CONTENTS

Welcome

They say it is the oldest profession. However, unlike other professions, those involved in street prostitution continue to face dangerous conditions, exploitation and abuse. Government, police and community organisations are determined to address the problem once and for all. In this issue we look at the ways in which those involved in street prostitution are being helped to get out and what the Government and partner agencies are doing to prevent the vulnerable from getting involved in the first place. Many youngsters turn to crime and anti-social behaviour through boredom, a lack of purpose and a lack of community cohesion. Sport and culture can help cultivate a sense of pride and encourage team spirit. We find out what initiatives are in place to help youngsters find their form and become great community players. The Neighbourhood Watch scheme has proved highly successful in combating crime. We show how police involvement contributes considerably towards this success and highlight a range of community-focused projects that showcase its growing remit. The Crime Reduction News team

Inside…
News 3 4 5 6 7 8 22
Tackling violent crime Latest crime statistics Business crime addressed Blitz on alcohol abuse Attack on drug assisted rape Reward for informers NDC achievement awards

Features 9 16 17 18 20
Tough on the causes of crime The Intensive Supervision and Surveillance Programme nips criminality in the bud Shark shooting The war against illegal money lending hots up FRANK a winner The winning campaign highlights the risks and dangers of drug abuse Giving them a sporting chance Sport and culture give communities and youngsters a stake in society Neighbourhood Watch Police and Neighbourhood Watch initiatives can crack community crime

Plus... 11-14 Special report

Regulars 10 15
How to... ...address domestic violence Comment Mentoring is key to crime prevention

Prostitution
● ● ●

Taking on street prostitution Preventative measures Profiles of those involved

● The way forward

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2 Crime Reduction News

PHOTONICA

NEWS

news
ALSO INSIDE BUSTING BUSINESS CRIME DRUG ASSISTED RAPE STUDY INFORMERS GET CASH INCENTIVE

Partnerships tackle

violent crime
Strategy support and best practice: ● Set up a Practitioner Support Panel (PSP) to review the local CDRP violent crime strategies. This will define strengths and areas for further development and identify best practice ● The PSP will conduct one-to-one feedback sessions with each CDRP ● Additional specialists will be linked to CDRPs where particular violent crime challenges are being addressed – for example, gun crime ● Cross-CDRP workshops will be conducted where common problems can be addressed, such as data analysis and alcohol licensing ● The PSP will conduct follow up workshops to discuss progress against the violent crime plan ● PSP members are to be drawn from police and CDRP practitioners with experience on violent crime issues. Enforcement support: ● Focus on alcohol-fuelled crime as well as other violence issues in each locality – for example, street violence and domestic violence ● Focus on policing practices, incorporating lessons learnt from the summer enforcement campaign on alcohol misuse ● Focus on engagement with key partners in each CDRP to strengthen their contribution towards reducing violent crime and promoting better ways of collaborative working ● Lessons learned at the end of each tranche will be fed into the following tranche (and also other national-level work). Contact the Violent Crime Unit: christopher.blairs@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk or the Police Standards Unit: irwin.turbitt@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk simon.leach2@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk

NEWS
IN BRIEF
The breathalyser that stops you driving

A targeted violent crime programme has been launched to reduce volume violent crime and improve partnership working. The programme is managed jointly by the Police Standards Unit, the PM’s Delivery Unit, and the Violent Crime Unit. It focuses initially on partnering with the Basic Command Units (BCUs) and Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnerships (CDRPs) with the largest volume of violent crime. They equate to about 25 per cent of the more serious violence in England and Wales. The programme will use the experience of a range of people, including the police and local authority employees, to work alongside these areas to reduce violent crime. It began last month with a first tranche of 13 BCUs/CDRPs, followed by further tranches planned from April 2005. The two main arms of activity within the Tackling Violent Crime Programme are strategy support and best practice, and enforcement support.

New technology to prevent drink-drivers from using their cars has been launched by the Department of Transport. As part of a research project, volunteers are being recruited in Birmingham and Bristol to test an alcohol ignition lock to be fitted into cars of convicted drink drivers. The lock fits into the car's ignition. The driver must take a breath test before starting the car and, if the alcohol level is too high, it will not start. If the pilot proves a success, new legislation could follow allowing courts to use the locks as part of their drinkdrive rehabilitation programmes.

NETWORK PHOTOGRAPHERS, GETTY

Crime Reduction News 3

NEWS

CRIME
STATISTICS

Gun crime checked
THE CRIME RATE CONTINUES TO FALL ACCORDING TO BCS KEY FIGURES
Total crime
BCS crime is down seven per cent. Police recorded crime is down five per cent. common assault, amount to actions such as pushing and shoving and involves little or not physical injury to the victim.

C

rime in England and Wales fell seven per cent in the third quarter of 2004 compared to the same quarter last year, according to the British Crime Survey. This continues a trend in significant falls in vehicle theft, burglary and robbery. Violent crime dropped by six per cent. Although provisional figures for recorded firearm offences rose by three per cent in the 12 months to June 2004, the increase in gun crime has slowed over recent years. This is attributed to tougher gun laws, support for community engagement and effective police action helping to drive illegal guns off the streets. Provisional figures also show a 15 per cent drop in firearm homicides and a 10 per cent drop in the use of handguns. On the other hand, police recorded violent crime increased by 11 per cent largely due to increased reporting and recording of low-level thuggery, more willingness to report sex offences and the effect of new sex offence laws that came into force in May.

Domestic burglary
BCS fell by two per cent.* Police recorded crime fell 23 per cent.

Vehicle crime
Thefts of and from a vehicle continue to fall. BCS fall of 12 per cent. Police recorded vehicle crime fall of 18 per cent.

Robbery
There continues to be a sustained fall in robbery, largely due to the Street Crime Initiative. Police recorded crime fall of 15 per cent.

Victimisation rate
The BCS shows the risk of being a victim of crime remains historically low at 25 percent. Alcohol accounts for around half of all violent crime. This was addressed head on over the summer when the Government, police and partners joined forces in a blitz on town centres, off licences and bars to target alcohol fuelled crime and disorder This successful campaign has provided the Government and police with a blueprint for further work. *Not statistically significant, so stable

Violent crime Working together
As part of the ongoing work to reduce gun crime, planned New Year drug enforcement activity by the Home Office and police, announced in September, will be focusing on the four high gun crime police force areas: London, West Midlands, Greater Manchester and Nottinghamshire, to tackle the link between guns and drugs. The crackdown on drug dens will be expanded to ensure that new police powers on possession of a firearm are used effectively. Statistics show that the risk of being a victim is at its lowest level since records started in 1981.
BCS fall of six per cent.* Police recorded violent crime increase of 11 per cent. Police recorded serious violence and less serious violence have increased – this may be due, in part, to the continuing effects of recording changes and a greater willingness of victims to come forward. Much of what is recorded as violent crime, such as

Campaign targets gun crime
The Home Office has made £2 million – cash seized from criminals under recycled criminal asset laws – available to support anti-gun work. The Government Offices for the Regions are using most of this cash for local projects, but £250,000 is being used for the second round of the Connected Fund. The fund finances schemes such as mentoring projects, diversionary activities to help young people break away from gang culture, and work to support victims. The St Basils project in Birmingham, for example, is using funding to work with young gang members living in hostels in Aston and provide them with mentoring and education programmes. The Connected programme is part of the Home Office strategy to tackle gun crime and gun culture. A new website has been designed as a one-stop shop for anyone working in the area of gun crime reduction, in the voluntary, public or private sector. The Home Office Gun Crime Section has also run a poster campaign to highlight the fact that tough new laws, introduced earlier this year, are taking effect. Posters can be down-loaded from the Connected website (see below). The campaign raises awareness among young people that anyone caught illegally carrying a prohibited gun will automatically be sentenced to at least five years in jail. Carole Eniffer, Head of the Gun Crime Section, said they had received positive feedback from communities about the campaign. Visit: www.connected.gov.uk

4 Crime Reduction News

NEWS

Campaigning to keep crime down
A campaign to highlight simple precautions to minimise the risk of becoming a victim of burglary, car crime or robbery has been launched by the Home Office. The 'Acquisitive Crime' Reduction campaign began in November and features three new TV commercials that use humour to dramatise the way in which some people make life easy for criminals. The advertisments are targeted at the regions which suffer the highest levels of acquisitive crimes. They are supported by radio, outdoor and press advertisements, which end with the strapline 'Keep it safe, keep it hidden, keep it locked'.
● This is the first time the three acquisitive crime types have been brought together under one campaign, with a new crime brand 'Let's keep crime down'. ● To research the campaign, the Home Office interviewed a range of offenders as well as frontline police officers who deal with acquisitive crime on a daily basis. ● The media budget has been split between the Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnerships that account for over 80 per cent of acquisitive crimes, concentrating in London, the North, Midlands and Wales. For further information contact: chris.kirby@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk

NEWS
IN BRIEF
Identity fraud
A new Home Office website www.identitytheft. org.uk will tackle the growing problem of identity fraud. It explains how to keep personal information safe, how to get help and what is being done to tackle this crime, including proposals for ID cards. It is part of a package of measures designed to address the problem that affects more than 100,000 people in the UK each year.

Busting business crime
Enterprising directors are taking the initiative to drive down business crime. David Hopkins OBE (below), chairman of ADS, a small business in Stockport that designs and manufactures public address systems and induction loops for the deaf, believes that businesses play a vital role in helping build safer communities and that good community relationships bring business benefits. ‘Any business is part of a wider community and has a role to play in maintaining a safe and mutually beneficial environment,’ says David. His company’s belief in community cooperation has helped to create a culture in which local residents benefit from garden clearing for the elderly, regeneration of the local environment and CCTV street surveillance. ‘We’ve positioned an extra digital CCTV to monitor the street,’ says David. ‘In the event of a car break in or theft, local residents ask us for footage that can help the police.’ In return, locals look out for David, alerting him to suspicious activity on his business premises and reducing the risk of crime. ‘It’s such a simple theory,’ says David. ‘Businesses shouldn’t see themselves in isolation. They are part of a community and should work with that community.’ For information about business crime, visit: www.crime reduction.gov.uk/ business35. htm
ALAMY

Inside Justice Week 2004
Inside Justice Week – a series of events and activities held around the country to ‘open up’ the criminal justice system (CJS) to the public – was heralded a success in helping to raise awareness of and improve understanding of the CJS. From 11-17 October, 40 local Criminal Justice Boards across England and Wales organised events and activities, ranging from open court days, police cell visits and rides in prisoner escort vans through to mock trial events in local schools. Events in Warwickshire and Essex both attracted over 1,500 visitors. The event also gave practitioners the chance to inform the public of improvements being made to the CJS and the importance of their involvement and contribution in creating safer communities. It is hoped that the event will be repeated next year.

New Year amnesty for dumped vehicles
A campaign to persuade local authorities and housing associations to shift abandoned vehicles is being launched in January by ENCAMS, the charity that runs the Keep Britain Tidy Campaign. Building on the success of the take-back/collection schemes already up and running across England and Wales, the two-week vehicle amnesty will see wrecks, reported by their owners, collected for free and scrapped. Although this initiative necessitates some financial outlay for authorities, it is far less costly than the growing expense of removing and storing dumped vehicles. Almost 300,000 cars are abandoned nationally every year, costing more than £23 million to local authorities. To date more than a 100 local authorities and housing associations have signed up to the campaign but more are still welcome. For further details email: enquiries@encams.org or call 01942 612641
● Four new guides for the public: Neighbourhood Noise, Nuisance and Abandoned Vehicles, Dog Fouling and the Law and Fly-tipping and the Law have been produced by ENCAMS. The guides, which outline the law relating to the four issues and give advice on what can be done to solve each problem. can be found at www.encams.org.uk/information/publications.asp

Crime Reduction News 5

NEWS

NEWS
IN BRIEF
Quality streets
A new guide produced by ENCAMS, the Sustainable Communities Programme Handbook, looks at a variety of practical ways neighbourhoods can improve their quality of life. The handbook encourages communities to improve their environment by growing vegetables, reporting local polluters and organising community clean-up schemes.

Schools to help cut down on street crime
The Street Crime Action Team at the Home Office, and the charity organisation Crimestoppers, are planning to hold an anti-robbery week in schools in early January. The post-Christmas period generally sees a rise in the number of robberies, so the return to school is a key time to make young people more aware of robbery and reduce their risk of becoming a victim. Campaign material will include an assembly and lesson pack, which will be made available to all schools online, linked in to the citizenship module of the National Curriculum. There will be an additional focus in areas within the Street Crime Initiative, with packs sent to all schools in these areas. Contact: Jonathan.Rushton@ homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk or visit the Street Crime Action Team website at www.crimereduction.gov.uk/ streetcrime01.htm

Act may make new buildings more secure
Households with no security are, on average, nine times more likely to be burgled, so ministers welcomed the passing of the Sustainable and Secure Buildings Act, which received Royal Assent in September. The Act, introduced as a Private Members Bill by Andrew Stunell MP in January, amends the Building Act 1984 to, among other things, enable the introduction of building regulations that will further the prevention and detection of crime. The new Act means that, in the future, it should become possible to require all new homes and dwellings to have good security measures – such as door and window locks – in place when they are built. The Office of the Deputy Prime Minister and the Home Office will soon be discussing what kinds of security requirements might be introduced with a range of stakeholders including the police and fire authorities, manufacturers, the building industry and insurers. There will then be a period of public consultation before final decisions are taken. In the meantime, ways are being sought to encourage the building industry to immediately improve security standards in new and refurbished homes.

Visit www.crime reduction.gov.uk/active communities71.htm.
Register for the Delivering Sustainable Communities Summit at www.odpm.gov.uk/summit

LAAs pave the way
A project, which could transform the way in which Government works with local authorities and their partners, is to be piloted in 21 areas of the country. Local Area Agreements (LAAs) will help strengthen relationships between central and local Government and improve local performance. Key features include: ● An agreement with local parties setting out outcomes to be delivered ● outcomes based on local priorities and national standards ● greater flexibility to use resources to meet local requirements ● rationalising funding streams to reduce bureaucracy ● a bigger role for Government offices ● encouraging joint action by partners ● builds on community leadership role of local authorities. Work is being taken forward in the Home Office and across Whitehall on LAAs and on the Safer and Stronger Communities Fund. For more information visit: www.odpm. gov. uk/stellent/groups/ odpm_localgov/documents/page/ odpm_locgov_029989.hcsp

Blitz on alcohol abuse to continue
Police will build on the success of this summer’s nation-wide blitz on alcoholfuelled violence by running similar operations during the festive season. The summer campaign targeted alcohol-related disorder and underage drinking in 92 communities across the country. It was co-ordinated by the Home Office’s Police Standards Unit and the Association of Chief Police Officers, working with partners such as local authorities and trading standards teams. From the beginning of July to the end of August, police and trading standards officers carried out sting operations against more than 1,700 licensed premises. They targeted over 4,000 troublemakers with fixed penalty notices and confiscated alcohol from more than 9,500 adults and juveniles. Copies of the Government’s alcohol strategy can be found at www.strategy.gov.uk/files/pdf/al04SU.pdf ● Devon and Cornwall Local Criminal Justice Board hosted a conference on alcohol related crime and disorder in October. The keynote speaker was Solicitor General Harriet Harman.

6 Crime Reduction News

PHOTOLIBRARY.COM

POLICE NEWS

Drive to combat drug-assisted rape
A study aimed at highlighting the prevalence of drug-assisted rape is to begin in seven forces around the country. The six-month study is being carried out under the auspices of the Association of Chief Police Officers’ Steering Group on Rape and involves the Metropolitan Police Service, Greater Manchester, Northumbria, Lancashire, West Midlands, Leicestershire and Derbyshire constabularies. The project will be managed via the existing Sexual Assault Referral Centres in the respective areas and awaits formal approval from the Ethics Committee of the National Health Service. The aim is to investigate all allegations of drug-facilitated sexual assault thoroughly – even when the victim does not wish to proceed with a criminal complaint. A thorough forensic analysis of all complaints of sexual assault will be undertaken, specifically where the allegation involves drugs or alcohol being used to carry out the assault. Victims are being urged to make early complaints to police in an effort to increase the likelihood that forensic analysis is as accurate as possible. Specially trained sexual offence liaison officers will ask complainants for their consent to take part in the research. Once given, questionnaires will be conducted and samples will be taken to form part of the study.

NEWS
IN BRIEF
BNP ban
The Association of Chief Police Officers has introduced a policy preventing employees from being members of the British National Party. This applies to all forces in England and Wales. The policy states that no member of the police service may belong to an organisation whose constitution, objectives or pronouncements contradict the general duty to promote race equality. This specifically includes the BNP. Association President Chris Fox said: "We are totally committed to full compliance with the duty to promote race equality established in the Race Relations Amendment Act 2000."

Building safer communities
Reducing crime and anti-social behaviour, building safety, security and stability in our communities and protecting law-abiding citizens and families are the key drivers of a White Paper published by the Home Office on 9 November. The focus of the paper. ‘Building Communities, Beating Crime: a Better Police Service for the 21st Century is about creating a more responsive, citizenfocused service and a customer service culture. For a copy of the White Paper visit www.police reform.gov.uk

Three-year plan for confident communities
The National Policing Plan for 2005-8, which sets out the Home Secretary’s priorities for the police service for the next three years, has now been drafted and was published at the Association of Police Authorities Conference on 24 November. The plan will concentrate on the strategic issues and key priorities for the police service and will provide the focus for forces and police authorities to engage with their communities about local priorities. This is the third National Policing Plan. It builds on the current agenda and drives forward the Government’s vision for policing in the next three years. The clear aim is to create and maintain secure and confident communities. This year’s Plan should be seen in the wider context of the Home Office Strategic Plan 2004-08 published in July 2004 and the White Paper published in November. For more information contact: narinder.tamana@ homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk. For a copy of the National Policing Plan for 2005-8 visit: www.policereform.gov.uk

Correction, CRN September 2004 The first sentence on page 9 Targeting prolific offenders should have read: Home Office research estimates that 5,000 prolific offenders are responsible for one million offences, which equates to 9 per cent of all crime.

ALAMY

Crime Reduction News 7

POLICE NEWS

Financial incentive for street robber informers
A mock payslip has been distributed to 500,000 addresses across London to encourage the public to give more anonymous intelligence about street robbers to Crimestoppers. The Direct Mail Initiative, run jointly by Crimestoppers and the Metropolitan Police, is designed to appeal to people’s pockets by drawing their attention to the rewards that could be gained by giving actionable intelligence to Crimestoppers. The mailer has been specifically sent to postcode sectors identified by the Met as having higher levels of street crime. Met commanders believe that street robbers often carry out their robberies in the area that they live. As a result of this intelligence, the mailer will hit street robbers and their associates (thereby acting as a mild disrupter), as well as neighbours and families who may wish to pass on intelligence anonymously. The campaign will by evaluated by the number of calls and intelligence received by Crimestoppers and formal research currently being undertaken by the Met. For more information contact Luke Knight at luke.knight@met.police.uk

Championing citizenship at Chelsea FC
Key representatives from the police service will get together at Chelsea Football Ground next month (January) for a conference on citizen focused policing. Bringing about a citizen focused Police Service, in which an in-depth understanding of the needs and expectations of the individuals and local communities is routinely reflected in decisionmaking service delivery and practice, is central to the Government's reform agenda. The conference, to be held on 12 January, is entitled Citizen Focused Policing, Customer Service, Leadership and Change. It will help delegates share effective citizen-focused policing practice with a particular focus on customer service issues and the victims and witness agenda. Those attending will include citizen-focused champions at Chief Officer level from every police force in England and Wales as well as police authority and local criminal justice board representatives. For more information contact Detective Superintendent Mike Alderson at: mike.alderson@homeoffice. gsi.gov.uk

TOOLS

A round-up
of crime reduction tools currently available
enabled a criminal element within the industry to dispose of stolen vehicles. Despite the industry’s efforts to drive out this element, less scrupulous operators still existed and regulation was needed to make it harder for criminals to dispose of stolen vehicles or become involved in serious organised crime. It is possible for operators to get caught up in vehicle crime unwittingly if they do not conform to the regulations and keep full records. The regulations toolkit can be found at www.crimereduction.gov.uk/mso01.htm

Facilitating Community Involvement Motor Salvage Operators Regulations
The Motor Salvage Operators Regulations 2002 were introduced under the Vehicles (Crime) Act 2001 to regulate the industry. This decision stemmed from an earlier court ruling that the Scrap Metal Dealers Act 1964 did not apply to motor salvage operators. It was believed that this lack of statutory regulation Facilitating Community Involvement: Practical Guidance for Practitioners and Policy Makers highlights the fact that there is no easy way to increase community involvement and indicates that successful strategies should consider the local context for each initiative, such as: ● previous history and patterns of community involvement ● the characteristics of people targeted for involvement ● controversial issues in the area such as a threat to a service. Visit www.crimereduction.gov.uk/activecommunities74.htm

To order materials, visit www.crimereduction.co. uk/publicitycatalogue, email homeoffice@ prolog.uk.com or phone 0870 241 468

8 Crime Reduction News

FEATURE

THE ISSP PROGRAMME COULD HELP YOUNG OFFENDERS CHANGE THEIR WAYS

Tough on the causes of crime T
Bringing structure

he majority of offences are committed by a minority of hard-core offenders who often turn to crime at a young age and, if not given the right support, continue their offending behaviour into adulthood. Initial findings of research, conducted by the University of Oxford for the Youth Justice Board, reveal that using a robust community programme that targets the most difficult offenders in England and Wales can successfully tackle the causes of offending. The Intensive Supervision and Surveillance Programme (ISSP) targets persistent young offenders and those who have committed more serious offences and can be used with young people on community sentences or on bail, or for those in the second part of a Detention and Training Order. It includes a variety of components such as assessment, close monitoring, education and training, tracking, tagging and restorative justice.

The report describes the programme, introduced three years ago, as “highly intensive, combining supervision with surveillance in an attempt to ensure programme completion and bring structure to young people’s lives.” The report found that young people on ISSP had an average of nearly nine recorded offences in the 12 months before the start of the programme. The report says that the
CASE STUDY

young people referred to the ISSP had “clearly been deprived and damaged by their early life experiences”, and that the ISSP teams were faced with a major challenge in addressing these young people’s underlying needs and their related offending behaviour. By contrast, during the course of ISSP, virtually all young people (97 per cent) were engaged in education or training, and seven in ten took part in restorative justice to pay back the harm they had done to the community. An electronic tag was used to enforce a curfew in 70 per cent of cases.

Bold and imaginative
The report found that ISSP helped to improve attitudes to offending, to influence positive changes in self-perception, and to encourage young offenders to consider the effects of crime on victims. It concluded that the introduction of ISSP “has to be recognised as a considered, but none the less bold and imaginative plan to manage the future behaviour of a large number of our most problematic young people.” According to the report, there was a marked reduction in the frequency and seriousness of offending for young people on the programme. It found that in the 12 months before and after the start of ISSP the frequency of offending fell by 43 per cent and the seriousness dropped by 16 per cent. Rod Morgan, Chairman of the Youth Justice Board, says: “What we have seen is that the more entrenched offending behaviour becomes, the harder it is to reform young offenders. This report shows that ISSP can make real inroads and start to turn young people around but also highlights the need to intervene earlier in the lives of young people to divert them from a life of crime.” Rachel Lipscomb, Chairman of the Magistrates’ Association, says: “Magistrates have found that ISSPs provide offenders with a structured alternative to custody and real support to divert them away from a life of crime.” crn
For a copy of the report go to www.youth-justiceboard.gov.uk/YouthJusticeBoard/

SAVING RYAN
Ryan, a 17-year-old convicted burglar from Norfolk says he turned to crime to support his mother, a former drug user dependant on benefits. He was given an ISSP consisting of 37 hours per week of education, employment and training, Prince’s Trust training, indirect reparation, family support, and work on offending behaviour, victim awareness, substance misuse, and anger management. The interventions were provided on a one-to-one basis at the Norfolk Youth Offending Team. Three hours per week of inter-personal skills training and anger management was delivered by a group mentoring approach implemented by rugby training at a local rugby club. The overall objective of Ryan’s ISSP was to directly challenge his belief and value systems that cause his offending behaviour. Ryan has progressed well and reports from the Prince’s Trust are exemplary. He is currently applying for a carpentry apprenticeship. The Youth Offending Team is impressed with his progress and commitment to the programme, and Ryan is now a valued member of the rugby team. Ryan says: “The ISSP has been good for me; it’s shown me that there’s more to life than hanging round street corners. It has introduced me to the rugby club – I’ve always wanted to play but never knew it existed. I have made new friends. It has provided me with qualifications and employment opportunities. I’d be stupid to offend again.”

ALAMY

Crime Reduction News 9

HOW TO

Work with PCTs to reduce
PRIMARY CARE TRUST HEALTH PROFESSIONALS ARE WORKING IN PARTNERSHIP TO HELP VICTIMS OF DOMESTIC ABUSE

domestic abuse

H

ealth professionals have a key role to play in offering information to women at risk of domestic abuse. In April this year, Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) were given responsible authority status within wider Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnerships (CDRPs). Within this partnership framework, they are now taking a pro-active approach to reach women at risk in an environment that can offer confidential support.

Pro-active thinking
To help health professionals recognise the benefits of taking a pro-active approach, the Home Office has recently published ‘Tackling Domestion Violence, the Role of Health Professionals’, a concise and useful report which aims to ultimately contribute towards challenging domestic violence by providing excellent examples of good practice and partnership working. The report also identified three types of action needed by the health sector to address domestic violence issues: ● improving availability of information on domestic violence and services for those who experience it ● providing appropriate training for health professionals ● recognising domestic violence as a negative health factor when carrying out health assessment.

Supporting role
Sixteen per cent of violent crime is domestic abuse and research shows that 30 per cent of domestic abuse either starts or escalates during pregnancy. Ante-natal appointments are, for example, crucial occasions during which health professionals can raise the issues of domestic violence in a sensitive way as part of a routine health assessment. ‘‘By offering all women support, information and the opportunity to talk safely, health professionals can make a positive contribution to challenging domestic violence,’’ says a Department of Health spokesperson. ‘We need to create an environment in which women feel confident to disclose if they so choose. We must take responsibility for raising the issue in a sensitive way, letting them know the support is there and that expert help is available if required.’’ Of course, appropriate training must be provided and a training programme is now in place to help health professionals recognise the signs and symptoms of domestic abuse and gain more expertise in addressing this complex issue.

Discussing domestic violence routinely can be successfully implemented at many levels of NHS services, including: general practice by a GP or practice nurse, Well Women clinics, ante-natal appointments, A&E and minor injuries units. If abuse is disclosed, the health professional can follow a clear line of referal to specialist support services where both legal and non-legal support, advice and information will be provided. Providing information routinely will be gradually rolled out across the NHS from April 2005. The Government intends that this service will initially start with pregnant women in the UK during their NHS ante-natal visits and is setting up an advisory group to decide how best to implement best practice in this area. A useful list of resources and further information is included at the end of the report, providing a useful source of reference to both professionals and victims. crn For a copy of Tackling Domestic Violence: the Role of Health Professionals, call: 0207 273 2084 or email: publications.rds@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk The report is also available online at: www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/dprpubs1.html

Sixteen per cent of violent crime is domestic abuse and research shows that 30 per cent of domestic abuse starts or escalates during pregnancy

10 Crime Reduction News

ALAMY

SPECIAL REPORT

Prostitution
ALSO INSIDE: PREVENTATIVE MEASURES AND THE WAY FORWARD

Tackling street
THE PROBLEM OF STREET PROSTITUTION IS IN THE SPOTLIGHT AS THE GOVERNMENT AND AGENCIES SEEK EFFECTIVE LONGTERM SOLUTIONS

prostitution
he devastating consequences of prostitution will be met head on, says Home Secretary David Blunkett. The Sexual Offences Act 2003 began the process of law reform with the introduction of new offences and tough penalties for those who exploit anyone for the purposes of prostitution or pornography. But a number of Government initiatives aim to examine all of the issues surrounding prostitution in detail. Paying the Price, a consultation paper, was published in July. It asks the public to join in the public debate on this difficult and sensitive issue. Views on policy and practice will pave the way for a co-ordinated strategy to reduce the harms associated with prostitution, both to those involved and the communities in which it takes place. The consultation paper draws on the evaluation of 11 Crime Reduction Programme projects on What Works in Tackling Prostitution to determine best practice in terms of support services. Findings have been published in the research study, Tackling Street Prostitution: Towards an Holistic Approach.

T

The Government has also published Guidance to Partnerships on Handling Prostitution and Drugs. The Home Secretary also announced his desire for a review of prostitution in the Command Paper, Protecting the Public. Mr Blunkett said: "There are important tasks ahead of us and there are no easy answers or one single solution. We need to ensure prevention, protection and support, and justice. Prevention is key to alleviate the circumstances that make young people vulnerable to coercion into prostitution. Protecting the vulnerable also requires the prosecution of child abusers, traffickers and exploiters. The new offences and tough penalties in the Sexual Offences Act 2003 must be rigorously enforced. "However, enforcement must also be matched with support for those trapped in prostitution. Providing a route out must be the best long-term solution for those involved and for the communities that suffer from the nuisance and criminality associated with it. Our ultimate aim is to create safer neighbourhoods as well as better escape routes for those trapped." crn

Update MORI conducting focus groups with residents of red-light areas in two UK cities to explore the impact
REX FEATURES

| of street-based prostitution and evaluate proposed preventative measures|Criminal justice practitioners looking specifically at the offence of loitering or soliciting and how best to route those involved in prostitution into effective | rehabilitation|Home Office working with ECPAT/Children's Society National Youth Campaign to influence policy

Crime Reduction News 11

SPECIAL REPORT

UNDERSTANDING THE CAUSES OF PROSTITUTION IS KEY TO DELIVERING PREVENTION MECHANISMS THAT HELP WOMEN IN NEED

Preventative measures
he ‘Tackling Street Prostitution: Towards an Holistic Approach’ study discusses the findings from 11 Crime Reduction Programme (CRP) projects tackling street prostitution across England and Wales. Part of the study focuses on how young people enter prostitution and how this might be prevented. The literature on the subject suggests that most of the men and women involved probably entered prostitution as young people, under the age of 18 or 21. Involvement in prostitution by young people tends to be more hidden than adult women and, as a consequence, it is difficult to ascertain the extent of their involvement, although indications from various sources suggest that the numbers have increased in recent years. Figures derived from police and Home Office statistics suggest that around 2,000 young people are engaged in prostitution in the UK. This is likely to be a gross underestimate as they rely on the number of individuals cautioned and arrested. Following the publication of ‘Safeguarding Children Involved in Prostitution’ by the Department of Health and the Home Office in 2001, children involved in prostitution are increasingly treated as victims of abuse. The CRP data echoes the general findings of previous research on childhood experience and entry into prostitution, which has found that child abuse and being in local authority care may make young people vulnerable to entering

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prostitution. Crucially, these abusive experiences feed into and further develop feelings of worthlessness and lack of self-esteem. This is a key element in many women's vulnerability to becoming involved in prostitution. Many of the women interviewed talked about the particular difficulties they had faced at school: because they were in care; because they and their mother had moved area many times to get away from a violent partner or due to other problems; bullying; or because they were using drugs and alcohol at school. Unsurprisingly, given the disruptions to their schooling, educational attainment for the women involved in prostitution was much lower than the general population, with under two-thirds of women interviewed obtaining no qualifications. Findings from the CRP projects suggest that young people can be successfully diverted from behaviour and involvement in prostitution through early intervention. Targeted interventions with dedicated workers to identify young people at risk are important, as is working within a multi-agency context. Both parents and members of the community are important in identifying and monitoring children and young people at risk. It's also important that agencies working with children and young people are able to identify those at risk and be fully aware of information sharing and referral procedures. crn

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Enhanced quality of life | Enhanced emotional state including self-esteem | Enhanced physical state | including safety and bodily integrity | Enhanced life prospects| Stabilisation or reduction of cost of criminal | justice system| Stabilisation or reduction of cost of victim services | Stabilisation or reduction of cost of health | services| Stabilisation or reduction of cost of social-security payments

Key points Benefits resulting from young people diverted away from prostitution include:

12 Crime Reduction News

PHOTONICA, GETTY

CASE STUDY

KIRKLEES SWEET

PROFILES OF THOSE INVOLVED
● Just over three-quarters

Young people can be successfully diverted from behaviour and involvement in prostitution through early intervention

The Kirklees project area includes Huddersfield town centre, a region of low income and high unemployment. The Kirklees project, Sex Workers’ Education, Empowerment and Training (SWEET), emerged from an ongoing process, beginning in 1998, in which concerned councillors, residents, local agencies and individuals began meeting about the problems in the local red-light area. The project aimed to deal with the chaotic nature of the lives of women involved in prostitution and to enable them to exit, with the interventions largely concerned with providing support. It soon became apparent that work on prevention was important to the project’s overall aims. As a result, by the second year, Kirklees had developed a Young Girls Diversionary Group for those girls at risk of sexual exploitation and also a group for both sons and daughters of women involved in prostitution.

work reach fruition. The project is evolutionary and we’ve learnt what we specifically can do in order not to duplicate the work of other services. "It became evident that by working with the women we would work with their children. Some children would be with them, others with family members. We started to grapple with child-protection issues and soon realised that the children were also our clients with their own rights.

Young girls at risk
"Older children — teens and adolescents — felt safe talking to us, so we started to develop ways that they could speak to their own counsellors and key workers. By the second year of the project we became aware through referrals that young girls were at risk of exploitation." The project now provides advocacy and support with a range of other services for children of adult sex workers affected by issues. It does diversionary work one-to-one and in groups with young people at risk of sexual exploitation on issues of self-esteem, sexual health, race and gun crime.

of the women (76 per cent) had first become involved in prostitution at the age of 21 or under. ● Just under half the women (49per cent) had at least one child. ● Most of the women from each of the project areas were white European (83per cent). ● The majority of the women were single (74 per cent). One in five were co-habiting with their 'boyfriend' or 'pimp' (20per cent) and only a small proportion were married (3 per cent). ● Nearly all of the women were currently using non-prescribed drugs (93 per cent). ● Nearly a third of the women had between one and five previous convictions. ● The users' ages ranged between 17 and 80 years old, with a median age of 35. ● Most of the users were in full-time employment (67 per cent) and the next largest group were students (12 per cent). ● Most of the users were white European (58 per cent). ● Nearly half of the users were married (47 per cent) ● Nearly half of the users were owner-occupiers (44 per cent)

Evolutionary process
SWEET project co-ordinator Julia Paine says, "We soon realised that the exiting project would have to be extended to see the outcomes of our

Source: Appendix,Tackling Street Prostitution: Towards an holistic approach.A total of 333 profiles of women involved in prostitution were analysed by the University of Sunderland.

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paying_the_price.html | Tackling Street Prostitution: Towards an holistic approach www.homeoffice.gov.uk/ rds/pdfs04/hors279.pdf | Guidance to partnerships on handling prostitution and drugs www.drugs.gov.uk/ NationalStrategy/Communities | What Works in Tackling Prostitution www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/ pdfs04/hors279.pdf
Crime Reduction News 13

Contact Paying the Price: A Consultation Paper on Prostitution www.homeoffice.gov.uk/docs3/

SPECIAL REPORT

The way forward
OUTREACH SERVICES AND STRONG SUPPORT CAN HELP PROTECT WOMEN ON THE STREET AND BREAK THE CYCLE OF PROSTITUTION
CASE STUDY

MANCHESTER ACTION FOR STREET HEALTH
Manchester Real Choices is giving women in the city centre and Cheetham Hill areas alternatives to prostitution. It provides an outreach service to help women and offer ongoing support, including information, advice and referrals on sexual health, benefits, debt, housing, training, education and safety issues. Two full-time project workers provide one-to-one support for women who want to leave prostitution, and newsletters are produced to tell them about the services and choices available.They also provide fast-track referral to drug treatment. Manchester has a history of inter-agency working in the area of prostitution. The Manchester Action on Street Health (MASH) night-time service came into existence in 1991, and the Manchester Prostitution Forum was established in 1997. Women were familiar with the MASH van, which parked in one spot for a whole evening and were response to the outreach workers because they were part of a tried and trusted project. Graham Dobkin, MASH head of services, says: “The outreach workers operate across the city and cover beat areas referring people on to different services, and slowly people are thinking of leaving [prostitution]. We’ve been going for 13 years and hope we have a good name among those working in the sex industry. It takes time to build up that trust.” Manchester Action for Street Health www.mash.org.uk

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number of themes emerged from the evaluation of the five Crime Reduction Programme (CRP) projects that had supported women involved in prostitution towards exiting. The crucial support interventions are: outreach, drop-in services, one-to-one support and definitions of exiting. Building up relationships between outreach workers and the women allows project workers to assess when a woman seems ready to access one-to-one sessions during the day (as opposed to their usual pattern of night working), and to begin the exiting process. Outreach also provides harm minimisation for those who are not ready to exit, with the outreach workers generally offering condoms, food, drinks and information leaflets to the women.

The profiles of the women involved in the five projects showed that most of them (69 per cent) were trying or had tried on one or more occasion in the past to leave prostitution. Less than a third (31 per cent) had never tried to quit. If women didn’t want to, nor felt ready to, exit prostitution, the support interventions worked as a form of harm minimisation. Definitions of ‘exiting’ ranged from what might be termed ‘complete exits’ where women have completely changed their lifestyle, found alternative employment, education or state benefit support and stabilised their drug use for a specified period of time, to the exiting of street prostitution where women became involved in prostitution in off-street locations. crn

The profiles of the women involved showed that most of them were trying to leave prostitution

| gaining their trust and informing them about other interventions offered by projects| Drop-in services are key to enable women involved in prostitution to access drugs treatment, health-related services, counselling, support, | education and training| One-to-one support enables projects to target the support to fit individual need
14 Crime Reduction News

key points Outreach is an important way of identifying and getting to know women involved in prostitution,

COMMENT

Mentoring matters
Stuart Johnson, Head of Youth Offending Services for Tower Hamlets and the City of London, believes mentoring is key to crime prevention
My large, multi-agency, multipartnership team offers a range of professional disciplines to try to address the root causes of offending. Within that framework, a good mentoring system can really help youngsters break offending habits and look to a positive future. Today’s social and case work professionals have high case loads and don’t have the opportunity to give quality time to young people outside of the office or the odd home visit. In addition, it’s more difficult to engage a young person in a discussion across a desk in an office – they feel stultified. Volunteers and mentors can give that valuable time. Only by spending time with a young person, sharing their experiences and really getting to know them can you build up trust and help them relax and voice their feelings and concerns. The young people seem to repsond positively and respect the fact that a non-professional is motivated to help them. This creates a unique relationship. The key to mentoring success lies in local non-professionals with a genuine interest in helping young people. It’s important to have good listening skills and assessment skills. A sense of humour and the ability to show respect to young people are also important as a lot of young offenders have never been shown much respect. It’s also important to engage someone who understands the difficulties that adolescents face. In this area, peer mentoring and counselling is a very powerful tool. Another approach is to use a significant adult who is familiar with the young person as a mentor, such as an uncle. Working with the Youth Advocate Programme (YAP), we use this highly effective ‘wraparound’ approach to engage the significant adult, paying them to spend extra time with young person. YAP UK runs our Intensive Supervision and Support Programme (ISSP). useful route into employment, too. Targeted mentoring that takes in cultural needs and provides a specific service for a particular community can be effective as each group presents its own concerns and worries. The beauty of using people from a particular community is that the youngsters have a greater sense of trust and belief that their problems will be understood. For example, the Youth Justice Board helps to fund the Brick Lane Youth Development Association (BLYDA), a Bengali youth community project that delivers mentoring services to Bangledeshi youngsters who are at risk of offending. The reason we established this group was in response to findings that nearly all the young people who committed street robbery in 2002 were black or Asian – we could focus on the 25 young offenders with the mentoring programme. Mentoring is also vital for youngsters upon release from custody. This is a crucial time – in those first few weeks, a young person may be motivated to make a change and can benefit from help and encouragement. They may also not have renewed old acquaintances who might lead them back to a criminal lifestyle. The timely intervention of a mentor can help to break that cycle. All our feedback indicates that young people put mentoring high on their list of things that have helped them. The importance of this type of practical help should not be underestimated.

Boosting confidence
Even our most aggressive young offenders lack personal confidence. They feel worthless and a nuisance, and that people are judging them. Mentors can build a young person up and praise them for what they do well and for trying. Lots of our young people possess qualities that, if channeled properly, would make them world beaters. They are risk takers and entrepreneurs, often with good planning skills and tremendous determination. Through mentoring, we try to harness these skills and energy in a positive way. Young offenders are becoming increasingly territorial – they are so afraid of their own communities – who might be after them, what harm might befall them – that they think the next neighbourhood will be even worse. The thought of crossing to another part of the city to go to college, for example, may be completely hostile to them. Mentoring can help them to overcome these fears and feel safe and capable of doing things on their own. Mentors need training on substance misuse, education, behavioural, health and leisure issues. Good training and practical experience offers the mentor a

Young people respect the fact that a non-professional wants to give their time and is motivated to help

Contact For more information about mentoring, visit: www.yjb.gov.uk. Contact your local Youth Offending
Team to see what opportunities are available for volunteers and mentors in your area.
Crime Reduction News 15

FEATURE

LOAN RANGERS
Practical advice for those with debt problems is relatively straightforward, but the hidden world of the loan shark feeds on intimidation and fear. Consumer Minister Gerry Sutcliffe said: “Loan sharks are criminals and it is vital that we do not allow their activities to destroy the lives of innocent people. That’s why we are cracking down on rogue lenders, and taking action to get loan sharks off our streets.” In an effort to control the burgeoning loan shark business, the Government is investing £2 million to set up pilot projects. Run by the Scottish Illegal Money Lending Team and based in Glasgow, one pilot scheme is designed so people throughout Scotland can call a confidential freephone Crimestoppers helpline (0800 555 111) to talk to a team of speciallytrained enforcement officers from the Trading Standards Department. Information will be used alongside undercover operations to tackle the gangs. Deputy Communities Minister Mary Mulligan said: “Loan sharks operate in a culture of fear, and this project is targeting resources directly at the criminals.” A similar scheme enables people in the West Midlands to call a confidential helpline number on 0121 693 1122. The team here will also work with local agencies to improve financial advice and education available to ensure that people have access to the right credit products for them.

shooting
NEW INITIATIVES ARE IN PLACE TO STOP LOAN SHARKS CASHING IN ON PERSONAL DEBT. NIGEL STANLEY REPORTS

Shark

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“The misery of debt can be compounded by the use of illegal loan sharks, which often leads to intimidation and theats of violence”

or many people, managing credit is part of the skill required to run a household economy and gives them the flexibility to arrange payments to suit their income. For others, credit management and keeping on top of bill payments has become an impossible task. Their debt increases month after month as the bills pile up, leading to loss of the family home, the breakdown of personal relationships and depression. According to a Government report Tackling Over-indebtedness – Action Plan 2004, published in July, seven per cent of households have levels of credit use associated with over-indebtedness and 13 per cent are in arrears with consumer credit or bill commitments.

For the five per cent, this debt can be a significant problem. The misery of debt can be compounded by the use of illegal loan sharks who provide easy access to funds but at significant cost to the customer. The inability to pay the spiralling cost of loan repayments often leads to intimidation and threats of violence as repayment is demanded.

Tackling debt
Reputable credit lenders and the Government are taking the loan shark problem seriously. The free debt advice sector, Government and the credit industry are working together to increase the availability of free debt advice to help people deal with their debt problems. As well as having access to free and easy-tounderstand advice, consumers will be able to access a debt management programme so that outstanding debts can be restructured for easier repayment. The Social Exclusion Unit has a remit that covers financial as well as social exclusion. As the ODPM bears responsibility for local government, this helps make provision for local debt management programmes. crn

Spiral of misery
Although it has been calculated that overall credit card debt in the UK is in the region of £50bn, only five per cent is deemed to be owed by ‘spiralling debtors’. The rest is owed by individuals with the employment and financial assets to back up their debt, according to MORI Market Dynamics who conducted the research in June.

Contact For Action Plan information, visit: www.dti.gov.uk/ccp/topics1/overindebtedness.htm |
For White Paper The Consumer Credit Market in the 21st Century visit: www.dti.gov.uk/ccp/topics1 /pdf1/creditwp.pdf |For National Debtline, visit www.nationaldebtline.co.uk or call free on 0808 808 4000
16 Crime Reduction News

FEATURE

THE CAMPAIGN TO HIGHLIGHT THE RISKS AND DANGERS OF DRUG USE IS GOING FROM STRENGTH TO STRENGTH

a winner say visitors

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year after its launch, FRANK has already proved a success according to a customer satisfaction survey. The campaign targets 11 to 21-yearolds, and parents of 11 to18-year-olds and focuses on class A drugs. It aims to ensure young people understand the risks of drugs and know where to go for help. It also aims to provide parents with the confidence and knowledge to talk to their children about drugs. The survey, in July, produced some encouraging results: ● 92 per cent of respondents were either very or fairly satisfied with the quality of support received from FRANK, which includes the helpline, website, campaign materials and the drugs.gov website and news items. ● 63 per cent of respondents had used talktofrank.com over two-thirds of them found the site easy to use and the quality of content either very or fairly good. ● 93 per cent of respondents are receiving the Action Update packs with over half saying they are very useful. ● 53 per cent of respondents have used FRANK in their local activities and 95 per cent of them said that this activity had proved a success.

FRANK is set to build on this success with the launch of several new initiatives:

Talk about cannabis
Testimonials from young people who share experiences of cannabis and how it affected them. It covers issues on health, the law, mental health and even the munchies.

Action Update
FRANK’s current Action Update focuses on business and the workplace. It includes information on drug testing, workplace initiatives, and how to develop a drug and alcohol policy.

Talking not taking
FRANK is pushing out messages about youth ‘tribes’ and the pressure young people feel to fit in. Press releases have been sent to national and top regional press and youth and parenting magazines. Visitors to the FRANK website can take part in a quiz to find out which one of Frank’s tribes they belong to.

NEW RESOURCES
www.drugs.gov.uk has a range of materials including 140 copyrightfree images to use to promote and market your agency, idea or latest news. FRANK, in partnership with Drugscope, has produced a series of bilingual leaflets to help communicate with ethnic minority communities. The leaflets are available in eight languages with a further three languages accessible as a download. They can be ordered free from www.drugs.gov.uk/ Campaign/Languages or call 0870 241 4680 and quote BMECOMSTKT.

CASE STUDIES

OPERATION CRACKDOWN AND B:DAT
London calling
Operation Crackdown, the Metropolitan Police’s two-week advertising campaign, targeted Londoners in affected areas, specifically 16 to 24-year-old men who may be involved in or are on the fringes of drug culture. The campaign focused on asking individuals for information via Crimestoppers on Class A drug dealing, and aims to generate intelligence and show the effects drugs can have on communities. Operation Crackdown featured hard-hitting posters showing a drug user’s physical decline over a 10-year period. It also featured advertorials on Choice, Kiss and XfM radio stations. In addition, leaflets, beer mats and flyers were handed out at nightclubs.

On the cards
The Stakeholder Awards were launched to coincide with the first anniversary of the FRANK campaign in May 2004. The winner of the national and Eastern region award went to Bedfordshire Drug Action Team (B:DAT) in partnership with Hey Moscow design agency for their Knockout Drugs card game for young people. The game, based on the popular top trumps card trading game, is designed to be fun and educational. Each card features a different drug and gives facts about its effects and legal status. All the cards feature FRANK as a source of further advice. B:DAT community development officer, James Morley, says: “The game came out of a need to identify a resource and education pack that

would target vulnerable young people aged between 11 and 16. We wanted to convey messaging in a clear and comprehensive way and be responsive to young people for whom numeracy and literacy are often an issue. “The local Youth Offending Team and Pupil Referral Unit helped devise the game, which has been tested and evaluated by young people, since we wanted young people not to feel embarrassed about being seen with or playing the game.” James says the game creates debate about drugs between young people and adults. “It’s a discussion starter, and we’ve found that our key messages are put across in 20 minutes.” The game is to be launched on a regional basis by Christmas.

Contact To find out more, visit www.drugs.gov.uk/campaign and www.talktofrank.com. Visitors must register to
receive campaign materials. Call the campaign support line on 020 7273 3833 or email FRANK@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk

Crime Reduction News 17

FEATURE

Give them a sporting chance
SPORT AND CULTURE IS GIVING COMMUNITIES A STAKE IN SOCIETY AND MENDING RELATIONSHIPS REPORTS KATRIN LEVY
port and culture inspires audiences, brings people together to take part in enjoyable activities and encourages individuals to think about their role in the local community. That was just one of the findings of the Engaging Communities through Sport and Culture seminar held in March this year. Around 100 people attended the seminar in Oldham Art Gallery, which focused on how sport and culture can be used to help mend some of the fractured relationships between Britain’s different communities in parts of Yorkshire and the North West. The choice of location is significant. Oldham, together with Bradford and Burnley, hit the headlines for all the wrong reasons in the summer of 2001, when growing tensions between the local ethnic communities erupted into riots in the streets.

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not feel they had a stake in society, and that they were not receiving enough help to tackle their problems. This lack of hope and opportunity was compounded by the “total lack of contact” between different communities, which made it all too easy for frustration to tip over into violence.

Bright ideas
However, while the report painted a bleak picture, even at that time Cantle recognised that the young people in the area were the key to a brighter future. “The youngsters were really inspirational,” he says. “They gave me hope.” On the back of the findings of the Cantle report, the Community Cohesion Cultural Practitioners Group was founded, and it was their idea to hold a seminar looking at the role that sport and culture could play in bringing the different communities together. The day was such a roaring success that the Department for Media, Culture and Sport, together with the Home Office’s Community Cohesion Unit, decided to publish all of the key learning points from the Seminar to help other practitioners. The result is ‘Bringing Communities Together Through Sport and Culture’, which takes readers through the process of creating successful and sustainable community projects.

Trouble shooting
Head of Government’s Community Cohesion Review Team, Ted Cantle, was brought in to examine the root causes of the social unrest disturbance and The Cantle Report, published a year later, contained a number of challenging recommendations for communities, councils and Government alike. The report highlighted the fact that the communities did

18 Crime Reduction News

PHOTONICA

CASE STUDY

CASE STUDY

BRADFORD SPORT ACTION ZONE
The Bradford Sport Action Zone wants to encourage inner-city residents to become and stay involved in exercise and sport. But instead of telling them what they should be doing, they’ve gone out and asked local residents what they would like and then worked with them to make it happen. “One of our most popular projects is a mini-soccer league that’s funded by the Football Association,” says Adrian Tolan, the zone’s manager. “On a Saturday morning, we get more than 100 kids showing up for it from both communities, both boys and girls. When we started two years ago we had six teams, but now it’s gone up to 15 teams and we’re planning to put on extra sessions in January, once Ramadan has finished.”

LARK IN THE PARK
Celebration is at the heart of the annual Lark in the Park arts festival, held in Mercer Park, Clayton-LeMoors, Lancashire. In two years, the number of volunteers running the festival has jumped from 15 to 40, and the number of festival goers is rapidly increasing as well. Groups of people and individuals of different ages and cultural roots work together to explore common ideas and have fun. The festival has given the wider community a sense of pride, place and belonging.

Professional training
The zone has also been instrumental in helping local residents, who want to start up their own sporting activities, to obtain the necessary training. “We’ve just worked with a group of 12 Asian dads who wanted to set up a group for their children,” says Adrian. “We provide health and safety training, ideas on session planning and structures and also support for volunteers who want to get more professional coaching qualifications.” The zone covers a very large area and they spend as much time as possible visiting local communities and schools. “As soon as we’ve gone, they ring us up to ask us when we’ll be coming back,” he says. “We get sent thank-you letters from students all the time telling us that they loved tag-rugby and wanting to know when they can do it again.”

“The youngsters were really inspirational. They gave me hope”
Ted Cantle

‘Know the community’ is one mantra that appears again and again. But readers are also encouraged to consult creatively, be honest and realistic about timing and results and develop leadership from within the community. It is all useful stuff, and will undoubtedly make it much easier for readers and team leaders to create successful projects that are of lasting benefit. However, the publication’s real power lies in its stories. On page after page, there are projects that, in a couple of years, have succeeded in breaking down communal barriers that have been in place for decades. Nearly three quarters of participants on the Moving Minds project, which brought museums and galleries together with local communities and artists to stimulate discussion about culture, migration and identity, said that it had encouraged them to feel differently about other people and have a greater awareness of other cultures and communities. As the publication proves, sport and culture really are bringing communities together. crn

Culture club: sport brings Bradford youngsters together

| Contact To read the Cantle Report go to www.homeoffice.gov.uk/docs2/pocc.html| The Bringing Communities Together Through Sport and Culture Booklet can be found at: www.culture.gov.uk/global/publications/archive_2004/bringing_communities_together_booklet.htm
Crime Reduction News 19

FEATURE

Watch schemes
eighbourhood Watches are an ideal way for active citizens to help ensure their communities remain safe and secure. Since the first UK scheme was founded in 1982, the number of active watch areas has grown considerably. To bolster support for Neighbourhood Watch (NW) schemes, the Home Office commissioned a report from consultant Urbecon’s Crime and Community Safety Unit, which reported back in April 2004. The report’s recently-published findings indicate a network of NWs that are alive and well. Traditionally, schemes have tended to be found in areas that have relatively lower crime. The Government aims to support and encourage those who live in high crime areas to set up NW schemes. This should go some way to reducing crime in their communities. Police support was found to be important to the success of a scheme and attitudes to NWs does vary between police areas. It was found that there were no common policies and procedures, and that police forces and Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnerships (CDRPs) basically did what they felt was most appropriate to the area. Some schemes are starting to broaden their remit to cover support for a wider social agenda including care for elderly and vulnerable members of the community. In some instances, this has started to encompass environmental care issues as well. NW schemes and associations are striving constantly to improve the ways in which they work with local police forces and ensure resources are used most appropriately. This includes sharing best practice from areas where

broaden their remit
A REPORT REVEALS THAT POLICE MAKE A SIGNIFICANT CONTRIBUTION TO THE SUCCESS OF NEIGHBOURHOOD WATCH SCHEMES, SAYS NIGEL STANLEY

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relations with the police have worked particularly well and encouraging police forces to put policy agreements in place with local NW schemes. Urbecon found it difficult to gauge the precise impact of NWs but found they contributed significantly to local social cohesion. NW activity, such as supplying information to the police to help them obtain Anti-social Behaviour Orders (ASBOs), does help to tackle disorder and yobbish behaviour. However, those involved in NW schemes are not expected to become unpaid law officers. The key benefits of NW schemes lie in identifying antisocial activity through the effective information exchange.

Re-energised active citizenship
Overall it was seen that a new model for NW was emerging, moving away from the traditional crime problem into areas such as broader community disorder and anti-social behaviour. With limited resources available from central and local government, the most appropriate way to deal with this is through a re-energised active citizenship, involving the local community. As a result of the Urbecon report and to help bolster support for NWs there is now a new mini-site (see opposite) offering support, advice, best practice information and a number of useful links. There is also a wealth of information to assist new schemes and a forum for online discussion and information exchange. A new NW newsletter, Community Link, is due for publication in December following a local pilot earlier this year. There will be a crime reduction volunteer conference on 12 March 2005. crn
PHOTONICA

“The success of Neighbourhood Watch schemes was directly attributed to police and Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnership involvement”
20 Crime Reduction News

TIPS TO CRACK CHRISTMAS CRIME
Christmas is a great time of year enjoyed by many, So, don’t let your Christmas be spoiled by crime. Our top Christmas crime prevention tips include:
● Mark expensive

presents, such as electronic equipment, with your postcode by engraving or using a UV pen
● Remember that thieves

will be on the look out for presents – so don’t leave them under the Christmas tree in view of the window
● Keep an eye out for the

CASE STUDIES

vulnerable and elderly people over the Christmas period

CALLING CARD
Bogus caller and doorstep crime is upsetting to the, often, elderly victim. Gwent police have created a ‘Nominated Neighbour’ scheme. Residents are issued, free of charge, with a bright yellow card directing callers to a neighbour who can verify the caller’s credentials. They can then telephone or accompany the caller back to the house to support their identity. The card is never left on display, instead it is shown to the caller through a window or from behind a door secured on a chain.

GOING UNDERGROUND
In some areas of the country, membership or support for a Neighbourhood Watch scheme is seen by a minority as a bad thing and consequently members become targets for criminal repercussions. Unfortunately, these are the areas that often benefit most from the presence of proactive citizens prepared to assist the police. To address this problem, the Community Watch Liaison Officer with Northamptonshire Police has set up a number of covert Neighbourhood Watch schemes. Following meetings in community houses, co-ordinators that come forward are asked to sound out trustworthy neighbours that may wish to be part of the covert scheme. The co-ordinator then gives the police the numbers of those involved but not their details, to ensure that membership remains confidential. The co-ordinators are then fed information that will be of use to Watch members, which they can disseminate among the covert team. The surrounding area is still signposted as being subject to a Neighbourhood Watch scheme but individual members are not issued with window stickers.

● Remember to tell your

Neighbourhood Watch scheme that you will be away
● Buy some timer

switches to turn your lights, radio and TV on and off
● Remember to cancel

the milk and papers while you are away

MESSAGE IN A BOTTLE
An example of broadening Neighbourhood Watch comes from Humberside. Here, vulnerable residents who require regular medication can take part in a scheme called Data Link or Lifesaving in a Bottle. Sponsored by Boots plc and Smith & Nephew, medication is placed in a prominently marked bottle inside a fridge with a sign outside showing that it is present. If emergency services attend, they can readily access important drugs and information, which could be vital in saving life.

Contact The new Neighbourhood Watch mini-site, with links to Neighbourhood Watch sites throughout
the country, is at www.neighbourhoodwatch.uk.com

Crime Reduction News 21

NEWS

news
VOLUNTEER
The Abbeyfield Festival in Burngreave: winner, Community Cohesion award

A ROUND-UP OF NEWS, EVENTS AND ACTIVITIES FROM THE VOLUNTARY SECTOR AROUND THE COUNTRY

Winners of the Mainstreaming Award, Brighton & Hove Division of Sussex police

Ashley Holland, winner of the Achievement by a Young Person award

NDC Achievement Awards launched
he first ever New Deal for Communities Achievement Awards were held in Birmingham at the beginning of October, to honour a number of individuals and organisations who have helped to make the rejuvenation of their neighbourhoods a reality. The awards were created to celebrate the New Deal for Communities’ (NDC) many successes in tackling the symptoms and causes of deprivation – such as high unemployment and crime, run-down housing and environment, poor health and a lack of educational qualifications. There were 18 winners in all. Bradford Trident won the prestigious NDC Partnership of the Year Award for creating an ambitious living-street project. The aim was to boost the community’s sense of pride and safety by installing a pedestrianised walk-through, providing better lighting and introducing other improvements to the environment. Sussex Police won the Mainstreaming Award for their work with NDC in East Brighton, where they have established a range of community safety initiatives. The Sport Award went to Marsh Farm Sports Project in Luton, which makes sport and other physical activities more accessible, particularly for women, young people and

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children. Jeff Rooker, the Regeneration Minister, was on hand to present the winners with their awards, which included a cash prize of £1,000.

Roll of honour
The other Achievement Award winners were: Eric Samuel (Resident); Jean Beeley (Special Posthumous Personal Achievement); Councillor Ian Greenwood (Elected Member); Ashley Holland (Young Person’s); John Barber (Business Partnership); Middlesborough Borough Council (Best Supporting Organisation); Community Safety Theme Group, Derwent (Crime Reduction); Doncaster Central NDC Partnership (Innovation); Facelift Project, Bradford (Housing); West Ham and Plaistow Youth Scheme (Youth); Aspire Recruitment Partnership (Employment); Ron Wilkinson, community paramedic (Health); Believe to Achieve, Wolverhampton (Education); Debbie Clark, Next Link (Service Provider); and Abbeyfield Multicultural Festival, who won the Cohesion Award.
For full details of the awards, visit www.odpm. gov.uk/pns/DisplayPN.cgi?pn_id=2004_0232

“The aim was to boost the community’s sense of pride and safety by installing a pedestrianised walk-through, providing better lighting”
22 Crime Reduction News

More citizens are shaping active communities by volunteering
More than half of people in England questioned as part of the 2003 Home Office Citizenship Survey reported that they are actively volunteering. Their contribution is worth an estimated £42.6 billion to the economy. A report, Active Communities: Headline Findings from the 2003 Home Office Citizenship Survey, shows that the number of people, aged 16 and over, engaged in active community participation (ie volunteering and civic participation) rose by more than 1.5 million. “We’ve exceeded the target the Prime Minister set to get a million more people volunteering their time between 2001 and 2003, and we are on course to exceed the Home Office’s own target of raising volunteering by five per cent by 2006,” said Home Office Minister Fiona Mactaggart. “The challenge now is to ensure that even more volunteers are recruited by the sector and that our partnership produces sustainable, long-term benefits for the public.” The report found that the biggest increase had occurred in informal volunteering, defined as “giving unpaid help to someone who is Fiona Mactaggart not a family member”. Informal volunteering is popular with people aged 16-24, 45 per cent. By contrast, the figures for civic participation, such as signing petitions, attending public meetings or contacting a local councillor, and formal volunteering remained relatively unchanged.
For guidance and training packages visit: www.crime reduction.gov.uk

Website will help communities swap ideas
A new website has been launched by the Home Office to provide Neighbourhood Watch co-ordinators – and anyone else who might belong to such a scheme – with a range of useful information and resources. When fully completed, the site will include a good practice database, where visitors can find out what other schemes are doing, and an ideas exchange for sharing tips and swapping stories. The site already provides visitors with everything they need to know about setting up or running a scheme or tackling the fear of crime in their local communities. And, as it sits within the Crime Reduction website, other useful crime prevention advice, training resources and discussion forums are just a couple of clicks away. For more information, visit: www.neighbourhoodwatch.uk.com

Grants will help release volunteer potential
Earlier this year, the Home Office announced that the National Mentoring Network (NMN) and Volunteering England had been awarded £800,000 to develop a national mentoring and befriending body. “The main role of the new national body will be to encourage organisations to use mentoring and befriending as part of their support strategies,” explained Steve Matthews, NMN’s quality and standards manager. “This will include acting as a signpost pointing volunteers towards existing projects, and holding a database of all the mentoring projects and organisations out there.” As well as creating a national database, NMN will be linking up with the Government’s ‘Do-It’ website, which matches potential volunteers to projects and positions in their local area. Announcing the grant, Charities Minister Fiona Mactaggart said: “There are many stories of how a mentor has helped someone out of difficult circumstances. These grants will help us to release the untapped potential for volunteering in communities.”
Visit: www.homeoffice.gov.uk/n_story.asp? item_id=1059 and www.nmn.org.uk

Futurebuilders ready for round two
The second funding window for the £125 m Futurebuilders Fund is set to open in the spring. Futurebuilders was launched in the summer to boost the role that the voluntary and community sector plays in the delivery of public services. When the first funding window closed in October, the fund proved very popular and received well in excess of 600 applications. “We’ve had quite a good spread over our policy areas,” says a Futurebuilders representative. “The largest number of applications have been for health and social care, followed by education and training and support for children and young people. Community cohesion and crime have been less popular and we are keen to encourage more applications in these service areas.” Applicants are told within 20 working days of applying whether their project has made it through to the next stage of the assessment process. Visit: www.futurebuilders-england. org.uk

Crime Reduction News 23

EVENTS

dates
8 December
Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design Location: Leicester Conference aims: During the conference you will learn: how crime and security interrelate with the environment; what crime prevention through environmental design involves; the key principles and techniques of crime prevention through environmental design; designing in crime prevention a new or existing building/project; how to assess risk and conduct surveys. For more information contact www.perpetuitygroup.com. Alternatively, request an electronic copy by emailing training@perpetuitygroup.com or telephone 0116 221 7775

Previous issue

To obtain copies of back issues of CRN call 0870 241 4680, fax 0870 241 4786 or email homeoffice@prolog.uk.com Please give your name, address and job title, as well as specifying which issue you would like.

SEPTEMBER 2004

14 December

Managing School Security Location: Leicester Conference aims to teach: the range of incidents and security threats currently facing schools; Government and education authority initiatives and targets; how to determine, record and measure the incidents and threats to your shool; how to conduct a risk assessment; how to plan and implement a security initiative in your shcool; what security measures are available; how to monitor and evaluate your security strategy. For more information contact www.perpetuitygroup.com. Alternatively, request an electronic copy by emailing training@perpetuitygroup.com or telephone 0116 221 7775

Race crime – creating an equal society free from raciallymotivated crime ● Student victimisation – Lessons on how to keep crime down on campus ● Violent crime – time to take a tough stance on violence ● Persistent offenders – new measures to break the cycle of crime among prolific offenders

JUNE 2004

31 January – 2 February
Delivering Sustainable Communities Location: Manchester The Summit will explore progress in delivering new and regenerated sustainable communities since the publication of the Sustainable Communities Plan in February 2003. Among the subject categories are crime, law and punishment. To register visit www.odpm.gov.uk/stellent/ groups/odpm_communities/documents/page/ odpm_comm_030333.hcsp

Alcohol and crime – tackling the rise in alcohol-fuelled street crime ● Partnership power – the importance of working with community partners ● Organised crime – tough new measures to stamp out organised crime ● Women offenders – the reduction of female prisoners in focus

MARCH 2004

Contact If you have been involved in a project that
other practitioners could learn from, please get in touch. Email us at: crimereductionnews@justcomm.net or write to us at: Crime Reduction News, 76-80 Southwark Street, London SE1 0PN

Community empowerment – The importance of enabling communities to confront crime ● Anti-social behaviour – the latest tools and measures to combat anti-social behaviour ● Child protection – How to keep kids away from Internet dangers ● Technology – how it can make the police ten times more likely to make an arrest

Back issues are also available online. Visit www.crimereduction. gov.uk/crn.htm