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ation: Jam

Honey bees live in colonies of up to 60,000, capable of complex

social behaviour. Although individual bees are short lived, a colony
can continue for many years.

Honey, the colony’s food reserve, is stored in a "comb" - an array of

hexagonal wax cells. Honey is nectar produced by flowers, swallowed
by bees, then concentrated, partly digested and finally regurgitated.
It could fairly be described as bee vomit. Beeswax for cell
building is secreted by glands on the underbelly of the bee.
From earliest recorded times, Beekeepers often transport their
humans have manipulated bees colonies to areas of flowering crops
for their own purposes. There are where the bees pollinate the flowers,
several hundred commercial bee increasing crop yields and earning fat
farmers in the UK, plus many thousands fees for the beekeepers. However, this
of small scale "hobby" beekeepers. is to the detriment of local wild bees
and other pollinating insects, which are
At the heart of every bee colony is the swamped by the temporary visitors.
queen bee - the only one capable of
laying eggs. While the ordinary As with all intensively farmed animals,
"worker" bees live just a few weeks commercial bee colonies are prone to
during the active season, the queen the rapid spread of disease. The Varroa
can live for several years. However, in mite is rife among both commercial
commercial beekeeping the queens are and "hobby" bee colonies and is
regularly killed and replaced - some threatening the few remaining wild
experts advise as often as every six honey bee colonies.
months. New queens are
mass produced by specialist Honey and beeswax are used
breeders under controlled in food, cosmetics and
conditions - virgin queens toiletries, candles and
are artificially inseminated polishes. Both can be
with sperm from crushed easily replaced by animal-
males. The queen often has free alternatives. Other bee
her wings clipped off to prevent products such as propolis,
swarming - the natural way for the pollen, royal jelly and venom are
colony to reproduce itself. valued by humans for supposed health-
giving properties, though it is questionable
Sometimes whole colonies are killed off whether they are of any real benefit -
to save feeding them over the winter. except to the bees themselves.
When they are kept through the
winter, the honey is often removed and Vegans use no bee products, preferring
replaced with sugar candy or syrup, to forgo the doubtful benefits and well
which are cheaper, though less healthy known risks [such as infant botulism] of
for the bees. substances stolen from bees.

For further information on the vegan diet visit

or send an A5 SAE to The Vegan Society, Donald Watson House, 7 Battle Road,
St.Leonards-on-Sea, East Sussex TN37 7AA Tel: 0845 45 88244