research /ill be conducted to gain detailed conclusions0


$hapter +" 4ethodology
"his research is set out to establish the im,act o- su,ermarkets on consumers& their changing beha3iour and assess the crisis that small=traders are likel. to -ace0 +n literature re3ie/ se3eral as,ects ha3e been identi-ied demonstrating the im,act osu,ermarkets in Ne/=)elhi0 $onseBuentl.& -urther in3estigation in the -orm o,rimar. research needs to be carried out to gain dee,=insights and achie3e the ob!ecti3es0 "his cha,ter /ould include methods selected -or data collectionCanal.sis& rationale behind selecting those methods& its limitations and ad3antages -or conducting the research0

+!% *esearch,4ethods"
5esearch is a collection and anal.sis o- data gathered -rom a sam,le o- indi3iduals relating to their characteristics& beha3iour& attitudes or o,inions (Market research societ.& 1<<%)0 5esearch ob!ecti3es can be obtained or ans/ered b. using both ,rimar. and secondar.=research0 $ollins (1<%9) -urther de-ines research as& “systematic investigation to establish facts or principles or to collect information on the subject” (,016<()0 (1inn et al0& *((() suggests that e2isting literature /ill bene-it ,rimar. research and /ork as a -rame/ork -or anal.sisI like/ise research carried out /ill constantl. re3ie/& modi-. and challenge the theoretical details0

+!' Secondary,*esearch
Secondar. research includes data that has been ,re3iousl. collected and assembles -or ,ro!ects other than the one in hand (Likmund& 1<<<)0 "his method allo/s researchers to e3aluate and identi-. ga,s in literature /ith the hel, o- 3arious sources /hich -urther 3alidates the ,ro,osal economicall.0 +t is relati3el. ine2,ensi3e as com,ared to ,rimar.=research and can be undertaken /ithout going into the -ield0 Secondar.=research /as carried out using sources -rom Brunel=Jni3ersit. librar.& ,ersonall.=o/ned books and some reliable sources -rom internet0 Secondar.=data resources used:

16 • MarketC industr. re,orts /ere re-erred toI including databases such as Dmerald& GM+)& and Mintel etc0 "hese hel,ed to determine the grocer. consum,tion trends and established other 3ital statistics su,,orting the gro/ing su,ermarket industr. in Ne/ )elhi0 • Mournal articles& ne/s,a,ers& maga@ines& electronic resources /ere looked at to gain better understanding o- current de3elo,ments and consumer ,erce,tion0 Some ne/s,a,er articles (online) /ere s,eci-icall. rele3ant that indicated the current economical and ,olitical situation relating to the stud.0 • Mournals and e=!ournals ,ro3ided rele3ant in-ormation about consumer ,erce,tion0 "hese included articles -rom Mournal o- retailing& Mournal oconsumer ,erce,tion and man. others that hel,ed to gain a clear insight on sho,,ing beha3iours0 • • )elhi economic=sur3e. /ebsite /as an im,ortant source as this included the recent census re,ort and in-ormation -ound here /as s,eci-ic to Ne/=)elhi0 Most ,rominent sources are books that /ere used to ,ro3ide theories& models and identi-. research=methods0 )i--erent -orms o- secondar.=methods ha3e been used to gather rele3ant data -or stud. /hich can -urther be anal.sed to make a,,ro,riate im,lications and achie3e the ob!ecti3es0 "his includes to,ics that ha3e been discussed co3ering the sub!ect area and has identi-ied areas that need to be e2,lored0 Fo/e3er& there is a disad3antage o- in-ormation being outdated as this industr. is e3ol3ing at a ra,id ,ace0 Secondl.& su,ermarkets ha3e recentl. been introduced in +ndia& due to /hich 3er. limited rele3ant secondar.=sources /ere a3ailable0

+!+ (rimary,*esearch"
rimar.=research consists o- sur3e.s& obser3ations and e2,eriment data that are collected to sol3e a ,articular ,roblem under in3estigation& usuall. conducted b. an indi3idual interested in or a s,eci-ic sub!ect area (Gates et al0& *((6)0 "here /ill be a lot o- em,hasis on ,rimar. research as there are 3er. limited secondar. resources a3ailable -or this to,ic& reason being the recent entr. o- this sector in Ne/= )elhi0 rimar. research /ould include both Buantitati3e and Bualitati3e a,,roach /hich /ill be based on the research=ob!ecti3es0


+!+!% 0uantitati.e,Approach"
8uantitati3e research is used to -ind staticall. signi-icant di--erences bet/een -indings or anal.sis (Mc)aniels and Gates& *((6)0 "his a,,roach in3ol3ed t/o ste,s0 +nitiall.& a ,ilot Buestionnaire /as constructed -ollo/ed b. the -inal=Buestionnaire0 ; Buestionnaire can be de-ined as “a method of obtaining specific information about a defined problem so that the data, after analysis and interpretation, results in a better appreciation of the problem” ($hisnall *((1 ,01*%)0 *i!ot+,estin": "his /as done to test the e--ecti3eness o- Buestionnaires /hich /as determined b. using limited sam,les that -urther hel,ed to make amendments in conte2t /ith com,le2it.& di--icult.& length& etc0 "he main aim o- ,ilot is to identi-. and alter loo,= holes that might decei3e the end=result due to lack o- understanding b. res,ondents (Mc)aniels and Gates& *((*)0 "his ,ro!ected i- the ob!ecti3es /ere being achie3ed success-ull. b. Buestionnaire design that /ould ma2imise the res,onse rate and minimise errors0 htt,:CC///0leeds0ac0uk0 )uring this stage res,ondents taking ,art in the sur3e. /ere care-ull. obser3ed and their reactionsChesitations /ere detected0 )uring the re=e3aluation o- the Buestionnaire one Buestion /as remo3ed and -our Buestions /ere re,hrased0 -a.p!in": "hese minor amendments /ere -ollo/ed b. the -inal Buestionnaire on a sam,le si@e o- 1*( res,ondents& randoml.0 "he market has been sur3e.ed on the basis ogeogra,hic segmentation b. di3iding it into di--erent regions (Strategic marketing ,lanning *((3)0 "o achie3e highest and most di3erse res,onse rate Ne/=)elhi /as sur3e.ed b. s,litting into North& South& Dast and #est )elhi0 5es,ondents /ere reBuested to com,lete Buestionnaires in and around sho,,ing malls and su,ermarkets0 +n contrast& other lesser de3elo,edClo/=income sho,,ing regions /ere sur3e.ed0 B. using such segmentation& 3ariet. o- data has been collected /ith di--erent ,ros,ecti3e and o3er3ie/ o- consumers0 "o conduct data collection& robabilit. Sam,ling method has been used allo/ing each member o- ,o,ulation an eBual ,robabilit. o- being selected (1ink& 1<<9)0 "o make sure the data collected /as com,letel. random& rule o- e3er. 1( th ,erson has

1< been -ollo/ed0 "his is /here e3er 1(th ,erson /ho ,assed=b. /as gi3en a chance to be a ,art o- the research& i- the. /ished to do so0

/esi"n o0 1uestionnaire: "he Buestionnaire ,rimaril. consists o- close=ended Buestions restricting res,onse rate& hence making data easier to and tabulate0 "hese included both dichotomous and multi,le choice Buestions /hich hel,ed in s,eeding=u, res,onse0 +n dichotomous Buestions& besides t/o -i2ed alternati3es& o,tion o- neutral res,onse such as Nma.beO and Nnot a,,licableO /ere included to reduce ,olarit. o- alternati3es and achie3e accurate data0 1urther& scaled=res,onse Buestions /ere used& /hich hel,ed measure the intensit. o- ans/ers (Mc)aniels and Gates& *((6)0 Besides this :ikert= scale and rank=order Buestions /ere also added -or consumer to e3aluate their ,erce,tion in realistic terms0 1e/ o,tional o,en=ended Buestions ha3e been included -or res,ondents to -reel. e2,ress their thoughts0 D3en though it ma. be com,licated to such Buestion but& “it would provide with rich array of information” /hich /ill enhance the signi-icance o- data collected (Mc)aniels and Gates& *((6& ,336)0 2usti0ication o0 1uestions: 8uantitati3e stud. did not s,eci-icall. target s,eci-ic demogra,hics because it aimed to gain an o3erall im,ression o- customers& to/ards su,ermarkets0 "his can be related to the second=research Buestion as it is im,ortant to identi-. di--erences in ,erce,tion o- .oung 3Cs old consumers0 (;,,endi21) 8uestion'& 9& 6 & 11 ha3e been aimed to identi-. the beha3iour and /ill hel, in ans/ering the third research ob!ecti3e0 1ourth ob!ecti3e enBuires about the ,enetration su,ermarkets ha3e achie3ed in )elhi4s market& /hich /ill be assessed b. the -indings -rom Buestion6=1( and 130 "hese Buestions enBuire about the consumers4 ,erce,tion to/ards su,ermarkets and disco3er the attributes that attract them to/ards di--erent retailers0 "he remaining Buestions hel, to generate a general o3er3ie/ o- an indi3idual4s interests& -urther classi-. the e2tent to /hich su,ermarkets ha3e established in their minds and ,ockets0


3030* 8ualitati3e=a,,roach:
8ualitati3e=methods ha3e been undertaken in the -orm o- -ocus grou,s that hel, in e2amining attitudes& -eelings and moti3ations o- ,roduct users (Dssentials oMarketing 5esearch *((3 ,0*(%)0 "his has allo/ed& collecti3el. gaining an understanding o- consumers and recogni@ing their ,ers,ecti3es about changing st.les in=de,th0 (Mc)aniels and Gates& *((6) e2,lain that& “the goal of a focus group is to learn and understand what people say and why. he intent is to find out how they feel about a product, concept, idea or organisation and how it fits into their lives.” "/o -ocus grou,s /ith di--erent demogra,hics ha3e been anal.sed0 "he arrangement /as highl. com,le2 and di--icult to achie3e& ho/e3er it /as necessar. to carr.=out these in order to identi-. the in-luence o- su,ermarkets on di--erent consumers0 1irst -ocus grou, com,rised o- uni3ersit. students and .oung cou,les (1% .r P 3* .r) /hich /ere intended to take ,lace at the )elhi=Jni3ersit. cam,us but later it /as decided to hold the discussions at an in-ormal en3ironment0 "his /as done to make ,artici,ants -eel com-ortable and hence -reel. e2,ressing their sho,,ing beha3iours0 "his -ocus grou, included % ,artici,ants& ho/e3er onl. 6 /ere ,resent -or the discussion0 Second -ocus=grou, s,eci-icall. included middleCold aged house/i3es and /orking /omen as traditionall. +ndian /omen manage the grocer. and house=hold sho,,ing0 Secondl.& .oung cou,les and students belong to generation=> /ith di--erent 3ie/s -orm the ,re3ious generation& hence generating a contrast o- o,inions0 "his discussion included 6 ,artici,ants in an in-ormal en3ironment0 Both -ocus=grou,s lasted -or a,,ro2imatel. 39 minuets0 "hese discussions /ould hel, in achie3ing the second ob!ecti3e as the im,act on traders has been discussed b. man. ,artici,ants0 ;dditionall.& ,artici,ant4s ,re-erred sho,,ing st.les /ere discussed along /ith the reasons in-luencing their choice0 "he research conducted /as unbiasedI ho/e3er& the sam,le /as non=re,resentati3e as it does not stand -or the /hole ,o,ulation o- )elhi0 +nter3ie/s /ere not conducted because o- their com,le2it. and the high skill in3ol3ed in e2tracting the a,,ro,riate in-ormation0 Moreo3er& it /ould be di--icult to get hold o- suitable ,eo,le in the management& /ho might not be /illing to hand out their com,an. in-ormation0

30': :imitations & roblems:

*1 "he sam,le used -or the stud. /ill not re,resent the /hole popu!ation0 Fence& anal.sis o- about 19( ,eo,le cannot determine the ,ers,ecti3e o- 130% million ,eo,le0 Respondents ma. ,ro3ide in3alid ans/ers or ma. not /ant to be a ,art o- the research0 ;s $larke and $ritcher (1<%9) e2,lain that there is o-ten ga, bet/een /hat the res,ondents sa. and do0 "o o3ercome these ,roblems 1*( Buestionnaires /ill be conducted0 ;s a result e3en ia -e/ erroneous sam,les are remo3ed it /ould not a--ect the anal.sis0 ,i.e /as 3er. crucial as the ,rimar. research /as conducted o3er $hristmas0 "his /as held in Ne/=)elhi& hence each stage /as care-ull. ,lanned and e2ecution o- all -ocus grou,s had to be done ,recisel.0 "he research carried out& included the cost o0 trave! and !ivin" in +ndia0 Stationar.& local trans,ortation and room=allocation (-ocus=grou,s) costs /ere also in3ol3ed in ,rocuring ,rimar.=data0 Access: :ack o- secondar. sources had a huge im,act on m. research0 re3ious readings /ere limited and it /as di--icult to -ind rele3ant material in relation to the stud.0 "his /as because o- recent introduction o- su,ermarkets in the retail=sectorI hence no author has studied this sub!ect in=de,th0 +n terms o- ethica! concern& the sentiments o- res,ondents /ere taken into consideration /hile designing the Buestionnaire0 Similarl.& the discussions in -ocus grou,s /ere directed care-ull.& /hich included arguments directl. related to the to,icI not concerning to an. ,ersonal or religious matters0 7ne ma!or as,ect that a--ected research /as the 3ast di3ersit. o- religions and di--erent social backgrounds0 Fence& it /as im,ortant that remarks or Buestions /ere a3oided relating to these sensiti3e issues0 %indin"+Respondents+0or+Research: "he res,ondents -or 1ocus=Grou, one /ere collected b. ,ersonal contacts& /ord=o-= mouth and a -e/ notice boards in the )elhi=Jni3ersit. cam,us0 $on3ersel.& -ocus= grou,* /as much more com,le2 because it /as 3er. di--icult to con3ince ladies to

** come to a s,eci-ic ,lace -or research ,ur,oses0 "his is because man. did not understand /h. + /as conducting this research and others /ere not con-ident enough to engage into a discussion0 1inall.& a-ter a -e/ ,ersonal contacts and /ord=o-=mouth at /ork=,laces o- -riends and -amil. -e/ res,ondents agreed to ,artici,ate in the research0


$hapter /" *esearch 3indings 9 Analysis"
"his cha,ter in3ol3es ,resentation and anal.sis o- -indings -orm the ,rimar.=research conducted0 Se3eral data=anal.sis techniBues are assisted b. gra,hs and charts to ,resent these -indings and achie3e suitable results0 $.1+3uantitative Ana!#sis rimar.=research in3ol3ed t/o -ocus=grou,s and a Buestionnaire sur3e.0 1*( res,ondents /ere sur3e.ed b. Buestionnaires& ho/e3er *1 /ere erroneous0 Fence& the anal.sis /ill com,rise o- << -indings0 +t is im,ortant to identi-. demogra,hics this sam,le included /hich can be demonstrated b. the -ollo/ing tables0



"his sur3e. includes res,ondents -rom all age grou,s gi3ing male and -emale almost eBual o,,ortunit. to e2,ress their -eelings0 +t /as -ound that grocer. sho,,ing is considered as an essential acti3it. (9(?)& ho/e3er man. res,ondents (*<?) en!o.ed the e2,erience& as results can be seen belo/0



Darlier cha,ter=* re-erred that customers sa/ sho,,ing as a sociali@ing e2,erience due to /hich su,ermarkets in )elhi are -ocusing on the entertainment as,ect alongside /ith other ser3ices0 "his can be -urther su,,orted b. -igure='0* /here ma!orit. o- the sho,,ers -elt that entertainment /as signi-icant a characteristic o- su,ermarkets0


Fence& it can be inter,reted that sho,,ers 3isualise a 3isit to su,ermarket as an Houting4 /hich not onl. ,ro3ides commodities but includes an entertainment ,ackage0

*9 Fo/e3er& besides entertainment other -actors such as income=le3els& con3enience and distance in-luence store=choice beha3iour0 1igure='03 e2hibits the res,ondents /ith di--erent economic backgrounds:


Members -rom most income=grou,s /ere sur3e.ed& /hich includes data /ith di--erent ,erce,ti3e to/ards 3arious issues0 1igure='03 has been correlated /ith the -indings -rom 8uestion=1(aCbCc (;,,endi21) /here 31? ,eo,le had ne3er e2,erienced sho,,ing at su,ermarkets0 +n m. -indings it /as initiated that out o- this 31?& almost all res,ondents belonged to lo/=income grou,s0 ; res,ondent on this remarked& “It is financially not possible for people li!e us to shop at fancy places.” Ma!orit. o- the comments suggested that lo/=income consumers ,ercei3ed su,ermarkets to be e2,ensi3e /ithout e2,eriencing it0 +n con!unction& <<? consumers /ho had e2,erienced su,ermarkets ,lanned to re,eat their beha3iour0 "heir comments su,,orted -indings -rom 8uestion=6 /hich ,ro,osed that 66? res,ondents thought their e2,enses /ere rising and -urther -ound su,ermarkets to be chea,er (not al/a.s) that hel,ed them manage e2,enditures0



"he -indings and discussion abo3e e2,lains that des,ite o- 3aried income=le3els& 9<09? res,ondents4 store choice is a--ected b. ,rice0 Fence& 3alue=added ser3ices are essential but ,rice is a ke. -actor0


Fo/e3er& these -indings o,,ose results o- table='03& /hich suggest that more ,eo,le gi3e ,riorit. to con3enience o3er ,rice ("able'0')0 "here is no theoretical !usti-ication -or this contradictionI the onl. reason that4s 3isible ma. be the ,h.siological -actor& as + ,ersonall. gi3e ,rice ,riorit. o3er e3er.thing but /hen gi3en detailed o,tions& m. o,inion usuall. changes0 8uestion=' re3eals 66? res,ondents /ere /iling to tra3el longer distances -or the sake o- con3enience0 "his is because lack o- a3ailabilit. o- house=hold ,roducts under one roo-0 1indings -rom 8uestion=6- (;,,endi2=') -urther -inds that 61? consumers sho,,ed at a range o- retailers to gain more 3ariet. o- ,roducts0 "hese -actors ,resent the need -or su,ermarket culture in )elhi4s retail market& making the li3es o- consumers sim,le0 "he success o- traditional=sho,s a,,ears to be because o- lack o- alternati3es to consumer& ho/e3er no/ that the. ha3e an o,tion the su,ermarket trend ma. soon o3er=shado/ corner=sho,s0

*6 +n the o,en=ended 8uestion1(c man. said& their reason -or choosing su,ermarkets /as because o- con3enience0 "he. -urther mentioned that the e2treme climate oNe/=)elhi made it di--icult -or consumers to sho, at Aariana stores (corner=sho,s)0 $ha,ter=* discussed the ad3antages su,ermarkets ha3e in terms o- being s,acious& ha3ing -e/er Bueues and no ,o/er=cuts0 "his is a ma!or attraction -or man. and as one res,ondent -rom the lo/=income grou,s said& “I go to supermar!ets because of air"conditioning and my !ids li!e it.” "his Buote clearl. e2,lains the e--ect su,ermarkets ha3e on indi3iduals as the. as,ire to im,ro3e their standard o- li3ing b. utilising ne/ ser3ices and -orm ,ositi3e belie-s and attitudes to/ards a better li-e0 Secondar. research highlights that +ndia is a collecti3ist societ. and most beha3iours are o-ten re,eated i- the. are -ollo/ed and acce,ted in the societ.0 )i--usion oinno3ation in the ;sian conte2t similarl. re-lects the im,ortance o- re-errals that are 3er. ,o/er-ul in +ndian culture0 "his can -urther be associated /ith -indings -rom 8uestion=6e& /hich in the table belo/ sho/s that <*? res,ondents /ould tr. ne/ stores b. re-errals and recommendations0


"his to an e2tent re3eals the amount o- trust societ. has de3elo,ed amongst each other& but because o- a reason0 )ue to high uncertaint. a3oidance ,eo,le -ind it di--icult to ada,t to ne/ trends and use o,inions o- others to make their o/n decisions0 Fo-stede4s uncertaint. a3oidance certi-ies intolerance and slo/ ada,tation to/ards change0 "his is su,,orted b. the results o- 8uestion=< /here more than 9(? ,eo,le /ould not /ant to gi3e u, the traditional corner=sho,s e3en i- su,ermarkets /ere more bene-icial0 7ne o- the comments included& “there is definitely a catch behind the low pricing, because how can they sell cheap stuff and still provide #$ comfort facilities%” "his sho/s the ,resence o- doubts in the mind o- the consumersI ho/e3er& these attitudes are not -ormed b. ma!orit. o- the res,ondents as other

*% comments (a,,endi2=3) sho/ a,,reciation and understanding to/ards the signi-icance o- su,ermarkets in their li3es0 "able='06 ,articularl. suggests that %%09? res,ondents are likel. to 3isit su,ermarkets again /hich agrees /ith means=end chain theor.0 "his is because the. gras,ed the ser3ice attributes and bene-ited -rom it& hence likel. to re,eat beha3iour0


Cu!tura! and re!i"ious sentiments are other as,ects that are 3ital in determining the success o- ,roducts and ser3ices in -ood related markets in +ndia0 Secondar. research identi-ied credit and home=deli3er as ke. -actors -or the success o- corner=sho,s0 "hese ser3ices can be certi-ied as a ,art o- the +ndian culture that not onl. e2ists in retail sector& but e3er. as,ect o- li-e& e0g0 house=hold hel,ers& cleaners& etc0 "hese ser3ices are used b. most ,eo,le and not !ust the u,,er=class0 1igure'0' su,,orts the argument as man. res,ondents identi-ied credit& home=deli3er. and distance as the ,rimar. determinants o- store=choice0


Fo/e3er& onl. 19? o,ted -or ,ersonalised relation& /hich counters the arguments -rom secondar. researchI hence a trans-ormation o- o,inions0

*< $ha,ter=* -urther talks about 3egetarian ,o,ulation /hich is relati3el. high in +ndia (1igure='09)0 ;long /ith high? o- 3egetarians -ro@en=-ood is un,o,ular /hich mo3es customers to/ards traditional -ruit=&=3egetable 3endors (1igure'06)0 Ae. customers o- 3endors are seniors and reasons -or their choices are: • • • Figh bargaining ,o/er0 Fome=deli3er /ith 3ariet. o- -ood0 ersonal=relationshi, has -ormed o3er the .ears increasing trust and con-idence o- high Bualit.0 Fence& these -actors counter the -act that older ,eo,le al/a.s ,re-er to sho, at su,ermarkets -rom secondar. research and agree /ith ettigre/4s comments0


Fo/e3er& /hen -indings -rom -igure='06 and table='06 are correlated it is -ound that ma!orit. o- studentsC.oungsters /ere /illing to ,urchase -ro@en and other -oods ,articularl. -rom su,ermarkets -or con3enience instead=o- 3endors0 ;nother reason -or the ,o,ularit. o- 3endors is because <6? o- the market is unorganised retail /hich

3( doesn4t lea3e much choice -or consumers0


;=di--erent correlation bet/een -igure='09 and table='06 /as that almost all 3egetarians did not ,re-er to bu. -ro@en ,rocessed -ood as it is usuall. ,ercei3ed as meat ,roducts0 But the middle=aged house/i3es ,urchased -rom a combination o- all0 ;s a result to this man. local su,ermarkets ha3e introduced -resh=-ood outlets /here onl. the latter is sold0 D0g0 5eliance 1resh P s,ecialises in -resh=-ood0 (;,,endi2=')


+t is clear -rom the abo3e -indings that to some e2tent the .ounger generation is ada,ting to su,ermarket culture but the older ,eo,le do not /ant to mo3e=on0 5ecent economic boom has also resulted into an escalation in standard o- li3ing and

31 increasing the ne/=generation4s ,ace o- li-e0 ;da,tation o- the /estern culture and trans-ormation to this li-est.le demands con3enience ser3ices such as su,ermarkets that are Buick and sim,le0


"he -indings -rom -igure='06 can be coincided /ith 1ishbein4s beha3ioural intentions model because it suggests that consumers consider results o- di--erent beha3iours and -ollo/ the one /ith most desired results0 1rom all arguments and -indings in this cha,ter it is unclear /hat is the ,rimar. choice o- consumers and the -act that 66? res,ondents selected both su,ermarkets and corner=sho,s suggests that it is an o,en=market0 Fo/e3er& to a great e2tent /e ha3e identi-ied the dri3ing -orces o- these choices and the di--erent as,ects in-luencing them0 1indings in table='0% /ill ,ro3ide a clear understanding o- ser3ices that are rated b. res,ondents in terms o- ,ersonal ,re-erence: rice )istance :ocation Store $leanliness ;tmos,herics +m,orted ,roduct range

3* 73erall satis-action Sta-- DtiBuettes

"he list abo3e and table='0% demonstrates the im,ortance o- ,rice& distance and location in-luencing store=choices0 ;tmos,herics& h.giene and im,orted ,roducts ha3e medium ,re-erence0 Sta-- etiBuette is lo/ on concern -or res,ondents0 "his table /ill allo/ us to summarise the -indings o- Buestionnaire and correlate them to the literature search /hich entails each -actor in the list0 rice and distance are the most common -actors a--ecting success o- su,ermarketsI ho/e3er& the moti3e o- su,ermarkets is not clear amongst man. consumers i0e0 “cheaper shopping and all of it under one roof.” "his is -ollo/ed b. the 3aried ,erce,tions o- generation=> 3 generation=Q0 Seniors /ant Bualit. and con3enience /hich is ,ercei3ed to be home=deli3er. and trustingC,ersonalised relations /ith the seller0 7n the contrar. .oungsters see con3enience as s/i-tness& direct contact /ith ,roduct and im,ortantl. additional ser3ice o--ered (restaurantsClo.alt.=cardsCcar= ,arking)0


1urther& the alternati3e ,rimar. research method /ill be ,resented along /ith it4s anal.sis to understand research ob!ecti3es *&3 and the research Buestions0


$.2+3ua!itative+Ana!#sis %ocus 4roup15-tudents & 6oun" Coup!es 7Appendi829: "he o3erall outlook o- this grou, /as ,ositi3e initiall.0 "he most common a,,reciation -actor o- su,ermarkets is ,rotection -rom /eather and good ,arking0 “I used to get ripped"off by the vendors” 7Appendi829 >oungster ,erce,tion 3aried -rom the other grou,4s to a great e2tent0 1rom bargaining ,oint o- 3ie/ this grou, sa/ the -i2ed ,rices o- su,ermarkets as a ,ositi3e0 5eason -or this could be the lack o- kno/ledge& as in “&abji"'a((ar” (o,en=-resh=-ood market) consumers ma. be una/are o- the ,rices and hence& ma. get cheated0 "his argument can also be su,,orted b. the -act that high com,etition in the retail sector /ill not gi3e su,ermarkets a chance to o3er=charge hence a bene-it to consumers0 “ he buy two get one free offers we get) are they always worth it%” 7Appendi829 "he Bualit. o- both -resh and ,acked -ood /as arguable0 "his can be correlated /ith o--ers and schemes on dis,la.0 Most su,ermarkets make bulk ,urchases /hich allo/ them to get chea,er commodities as com,ared to corner=sho,s0 "he same cannot be done b. the latter because o- lack or absence o- cold=storage s,ace and eBui,ment0 1urthermore& to make bulk ,urchases lots o- mone. needs to be in3ested in stock /hich ma. again be a di--icult. -or small traders0 Fo/e3er& res,ondents com,lained about the Bualit. o- -ood in su,ermarkets0 )ue to bulk su,ermarkets tend to ,ut their -resh=-ood on schemes to clear the stock as soon as ,ossible& else it /ill “go"bad”0 "he ,ackaged -ood on o--ers has a similar catch0 ;-ter ,ersonal obser3ation in su,ermarkets and grou, discussion it /as seen that shel-=li-e o- -ood /as much shorter in com,arison to corner=sho,s -or the same ,roducts0 Fence& it ma. be a ,ossibilit. that big=,la.ers ha3e contracts /ith ,ackaged -ood com,anies to bu. ,roducts /ith shorter shel-=li-e at chea,er ,rices to hel, clear the su,,lier4s stock and -urther ,ut them on e2clusi3e o--ers0 “If I had a choice between some random transformed corner shop and a well established supermar!et, of course it will be the supermar!et.” 7Appendi829 "he comment abo3e suggests the in-luence o- su,ermarkets on .oungsters0 5e-erring to secondar. research& Maslo/4s hierarch. o- needs in ;sian conte2t suggests similar

3' needs0 $hoosing su,ermarkets o3er trans-ormed corner=sho,s ma. be because o,restige issues0 Since the ser3ices ,ro3ided b. both are similar there /ill not be much ,roductCser3ice di--erentiation& hence a re,utation concern0 "he Bualit. is arguable as discussed abo3e /hich according to m. -indings does not greatl. im,act .oungsters0 1rom the -indings it can be said that ,re-erence o- .oungsters is in-luenced b. brand= name and the ,erce,tion that has been -ormed in the surroundings0 "his /ould su,,ort secondar. research that +ndian societ. is collecti3ist0 5es,ondents 3isuali@e su,ermarket ,roducts as high Bualit.0 "his image o- high Bualit. ,roducts has been created b. consumers /ho as suggested are being -ollo/ed b. others0 Fo/e3er& the contradiction to 1ishbein4s model -orm secondar. research is that it suggests consumers choose beha3iours and -ollo/ ones /ith the most desired results0 D3en though the. do not desire the Bualit. the. still belie3e in the ser3ice and -ollo/ that beha3iour0 "his contradiction suggests that con3enience is the ,rimar. dri3ing -orce o- .oungsters0 Fence& the ser3ice that “speeds"up” their li-est.le and “!eeps" up” to their ,ace sur3i3es i0e0 something e2actl. that a su,ermarket ,ro3ides them /ith0
;rguments=relating=to=traders=/ill=be discussed in con!unction to the second discussion0

!ocus Group.–Middle-a$ed wo'en 4Wor#in$ & 5ouse wives6: “*ust wal! in, get a trolley, pay and you’re done.” "his grou, ,ro3ed to be more signi-icant -or the stud. because -rom Buestionnaire -indings it /as seen that *6.r=99.r olds /ere the ,rimar. decision makers in house= holds& usuall. -emaleI es,eciall. -or grocer.=sho,,ing0 "here /as a minor s,lit bet/een thoughts o- /orking=/omen 3 house/i3es0 +nitiall.& similar ,oints such as /eather and good=,arking s,ace /ere discussed0 +nterestingl.& ladies identi-ied -eelings o- insecurit. amongst the societ. and added the. -elt sa-e at su,ermarkets0 +n secondar.=research& Maslo/4s hierarch. in both conte2ts ha3e been discussed and throughout the anal.sis onl. higher=le3el needs /ere looked=at0 Fo/e3er& this grou,=discussion has identi-ied that the lo/er=order needs /ere not being met as -eeling o- securit. /as not satis-ied0 Fence& the ne/ sho,,ing st.le is , an im,ortant role b. not onl. im,ro3ing consumer li-est.le but also basic=order needs0

39 ; common attribute ,ointed out in both grou,=discussions /as the ,oor Bualit. o-resh -ood0 "his has mo3ed man. a/a. -orm su,ermarkets to/ards 3endors0 Similar to .oungsters this grou, decided to o,t -or con3enience i0e0 the. ,re-er door=to=door ser3ice ,ro3ided b. 3endors and the. belie3ed the. had more 3ariet. as=/ell0 Fo/e3er& an im,ortant -actor that needs to be ,ointed out is that e3en though both grou,s o,ted -or con3enience& their handiness /as com,letel. di--erent0 #here .oungsters see con3enience as e3er.thing -rom one store and no bargainingI contraril. ladies see it as home=deli3er. hence& di--erence in attitude to/ards similar com-ort -actors0 "his suggests the di3erse -actors that ma. in-luence consumer beha3iour and make them ,er-orm actions to satis-. their desires0 Since& Bualit. and con3enience are o- higher im,ortance to this grou, the. decided to sho, -rom both t.,es o- retailers0 "his su,,orts the -indings -orm -igure='06 and '06 /hich identi-ies ,re-erence o- consumers as both Airanas and su,ermarkets0 “I don’t thin! +iranas will survive for long.” +t is belie3ed that Airanas are unlikel. to sur3i3e in the retail sector -or long because o- harsh com,etition b. su,ermarkets0 1indings suggest that in recent ,ast man. corner=sho,s ha3e been /a3ed out b. big ,la.ers& mainl. due to -inancial ad3antages and ,olitical ,o/ers0 +ndia being a de3elo,ing countr. su--ers -rom -actors such as ,o3ert. usuall. leading to corru,tion0 5es,ondents blamed the go3ernment -or not taking a,,ro,riate actions -or the /el-are o- traders and belie3e the. ha3e been bribed0 "his comment is ,robabl. true but cannot be ,ro3ed0 1urthermore& it /as mentioned that su,ermarkets ha3e established in big locations as /ell as in small si@e markets as con3enience stores0 "his is e2,ected to ad3ersel. a--ect not !ust -ood retailers but traders selling commodities similar to su,ermarkets0 +ntroduction osu,ermarkets to e3er. other street /ill dra/ consumers and take a/a. the market= share -orm small sho,s0 "his in short=run ma. a--ect the li3elihood o- man. ,eo,le0

$.3 rimar. research anal.sis has resulted in signi-icant -indings and achie3ing the ob!ecti3es o- the stud. to a great e2tent0 $onsumer ,erce,tion o- Ne/=)elhi is changing at a good ,ace /ho ha3e ada,ted to the ne/ sho,,ing=trend0 Fo/e3er& this

36 ada,tation has not trans-ormed customers com,letel.0 Su,ermarkets are bent on dri3ing the traditional corner=sho,s out o- this sector and ca,italise on market=share0 But it has been -ound that e3en though consumers are read. -or the trans-ormation& the. are not keen on gi3ing=u, ,ractice that has been going on -or decades0 "his ma. not be a,,licable to .oungsters as the. see su,ermarkets as an a3ant=garde ser3ice /hich has im,ro3ed their li-est.le0 D3en older consumers 3alue this ser3ice& but the. seem to ha3e identi-ied a -e/ ga,s relating to the Bualit. and ethical=issues to/ards small=traders0 +t4s been -ound that con3enience and ,rice are the dri3ing -orces oretail industr. and con3enience -or e3er. indi3idual comes at a di--erent le3el0 Similarl.& ,rice is usuall. correlated /ith Bualit.0 +nterestingl.& some 3isuali@e su,ermarkets as e2,ensi3e because o- the ,remium ser3ices o--ered /hich is untrue0 Ma!or attractions ha3e been identi-ied as chea,=,rices& /eather=,roo-& ,arking& ease o- access and e3er.thing under one=roo-0 D3en though it has not been mentioned directl.& atmos,herics are im,ortant to consumers as the initial reaction to/ards su,ermarkets is usuall. “spacious, beautiful","clean” /hich has been gathered -orm the -indings0 Dconom. is booming and ,o/er is increasing& leading to gro/th in the retail sector0 Middle=class holds a health. ,o,ulation /hich is likel. to a3ail such ser3ices and make an im,act on su,ermarkets0 Fo/e3er& it can be argued that one s,eci-ic class or generation /ill not ,rimaril. determine their success0 5eason -or this could be the ra,idl. changing attitudes in +ndian societ. making it di--icult to establish a stable beha3iour0


$hapter,1 $onclusion"
$onsumer market in +ndia is changing& as ,eo,le are beginning to s,end more mone. the. e2,ect ma2imum le3el o- ser3ice=standard in return0 "his need has ,a3ed /a. -or man. cor,orations to/ards the launch o- su,ermarkets0 1urthermore& standard o- li3ing is increasing /ith strong ada,tations to/ards the /estern culture0 Su,ermarket e--ect is one o- the -actors that ha3e in-luenced the consumers and created desire -or an im,ro3ed li-est.le0 D3er=since& su,ermarkets ha3e been introduced in Ne/=)elhi most stakeholders ha3e been in-luenced /hich has led to di3erse beha3iours that ha3e been anal.sed in this stud.0 "he retail market is being s/e,t a/a. b. su,ermarkets and the small traders are caught in the /a3e0 "his on the other hand& is likel. to increase com,etition /hich /ould im,ro3e ser3ices b. traders to match that o- su,ermarkets0 ;s a result o- this consumers /ill bene-it -rom the im,ro3ed ser3ices0 D3en -indings illustrate the trans-ormation o- corner=sho,s to com,ete against bigger stores0 :ocal traders ho/e3er ha3e been ad3ersel. a--ected b. su,ermarkets because o- lack o- -inancial strength and ,olitical ,o/er0 Bulk ,urchases allo/ su,ermarkets to sell same ,roducts -or lesser ,rices /hich in= turn is annihilating high=street retailers and causing unem,lo.ment0 ;dditionall.& 3endors might be dri3en out o- business lea3ing thousands unem,lo.ed0 7n the contrar. su,ermarkets not onl. create em,lo.ment but increase the standard o- li3ing0 resentl. massi3e in3estments are being made in +ndia b. locals and MN$s /ho are ,ro3iding ,lat-orms -or a stronger econom. and increasing the ,otential to generate greater amount o- mone.0 +n the long run i- consumers s,end more the su,ermarket sales are likel. to raise leading to an economic boom0 Nonetheless& go3ernment needs to inter3ene and create short=term ,lans because this economic escalation is not likel. to come into e--ect in the near -uture and b. the time it reaches lo/=income grou,s small=traders /on4t sur3i3e0

3% +n the end it is di--icult to conclude i- consumers are read. -or a trans-ormation because there is no one best /a.0 Store=choice decisions are de,endant on numerous as,ects /hich are se,aratel. ,ercei3ed b. e3er.one0 "hese decisions are mainl. dri3en b. con3enience& ,rice and the atmos,herics o- a store0 ;nal.sis -rom the -indings /orks as an e3idence in su,,ort o- these arguments0 $onsumers are mani,ulating retailers& using both ser3ices to their o/n ad3antage0 Fence& there is no=set trend that -ollo/s one t.,e o- sho,,ing0 +n=s,ite o- success in recent .ears& su,ermarkets ha3e lost 3alue and re,utation in relation to their ,roduct Bualit.0 Moreo3er& recent ban o- su,ermarkets in some states bough them bad ,ublicit.0 "his is because consumers ha3e realised that su,erstore e2,ansion /ill cause damage to the local traders leading to redundancies0 1urther& it /as -ound that consumer ,erce,tion& attitude=and=beha3iour changed in di--erent demogra,hics0 Kariation in ,erce,tion o- .oungsters and elders is likel. to determine the success o- su,ermarkets as both grou,s ha3e di--erent needs0 But in the long run .oungsters are likel. to be the main dri3ers o- this sector as their con3enience and beha3ioural ,atterns correlate /ith the ser3ices o--ered b. su,ermarkets0 "he ,resent economic ,atters suggest that >=generation is likel. to ha3e high s,ending ,o/er /hile the +ndian econom. is booming0 Su,ermarkets can be classi-ied success-ul in the conte2t that the. ha3e satis-ied higher=order=needs (Social) in Maslo/4s hierarch. (;sian)0 ;dditionall.& res,ondents accom,lished their lo/er=order needs (securit.) /hich are categori@ed as basic0 Most res,onse gathered in relation to su,ermarkets /as ,ositi3e& leading to the -act that di--erent demogra,hics disco3er di--erent bene-its -rom a common ser3ice0 Fence& it cannot be said con-identl. i- consumers /ill a,,reciate the trans-ormation o- corner=sho,s to su,ermarkets but their li-est.le ha3e been altered to a great e2tent0 "his is an emerging trend and it is too earl. to determine its ,er-ormance0 $ontraril.& ,o,ularit. as a /hole has increased leading to an increase in market=share0 ;n industr. /hich has 3? organised retail& 3(?gro/th e3er.=.ear and is /orth more than E3(( billion certainl. has a ,otential -or gro/th in -uture0


5.1+Reco..endations: • ;-ter much discussion it can be said that the +ndian societ. has acce,ted the ne/ sho,,ing -ormat0 "his should be taken as a ,ositi3e sign and the big= ,la.ers /ho should ca,italise on this b. introducing su,erstores similar to "esco=D2tra or #al=mart /hich not onl. su,,l. home groceries but all commodities and a,,liances0 • Store -ranchises should be o--ered to current Aariana=o/ners (corner=sho,s)0 "his is likel. to create more !obs and im,ro3e the Aariana standards in terms o- h.giene& atmos,here and ser3ice0 "his is likel. to bene-it i0e0 traders& su,ermarkets and consumers0 +n=addition su,ermarkets /ould automaticall. gain signi-icant market share as those sho,s /ould alread. ha3e a customer base0 $onseBuentl. this /ould hel, su,ermarkets gain ,ublic con-idence and ,ositi3e media attention0 • 1urther go3ernment inter3ention is reBuired to ,romote health. com,etition0 resentl.& su,ermarkets are banned in t/o states o- +ndia0 Such e2treme actions /ould ha3e caused redundancies -or thousands along /ith losses to su,ermarkets in millions0 Fence& to o3ercome such se3ere situations su,ermarkets should be restricted to a certain area0 D0g0 onl. one su,ermarket in the radius o- 19=*( miles0 "his /ould sa3e !obs and at the same time small= sho,=traders ma. continue their businesses in localCsmaller high=streets0 • 1or su,ermarkets to gain ma2imum market=share the. need to -ull. satis-. customer needs regardless o- their demogra,hics0 "his stud. has -ound that di--erent demogra,hics ha3e 3aried im,lications to/ards su,ermarkets /hich ha3e made it di--icult -or su,ermarkets to target the right customers0 "he. should realise that each consumer categor. has di--erent needs as com-ort might be ,ercei3ed di--erentl. b. se,arate categories0 So i- older consumers ,re-erred home=deli3er then it should be introduced0

'( • • $ha,ter3 mentions the lack o- interest in ,rocessed -ood b. consumers& /hich can be a3oided b. s,eciali@ing in -resh=-ood su,ermarkets0 Since generation=> is the -uture o- this market& online=selling might be another o,tion as internet usage is more ,o,ular /ith .oungsters0

5.2+Li.itations & %uture Research: ;s in case o- e3er. research& data collection methods in this stud. had their limitations and bene-its0 • $ha,ter=3 discussed the limitation o- Buestionnaire sur3e. as 1*( sam,les are not considered to re,resent the /hole ,o,ulation0 1urther research should be conducted /ith more o,en=ended Buestions to gain a dee,er insight o- customer 3ie/s0 • Geogra,hicall.& NorthCsouthCeastC/est )elhi /as co3ered /hich ,rimaril. sur3e.ed consumers near sho,,ing=malls and grocer. stores0 1uture stud. should in3ol3e a di3erse sam,le -rom /ider geogra,hical locations0 • )ue to time constrains onl. t/o -ocus=grou,s /ere held0 More Bualitati3e discussions /ith di3erse demogra,hic should be sur3e.ed allo/ing to identi-. the ,re-erences and ,erce,tion o- a larger sam,le0 • "o gain more suitable insights inter3ie/s and higher=le3el o- Bualitati3e research /ould be bene-icial0 Fence& in -uture it is recommended to sur3e. ,eo,le /ith a,,ro,riate kno/ledge /ho /ill be able to identi-. as,ects that the retail=sector lacks and -actors a--ecting its ,er-ormance0


$hapter,: Appendi;"
:!% Appendi; %" 0uestionnaire
+ am a student o- Brunel Jni3ersit.& as ,art o- a research + /ould like .our o,inions concerning the emerging su,ermarkets and their im,act on citi@ens e3er.da. li-e0 $ould .ou ,lease s,are a -e/ minutes to ,ro3ide in-ormation that /ould be in3aluable -or understanding customer needs0 +n-ormation ,ro3ided /ill remain con-idential and not shared /ith a third ,art.0

31. :hat is #our "enera! view about "rocer# shoppin"; 7*!ease tic<  the .ost appropriate option9  Dssential  :eisure  5outine  Not Sure

32. :hich o0 the 0o!!owin" services wou!d pri.ari!# a00ect #our "rocer# store choice; 7*!ease tic<  as .an#9  $redit  Fome )eli3er.  ersonalised relation  None o- the

 $on3enience -rom base abo3e

 :o/ -uss returns


33. *!ease ran< the i.portance o0 the 0o!!owin" aspects that #ou .i"ht consider be0ore decidin" which store t#pe to shop at; 7:here 1 is the .ost i.portant and ( the !east i.portant9 ;tmos,herics rice :ocation )istance +m,orted ,roduct range Sta-- DtiBuettes Store $leanliness 73erall satis-action RRRR RRRR RRRR RRRR RRRR RRRR RRRR RRRR

3$. :ou!d #ou pre0er to shop 0or a!! do.estic ite.s at one store= at the cost o0 coverin" !on"er distance 75>.+1?>.9; 7*!ease tic<  one9  >es  No 

35. :ou!d #ou bu# 0ro@en ve"etab!es and other 0ro@en 0ood 0or convenience and savin" ti.e; 7*!ease tic<  one9  >es  No 


36. Aave #our househo!d costs increased in the recent past; 7*!ease tic<  one9  >es  No   Not kno/n

3'. *!ease indicate the !eve! o0 a"ree.ent and disa"ree.ent on each o0 the 0o!!owin" state.ents b#  the .ost appropriate bo8:
Strongl. )isagree )isagree Neither ;gree or )isagre e ;0 + select the store to sho, at -or grocer. sho,,ing B0 + am the ,rimar. ;gree Strongl. ;gree

decision maker in the household0
$0 :o/er ,rices are likel. to in-luence m. store choice and ,urchases0 )0 $on3enience -or me has more im,ortance o3er ,rice in most as,ects0 D0 + /ould tr.=out a ne/

store i- recommended b. -amil.C-riends0
10 )o .ou sho, at a range oretailers -or more ,roduct 3ariet.G G0 Most corner sho,s

should su,ermarket -ollo/ culture the in

terms o- en3ironment and atmos,herics0

3(. In<ets there wi!! be access to .erchandise and custo.ers wi!! be ab!e to touch and 0ee! the product without the he!p o0 the shop<eeper. ,his pheno.enon is !i<e!# to attract #ou to<ets. 7*!ease tic<  one9  Strongl. agree  )isagree  ;gree  Neither agree or disagree

 Strongl. disagree

39. I0<ets are !ar"e!# .ore bene0icia! then wou!d #ou be wi!!in" to "ive up the traditiona! >ariana stores; 7*!ease tic<  one9  )e-initel.& .es  robabl. not  robabl.& .es  )e-initel. not  Might or might not

31?. Aave #ou e8perienced shoppin" at a<et; 7*!ease tic<  one9  >es  No

7I0 #es the "o to 31?b e!se p!ease .ove to 31?c9

31?b9 Are #ou !i<e!# to repeat this behaviour and return to the<et;

'9  >es  No 


311. I0 ever #ou purchase 0resh 0ruits and ve"etab!es wou!d #ou procure the. 0ro. Cradie wa!!as) 7road side vendors9; 7*!ease  the .ost appropriate bo8. 6ou .a# tic<  .ore than one bo89  >es& usuall.  + might got to su,ermarkets

 + might go to corner sho,s  ;ll o- the abo3e



313. In ter.s o0 entertain.entDsocia!isin" and added va!ue services= to what e8tent do #ou thin< the 0aci!it# o0 restaurants= co00ee shops= etc. .a# pu!! #ou towards<ets; 7*!ease tic<  the .ost appropriate bo89

'6  )e-initel. /ould dra/ m. interest  Might or might not dra/ m. interest  )e-initel. /ould not dra/ m. interest  robabl. /ould dra/ m. interest  robabl. /ould not dra/ m. interest

31$. :hich t#pe o0 store is .ost co..on!# used b# #ou 0or "rocer# shoppin"; ( lease tick  the most a,,ro,riate o,tions)  Aariana Stores (Small corner sho,)  Both  Su,ermarkets


315. *!ease tic<  the bo8 that so.ewhat indicates the inco.e brac<et to which #ou be!on" per annu.:E  J, to 5s0 19& ((( (S1<9)  Bet/een 5s016& (((=5s0*9& ((( (S*(%=S3*9)  Bet/een 5s0*6& (((=5s039& ((( (S33%=S'99)  Bet/een 5s0 36& (((=5s099& ((( (S'6%=S619)  Bet/een 5s096& (((=1lack (S6*%=S13(()  Bet/een 5s 101:ack=5s0 9:ack (S1&'3(=S6&9(()  Bet/een 5s0 901:ack=5s01(:ack (S6&6*9=S13&((()  5s01( :ackT (S13&(((T)  NC;

316. *!ease tic<  the bo8 that indicates #our a"e "roup:  16=*(  '6=99  *1=*9  96=6(  *6=39  61T  36='9  N;


31'. 4ender 7*!ease tic<  the .ost appropriate bo89:  Male  1emale

E7Currenc# Conversion are appro8i.ate where F1 G Rs. ''9


:!' Appendi; '" 0ualitati.e findings
"/o -ocus grou,s /ere organised in )elhi /hich included students & .oung cou,les and the second grou, com,rised o- middle=aged /omen0 "he -ollo/ing transcri,ts ha3e been e2tracted -rom -ocus grou,1 and -ollo/ed b. -ocus grou,*0 Since& the discussions /ere held in +ndia& res,ondents used the local language /hich /as Findi0 Fence& all transcri,ts ha3e been translated0 )ue to translation it /as not ,ossible to get the e2act /ord -or /ord discussion0 But the -indings ha3e been ,re,ared in a /a. that the. should ,ro3ide the most accurate results0 "ranslation -rom Findi to Dnglish /as ,er-ormed b. me as Findi is m. mother tongue and + ha3e studied Dnglish as a -irst language /hich should assure the correct use o- both languages0 )ue to con-identialit. reasons the names o- res,ondents /ill not be used in the transcri,ts0 Research 7*8ective .9 / & +: -. .valuate the consumer trends and their perceptions towards the new shopping style. -. Identify the factors that may influence the success or failure of supermar!ets. -. /ssess the e0tent to which supermar!ets are having an impact on the local traders and independent shop owners. "o understand the consumer beha3iour that in-luences their sho,,ing st.le& store choice and a3ailing certain ser3ices0 "hese ob!ecti3es aim to identi-. the im,act osu,ermarkets on consumer li-est.le and in return /hat is their ,erce,tion to/ards this ser3ice0 :astl.& the im,act on the traders /ill be looked at0 "his /ill include the

'< disorder o- distribution channels caused due to the introduction o- large ,la.ers and the -uture o- the local corner sho,s0

:!'!% 3ocus <roup % – Students 9 =oung $ouples (%>yr – +' yr)
Respondent 1: Su,ermarkets are a blessing0 + mean& them -inall. coming to )elhi has reall. made m. li-e eas.0 Respondent 3: + agree to this0 Darlier at the Aarians stores + had to /ait -or the sho,kee,er to ser3e the customers be-ore and then hand me o3er m. stu--0 No/ + don4t need an. one4s hel, in getting the -ood or /hate3er + need to bu.0 Respondent 2: +4d like to add the hot /eather and the e2treme climatic conditions o)elhi0 7h dearUU "he best ,art is these markets are air=conditioned and + do not ha3e to /ait -or m. turn to come in the heat0 Respondent 6: rior to su,ermarkets + had to -ace the same ,roblems in the “sabji ba((ar” (o,en -ruits & 3egetable market)0 +n addition + used to get ri,,ed=o-- b. the 3endors because + ne3er kne/ the right ,rices o- most o- the assorted -ood that /as a3ailable0

Respondent 1: "he bargains are reall. good as /ell0 Not !ust on -resh -ood as .ou said but ,ackaged and ,rocessed -ood as /ell0 :ast /eek + bought ' cartons o- !uice -or the ,rice o- *0 + mean& that4s brilliantU Respondent $: + agree /ith all the ,oints .ou gu.s are making but + /ould like to add to the ,oint that res,ondent1 !ust made0 + doubt the -reshness o- the -ood that /e get at

9( su,ermarkets0 + am not there is an.thing /rong /ith it but it4s not al/a.s -resh0 "he bu. t/o get one -ree o--ers /e getI are the. al/a.s /orth itG Respondent 5: So .ou mean the. are to get rid o- the e2cess stock be-ore it e2,ires0 Respondent $: "hat ma. be one o- the reasons0 Respondent 6: Might be because o- bulk ,urchases but + still think it4s great -or us0 +n a /a. /e bene-it -rom these o--ers and so does the su,ermarket because the. bu. things chea,l.0 Respondent 3: So basicall.& it4s a good thing because bene-its -rom it0 Respondent 2: #ellUUU #hat about the Aariana Store o/ners (corner sho,s)G "he. ha3e no /here to go0 Respondent 1: + remember a -e/ .ears ago /hen su,ermarkets /ere recentl. introduced& there /ere onl. limited stores0 But no/ the. are building them e3er./here0 Respondent 3: D3en in all smaller streets .ou mainl. get to see -ranchise or sole o/ned su,ermarkets& or as some ma. call them con3enience stores0 Respondent $: "he small ,la.ers do not ha3e the ca,acit. to com,ete /ith them and the. are loosing out on consumers -ast0 Respondent 6: But there /as a corner sho, do/n the road o- m. house& it has totall. trans-ormed into a ne/ sho, /ith similar characteristics o- a su,ermarket0 Respondent 2: Fo/ man. small retailers do .ou think can do thatG Ker. limited one4s /ho ha3e hea3. -inancial back=u,0 "he da. a su,ermarket o,ens across that

91 sho, it /ill be 3er. di--icult -or the single kariana sho, to sur3i3e0 #hich one /ould .ou go toG Respondent 3: #ell& i- + had a choice bet/een some random trans-ormed corner sho, and a /ell established su,ermarket& o- course it /ill be the su,ermarket0 But .ou need to realise not all Aariana4s are trans-ormed0 Respondent 2: So .ou4ll go /ith the brand0 Respondent 1= 3= $ a"ree with the sa.e 0act. Respondent 5: "he su,ermarket /ill certainl. be a better o,tion because o- the amount o- schemes the. o--er0 lus at su,ermarkets + al/a.s -eel there is a guarantee o- Bualit. and the -eeling o- reliabilit. e2ists0 )oes else -eel that /a.G Respondent 1: + /ould agree to some e2tent as at the back o- m. head + -eel similarl. to/ards su,ermarkets0

:!'!' 3ocus <roup ' – 4iddle aged women (?orking 9 house"
Respondent 1: Su,ermarkets ha3e had a certain im,act on m. li-e and o-=course it4s ,ositi3e0 + sa3e a lot o- time and more im,ortantl. energ.0 Must /alk in& get a trolle.& ,a. and .ou4re done0 Respondent 2: +t4s kind o- a routine thing no/0 Since + /ork& earlier + ne3er used to get a chance to /ait or ha3e the energ. to look out -or o--ers or bargain /ith the sho,kee,ers0 Respondent $: "o be hones it /as a relie- -or ,eo,le like us& es,eciall. -or /omen& because )elhi is not the sa-es ,lace in the /orld and so /hen .ou are in a enclosed en3ironment /ith man. ,eo,le around .ou& one tends to -eel secure0 Respondent1= 2= 3= 5 & 6 a"reed to this point.


Respondent 6: +t4s secure and in addition the. are clean and bright0 Respondent 3: con3enient0 Respondent 5: + agree /ith all the ,oints that ha3e been made but to some e2tent + still -a3our m. corner sho,0 "he sho, is clean and + can4t es,eciall. go to a su,ermarket -or e3er. little thing0 D0g0 +- + need a carton o- milk& then going all the /a. to su,ermarket is not al/a.s con3enient0 Respondent 2: 1or smaller and Buick ,urchases e3en + ,urchase stu-- -orm m. corner sho,0 "he good ,art is the. usuall. home deli3er& so !ust need to gi3e them a call and that4s itU Respondent 1: #ellUU +t4s not the same thing an.more0 ;s in& su,ermarket sho,,ing -or me is not !ust groceries0 + understand most ,eo,le here are short o- time& but since + am a house /i-e& it4s not that big a ,roblem0 "he su,ermarket ,laced near m. house is in a sho,,ing mall0 So it4s usuall. a mi2 o- both& house /ork gets done and some time -or leisure0 Respondent $: Fmm0 But Bualit. /ise + do not al/a.s trust the su,ermarket ,roducts0 Respondent 3: Ds,eciall. the -resh -ood& e3en + don4t0 Respondent $: + get them -rom 3endors onl.0 "he -reshness o- -ood is more and since + got to 1sabji ba((ar’ (o,en -ruits & 3egetable market) + ha3e so much o,tions0 Respondent 2: + ha3e ne3er had an. ,roblem /ith the -reshness o- su,ermarket -ood& /hen + am going to a sho, to get hal- o- the things& it doesn4t make sense to /aste more time b. going to other ,laces0 arking and the /eather is not a ,roblem /hich makes it 3er.

93 Respondent 3: #ell because .ou /ork its better -or .ou going to !ust one ,lace& but e3en + /ould ,re-er a mi2 o- both ,laces0 Not onl. -or -resh -ood but all groceries0 Respondent 5: "hat4s true0 + understand that su,ermarket culture is a /estern thing but corner sho,s are culturall. the +ndian /a. to sho,0 So + ,ersonall. /ouldn4t /ant to com,letel. shi-t m. sho,,ing to su,ermarket0 Respondent 1: But + don4t think Aarianas /ill sur3i3e -or long0 Respondent 5: #h. is thatG Respondent 1: "he big ,la.ers are taking o3er this sector at a reall. -ast ,ace& there are not man. corner sho, o/ners /ho /ill be able to sur3i3e this0 Respondent 6: "he big cor,orations ha3e in3ested millions in this business0 "here is no /a. the local Aariana sho,s can com,ete them0 Respondent $: Jnless the go3ernment does something to hel, them0 #hich is 3er. unlikel.& the /hole ,olitical s.stem is corru,t0 "he big ,la.ers -eed them /ith mone. and the. do nothing -or the /el-are o- the ,oorer ,eo,le0 Respondent 2: + agree /ith the corru,tion comment& but the go3t0 did ban su,ermarkets in a -e/ states in +ndia0 "hat /as done -or the /el-are o- local traders onl.0 E,ranscripts 0or both 0ocus "roups have been trans!ated. ,he irre!evant and repeated .ateria! has been edited out 0ro. the discussions presented above.


:!+ Appendi; +" 0uestionnaire $omments
Loo< at Appendi81 3uestion 1? 2. 'ecause each n every item is placed properly and u can have a variety of all items. 3. /ll need items available under one roof. /t times good discount offers. 4ift vouchers accepted. Can compare the product range. 5. I get everything under one roof and it is convenient for me. 6. 7ygiene #. /s they provide variety of products and a good atmosphere. 8. &uper &tores provides best prices, variety and convenience for my bul! purchases. I can shop independently ta!ing my own time and ma!ing my choices. 9. &hopping there is also not affected by weather conditions and they also provide a glimpse of the new launches in the mar!et. :. he most important factor for me is more variety, ambience, distance and price. ;. Convenience only. 2<. Its more convenient to shop from the super mar!et as u get everything under one roof and that too probably at the same price. =oreover the product can b easily replaced if there is any problem which may not be possible if you are buying the product from a normal store

99 22. I get good range of products to buy form. 23. &uper &tores provides best prices, variety and convenience for my bul! purchases. I can shop independently ta!ing my own time and ma!ing my choices. 25. &hopping there is also not affected by weather conditions and they also provide a glimpse of the new launches in the mar!et. 26. &upermar!ets provide more variety, lower prices, abundant >uantity, newer product range and ideas, leisurely and hindrance free shopping , convenient and ample par!ing space, good ambience , food courts, variety of products under one roof and faster payment procedure. 2#. he heat factor, good par!ing, spacious. 28. Its user friendly for me, staff is helpful, availability of everything. ?on’t have to wait. 29. .ven though it’s far from my house, there is no problem of going to different shops for little things, don’t have to wait in the >ueues in the heat@cold being pushed around by other people. &pacious and clean environment 2:. It was a good e0perience, staff was very helpful, and all similar items were placed appropriately close to each other. 2;. he convenience factor, everything is available at one place, benefits such as loyalty cards and store points, par!ing, weather factor, close to my house Loo< at Appendi81 3uestion 11 2. Arom both radie wallas BvendorsC and stores. ?epends on the product 3. ?epends upon convenience 5. =ore bargaining power, very convenient 6. I mi0 it all up. #. radition >uality of

96 8. hey come right outside my house, don’t have to carry it from shop to home, I !now this vendor for the last # years, hence he won’t cheat on >uality or prices. 9. hey are cheaper, comes outside my house, I can choose form many vendors BvendorsC. :. 'etter bargaining power, I can choose from a large variety of radies

:!/ Appendi; /" <raphs6 $harts 9 (ictures"


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