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The

UMBRA Reciprocating Linear Alternator

a method of improving the power output of an electromagnetic device is to maximize that time rate of change. linear to rotational velocityamplification mechanism. The Umbra Reciprocating Linear Alternator (URLA) utilizes specialized materials to ensure durability and minimizes the losses by closely integrating highly-efficient. Consequently. the fewer the number of opportunities for efficiency losses. The URLA maximizes the time rate of change through a mechanical. the corresponding linear translation of the shaft results in a comparatively higher velocity at the outermost diameter Figure 1 – Velocity of the nut.INTRODUCTION: The conversion of motion to electricity from reciprocating power sources is typically associated with the integration of multiple systems. but are not limited to: · Pressure line losses (pressure drop) in hydraulic systems · Heat losses due to friction in gear-boxes and power trains · Electrical line losses due to heat liberation The fewer the number of systems to integrate. Ampliﬁcatio The URLA simplifies and tightly integrates componentry to mitigate efficiency losses AND employs mechanical velocity amplification to the benefit of electromagnetic inductance to maximize the amount of electrical power generation from a single electromechanical device. − � (Efficiency Losses)𝑛 According to the basic principles of electromagnetic inductance. For a low linear speed. Consequently. the conversion of energy can be expressed as 𝐸𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦𝑂𝑈𝑇 = 𝐸𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦𝐼𝑁 𝑛 𝑛=1 Examples of “efficiency losses” include. For each system. fewer systems will yield more electrical energy generation from the same external power source. In thermodynamics. risks of failure increase and losses in efficiency (generally in the form of heat) can be expected. for motion to electricity pursuits. . power-conversion componentry to achieve direct power conversion with an efficiency as high as 85% from a single electromechanical device. voltage is directly proportional to the available inductance and the time rate of change of the current.

. Permanent magnets are oriented in rows of alternating poles and bonded to the outer diameter of the “nut” – consequently. results in the rolling of the loaded-balls between the shaft and the nut. The speed of rotation for the nut is a function of the linear input speed of the shaft and the pitch of the helical shaft. electrons are induced to flow through the coil (using the principle of electromagnetic induction) to yield an electric current. The rolling of the balls induces a rotation of the nut (which is constrained to resist linear translation) about the axis of the shaft.Architecture A linear translation of the helical shaft. Linear motion is converted into rotary motion through a helical interface between the rotor of the permanent magnet generator and the shaft which is similar to a ball screw. the “nut” becomes the rotor of the electrical alternator. which is constrained to resist rotation about its axis. As the nut spins inside a specially designed stator coil. Figure 2 .ARCHITECTURE: The URLA utilizes the principle of electromagnetic induction to produce electricity.

Corrosion resistance testing per ASTM B 117 demonstrated that Cronidur™ 30 with a surface hardness of 58 (Rockwell C) far exceeds that of comparable induction hardened materials such as AISI 440C. In case of an high corrosion resistance is required.58 HRC Figure 3 – Corrosion Resistance The URLA utilizes a proprietary combination of materials to achieve superior life properties and corrosion resistance .MATERIALS: The material selection for the ball screw is based on the environmental conditions. the ability of the material to have maximum wear resistance and superior rolling contact fatigue properties. Umbra suggests an induction hardenable stainless steel such as Cronidur™ 30. AISI 440C .58 HRC Cronidur 30 . Umbra has experience in a wide variety of materials either stainless steel and carbon steel.

Furthermore the rigidity of critical components is optimized with Finite Element Analysis to ensure proper load distribution at different locations. . and Hertzian theory. lab tests.DESIGN FOR LIFE METHODOLOGY Motion transfer and bearing surfaces which are subject to rolling fatigue are sized to ensure that the contact pressure is below the stress-strain fatigue limit for the material as indicated by empirical field data. Contact Pressure 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 Hours Figure 4 – Life Hours Electrical components are either selected or designed to withstand the thermal gradients that exist throughout the full spectrum of the mission cycle thereby supporting product life expectations.

The set-up is shown below in Figure 5: Figure 5 – Test Set-up The URLA selected for the test has the following characteristics: Feature Operating Speed Maximum stroke Operating Axial load Nominal Power Cooling system Dimension (OD) Dimension (Length) Typical size 200 mm/s 1000 mm/s 100 KN 15 KW Natural Air Convection 360 mm 500 mm . was subjected to a range of controlled external forces and speeds. The test unit. Italy.TESTING: Testing was performed on an URLA unit on October 2012 at the University of L’Aquila. a derivative of the Umbra Electromechanical Actuator (UEMA). Input and output power were measured to determine the actual URLA power conversion efficiency.

RESULTS: OUTPUT POWER YIELD A compilation of the test results that reveal the power output at relative speeds is shown in Figure 5 — Power Output vs Input Speed.5 KW 300 200 mm/s 250 150 mm/s Vrms_f [V] 200 150 100 mm/s 100 50 0 0 5 10 15 20 Irms_f [A] 25 30 35 40 50 mm/s Figure 5 – RLA Characteristics Curves From this chart.5 KW 8 KW 12 KW 16. . Consequently. 350 3. a wide range of performance results are expected. Conversely. the input speed must be no less than 200 mm/s. for the device tested. an input speed of 50 mm/s can yield no more than 3.Positioning sensor Incremental Encoder Output voltage and current are correlated to specific combination of load and speed. The system allows a wide range of input parameters. in order to achieve 16.5 KW of power output. it can be shown that.5 KW of electricity.

the lower the conversion efficiency. the efficiency is constant over a wider range of input speeds and is a function of input power – the lower the input power. the greater the influence of the backdriving-load on the generated output power and consequently.EFFICIENCY It should be noted that unlike traditional generators. the lower the efficiency. The lower the input load. . Figure 6 – RLA Efficiency Each URLA is characterized by a constant back-driving load given by the internal friction and the permanent magnet generators.

S.: Antonio Gonzalez +1-937-609-9026 agonzalez@umbrausa. Loc. 2916 100th Street SW Everett. Paciana 06034 Foligno (PG) . WA 98204 — USA attn.com Umbra Cuscinetti.p.A.: Lucio Panzolini +49 170 4564 759 lpanzolini@umbragroup. Zona Industriale.it . Umbra Cuscinetti Inc.CONCLUSION: The conversion of motion to electricity from reciprocating power sources can be accomplished with efficiencies as high as 85% using the Umbra Reciprocating Linear Alternator (URLA) — the URLA mitigates efficiency losses by having fewer system components and fewer opportunities for energy losses through the tight integration of electromechanical components and the smart use of commercially available materials which have the added benefit of corrosion resistance.Italy attn.

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