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Chapter 5 Lecture Notes Chapter theme: Managers who understand how costs behave are better able to predict

costs and make decisions under various circumstances. This chapter explores the meaning of fixed, variable, and mixed costs (the relative proportions of which define an organization’s cost structure). It also introduces a new income statement format called the contribution approach. Types of cost behavior patterns Learning Objective 1: Understand how fixed and variable costs behave and how to use them to predict costs. A. Variable costs 3 i. A variable cost is a cost whose total dollar amount varies in direct proportion to changes in the activity level. 1. An activity base (also called a cost driver) is a measure of what causes the incurrence of variable costs. As the level of the activity base increases, the variable cost increases proportionally. a. Units produced (or sold) is not the only activity base within companies. A cost can be considered variable if it varies with activity bases such as miles driven, machine hours, or labor hours.


I. 2




2. As an example of an activity base, consider your total long distance telephone bill. The activity base is the number of minutes that you talk. ii. Variable costs remain constant if expressed on a per unit basis. 1. Referring to the telephone example, the cost per minute talked is constant (e.g., 10 cents per minute) iii. Extent of variable costs 1. The proportion of variable costs differs across organizations. For example: a. A public utility like Florida Power and Light, with large investments in equipment, will tend to have fewer variable costs. b. A manufacturing company like Black and Decker will often have many variable costs associated with the manufacture and distribution of its products to customers. c. A merchandising company like Wal-Mart will usually have a high proportion of variable costs such as the cost of merchandise purchased for resale. d. Some service companies, such as restaurants, have a high proportion of variable costs due to their raw material costs. Other service companies, such as an architectural 152





firm, have a high proportion of fixed costs in the form of highly trained salaried employees. iv. Common examples of variable costs 1. Merchandising companies − cost of goods sold 2. Manufacturing companies − direct materials, direct labor, and variable overhead. 3. Merchandising and manufacturing companies − commissions, shipping costs, and clerical costs such as invoicing. 4. Service companies − supplies, travel, and clerical. Helpful Hint: Students tend to assume that a certain type of cost is always variable or fixed. They should examine the facts of each situation before deciding whether a cost is fixed or variable. For example, a company’s employment policy may determine whether direct labor costs are fixed or variable with respect to volume of output. B. True variable versus step-variable costs i. True variable costs − the amount used during the period varies in direct proportion to the activity level.



1. The long distance phone bill was one example of a true variable cost. 2. Direct material is another example of a cost that behaves in a true variable pattern. 153


a. Direct materials purchased but not used can be stored and carried forward to the next period as inventory. ii. Step-variable costs − A resource that is obtainable only in large chunks and whose costs change only in response to fairly wide changes in activity.




1. For example, maintenance workers are often considered to be a variable cost, but this labor cost does not behave as a true variable cost. a. Small changes in the level of production are not likely to have any effect on the number of maintenance workers employed. b. Only fairly wide changes in the activity level will cause a change in the number of maintenance workers employed. i. Maintenance workers are obtainable only in large chunks of a whole person who is capable of working approximately 2,000 hours a year. C. The linearity assumption and the relevant range


i. Economists correctly point out that many costs that accountants classify as variable costs actually behave in a curvilinear fashion.


the fixed cost per local call decreases as more local calls are made. within a narrow band of activity known as the relevant range. A fixed cost is a cost whose total dollar amount remains constant as the activity level changes. 1. 1.” You can repeat the same question for the part of the curve that bends upward. For example.14 ii. D. ii. a curvilinear cost can be satisfactorily approximated by a straight line. 16 17 18 155 . Ask what happens to average costs when the cost curve bends downward and what economists call this part of the curve. Average costs are falling and this is roughly equivalent to what economists call “increasing returns to scale. your monthly basic telephone bill is probably fixed and does not change when you make more local calls. 1. For example. Average fixed costs per unit decrease as the activity level increases. Nonetheless. Fixed costs 15 i. Helpful Hint: Slide 14 can be tied in with economics courses students have taken. The relevant range is that range of activity within which the assumptions made about cost behavior are valid.

a. These costs are long-term in nature (i. other construction companies may opt to retain their workers all year. For example. Examples of committed-fixed costs include depreciation on buildings and equipment.. These costs cannot be significantly reduced even for short periods of time without seriously impairing the long-run goals of the organization. ii. Committed fixed costs 1. Examples of discretionary fixed costs include advertising and research and development. Discretionary fixed costs 19 1. 156 . Types of fixed costs i.e. 2. a. These costs usually arise from annual decisions by management to spend in certain fixed cost areas. These costs can be cut for short periods of time with minimal damage to the long-run goals of the organization. and real estate taxes. 2. greater than one year). A cost may be discretionary or committed depending on management’s strategy.E. a. 3. However. some construction companies may layoff workers during months with minimal customer demand.

computer software is used to complete tax returns. consequently. For example: a. The trend toward fixed costs 1. iv. and custom. i. highly-trained. Germany. depending on labor regulations. and Japan management has little flexibility in adjusting the size of the 157 20 21 . As machines take over many mundane tasks previously performed by humans. barcode readers enter price and other product information automatically. “knowledge workers” are demanded for their minds rather than their muscles. In France. Safeway and Kroger employees used to key-in prices by hand on cash registers. Is labor a variable or fixed cost? 1. Knowledge workers tend to be salaried. Now. The behavior of wage and salary costs can differ across countries. b. The trend in many industries is toward greater fixed costs relative to variable costs. and difficult to replace.iii. China. labor contracts. c. For example: a. Now. the cost of compensating these valued employees is relatively fixed rather than variable. H&R Block employees used to fill out tax returns for customers by hand.

a. The width of the steps for fixed costs is wider than the width of the steps for stepvariable costs. 2. While this step-function pattern appears similar to the idea of step-variable costs. For example. Nonetheless. 2. most companies in the United States continue to view direct labor as a variable cost.21 labor force.000 for each additional 1. The relevant range of activity for a fixed cost is the range of activity over which the graph of the cost is flat. hence. labor costs are more fixed in nature. 2. ii. a step-variable cost such as maintenance workers may 158 23 . Fixed costs and the relevant range 22 i. 23 24 1.000 square feet. Fixed costs would increase in a step fashion at a rate of $30. F.000 per year in increments of 1. whereas fixed costs cannot be changed easily. assume office space is available at a rental rate of $30. there are two important differences between step-variable costs and fixed costs. Step-variable costs can often be adjusted quickly as conditions change. 1. Within countries managers can view labor costs differently depending on their strategy.000 square feet. For example.

A mixed cost contains both variable and fixed cost elements. 27 28 159 . An equation can be used to express the relationship between mixed costs and the level of the activity. The fixed portion of the utility bill is constant regardless of kilowatt hours consumed. 25-26 Quick Check – cost behavior patterns G. Mixed costs (also called semivariable costs) i. certain costs. fixed costs may have steps that have a width of thousands or tens of thousands of hours of activity. b. ii. would remain fixed. custodial salaries would need to increase since activity is outside the relevant range. However. if activity increases to the point where a second shift is needed. utility bills often contain fixed and variable cost components. The variable portion of the bill varies in direct proportion to the consumption of kilowatt hours. However. such as custodial salaries. 1.24 have steps with a width of 40 hours a week. b. a. Helpful Hint: Discuss with students that over a given level of production. This cost represents the minimum cost that is incurred to have the service ready and available for use. For example.

The analysis of mixed costs A. each account under consideration is classified as variable or fixed based on the analyst’s prior knowledge about how costs behave. In account analysis. ii.000 kilowatt hours. and your monthly activity level was 2. Y = The total mixed cost. if your fixed monthly utility charge is $40. c. The engineering approach classifies costs based on an industrial engineer’s evaluation of production methods. d. The equation is Y = a + bX a. This approach is limited in value in the sense that it glosses over the fact that some accounts may have both fixed and variable components.03 per kilowatt hour. 30 1. Account analysis and the engineering approach i. a = The total fixed cost (the vertical intercept of the line). iii. material specifications. For example. 160 . your variable cost is . b. this equation can be used to calculate your total utility cost of $100. X = The level of activity. labor 28 29 II. 1.This equation can be used to calculate what the total mixed cost would be for any level of activity. b = The variable cost per unit of activity (the slope of the line).

If the dots are not linear. do not analyze the data any further. is plotted on the X axis. search for another independent variable that bears a stronger linear relationship with the dependent variable. which is known as the dependent variable. This approach is particularly useful when no past experience is available concerning activity and costs. The cost. is plotted on the Y axis. power consumption. 1.requirements. 30 1. which is known as the independent variable. 31 32 161 . The activity. B. such that a straight line can be drawn that approximates the relation between cost and activity. Instead. and so on. 1. Learning Objective 2: Use a scattergraph plot to diagnose cost behavior. The first step when using this method to analyze a mixed cost is to plot the data on a scattergraph. The second step is to examine the dots on the scattergraph to see if they are linear. 2. ii. The scattergraph plot (also called the quick-and-dirty method) i. equipment usage.

Learning Objective 3: Analyze a mixed cost using the high-low method. 5. 34 v. Determine the total cost and the total activity level at the chosen point. iv.33 iii. This is the variable cost per unit of activity. 1. 2. 4. The fifth step is to estimate the variable cost per unit of the activity. The fourth step is to identify the Y intercept. The high-low method 35 36 37 i. Make sure that the straight line goes through at least one data point on the scattergraph. Divide the total variable costs by the activity level at the chosen point. Subtract the fixed costs from the total costs to arrive at the total variable costs for the chosen activity level. 3. 1. Select one point on the scattergraph that intersects the straight line. C. This intercept represents the estimated fixed cost portion of the mixed cost ($10. The third step is to draw a straight line where.000 in this example). roughly speaking. This method can be used to analyze mixed costs if a scattergraph plot reveals a linear relationship 162 . Construct an equation that can be used to estimate total costs at any activity level. an equal number of points reside above and below the line.

$9. The variable cost component ($6. low = 500 units).37 between the X and Y variables. The third step is to calculate the change in cost between the two data points ($2. The fourth step is to take the total cost at either activity level (in this case. 1. v.800. The residual represents the estimate of total fixed costs ($3. as opposed to one data point with the scattergraph method.400).00 per unit).400). iii. iv. Notice. this method relies on two data points to estimate the fixed and variable portions of a mixed cost. low = $7. Helpful Hint: Emphasize that the high and low points are identified based on the level of activity. The second step is to determine the total costs associated with the two chosen points (high = $9. 1. ii. 1.400) and divide it by the change in activity level between the two data points (300 units).800) and deduct the variable cost component ($6. The quotient represents an estimate of variable cost per unit of activity ($8. assume the following information. The first step is to choose the data points pertaining to the highest and lowest activity levels (high = 800 units.400). For illustrative purposes.400) is determined by multiplying the level of 163 38 39 .

00 per unit). The fifth step is to construct an equation that can be used to estimate the total cost at any activity level (Y = $3. This method is superior to the scattergraph plot method that relies on only one data point and the high-low method that uses only two data points to estimate the fixed and variable cost components of a mixed cost. The observed values of the X and Y variables are entered into the computer and the software does the rest. vi. The least-squares regression method i. The regression errors are the vertical deviations from the data points to the regression line.39 activity (800 units) by the estimated variable cost per unit of the activity ($8.400 + $8. computers can perform the calculations quickly. Fortunately. ii. The basic goal of this method is to fit a straight line to the data that minimizes the sum of the squared errors. iv. This method can be used to analyze mixed costs if a scattergraph plot reveals an approximately linear relationship between the X and Y variables. Quick Check – the high-low method D. The formulas that are used for least-squares regression are complex. iii. This method uses all of the data points to estimate the fixed and variable cost components of a mixed cost.00X). 164 40 41-44 45 46 .

This is to be expected because each method uses differing amounts of the data points to provide estimates. E. The contribution format income statement Learning Objective 4: Prepare an income statement using the contribution format. The output from the regression analysis can be used to create an equation that enables you to estimate total costs at any activity level. The contribution approach provides an income statement format geared directly to cost behavior. which has been the focus of discussion in this chapter. i. For example. This approach is used as an internal planning and decision making tool. Comparing results from the three methods i.46 1. The contribution margin − fixed costs = net operating income. this approach is useful for: 1. Sales − variable costs = contribution margin. ii. 165 47 III. Cost-volume-profit analysis (chapter 6). This approach separates costs into fixed and variable categories. A. The three methods just discussed provide slightly different estimates of the fixed and variable cost components of the mixed cost. Least-squares regression provides the most accurate estimates because it uses all of the data points. 48 49 50 51 .

Budgeting (chapter 7). There is no way to do this with reasonable accuracy. The traditional approach organizes costs in a functional format. The contribution approach differs from the traditional approach illustrated in chapter 1. 3. iii. Ask if the various expense categories on the income statement contain both fixed and variable costs. Helpful Hint: The income statement from the annual report of a well-known local manufacturing firm can be used to illustrate the functional income statement. Costs relating to production. administration. and sales are grouped together without regard to their cost behavior. The traditional approach is used primarily for external reporting purposes. since there is no way to tell on a functional income statement what costs would increase. Also ask how to estimate the increase in profit that would result from a 4% increase in sales using the functional statement. 2. 52 IV. Special decisions such as pricing and make or buy analysis (chapter 11). 1. 54 166 . Appendix 5A: variable costing (Slide #53 is a title slide) Learning Objective 5: Explain how variable costing differs from absorption costing and compute unit product costs under each method.51 2.

Variable costing 55 i. 167 . B. exhibits. However. This approach treats all manufacturing costs as product costs. students should be reminded that labor is essentially a fixed cost in some companies. Fixed manufacturing overhead. The cost of a unit of product consists of direct materials.A. and variable overhead. direct labor. iii. Absorption costing i. This approach treats only those costs of production that vary with output as product costs. and both variable and fixed selling and administrative expenses are treated as period costs and deducted from revenue as incurred. The cost of a unit of product consists of direct materials. iii. direct labor. Variable and fixed selling and administrative expenses are treated as period costs and are deducted from revenue as incurred. Under variable costing. and both variable and fixed overhead. problems. and exercises in this chapter treat direct labor as a variable cost. ii. ii. nearly all examples. Helpful Hint: For simplicity. direct labor would not be included in product costs when it is a fixed cost. regardless of whether they are variable or fixed.

Unit cost computations 58 i. only the variable production costs are included in product costs. all production costs. Under variable costing. are included when determining unit product cost. 2. remind students of the relationship between ending inventory and net operating income. Also. Assume Harvey Company produces a single product with available information as shown. variable costing C. Therefore. Higher ending inventory results in higher net operating income since costs of goods available for sale less ending inventory equals cost of goods sold. Under absorption costing. 60 Learning Objective 6: Prepare income statements using both variable and absorption costing. variable and fixed. Helpful Hint: Before beginning the forthcoming example. The unit product costs under absorption and variable costing would be $16 and $10. ii. emphasize that under both methods. a higher ending inventory results in a lower expense (cost of goods sold) deducted to arrive at net operating income.Helpful Hint: Emphasize that the only difference between variable and absorption costing is in how the two methods treat fixed manufacturing overhead costs. 56-57 Quick Check – absorption vs. selling and administrative costs are period costs and are not product costs. 59 1. 168 . respectively.

The selling price per unit is $30.000 units × $6 per unit).000 of fixed manufacturing cost is expensed in the current period. The Harvey Company example continued (additional assumptions): 61 1. The net operating income is $90. the recognition of fixed costs as an expense is really a timing issue. Income comparison of absorption and variable costing i. All $150. 3. The fixed manufacturing overhead cost deferred in inventory is $30. 2. Helpful Hint: Explain that under absorption costing. Absorption costing 1. 3.000. 20. The unit product cost is $10.D.000 units were sold during the year. the fixed costs will be reflected on the income statement as part of cost of goods sold. The net operating income is $120. Variable costing 63 1. iii.000. The unit product cost is $16. 2. 2. 3. There is no beginning inventory.000 (5. When the items are sold. 62 169 . ii.

The unit product cost is $10. Variable costing 1. iv. Unit cost computations 65 1. Since the variable costs per unit. The unit product cost is $16.000. The net operating income is $230. iii. and number of units produced remain unchanged. total fixed costs.000 units are in beginning inventory. Extended comparisons of income data i. The net operating income is $260. The fixed manufacturing overhead cost released from inventory is $30. 3. 2. variable costs per unit. 2. 67 170 . 3. ii.000 units were sold in year 2.000. 3. 2. All $150. 5. total fixed costs.000.E. The Harvey Company example continued (additional assumptions/facts): 64 1. the unit cost computations also remain unchanged. The selling price per unit. and the number of units produced remained unchanged. Absorption costing 66 1.000 of fixed manufacturing overhead cost is expensed in the current period. 30.

the entire $150.000 of fixed manufacturing overhead is treated as a period expense.000 less than absorption costing.000) can be reconciled by multiplying the number of units in beginning inventory (5.000 units) by the fixed manufacturing overhead per unit ($6) that is deferred in ending inventory under absorption costing.000 is deferred in ending inventory as an asset on the balance sheet. Comparing the two methods i. $120. thus explaining the difference in net operating income between the two methods. The difference in net operating income between the two methods ($30. Year 1 1. Year 2 69 70 71 1. a. The difference in net operating income between the two methods ($30. The variable costing ending inventory is $30.000 units) 171 . Under variable costing.000) can also be reconciled by multiplying the number of units in ending inventory (5. ii.000 of fixed manufacturing overhead is included in cost of goods sold and $30. 2. F. 3. Under absorption costing.68 Learning Objective 7: Reconcile variable costing and absorption costing net operating incomes and explain why the two amounts differ.

72 73 ii. This is because over an extended period of time sales cannot exceed production. When the units produced are less than unit sales. both methods reported the same total net operating income ($350.71 by the fixed manufacturing overhead per unit ($6) that is released from beginning inventory under absorption costing. nor can production much exceed sales. When the units produced equal unit sales. Summary of key insights i. as in year 2 for Harvey. absorption costing income is less than variable costing income. Across the two year time frame. When the units produced exceed unit sales. 172 . G.000). Years 1 and 2 combined 1. as in year 1 for Harvey. iii. the more the net operating income figures will tend to differ. the two methods report the same net operating income. The shorter the time period. iii. absorption income is greater than variable costing income.

2010. D. All rights reserved. I. Types of fixed costs: committed and discretionary. Contribution income statement. C. Least-squares regression method of mixed cost analysis. G. Behavior of fixed costs in total and on a unit basis. H. B. Mixed costs (combination of fixed and variable). Inc. © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Variable cost behavior. .TM 5-1 AGENDA: COST BEHAVIOR A. F. High-low method of mixed cost analysis. E. (Appendix 5A) Variable costing and absorption costing. Scattergraph plot of a mixed cost..

2010. © The McGraw-Hill Companies. a variable cost is constant on a per-unit basis.. fixed. All rights reserved. Inc. EXAMPLE: Each bicycle requires one bicycle chain costing $8. A variable cost changes in total in proportion to changes in activity.TM 5-2 VARIABLE COST BEHAVIOR Many costs can be described as variable. T o ta lC o s to fB ic y c leC h a in s $ 8 0 0 8p e r • $ b ic y c le c h a in 0 0 1 0 0 N u m b e ro fB ic y c le sP ro d u c e d . . or mixed.

© The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2010. travel *Whether direct labor is fixed or variable will depend on the labor laws of the country. Inc. and the company’s employment contracts and policies. All rights reserved.. custom.TM 5-3 EXAMPLES OF COSTS THAT ARE NORMALLY VARIABLE WITH RESPECT TO OUTPUT VOLUME Merchandising company Costs of goods (merchandise) sold Manufacturing company Direct materials Direct labor* Variable elements of manufacturing overhead: Indirect materials Lubricants Supplies Power Both merchandising and manufacturing companies Variable elements of selling and administrative costs: Commissions Shipping costs Service organizations Supplies. .

000 500 Number of Photo Sessions 1.TM 5-4 FIXED COST BEHAVIOR A fixed cost remains constant in total amount throughout wide ranges of activity. She measures her firm’s activity in terms of the number of photo sessions. 2010.000 a year. ..000 © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. EXAMPLE: Fashion photographer Lori Yang rents studio spaces in a prestige location for $50. Cost Cost of Studio Rental $50. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved.TM 5-5 FIXED COST BEHAVIOR (cont’d) A fixed cost varies inversely with activity if expressed on a per unit basis. $160 Average Cost Per Photo Session for Studio Rental $120 $80 $40 $0 0 500 1. $200 .000 Number of Photo Sessions © The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2010. Inc.. .

• Research. All rights reserved.TM 5-6 TYPES OF FIXED COSTS • Committed fixed costs relate to investment in plant. Inc. . These costs can often be reduced in the short-term. TREND TOWARD FIXED COSTS The trend is toward greater fixed costs relative to variable costs. and basic administrative structure. • Shift from laborers paid by the hour to salaried knowledge workers. • Public relations. It is difficult to reduce these fixed costs in the short-term. • Salaries of key operating personnel. equipment. Examples include: • Equipment depreciation. • Real estate taxes. • Management development programs. 2010. © The McGraw-Hill Companies.. • Discretionary fixed costs arise from annual decisions by management to spend in certain areas. The reasons for this trend are: • Increased automation of business processes. Examples include: • Advertising.

000 Photos Developed X Equation of a straight line: Y = a + bX Y = $2. Inc.500 per year plus 2¢ per photo developed.000 15. All rights reserved. Y .500 Fixed Cost Element Intercept = a $0 0 5.TM 5-7 MIXED COSTS A mixed (or semi-variable) cost contains elements of both variable and fixed costs.800 Lease Cost Variable Cost Element $2.02X © The McGraw-Hill Companies.500 + $0. . Example: Lori Yang leases an automated photo developer for $2.. Slope = b $2.000 10. 2010.

00 0 $43.100 2.00 0 $48. cost and activity should be plotted on a scattergraph.000 2.00 0 $51.300 Billing Costs $42.00 0 $54. with the activity (number of orders) on the horizontal X axis and the cost (billing costs) on the vertical Y axis. Number of Quarter Orders Year 1— 1. This helps to quickly diagnose the nature of the relation between cost and activity. All rights reserved. Inc.300 2.900 3rd 4th Year 2— 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Year 3— 1st 2nd 3rd 1.800 1.500 1st 2nd 1. .100 1. 2010.000 1.00 0 $42.700 2.00 0 $53.00 0 $46. Example: Piedmont Wholesale Florists has maintained records of the number of orders and billing costs in each quarter over the past several years.TM 5-8 SCATTERGRAPH METHOD As the first step in the analysis of a mixed cost.00 0 $47.00 0 $49..00 0 $37.400 2. © The McGraw-Hill Companies.00 0 These data are plotted on the next page.

000 $0 0 500 1.TM 5-9 A COMPLETED SCATTERGRAPH Y $60. 2010. 2.500 2.500 3.000 $40.000 $20. .000 X The relation between the number of orders and the billing cost is approximately linear.000 Number of Orders 2. 1.) Because a straight line seems to be a reasonable fit to the data.000 1. Least-squares regression method. © The McGraw-Hill Companies. High-low method.000 $10. we can proceed to estimate the variable and fixed elements of the cost using one of the following methods.000 Regression Line $50. Quick-and-dirty method based on the line in the scattergraph.000 $48.000 Billing Costs $30. 3. All rights reserved.. Inc. (A straight line that seems to reflect this basic relation was drawn with a ruler on the scattergraph.

.. it is always a good idea to plot the data on a scattergraph before using the more precise high-low or leastsquares regression methods.. in the linear equation Y= a + bX. • The vertical intercept. where X is the number of orders.000 30. . Recall that we are trying to estimate the fixed cost. Select a point falling on the line (in this case 2.. © The McGraw-Hill Companies.. is a rough estimate of the fixed cost.000 in this case.. Less fixed cost element (intercept).. 2010... approximately $30. b..000 orders.....000 orders = $9 per order.000 ÷ 2...000 Variable cost per unit = $18.000 $18.. This method of estimating fixed and variable costs is seldom used in practice because of its imprecision.000 + $9X... Variable cost element for 2..... a.000 per quarter plus $9 per order or: Y = $30.. All rights reserved.000 orders $48..000 orders): Total billing cost for 2..TM 5-10 THE QUICK-AND-DIRTY METHOD The straight line drawn on the scattergraph can be used to make a quick-and-dirty estimate of the fixed and variable elements of billing costs.. Therefore.. and the variable cost per unit. Nevertheless. Inc. • The slope of the straight line is an estimate of the variable cost per unit..... the cost formula for billing costs is $30...

Inc. July.000 0 12.. Change... only the periods in which the lowest activity and the highest activity occurred are used to estimate the variable and fixed components of the mixed cost..000 $80.. May.00 0 0 11..00 $87............TM 5-11 ANALYSIS OF MIXED COSTS: HIGH-LOW METHOD EXAMPLE: Kohlson Company has incurred the following shipping costs over the past eight months: Units Shipping Sold Cost 6...000 10.....000 units Fixed cost = Total cost . . With the high-low method.......000 $70.. February......00 $85.. June.....000 $76... August.. Low activity level.000 8..000 .......000 5...00 $100.000 7.00 0 65.... March. All rights reserved.Variable cost element = $100. . Variable cost= Change in cost $35. July..... February.000 $ 35. ..000 units × $5 per unit) = $40...000 7..000 Shippin g Cost $100.. 2010.....000 $65. Units Sold 12.000 0 January....000 9....... April.000 $66....... ...000 5.00 0 High activity level.......000 = =$5 per unit Change in activity 7.......000 © The McGraw-Hill Companies...(12..

Inc.. 2010.000 + $5X © The McGraw-Hill Companies. . All rights reserved.TM 5-12 The cost formula for shipping cost is: Y = $40.

00 0 X U n its S o ld The high-low method suffers from two major defects: 1. © The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2010.0 00 8 .00 0 12. The periods with the highest and lowest volumes are often unusual.000 6 ..0 00 10. Inc.0 00 high level of activity $80 . 2. It throws away all but two data points. All rights reserved. .0 00 $0 0 2.0 00 S h ip pin gC o sts low level of activity $60 .0 00 $20 .0 00 V ariab le C o s t $ 5/u n it $40 .000 4.0 00 F ixe d C o st $40 .TM 5-13 EVALUATION OF THE HIGH-LOW METHOD Y $ 100 .

2010.. . All rights reserved.TM 5-14 LEAST-SQUARES REGRESSION METHOD The least-squares regression method for analyzing mixed costs uses mathematical formulas to determine the regression line that minimizes the sum of the squared “errors.” The least-squares regression method is more objective and precise than the scattergraph method. Inc. © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

.... © The McGraw-Hill Companies............ Net operating income... Fixed expenses: Fixed production.. 34... expenses: Selling*.. Fixed administrative Net operating income 1...000 39.000 $ 5.00 0 Cost of goods sold*.. ... Administrative*...00 0 Variable selling..... Inc.. ............000 5. Contribution margin. $60....000 22...000 12...000 $ 5.000 44..TM 5-15 TRADITIONAL VERSUS CONTRIBUTION INCOME STATEMENT Traditional Approach (costs organized by function) Sales.00 0 21......000 Variable administrative...... ............00 0 Variable expenses: Variable production.........000 Selling & admin........000 Gross margin. All rights reserved........ If this were a merchandising company.. $60. $12...000 * Contains both variable and fixed elements because this is the income statement for a manufacturing company. 26....................... then the cost of goods sold would be entirely variable.. . Fixed selling......000 16.000 $15.. 2010.... Contribution Approach (costs organized by behavior) Sales... 3......00 0 6.......

• Fixed manufacturing overhead. • Variable manufacturing overhead. product costs include only the variable manufacturing costs: • Direct materials. • Under variable costing. © The McGraw-Hill Companies. They affect: • Inventory valuations. All rights reserved. selling and administrative costs are treated as period expenses and are excluded from product costs: VARIABLE COSTING • Variable costing is an alternative for internal management reports. 2010. • Variable manufacturing overhead. • Net operating income. • Under absorption costing. the following costs are treated as period expenses and are excluded from product costs: • Fixed manufacturing overhead. • Under absorption costing. • Under variable costing. • Direct labor (unless fixed). • Direct labor..TM 5-16 (APPENDIX 5A) VARIABLE AND ABSORPTION COSTING Variable costing and absorption costing are alternative methods of determining unit product costs. KEY ELEMENTS ABSORPTION COSTING • Absorption costing was used in earlier chapters and is generally considered to be required for external financial reports. Inc. . product costs include all manufacturing costs: • Direct materials.

. Inc. All rights reserved. © The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2010. • Fixed selling and administrative costs.TM 5-17 • Variable selling and administrative costs..

All rights reserved. Inc. . 2010..TM 5-18 CLASSIFICATION OF COSTS UNDER VARIABLE AND ABSORPTION COSTING © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

................... direct labor.... All rights reserved............... and variable manufacturing overhead...... and variable manufacturing overhead Fixed manufacturing overhead ($150... Fixed selling & administrative expense... 2010... they are not treated as product costs under either costing method. Fixed costs per year: Fixed manufacturing overhead....000 units)....00 0 Unit product costs are computed as follows: Absorpti on Costing Direct materials..............TM 5-19 UNIT PRODUCT COST COMPARISON • Unit product costs differ between variable and absorption costing....... Number of units produced annually........ © The McGraw-Hill Companies.... 25.. Inc.. .000 ÷ 25........... Variable costs per unit: Direct materials..... $10 6 $16 Variable Costing $10 $10 • Selling and administrative expenses are always treated as period costs and are expensed in the current period.... Total unit product cost.. direct labor.... Selling and administrative expense.......000 $10 $3 $150... EXAMPLE: Harvey Company produces a single product...........00 0 $100....

..000 $600.....000 $120.....................000)..000 320...........000 280.. 2010.... Absorption costing net operating income.00 0 © The McGraw-Hill Companies.. Fixed expenses: Fixed manufacturing overhead.......................... Variable Costing Sales (20........00 0 60.......... Contribution margin.............................000 units × $6 per unit)...........000 $ 90...........000 100......... ...............000 160..... $ 90................. Net operating income.....000 $200........ Selling and administrative expense (20....00 0 $120................... $600........ Cost of goods sold (20...............00 0 30............TM 5-20 INCOME STATEMENT COMPARISON Harvey Company had no beginning inventory..........000 250..... and sold 20... Inc............... produced 25...................000 units × $16 per unit)........000 units × $30 per unit).000 units... Variable expenses: Variable cost of goods sold (20.000 RECONCILIATION OF NET OPERATING INCOMES: Variable costing net operating income...000 150................000 units × $30 per unit). Variable selling and administrative expense (20.000 260........ Gross margin.000 340.. All rights reserved. Net operating income.... Fixed selling and administrative expense........... Add: Fixed manufacturing overhead cost deferred in inventory under absorption costing (5..... Absorption Costing Sales (20...000 units × $3 per unit + $100..........000 units × $10 per unit)...000 units × $3 per unit)....................000 units last year..........

# Net operating income will be lower under absorption costing since fixed manufacturing overhead cost will be released from inventory under absorption costing.. © The McGraw-Hill Companies. .TM 5-21 COMPARATIVE INCOME EFFECTS — VARIABLE AND ABSORPTION COSTING Relation Between Variable and Absorption Costing Net Operating Incomes Absorption costing NI = Variable costing NI Absorption costing NI > Variable costing NI * Absorption costing NI < Variable costing NI # Relation Between Production and Sales Production = Sales (No change in inventory) Production > Sales (Inventory increases) Production < Sales (Inventory decreases) * Net operating income will be higher under absorption costing since fixed manufacturing overhead cost will be deferred in inventory under absorption costing. Inc. All rights reserved. 2010.