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Living in Truth:

Archaeology and the Patriarchs Chapter 1


"Sons of a Greater Goddess" (Adam and Eve, Cain and Abel)
by Charles N. Pope Copyright 1999-2002 by Charles Pope United States Library of Congress All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions

The God-Man Adam In the mythology of ancient Egypt, the god who arrived first on the Earth was called Atum, signifying "Totality." Atum, as with Biblical Adam, was naked and required a civilizing influence. "The loincloth given to Atum served less to clothe him, in the strict sense of the word, than to permit him to manifest his royalty by means of a specific garment."a One cannot help but compare the royal undergarment of Atum with the fig leaf loincloth made for Biblical Adam. In the Egyptian creation story, the first goddess, Tefnut, was said to come forth out of Atum. One of her Mesopotamian nicknames was Nin-ti, meaning "Lady Life," or "The Lady (Who Makes) Live." S.N. Kramer states that ti is also the Sumerian word for "rib," therefore Nin-ti could variously be interpreted as "the Lady of the Rib."b In the Bible, Eve is of course formed from the rib of Adam. The Hebrew name Adam means "a man, ruddy." Genesis 2:23 (KJV)c states: "she [Eve] was taken out of man." However, the Hebrew word translated in this particular verse as "man" is not Adam but iysh (376).d Like the Egyptian name Atum, this word iysh also conveys a sense of both unity and totality. It is commonly translated elsewhere in the Bible as "every, everyone," i.e., all men. There is an obvious phonic similarity between Adam and Atum. A true linguistic link is also not so unreasonable given that the names of all of the other major Egyptian deities have definite Semitic etymologies.1 In the Bible, Adam and Eve become the parents of rival sons Cain and Abel. Genesis 4:1 (KJV) states: "And Adam knew Eve his wife; and she conceived, and bare Cain, and said, I have gotten a man from the Lord." The Schocken Bible translates the last part of this verse as, "I-have-gotten a man, as has YHWH!" The phrase "I have gotten a man" is the Hebrew kaniti iysh. Kaniti is a word play with the name Cain/Kayin. The use of iysh, "everyone," again serves to designate that it is a god who has been born. The final phrase, "as has YHWH," explains why. In the Patriarchal bias of Genesis, Cain was a god, because his father was also considered to be a god.

2 We are next told that Cain struck down his younger and more favored brother Abel, and that his blood cried out from the ground. Among the ancient pantheon, the god Anu can be identified as the Biblical Cain. According to the Hittite epic "Kingship in Heaven," Anu attacked his more favored brother Alal and caused him to go "down to the dark earth."e This is a metaphor for murder. After vanquishing his superior Alal (Abel), Anu (Cain) was then attacked by a mysterious avenger named Kingu.f Kingu was also defeated, but not before injuring the genitals of Anu. Kingu is not explicitly mentioned in the Book of Genesis, however Cain speaks personally of the injury sustained to his male organ in Genesis 4:13. The King James Version reads, "My punishment is greater than I can bear." However, the graphic, literal translation of this verse is: "My perversity/bent-nessg is more twisted/elongatedh than I can lift/make rise.i" Cain (Anu) retained his throne, but was exiled. His chastening also included at least temporary loss of sexual powers. Yet, out of recognition of his importance and concern for his security, he was given a form of protection.2 According to Jewish tradition, the mark of Cain was a "set of horns ... capable of warding off potential attackers."j In Mesopotamian tradition, the horned cap designated a godking. The god Cain (Anu/El) was strangely absent from the day-to-day affairs of the "world." It has been commonly assumed that this was by choice, but the Bible indicates otherwise. Nevertheless, he was celebrated for the triumph over his brother Abel (Alal), and was called "First Among the Gods." Consistent with this, the genealogy of Cain given in Genesis is that of the kingly succession among the gods known to us from archaeology and myth. Biblical Cain was a farmer. For lack of rain, the ground was "cursed" and would not provide abundant yields during his reign. The gods did engage in agriculture, but also broke or "tilled" the soil in search of precious stones and metals. The name Cain does not actually mean "farmer," but a "smith." In a manner of speaking, Cain had beaten his ploughshare into a sword in order to strike down the herdsman Abel. This imagery reflects the author's bias that shepherding was a more noble occupation than farming. It was also a subtle denouncement of the great river cultures of Mesopotamia and Egypt. It was there that "Vulcan" kings claiming authority and descent from god-king Cain (Anu) put an iron yoke on their less fortunate brothers, especially for cultivating the irrigated fields of temple and state, and as conscripts in the military. In turn, those same kings came to see themselves as enslaved by a system that emulated the vicious cycle of the gods, and which was made all the more tragic given the shorter life spans of mortal men. Her Story or His Story? In the Greek (Olympian) creation myth, male and female roles are reversed. It was not a god, but Gaia ("Mother Earth") who emerged first from the watery chaos and produced Uranus (Anu of Mesopotamian), the "First Father." Uranus (Anu/Cain) then became the consort of Gaia and sired the first gods.k In another (Pelasgian) version of the Greek creation myth, it is again a goddess Eurynome ("Wide Wandering") who "moved upon the face of the waters."l Through her initiative she

3 located Ophion, "Native Snake," and mated with him. However, strife soon arose between the first couple. Eurynome "bruised his head with her heel, kicked out his teeth, and banished him."m This event is echoed in Genesis 3: 15 (KJV), which reads: "And I will put enmity between thee [the serpent] and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel." Combining the two Greek accounts, the goddess first mated with an indigenous hominoid male, and then with her own son by that male. Her grandsons, the first gods, would have possessed 3/4ths of her own genes (in round terms). The next generation of gods, if also birthed by her, would have possessed 7/8ths of her original genes. From the Greek perspective, it is the sons of the goddess ("sons of Gaia")n who are all-important in the creation of the new race. Gaia may have required a wet nurse from among the indigenous females. However, after acquiring a son by the native male, she would have had no further use for him. Ophion (timid Atum/Adam) was literally kicked out of her garden. In Egyptian mythology, the god Atum hovered over the Nun (waters of chaos) in the form of the Benu Bird or Phoenix until a dry place was found for him to alight. He was "self-created," and originally alone. In a variant of the Egyptian creation myth, Atum was animated and gave birth to the god Shu (Enlil) and the goddess Tefnut/Hathor (Nin-ti) while still in the Nun. Atum brought Tefnut and Shu into being either through the act of masturbation or by spitting them out of his mouth. Rather than acknowledge the need to mate with a goddess or native female, Atum was said to produce offspring completely on his own, or by some artificial means. However, the memory of an original goddess was preserved in part. "In general terms the feminine complement to the solar creator [Atum] is the goddess Hathor, but for the aspect of aide to creation the Egyptians used a more specific name, Iusaas 'She who grows as she comes'."o Iusaas is depicted as a goddess. The epithet "grows as she comes" seems to imply that she also was "self-created" in the same sense as Atum. In some accounts, she was considered the progenitor of Shu and Tefnut rather than Atum.p After the birth of Tefnut/Hathor (through Iusaas/Gaia or other means), Atum was then instructed by the Nun to kiss (couple with?) her so that his heart (genome?) might live. Although less explicit than Greek myths, Egyptian sources also suggest that reconstitution of genes may have been necessary. In both cases it was accomplished through a process of parent-child inbreeding. Another common characteristic of Greek, Egyptian and Hebrew creation stories is that the original male and female are not "created equal" or together. One precedes the other in time, and therefore in importance. In Greek myth, the goddess appears to mate with an "Adam" of the older race or species and subsequently dominates him. In Egyptian myth, it is Atum who arrives out of the blue and becomes the first god. In the Hebrew account of Genesis, we are told that Eve was formed from the "rib" of Adam, and woman is therefore to be subjugated to man. However, the subtle word play of the patristic author encodes the critical role of the goddess "Ti" (Hathor/Nin-ti) in the creation of the human race. Looking beyond the age-old battle of the sexes,3 the Bible and other ancient stories may

4 preserve that a new race or even species is "created" with help from a pre-existing one. In a practical sense, the new beings might not otherwise have a fully effective immune system, and possibly lack other genetic adaptations needed to survive and thrive. Egyptian and Hebrew accounts may not be purely the product of misogyny. Creative procedure might be partly to blame. Let us assume that Greek creation myths are the more accurate, and that modern man resulted from interbreeding with a "superior" woman (from whatever origin). Ophion would have been of a previous "creation," and in that sense, was "first." Moreover, the mission of this newly arrived "goddess" would have initially been to produce male offspring (sons and grandsons) who possessed a high percentage of her own genome. The sons of the goddess Gaia were the "sons of God." Any daughters of Ophion/Atum would have been the equals of their brothers, but possibly still of secondary importance for inbreeding purposes. Ironically, the male would be given priority in a new creation brought on by a goddess (Gaia). Only after "gods" were created would the task change to producing sister-wives for them who were of like quality (see next chapter). In this two-step process, mother-son conjugations would precede father-daughter unions. Both types were prominent among the first gods and goddesses as attested in mythology. Half-sister marriages were also common, especially among the younger gods and goddesses. Upon the "arrival" of a new genetic strain, the goal would have been to first mate with an older line, and then breed out most of their traits. Assuming this was the case, it may make the extent of our genetic inheritance or lack thereof from extinct ancestors such as Neanderthals very difficult to determine. However, we can't expect to fully understand the various creation myths until we better understand our own genome and its relation to earlier hominoids. From analysis of the paternal Y-Chromosome, the common male ancestor of modern man is estimated to have lived about 50,000 years ago. This does not necessarily mean that this "Adam" was "created" 50,000 years ago. It may only mean that all competing lines died out. Based on studies of the maternal mitochondrial (mt) DNA, the common female ancestor was once thought to have lived at least 200,000 years ago. However, it has recently been discovered that the mutation rate of mtDNA is twenty times greater than that of the Y-Chromosome. This means that genetic "Eve" is not far older than genetic "Adam" after all, but could be of equal age or even considerably younger.4 It is not at this time possible to say whether there is a mismatch between the Y-Chromosome and mtDNA of modern humans. Nor does it seem possible to determine whether our common ancestors started with a clean genome, i.e., were created in the traditional sense. Therefore, exploration of the full inner workings of DNA emerges as the ultimate historical pursuit.

5 a. Meeks and Favard-Meeks, Daily Life of the Egyptian Gods, p 59, citing Goyon, Confirmation, p 62 (III, 13). b. S.N. Kramer, The Sumerians, p 159. c. King James Version d. Numerical values represent the index number in Strong's Concordance. e. James Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, p120. f. See next chapter for additional discussion of Kingu. g. Heb. avon (5771) from avah. h. Heb. gadol (1419) from gadal. i. Heb. nacah (5375). j. James Kugel, In Potiphars House, p 164. k. Robert Graves, The Greek Myths, (3.a, 6.a), pp 31, 37; World Mythology, Roy Mills, ed., p 129. Exegetes have long perplexed over the identity of the wife of Cain! l. Cf Genesis 1:2 m. Robert Graves, The Greek Myths, (1.c), p 27. n. Biblical Jehovah embodies Gaia. The phrase "sons of God" can reasonably be interpreted as "sons of Gaia." o. Stephen Quirke, The Cult of Ra: Sun-Worship in Ancient Egypt, p 31. p. Anthony Mercatante, Who's Who in Egyptian Mythology, p 76.

Note 1: The Biblical place name Etham (spelled variously as attem in Hebrew) is of Egyptian origin, and may be related to the Hebrew words uwth (225), meaning "to come," and athah (857), "arrived." The Hebrew word atten (865) means "heretofore, yesterday, times past." According to Strong's Concordance, the Hebrew atham (6272) means "prob. to glow, i.e., (fig.) be desolated: - be darkened." Compare atham ("glow") with adam ("ruddy"). Note 2: Laurence Gardner identifies the mark of Cain (Heb. K'ayin) as the insignias of divine kingship, the the rosi-crusis ("fiery red cross") enclosed by the ayin ("all seeing eye"). (Genesis of the Grail Kings, p 103-104.) Note 3: Laurence Gardiner notes that a variant of the rosi-crucis is that of the Venus symbol. The Venus symbol is a cross that is attached to a circle, and used today as the icon of the female gender. Gardiner further states that the cross was the female element of the Venus symbol, and the enclosed circle, or ouroboros, was

6 the male element. In the Venus symbol, the cross is below (subservient to) the circle. The Egyptian Cross, or Ankh symbol, was a Venus Symbol. The cross is suspended from a ring, which the king or queen clasped in their hand. However, when the cross is instead placed on top of the circle, the Venus symbol becomes "the Orb of sovereign regalia." (Genesis of the Grail Kings, p 104, citing Robert Graves and R. Patai, The Hebrew Myths - Genesis, p 106.) Note 4: In 1987, it was announced that the mtDNA of modern humans is about 200,000 years old. 10 years later, scientists announced that mtDNA mutates 20 or more times faster than the Y-Chromosome. This has led to a significant reduction in the estimated age of mtDNA. Creationists argue that the mtDNA of modern man may be only 6,000 years old. The age of modern man based on mutation of the YChromosome is estimated by scientists to be about 50,000 years old. Creationists also argue that this date needs to be lowered. Although it once appeared that mtDNA was far older than the DNA of the Y-Chromosome, the opposite may actually be the case. Alternatively, a new male and female may have indeed been introduced on Earth at the same time. If true, one or both may have also mated separately with indigenous hominoids to ensure long-term viability of the new race or species. Selected DNA articles on the web: www.mhrc.net/mitochondria.htm www.cs.unc.edu/~plaisted/ce/mitochondria.html www.creationscience.com/onlinebook/FAQ13.html http://dhushara.freehosting.net/book/upd/aug201/xychr.htm

Living in Truth:

Archaeology and the Patriarchs Chapter 2


"The Fair Daughters of Godly Men" (Patriarch Enoch)
by Charles N. Pope Copyright 1999-2002 by Charles Pope United States Library of Congress All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions

Tale of Two Sons and One City Upon the injury and exile of Anu (Cain), his two "sons" named Enlil and Enki became progenitors of the divine race. Although Enlil was more favored by Anu, it

7 was Enki who acted to save Atrahasis (Noah). For this reason, the Book of Genesis omits the kingly line that passed through Enlil. Enlil himself is not identified by name, only in deed. On the other hand, both the name and "genealogy" of Enki are preserved. Enki son of Anu is "righteous" Enoch son of "wicked" Cain. We are told in Genesis 5:24 (KJV), "Enoch walked with God: and he was not; for God took him." We are not explicitly told that any of the Patriarchs were themselves once considered to be gods, or sons of gods. However, the description of Enoch (Enki) comes the closest to revealing that former state. In the text of Genesis 4:17, there is ambiguity regarding whether it was Cain (Anu) or his son Enoch (Enki) who built the first city. The uncertainty was probably intentional. The author recalls that the city in question was named after the builder's son, but the city's name was either lost or deliberately withheld in the narrative. The divine Cain (Anu) was not known for building a city, or even for living among men. There is no record of his banishment, but in Mesopotamian lore he always seems to be away. It is generally assumed that he is preoccupied with affairs in "heaven," which is the meaning of the name Anu. Anu did not himself build a city, however a temple was built for him on "earth," and was called the EAnna ("House of Anu"). The city of Erech (Uruk) later grew up around this temple. Erech appears to be a variant of Enoch, and it was Enoch (Enki) who was recognized in Mesopotamian tradition as builder of the world's first city named Eridu(k). Eridu(k) and Erech are presently thought to be two different cities, but possibly this is mistaken and Erech is simply a short form of Eridu(k). The fuller form Er-i-du(k) can be translated as "City (of the) Mound," that is, city of the elevated temple. It can also be broken down as E-Ri-Du ("House-Ri-Mound"). Translated more freely this becomes, "House with the Shining Apex" or "House of Re's Mound." In Babylon, the son of Enki (Ptah) was called Marduk (Re), a name that also seems to be related to that of Eridu.1 Even more illuminating, the son of Enoch is called Irad in the Bible. The correspondence between these two names, Eridu and Irad, is even closer than that of Erech and Enoch. Irad means "Fugitive." Among the gods, it was not so much Anu (Cain), but his grandson Marduk/Re (Irad) who was known as the brandishing outlaw. The god Marduk-Re was not banished once, but twice.a Unfortunately, after all of this word study, it is no more clear than in the Biblical text whether Erech/Eridu was built by Anu and named after his son Enki, or if it was built by Enki and named for Marduk his son. A Single Mother and Two Families We can at least say that it was in the city of Eridu that the mortal Atrahasis (Biblical Noah) served his god Enki and interceded on behalf of a suffering mankind. Enki not only rescued Atrahasis and his family, but he had also earlier been the "father" and "creator" of his race. A tablet dating to the 1st Dynasty of Babylon and called "The Creation of Man by the Mother Goddess," reads:

8 "The goddess they called, ... the help (?) of the gods, the wise Mami: 'Thou art the mother-womb, the creatress of mankind; Create Man that he may bear the yoke ... Nintu opened her mouth and said to the great gods: 'With me alone it is impossible to do; with his help there will be Man. He shall be the one who fears all the gods' ... Enki opened his mouth and said to the great gods: ' ... Let them slay a god, and let the gods ... with his flesh and his blood Let Ninhursag mix clay. God and man ... united (?) in the clay ... "b Nintu/Ninti was the first goddess, and later became the "helpmeet" of the gods in creating mankind. The proper name of Ninti was Nin-hur-sag, which is translated as "Lady (of the) Mountaintop." This associates her with the cloud-kissed summits. Ninti was called Tefnut in Egypt. This name signifies "Moisture" and therefore the atmosphere. Another name or epithet of Tefnut in Egypt was Hat-hor, meaning "House (of the) Falcon." The falcon flies higher up into the heavens than any other bird. But, there is no more lofty a title than Mami. As a mother to both "gods" and "men," Nin-ti was more than deserving of this term of endearment. The primary consort of Tefnut was Shu, signifying "Dryness" or the air space itself. Shu was the Egyptian name of Enlil, "Lord of the Air." However, Tefnut also had children by Ptah, and as his consort she was instead called Neit,2 the "Warrior Goddess" and "Weaver of Forms."c The gods possessed the secrets of longevity. They were called "immortals," but it was not believed in ancient times that they actually lived forever. Tefnut/Hathor also aged, and was in her later years depicted as an ugly old cow. However, she would have maintained her beauty and fertility many times longer than normal women. In the Old Babylonian birthing incantation, "Creation of Man by the Mother Goddess," we learn that Ninhursag created man by "mixing god and man in the clay." Taken alone, this phrase could be interpreted as some kind of clinical merging of two different hominoid races or species. However, another ancient text indicates that it refers to a more mundane process. An earlier Sumerian epic provides a second perspective and helps us read between the lines of the Babylonian verses. It is called "Enki and Ninhursag: A Paradise Myth."d In that tale, Enki and Ninhursag have a daughter named Nin-mu. Nin-mu is not conceived by any artificial method, but by good old-fashioned lovemaking. However, what happens next is much more unusual. Enki goes on to sire a granddaughter named Nin-kurra through this daughter. After that, he produces a great-granddaughter Uttu through the granddaughter. Finally, Enki woos even his own greatgranddaughter. All along, he is encouraged and guided by his "two-faced" advisor Isimud. (Isimud is an obvious epithet of the great middleman and physician of the gods, Thoth/Nudimmud.) As in the Old Babylonian text, "Creation of Man by the Mother Goddess," it is the goddess Ninhursag who initially performs the "mixing" of god and man.e The daughter of Enki and Ninhursag is called "the fair." Likewise is the daughter of Enki

9 by his own daughter called "fair." However, the great-granddaughter is described over and over again as "the fair lady." Fair is of course the very same adjective used in the Bible to describe the "daughters of men." Enki tries to ensure that the genetic make-up of these human offspring will be primarily his own. After several generations of re-concentrating his genes, Ninhursag becomes angry and intervenes. She first poisons Enki and then cures him. After Enki is restored, Ninhursag persuades Enki to bless their many children. In Egyptian lore, the fair daughter of Tefnut/Hathor is called Nut. The prized children of Nut are given to one another in marriage just as the children of Ninhursag and Enki are in Mesopotamian legend. They are likewise given sovereignty over the Earth. The Babylonian text mentions fourteen human children, seven male and seven female. In the Sumerian account, eight other male and female children are born to Enki by Ninhursag, in addition to the three generations of fair daughters. Genesis 6:2,4 (KJV) tells us that the "sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose... There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown." In Egyptian Mythology, there is a dramatic change in the divine nature beginning with the grandchildren of Tefnut/Hathor through her "fair daughter" Nut. Nut struggled within her mother's womb, and later with her appointed spouse Geb. Parity was being reached between the sexes, and along with it came strife. The three sons (Horus, Seth and Osiris) of Nut and two daughters (Isis and Nephthys) were very attractive and intelligent, but also extremely aggressive. They were the great joy and bitter grief of the older gods. In some traditions, they are not all considered the natural children of Geb. These "Children of Nut" as they were called were a "breed apart." They were gifted, but also given to self-interest and violence. It was in this generation of deities that were found the tendencies toward "wickedness" condemned in the Book of Genesis. The Children of Nut were the first Biblical champions and the heroes of Mythology. The Hebrew word used in Genesis 6:4 is Nephilim (5303), meaning "giants, tyrants, bullies." The word nephilim is from the verb naphal (5307) and connotes one who fells but also falls, one who smites but is also smitten, one who judges but is also judged. They became great in strength and in power, but were brought to an ignominious end. In mythology, the female Nephilim, i.e., Isis and Nephthys, were equally competitive and combative. In Egyptian, the word nef means "beautiful, perfect."f These large and active children of legendary talent and beauty became the preferred offspring of the gods. We are told that they were "created" by the gods in order to remove their great burden of labor. But far from being mere servants of the elder gods, they were designated as heirs and successors in the task of kingship. In the Babylonian creation story quoted above, it was Enki who proposed using the blood of a disgraced god in order to designate the new race as "servants" of the gods. The sacrificed god was identified by Berossus as the condemned rebel

10 Kingu.g The name Kingu was also applied to the Moon, which orbits as if sentenced to perpetual servitude to the Earth. All of mankind was to be cursed with the mark of Kingu. This is the first example of children being punished for the "sins of the father," a custom later prohibited by law as unjust. The use of Kingu's blood may not have been purely symbolic. It could have served a "creative" function or to imprint a genetic "trait."3 Man is said to have been "conceived in sin."h From the Biblical perspective, Adam (the god Atum) was not to eat of the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil. This metaphor can now be understood as a prohibition against "genetic manipulation," not necessarily in a scientific sense, but possibly it concerned inter-breeding or inbreeding. The senior god Enlil was against the "creation of mankind," and did not change his mind afterwards. On the contrary, he determined to destroy them. The mixed offspring of the gods were endowed with the kingship that Kingu fought in vain for. They were later also condemned to die, especially by Enlil, for bloodshed and other indiscretions arising from their "evil imaginations." But one protg was found by Ea/Enki to be "righteous" in the hour of the Flood. The "creation of mankind by the mother goddess" is the basis for the second type of twisting in Genesis - that of "god" and "man." It involves two families, but revolves around a single mother Eve. Eve, that is Ninti/Nihursag (Tefnut), became the mother of the first generation of both "gods" and of "men." Ninti (Eve) bore "divine" Anu (Cain) through Atum. Later, she gave birth to the first "mortals," which were fathered by the god Enki/Ptah. In Egypt, Ptah as fertility god was called Minh. Thoth (Isimud) was later also associated with this deity. The fair daughters produced by Ptah (through the counsel of Thoth/Isimud) were not ordinary "daughters of men," but the fair "daughters of Minh." Both sets of children were bred by a "goddess" and created for kingship. As noted in the previous chapter, the Biblical phrase "sons of God" can be translated as the "sons of Gaia." It was these sons of Gaia who saw that the daughters of Minh were fair. The new race created from inbreeding was in many respects an improvement over the old, but not all were invited to share in the longevity of the gods. As Shrewd as a Serpent God Fertile and furtive Enki chose the primitive but symbolically rich emblem of the intertwined serpents. Over the millennia, the serpent increasingly came to be associated with evil. However, in most ancient times, the serpent was a metaphor for duality, being "simultaneously creative and destructive."i The purity of the serpent's straight and narrow form is an inherent contrast to its crooked path and the duplicity of its forked tongue. The double helix formed from two serpents is an ideal symbol for the duality of life itself.4 Sperm and ovum DNA is not in the form of a double helix, but contain only one strand. In the reproductive process, a single DNA strand from the mother and one from the father are combined to form a new life. Genesis 2:24 states, "a man... shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh. This is not crudely referring only to sexual intercourse, but also to the creation of one life from the genetic contributions of two.

11 In Egypt, the serpent icon stood for "a guardian spirit or a hostile force."j The lowly serpent strikes suddenly from the ground, or can ascend the loftiest tree and even "fly" among its branches in pursuit of a victim. In this regard, the serpent was a fearful deterrent to intruders. In addition to its other unique properties, male and female serpents have two sets of reproductive organs, which came to be associated with fertility. In Egypt, the serpent represented not only earthly but cosmic fertility. The sloughing and renewal of a serpent's skin symbolizes immortality and therefore, divinity. The progress of the serpent is comparable to the path of a seeker, and for that reason the serpent symbolizes wisdom. The serpent was characterized as wise and clever, but in a negative sense, also devious and beguiling. Genesis 3:1 states that "the snake was more shrewd than all..." Intriguingly, we find in the Garden of Eden that the serpent-god Enki is not performing his expected role of guarding the Tree of Knowledge, but is actually inducing Adam and Eve to learn first hand about everything in their world. The gods Enki and Enlil were dueling brothers. Enlil was a working god, attending to his throne. Enki was a playing god with creatures of his own. While Enlil was prohibiting, Enki was proliferating. While Enlil was concealing knowledge, Enki was searching out new things and revealing them, even to mortal men. Enlil represents authority. He considered it to be irresponsible and dangerous to create an intelligent new race of beings that could reproduce rapidly. Enlil especially did not approve of their initiation into the business and intimate company of the gods. The author of Genesis actually takes the side of Enlil in this matter. Mortal man and woman would not have hidden themselves from their benefactor, the "shrewd" Enki. However, they did have cause to fear the "prude" Enlil. It would have been Yahweh-Enki who prompted the man and woman to taste fruit that Yahweh-Enlil had forbidden. Fig-uratively speaking, it would also have been Yahweh-Enlil who asked, "Who told you that you are nude?" Shrewd and nude rhyme in English, but the Hebrew words used in Genesis are homonyms.k This was itself a clever way of telling the discerning listener that it was the serpent, i.e., slinky Enki, who had made the husband and wife as the Wise. The structure of Genesis is a triumph in abstract thought, but very strange to the linear modern mind. It is a vestige of the "wide understanding" once kindly imparted by the gods to only a few, but gradually lost after they were dearly departed. The author of Genesis did not wish to reveal everything that was held true about the gods. Many of their ways were by then considered backward, embarrassing and even downright devilish. Nevertheless, it was still possible and desirable to find and express the deeper significance of their tenure. The genius of twisting traditions together is that the author could selectively hide his secrets and his ignorance. Only simple truths and morals are to be grasped by the nave reader. However, for those whose eyes have been opened and have become as the gods, life is full of subtlety. For the initiate, a far more complex history and world of meaning can be discerned. As an example, Enki (Enoch) is both creature and creator, and represents the cosmic cycle of life. Enki is first described as "the most clever of all the creatures that God had made."l Through his ingenuity, Enki

12 himself then became a fashioner of men. Still later in the Genesis text, he is reintroduced as the builder of a city. Enki's city was a beachhead and home away from home for the "gods." In time, it became a place for "earthlings" too. The gods came first. Humans made in their image came next. It was either all a part of the plan, or the grand mix-up we call modern man. Even with our limited understanding of science, it seems possible for life to propagate throughout the expanses of the Universe. Although we have ourselves only been in Space for less than a century, we are already sending out probes beyond the Solar System. By what "higher intelligence" and for what purposes new life forms have been intermittently "created" on our planet are not questions that can be answered here. It shall suffice for now to say: The palm tree can reach a far away beach, There's got to then be, in the cosmic sea, Space traveling pods sent by hopeful gods, With prize-winning spores, for our distant shores. The Twisted History of the Torah The Biblical Book of Genesism is a book of origins, a book of creation, and a book of life. It is not a book of science, but does faithfully transmit the one quality that is shared by all living things. Today, we have at least a working understanding of how life is constructed. The three billion genes (genome) of a human being are formed by linked molecules of Deoxy-Ribonucleic-Acid (DNA) that tightly coil up in the shape of a double helix, or twisted ladder. In other words, the genetic contributions of two parents are bound together to imprint a unique "Book of Life" for every person, animal or plant. Similarly, the basic building block of the Book of Genesis is the twisted pair. Through the coupling of related themes, the author spun a history that loops progressively through time. The initial mapping of the human genome has taken less than 50 years since the discovery of the double helix of DNA by Crick and Watson. Yet, as we spiral headlong into the Genetic Age, it is not without a wrenching sense of deja vu. We are not the first "creatures" to deliberate in the deadly paradise of genetics. "The Tree of Life" and "Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil" were within the grasp of Biblical Adam and Eve. We are told that they abused the latter and lost access to the former. Through genetics, this generation now "hovers over the face of the deep." But before we re-create a world in chaos, first let there be enlightenment. By virtue of genetic science and technology, let us make the knowledge of our origins something very good. And through archaeology, let us breathe life back into the pages of old testaments. As it turns out, the basic structure of life is not only a modern revelation, but certainly amongst the oldest. The double helix or twisted pair was used as the fundamental literary structure of the Torah. Torah is customarily translated as "Teachings" or "Law." However, the ruling class of ancient royal society was

13 conversant in many languages. According to the early 1st Century AD Jewish master Philo of Alexandria, Moses studied the languages of all 70 nations of the known world.n The related roots "tor," "tort," "tur," "ter," etc. are found in many other tongues, including Greek and Latin. They are the basis of common English words such as tornado, torture, torment, torsion, turbine, storm, turban, tour, tower, turret and turn - all of which either denote or connote "twisting."5 Perle Epstein writes, "In eleventh-century Spain a philosopher named Ibn Gabirol labeled these secret oral teachings 'Kabbalah,' or tradition."o Epstein continues, "Trying to practice kabbalistic 'meditation' without understanding its foundation in the Torah (the Pentateuch) would be like trying to fly without wings." This title, Kabbalah, is highly symbolic, and connotes much more than mere "tradition" or "received doctrine." It is a priceless vestige of a truly ancient interpretive key associated with the Torah and its underlying structure. The Hebrew chaba (khawbaw') means "to hide." The Hebrew chabal (khaw-bal') means "to wind tightly (as a rope), i.e., to bind." Another Hebrew word, kebel, means "to twine or braid together." The Hebrew cabab means to "revolve, to turn (self about)."p The Torah does appear to be a history cobbled together somewhat clumsily from disparate traditions. However, there is an underlying method to the madness. The Torah is a hidden history. The title of Torah itself indicates hiding or encryption. It also embodies the nature of the encoding technique that was used, and is therefore a clue for its decoding. The "twisted history" of the Torah is extremely delicate and tightly interwoven, almost imperceptible to the unaided eye. However, under the microscope of archaeology the separate components become quite distinct once again. Twisting occurs on three main levels in the Torah. The first and highest level involves the nature of God himself. In Mesopotamian tradition, it was Ea (Yah) who is credited with the creation of Man. Ea is a Semitic name, and means "(Whose) House (is) Water." The Sumerian name of this god was Enki, "Lord (of the) Earth." This creator god was not only known by two major names in Mesopotamia (one Sumerian, Enki, and one Semitic, Ea), but he also had two distinct names in Egypt. In Lower Egypt, he was called Ptah. However, in Upper Egypt he was Khnum, regulator of the annual inundation of the Nile. Both names, Ptah and Khnum, signify "Molder" or "Fashioner." Ptah is depicted "creating life on a potter's wheel."q The god Khnum of Upper Egypt was specifically "The Potter God," and was sometimes depicted as shaping a man or a king on his potter's wheel.r This is a well-known Biblical metaphor used in association with Jehovah.s In the Bible, the Semitic/Akkadian name Ea takes the Hebrew forms of Ye/Yehow/Yow (English Je/Jeho/Jo), as in Je-hu ("Jehovah is He"), Jeho-shaphat ("Jehovah Judged") and Jo-ab ("Jehovah Fathered"). As a suffix, Ea becomes the Hebrew -yah/yahuw (English -iah), as in Biblical names Jerem-iah and Hezek-iah. But is it really that simple? It is simple, but not that simple. Although the name Yahweh patently derives from the god Ea (Yah), the Biblical deity became much more mighty (weh). Although a great creator, Enki/Ea was not the "Great Creator."

14 Biblical Jehovah is a supreme, universal and eternal being, to which is attributed all previous creative works on Earth. In this respect, Jehovah is a greatly aggrandized deity with respect to Ea. In addition to creating mankind, various Mesopotamian histories also venerate Ea as the god who acted to save the human Noah from the Flood. (Noah is variously named in Sumerian and Akkadian histories as Utna-pishtim, Ziusudra, Atrahasis and Adapa.) However, Ea was not the first or foremost among the ancient pantheon. His act of mercy toward Noah was actually one of civil disobedience with respect to a superior god. It was not Ea, but his more favored brother Enlil (Egyptian Shu), who determined that both gods and men had sinned and it was all going to come to an end. The words and actions of both of these venerated gods became twisted together as the One in the Biblical narrative.6 The Creation Story of Genesis is a highly condensed and stylized version of far older Sumerian and Babylonian accounts. For example, Genesis only briefly mentions the Elohim ("the Gods") in passing. We must learn about the individual members of the ancient pantheon from Mesopotamian sources, and by comparing them with the mythologies of Egypt, Canaan, Greece, India and even China and the Americas. In ancient Egypt, all eight of the major male gods of the ancient pantheon, including Ptah/Khnum and Shu, were once merged in the cult of Amen, "the Hidden God." A Leiden papyrus reads: The Eight gods were thy first form, until thou didst complete them, being One ..."7 The Greeks equated Amen (also spelled Amun and Amon) to their supreme god Zeus (Zeus-Ammon), who also embodied the full godhead. The genesis of the Biblical concept of the "One God" is to be found in this same theological creation of ancient man.t

a. See next Chapter for further discussion. b. Abridged quote from Alexander Heidel, The Babylonian Genesis, pp 67. See also J. Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts, pp 99-100. c. Rosemary Clark, The Sacred Tradition in Ancient Egypt, p 65. d. Translation in James Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, pp 37-41. e. James Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, p 99. f. The root nef was used to form both male and female names, e.g., Nefertiti and Neferhotep. g. Alexander Heidel, The Babylonian Genesis, p 118. Berossus was a historian in 3rd Century BC Mesopotamia. h. Psalm 51:5 i. John Anthony West, Serpent in the Sky, pp 58-60. j. Rosemary Clark, The Sacred Tradition in Ancient Egypt, p 76. k. Everett Fox, The Five Books of Moses, The Schocken Bible, Vol. I, p 16. l. Genesis 3:1

15 m. a The word genesis is defined as "the coming into being of anything; origin; creation." The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. n. Jonathan Kirsch, Moses: A Life, p 65. o. Kabbalah: The Way of the Jewish Mystic, p xvi-xvii. p. Hebrew word definitions from Strong's Exhaustive Concordance. q. Heike Owusu, Symbols of Egypt, p 85. r. Barbara Watterson, Gods of Ancient Egypt, p 190. s. Isaiah 41:25; Jeremiah 18:6; Romans 9:20-21. t. See Chapter 6 of this book for an in depth comparison of Amen and Jehovah.

Note 1: Ri/Re means "bright" or "shining." Cf English words ray, radiate, etc. There is a close resemblance between the names Marduk and Eridu(k). Marduk is translated by Sitchin as "son of the pure mound." This elicits the memory of the mound of creation, which arose from the watery chaos. A mound is also a tell, i.e., an elevated ancient city. Therefore, Marduk again connotes "City of the Son." In Latin, the root mar signifies the sea, as in the English word marine. The Via Maris ("Way of the Sea") was the major road along the Mediterranean coast leading into Egypt. Eridu was also a city originally founded on the edge of the water. Enki was called Ptah in Egypt, and his son was indeed called Re in that region. In Egyptian, the word mr (as in Mar-duk) stands for more than a mere mound, city, house or temple. It is the word for pyramid. Note 2: Neit and Tefnut have Hebrew derivations. Tef is the Hebrew tsaph/tseph meaning an extension or covering. Nut is related to Hebrew words netophaph (5199) "distillation" and natsah (5327) "expelled," as in water vapor/condensation. Natah (5186) denotes "stretched out" or "stretched forth," as the atmosphere is spread over the earth. The Hebrew word natash has a similar connotation to natah. The name of bellicose Neit can be derived from the same Hebrew words. Natash cited above denotes "smite, join (battle)." Natsah cited above connotes "desolate, be laid waste." Natah cited above connotes "overthrown, cause to yield." The matching connotations and denotations of these words link the two forms of Nut and Neit. In the case of Neit, also compare the Hebrew words nathaq (5420) "to tear up," and nathats (5422) "to tear down, destroy," and topheth (8611) "a smiting." Cf Hebrew word taphar (8609) "sew" and Tefnut/Neit, goddess of weaving. Cf The Canaanite goddess Anat, corresponding either to Neit, or to the Egyptian goddesses Nut or Nephthys. There seems to have been a tendency for goddesses to pass down titles and epithets to their daughters, even as gods did to their sons.

16 Note 3: Zecharia Sitchin concludes that the blood of the slain Kingu was used as a solution for fertilizing the mortal ovum with the sperm of Enki. Note 4: The twisted flax is one of four ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs corresponding to the modern letter "h", and the particular one found in the name Ptah. It is pronounced "with the throat more constricted than in English h, producing more of a hiss but not a rasp." (Stephane Rossini, Egyptian Hieroglyphics, p 9.) In the twisted flax hieroglyph, the flax thread is first folded such that the head and tail are brought together. The resulting loop is then twisted about itself. We now know that "when two strands of DNA wind around one another in the double helix they do so 'head to tail'..." (Susan Aldridge, The Thread of Life, p 37) Serpents are highly unusual in that they can do more than pleasure their partners in the '69' position. Both male and female snakes have two sets of sexual organs. This enables them to actually mate in a 'head to tail' fashion! The twisted flax ('h') appears to have been deliberately incorporated into words connoting life, but this is only a conjecture. For example, the twisted flax (h) combined with the quail hieroglyph (w) has the meaning (hw): "the genius of the creative utterance." (Stephane Rossini, Egyptian Hieroglyphics, p 30) Other words employing the twisted flax hieroglyph include mummy (sah), phallus (hnn), long life (wah), ointment (wrh), and grain (wahyt). The names of a number of gods include this hieroglyph. Examples would be Hapy, Ihi and Thoth (Dhwty). A pair of twisted flax hieroglyphs (hh or nhh) stood for eternity. Pictorially, the two twisted flax hieroglyphs were separated by a circle hieroglyph. (Stephane Rossini, Egyptian Hieroglyphics, p 16) However, the twisted flax hieroglyph possibly occurs too frequently to make these kinds of generalizations. To quote more from Susan Aldridge (p 55): "Organisms whose cells do not have a nucleus (or at least not one surrounded by a membrane like the eukaryotic nucleus) are called prokaryotes. Their DNA lies free in the cell, usually in a closed loop." The DNA of species with cell nuclei (eukaryotes) is looped in another way. "Even bacteria, with their streamlined genomes, have had to evolve efficient packing strategies to pack their DNA into their cellular suitcases. ... If it was left as a single loop it would never fit into the cell. In 1963 Jerome Vinograd discovered that looped DNA can exist in a 'supercoiled' form inside the cell, where the sides of the loop are further twisted around one another ... the two sides of the loop wind round another over and over again." (Aldridge, p 58) DNA is packed within cells as loops within loops. One of the most familiar of ancient symbols, the ouroborus, is the snake drawn in a closed loop, which appears to be swallowing its own tail. Real-life snakes do not swallow their tails. Real-life DNA appears to do so. In the Book of the Dead (Spell 175), the god Re promises the deceased, "You are destined (to live) for millions of millions of years. But I will destroy all that I have

17 created; this land will return to its state of Primeval Ocean, to the watery state, like its first state. I am that which will remain with Osiris, when I have changed myself back into a serpent that men cannot know, that the gods cannot see." (Translation by: Meeks and Favard-Meeks, Daily Life of the Egyptian Gods, p 18). It may be modern man's greatest conceit that he is the most intelligent and advanced species that has ever explored the Universe, or even walked the Earth. Yet, it isn't possible to "prove" that ancient man (or his gods) understood genetics, or had knowledge of biological structures that can only be seen today with electron microscopes. Has Zecharia Sitchin gone too far in suggesting that the ancients had scientific knowledge of DNA? Quite likely. However, mythology does indicate that "wide understanding" was once imparted by the double-serpent-god Ea to an adept named Adapa. (J.B. Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts, p 101). Would "Genetics 101" not have been part of the curriculum? Moreover, someone or something had to first impart that knowledge to the so-called gods. Note 5: tur (variants twer and ster) to turn, whirl (e.g., turbine, storm) turban, a scarf wound around the head turn (root ter-2 to rub, turn; with some derivatives referring to twisting) tower, a round structure tour, literally "to make a circuit" from Old French tour, turn, circuit, from Latin tornus (Cf Greek tornos) The diminuative or femine ending -et (which would be transliterated into Hebrew as "ah") implies a fine or tight twisting. turret, "a small ornamented tower. military. A low, heavily armored structure, usually rotating horizontally." (e.g., a tank turret) Etymologies from the New American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Note 6: In Divine Encounters, Zecharia Sitchin favorably compares the "pro-life" Mesopotamian god Ea (Sumerian Enki) with the Biblical Yahweh. Nevertheless, Sitchin ultimately rejects this association, because he finds in Yahweh attributes of other leading Mesopotamian gods, especially Anu (the Canaanite El, "father of the gods"), Enlil (a strict disciplinarian) and Ishkur (a god of storms and mountains). Sitchin notes that the Assyrian supreme god Asshur was not unique, but actually a composite of Enlil and his father Anu. However, Sitchin does not also consider that Biblical Yahweh was the result of theorizing by the ancient royal family - the same family who had earlier "created" the super-god Amun. Note 7:

18 From a Leiden papyrus translated by Alexandre Piankoff, Mythological Papyri, Bollingen Series XL, 3, Pantheon Books, New York, 1957, Vol I, Texts, p. 12. See commentary by Robert Temple in The Crytal Sun, p 365.

Living in Truth:

Archaeology and the Patriarchs Chapter 3


"In Love and War" (Patriarchs Irad, Mehujael, Mehushael and Lamech)
by Charles N. Pope Copyright 1999-2002 by Charles Pope United States Library of Congress All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions

Sacrifice and Conflict Despite their desirability, some of the selected women of the new mixed race had to be "sacrificed" in order to become one flesh with their divine masters. Genesis 3:16 (KJV)a reads: "Unto the woman he said, I will greatly multiply thy sorrow and thy conception." Complications and especially death in childbirth in the very first generation point not to sin, but implies that "Adam and Eve" were not created together and were not particularly well matched for reproduction. Robert Graves writes, "Her [Eve's] Sumerian name was Iahu ('exalted dove'), a title which later passed to Jehovah as the Creator. It was as a dove that Marduk symbolically sliced her in two at the Babylonian Spring Festival, when he inaugurated the new world order."b In Greek Mythology, another related and recurring theme is the cutting open of pregnant women. It was the final service for many a little woman of the mixed race to bear children to their monstrous masters. In Myth, the mother is on occasion slain, but her baby boy miraculously rescued, delivered as if by emergency CSection. The child is spirited away from an angry or jealous "god-father" who seems to no longer want them or their mothers around any more. Gods were longlived, and in no particular hurry to be outdone or undone by a gifted human son. They feared, justifiably so, that they would produce an heir who was more capable than themselves. However, the progenies of father-daughter unions were guarded with equal jealousy by the goddesses! It seems that the younger Ladies came to prefer dashing young demi-gods to their lumbering old Lords as companions and sexual partners. These so-called demi-gods were also just as often their brothers, which is again to be expected. For genetic purposes, father-daughter/mother-son coupling would soon be replaced with sister-brother bonds.

19 If "human" and "divine" blood was mixed from the start, then what separated a god from a demi-god or mortal? Possibly very little other than manifest greatness and access to the secrets of longevity. Prospective gods and goddesses appear to have been subjectively judged ("favored") based on an optimal mix of best qualities from both genetic lines. Membership of the Greek (and Mesopotamian) pantheon was limited to only 12 at any one time, and included a balance of gods and goddesses. If one god or goddess expired or relinquished their post, another could be initiated. However, transfer of power was not peaceful. Each new generation of the mixed race proved to be more vital than the previous one. This points again to a program of genetic reconstitution and the goal of achieving an ideal admixture. However, the process depended on "inferior" elder gods and goddesses yielding to "superior" but younger ones. Conflict was inevitable. Hated Love Child One such prodigy was Adonis ("the lord"), who was born to King Cinyras ("plaintive cry") by his beautiful daughter Smyrna ("myrrh").c When Cinyras learned that he was the father, he took his sword and split her in half. However, baby Adonis popped out and was claimed by Aphrodite. Aphrodite in turn placed Adonis in the care of her sister Persephone. When Adonis became a man he was coveted both by Persephone and Aphrodite. They could not resolve their dispute, so it was finally ruled that Adonis should spend half of the year with each. However, Aphrodite provoked Persephone by persuading Adonis to make her his exclusive partner. Aphrodite also alienated Apollo by blinding or killing his son Erymonthus, because Erymonthus had made unwanted sexual advances toward her.d Apollo and Persephone, having a mutual grudge against Aphrodite, appealed to Ares. In response, Ares took the form of a boar (Apollo) and gored Adonis to death. In other traditions, Apollo is explicitly named as the killer of Adonis.e In the Egyptian version of the story, the role of Apollo is played by the belligerent god Set, whose thoughtless aggression is on occasion compared to the wild pig. Moreover, when Seth (a.k.a. Set) murdered his rival Osiris, he was said to have had 72 accomplices. This implicitly identifies the god Re as having an indirect role in the act. In the Book of the Dead, Re has 72 names. For most of the pharaonic period, Re was worshipped as the supreme god in Egypt. Therefore, it is not surprising that his role in the death of Osiris would later be disguised. After the death of Osiris, Re mourned for seven years. Ciny-ras, meaning "plaintive cry," and A-res, "warrior," are both easily identified as Greek aliases of the Egyptian god Ra/Re. As with Adonis, Osiris is thought to have been the son of Re by his own daughter or granddaughter, and not the true son of Geb. The name of Erymonthus (son of Apollo) is an obvious transliteration of Iry-Monthu, "heir/eye of Montu/Set." Persephone ("bringer of destruction") is the Egyptian goddess Nephthys and the Canaanite Anat ("destroyer"). Aphrodite is the Egyptian goddess Isis, also known in Canaan as Asherah and in Mesopotamian as Inanna/Ishtar. In Egypt, the murdered Osiris was remembered as the god who had taught them to "train vines to grow on poles."f Osiris (along with Geb) is credited with inventing

20 wine and beer. Naturally Osiris was greatly celebrated for this. The Greek counterpart of Osiris in this regard was Dionysos, god of wine. Dionysos, son of the supreme god Zeus and Semele ("moon"), was "a horned child crowned with serpents."g This is a clear indicator of his privileged status within the line of serpent-kings. As an infant, Dionysos was mutilated and then boiled by order of Queen Hera. However, attacks on expectant mothers may represent something other than infanticide. If a "divine" baby was too large to be delivered vaginally, then there may have been no other choice but to sacrifice the mother in order to save the child. This would of course have been a very bloody ordeal and may have been construed later as a hate crime against mother and child. It would also have required sterilization and treatment of the newborn. The abuse Dionysos suffered was evidently not intended to kill him, but to save his life. He was resuscitated by his grandmother Rhea, who then placed him in the care of Persephone (as was Adonis). As a further precaution against rivals Persephone arranged for him to be cloistered among women and raised as a little girl. Upon reaching manhood his identity was "discovered" by the jealous Hera, after which he traveled abroad and led military campaigns. As he did, the art of wine making was spread from Egypt to India along with his fame.h Michael Astour wrote: "No Greek god had so many names and surnames as Dionysos, whom Sophoclesi called 'thou of the many names.' "j In addition to Adonis son of Cinyras mentioned above, he was also called Actaeon son of Aristaeos ("the Best"), Aqht son of Danel/Danaos ("the Judge"), and Pentheus ("Grief") son of Echion ("the Serpent Man"). Other common names of Dionysos were Bassareus, Bacchus, Iacchos, Zagreus, Orpheus, Orion, and Euphemos. Almost all of these names have meanings that allude to his divinity and tragic death.k Outside of Greece, Dionysos was known by many more names. We have already mentioned Osiris (Ser/Asar) in Egypt. In Babylon, he was known as Siris, the god of wine, and as the "dying-god" Dumuzi. In Phoenicia, he was called Eshmun and Attis. In the Old Testament, Dionysos is variously called Tammuz and Rimmon. The "dismemberment" and "reconstitution" of Dionysos occurred when he was an infant. As an adult, Dionysos did not die but ascended to Heaven to be at the right hand of the father Zeus. With the advent of Adonis-Dionysos and his generation, the distinction between gods and men becomes less clear. Egyptian Osiris and Mesopotamian Dumuzi were considered fully divine. However, in Greek legend, Adonis was a mere mortal. The characterization of Dionysos was much more lofty, but he was still considered only a demi-god. In Classical Greece, he was included among the pantheon of 12 Olympic gods, not by inheritance alone, but by virtue of his achievements. In the Book of Genesis, all of the gods are instead demoted to the status of Patriarchs, and were not especially venerated even as such. The goddesses were scarcely mentioned at all. Dionysos had the favor not of one goddess but two. This undoubtedly was a factor in his greatness, but also led to his demise. Dionysos was trapped in a classic love

21 triangle. He could not give himself equally to both sisters and aroused the jealous fury of the one he neglected. The "other woman" who had raised, educated and desired him turned against him in her personal struggle with her sister. The obsession of both sisters for the effeminate Dionysos deprived macho Apollo of respect and provoked him to wrath. His "male warrior" father, Ares, had evidently also favored Apollo over the dandy Dionysos. Ares and Apollo (Re and Seth) must have been made even more insecure by the military successes and increasing popularity of Dionysos (Osiris). Eternal Memory, Eternal Life In the Mesopotamian tradition, the dying-god Dumuzi (Osiris/Dionysos) is also the victim of a vicious love triangle formed with his two sisters Inanna (Isis/Aphrodite) and Ereshkigal (Nephthys/Persephone). The conflict escalates when the farmer god Enkimdu (Seth/Apollo) enters into a hot dispute with the shepherd god Dumuzi over the love of Inanna. As an obvious repetition of the Cain and Abel story, the shepherd Dumuzi is ultimately murdered. Despite the best efforts of Utu (Thoth/Ningishzidda), he cannot be revived.l The various accounts of this god's death (Egyptian, Mesopotamian, Greek, Syrian and Biblical) include diatribe, beating, mauling by animals, hanging, spearing, mutilation, dumping ("baptism") of his dead body in a watery grave, and the descent of his soul into the Underworld.1 Deuteronomy 21:22-23 (KJV) reads: "And if a man have committed a sin worthy of death, and he be to be put to death, and thou hang him on a tree: His body shall not remain all night upon the tree, but thou shalt in any wise bury him that day; (for he that is hanged is accursed of God;) that thy land be not defiled, which the Lord thy God giveth thee for an inheritance." Because of the stigma associated with the brutal execution and post-mortem defamation of Osiris, the event was later euphemized. In the Egyptian New Kingdom rendition of the story, the body of Osiris was first sealed within a cedar coffin. After being thrown into the Nile, the coffin containing the dead body of Osiris washed up on the shore, not at morbid Abydos in Egypt, but at Byblos of Phoenicia. A tamarisk seed sprouted under it and grew into a great tree. The coffin was lifted up and became encased in the trunk of the tree as it grew. An even more abstract version states that a pine tree grew where the blood of Osiris was shed, and thereby assimilated his essence or spirit. In these later tales, the dead body of Osiris was not directly exposed, but hidden in a wooden chest or within the trunk of a tree. The tree of Dionysos was also the straight-trunk pine. The symbol of Dionysos was the pole, with a clambering grape vine coiled around it rather than a serpent as in the common caduceus. It was also sometimes crowned with a pinecone. The trained vine again associates him with grape cultivation and wine making. A pomegranate tree was also said to have grown where the blood of the infant Dionysos was shed.m This is connected to the Syrian cult of Osiris called Rimmon or Rimmon-Parez, which means "pomegranate-breach," i.e., a splitting open or breaking forth out of a pomegranate. The belly of a pregnant woman is compared in this case to the pomegranate. This imagery relates to the violence of his birth

22 rather than to that of his death. Dionysos was born of the tree (his mother Smyrna, the "split myrrh"), and was in his death reborn of the tree (pine, cedar or acacia). The image of a dead god hanging upon a pole or tree is the ultimate contradiction. It represents the duality of life and death. The name of Dionysos itself provides further clues to his death and resurrection. The conventional definition of Dio-nysos is "Son (of) God" or "God of the Underworld/ Afterlife" from the Greek Nyseion, "Fairyland."n However, given the context, other connotations are appropriate: a. "Bound (and) Pierced," from Gk. deo, "to bind" and nusso (3572) "pierce."2 In John 19:34, there is the deliberate choice of the archaic Greek word nusso to describe the piercing of Christ on the cross. b. "Bound (to) Pole/Stake/Tree," i.e., hung from a pole or tree, from nysa "tree" or nes, "pole/stake."o The divine Biblical epithet, Jehovah-Nissi (Ex. 17:15), means "Jehovah is my Standard," i.e., the pole with a flag/emblem. One of the most potent and mysterious symbols of the Torah is that of the brazen serpent lifted upon a pole. In the Exodus account, the Israelites challenged the authority of Moses and were attacked by serpents. Num 21:6-9 (KJV) reads: "And the Lord sent fiery serpents among the people, and they bit the people; and much people of Israel died ... And the Lord said unto Moses, make thee a fiery serpent, and set it upon a pole: and it shall come to pass, that every one that is bitten, when he looketh upon it, shall live. And Moses made a serpent of brass, and put it upon a pole, and it came to pass, that if a serpent had bitten any man, when he beheld the serpent of brass, he lived." The symbol of the serpent on a pole represented the slain Osiris. It instantly evoked sentiments of compassion, forgiveness and consolation. In this sense, the pointless tragedy of his death had a purpose. He had not died in vain. Euphemistically, it had been the will of God, and his literal Father, to strike him down for some greater good. Those who mourned his death were comforted by the hope that he had been resurrected, and that faith in him brought mercy, healing and immortality. Moreover, evildoers would ultimately be judged and punished. Throughout all of pharaonic history, the resurrected Osiris played the part of Judge of the Dead. This and other aspects of Osiris were later assimilated into resurrected and ascended Jesus, the Christian Osiris.3 The crucified and resurrected Osiris was originally not a god of the living, but of the dead and dying. At the time of Osiris' death, mourners were comforted with his bodily preservation and symbolic resurrection. Veneration of Osiris was the essential element in the funeral cult of the pharaohs. If one's DNA is preserved, the essence of that person is also preserved and could be theoretically brought back to life on some future day. This practice of the pharaohs was extended to the noble

23 class in the Egyptian Middle Kingdom, and eventually even to commoners. Ultimately, embalmment was no longer considered necessary for identification with Osiris, but only faith. The condemned and terminally ill, even those who were poor or dispossessed, could be comforted with the hope of sharing in the immortality of Osiris. Those who were "snake-bit" in the Numbers passage quoted above did not live on in the literal sense, but only in a spiritual one. Likewise, in John 11:25 (KJV), Jesus, the New Testament Osiris, asserts: "I am the resurrection, and the life: he that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live." In the Book of Genesis, the pseudonym given to Osiris is itself a telltale epitaph. It very simply reads: Mehujael, meaning "Smitten of God." The murder of Osiris was tragic in and of itself. However, he had been taunted, tortured, killed and then desecrated with such extreme prejudice. This served to permanently transfix his memory. It also forever raised him up as the champion of all who were victims of misfortune, injustice and tyranny. However, the cult of Osiris was later tainted by its association with the drunken excesses of the Dionysos-Tammuz cult and the erotic rites of Aphrodite-Ashtaroth worship. In Ezekiel 8:14, women weeping for the slain Tammuz are called a detestable thing. Prior to Ezekiel's time, King Hezekiah, a contemporary of the prophet Isaiah, destroyed the "brasen serpent" that represented the crucified Osiris.4 The Patriarch Mehujael is not the first casualty in the Genesis narrative. However, he does represent the archetypal crucified messiah. The first martyr of Genesis is Abel, who was struck down by his "brother" Cain. The name Abel (1893) means "emptiness or vanity," from the verb habal (1891) "to be vain; spec. to lead astray." This pseudonym indicates that the author considered the divine Abel (Alal) to be unworthy of his station. In fact, there is no record outside of the Bible that Cain (Anu) had been punished. On the contrary his victory was celebrated. Dionysos/Osiris was certainly not without faults, however his brutal death was seen by most as entirely undeserved. In Egypt, "he was given the epithet Wennefer, 'the perpetually good being', in recognition of his beneficence."p One of the many epithets of Greek Dionysos was ortho, meaning "straight," i.e., correct, possessing integrity and being morally upright. The list of the seven Patriarchs who preceded Noah is not a pure genealogy, but a succession list among the gods. The senior gods did grow old and yield with reluctance and conflict to the younger ones. However, most if not all of the gods were still very much alive when Osiris was put to death. This made his killing all the more exceptional and poignant. It was unimaginable that a god should go the way of all the earth at such an early age, especially one endued with such ability and beauty. The rare crime drew an equally unusual reaction. It was deemed that the Chief Justice, even Re himself, was not at all beyond reproach. Re, who was the "father" of Seth, was held primarily if not solely accountable for the killing of Osiris. With the urging of the widowed Isis, Re was sentenced to death for having passed premature judgment on Osiris. Re was sealed away in solitary confinement within his own Great Pyramid. However, on the third day, his accusers relented. Re was

24 rescued and the death penalty was commuted to exile. This became the source of Re's Biblical pseudonym, Irad, the "fugitive." All gods were guilty, as guilty as Sin, Goddesses unclean, unclean as the men. When the sun had fallen twice from the path, So did blinding rays of self-righteous wrath. Re traveled restlessly around the earth. Nightly war alone ensured his rebirth. Osiris lived in freedom, peace and mirth. Never to suffer from excess or dearth. Guilty by Association There is no record that Seth was prosecuted or punished for his role. The lynch men were not held responsible. Seth and his companions could be excused for having carried out the order of a superior. In the short term, it was Seth who benefited the most from the disposal of Osiris. However, Seth was increasingly demonized in later tradition, because of his continued aggression. Disapproval of Seth is not surprising, but in the Pyramid Texts (Utterances 218 & 219) we unexpectedly find the incrimination of another vigilante: "See what Seth and Thoth have done, your two brothers who do not know how to mourn you. ... O Seth, this one here is your brother Osiris, who has been caused to be restored that he may live and punish you ... O Thoth, this one here is your brother Osiris, who has been caused to be restored that he may live and punish you."q Joseph Kaster writes, "[This is] one of the few references to Thoth as another brother of Osiris and an accomplice of Set." In most other texts Thoth is not a 'villain' but the scribe and attorney of the gods and the executor of their decrees."r The Biblical name of Thoth is Lamech, who is the seventh and final Patriarch before the Flood.5 Lamech also is implicated in the death of a noble youth. Genesis 4:23-24 (KJV) reads, "And Lamech said unto his wives, Adah and Zillah, Hear my voice; ye wives of Lamech, hearken unto my speech: for I have slain a man to my wounding, and a young man to my hurt. If Cain shall be avenged sevenfold, truly Lamech seventy and sevenfold. Based on the testimony of the Pyramid Texts, the young man or youth killed by Thoth (Lamech) was certainly Osiris (Mehujael). But, did Thoth kill in self-defense or out of slavish obedience? Was his act motivated by jealousy or retaliation? Thoth (Utu) was the twin brother and also a suitor of Isis (Inanna). (See Note 2) Like Re and Seth, he resented Osiris (Dumuzi), and was therefore willing to be a party to the crime. The Genesis text also indicates that the murder was not accidental but deliberate, which is in character for Thoth. The verse in question can

25 be translated in the future tense. That is, "I will kill a man ..." In Egyptian lore, Thoth tried to resuscitate Osiris, but the Pyramid Texts reveal that he had no regrets. In Genesis, Lamech identifies with the pain suffered by the victim. However he justifies himself and declares his relative innocence by comparing his killing to that of Abel by Cain.6 Another interpretation is that when compared with Abel, Osiris was eleven times as vain and unworthy! This possibly reflects a shared bias against Osiris (Tammuz) that is found in the Book of Ezekiel. As in the case against Abel, the shepherd god Mehujael was perceived by some as only leading the sheep astray. In this view, it was only proper that he was "killed by God." Released but not Reformed The exile of Re did not put an end to the strife. It only led to greater conflict and to a permanent rift in the divine family. Horus the Elder (Methushael) was able to gain the upper hand and wrest the sovereignty of Upper Egypt away from Seth. However, after re-establishing himself in Phoenicia, Seth then defeated and killed Horus the Elder. Henceforth, Horus the Elder became known as "Horus who is in Osiris." In the Bible he is called Hadad-Rimmon (Horus-Osiris). From Zechariah 12:10-11, we can deduce that the site of the final conflict between Seth and Horus the Elder had been at the Valley of Megiddo (Armegeddon). It was prophesized both in Zechariah and in other Old and New Testament books that this awesome battle would be repeated, but with Set (Satan) being defeated in the rematch. After the death of Horus the Elder, another Horus, known as Horus the Younger, was groomed to succeed the king of chaos, Seth. In the final act of the New Kingdom story, the perennial troublemaker Seth is bound and brought before the assembly of the gods for judgment. Like the defeated Satan of the Book of Revelation, he no longer appears strong and defiant, but meekly concedes the throne to Horus the Younger. His fate is not made explicit. It is thought that he was either banished or forced to commit suicide. However, his favor with Re was always remembered. Seth was given a place in the solar barque (boat), where he assisted Re in his nightly battles. In one tradition, he was said to have been adopted as the son of Re-Harakhty ("Re and Horus in the Two Horizons").s In Greek tradition, Apollo was also bound and required to serve one year of hard labor. He thereafter reformed his ways and actually preached moderation! In the Classical Age of Greece, Apollo was further revered as a sun god. Nevertheless, in Jewish and especially later Christian tradition, the notion that Set/Apollo could ever reform was flatly rejected. He was himself emphatically libeled as the perennial bully and accuser, Satan. He remained the "Prince of Darkness," and became all the more insidious for disguising himself "as an angel of light," i.e., a sun god.t The Book of Revelation is careful to explicitly tell us the Greek form of his name, that is, Apollyon, the "Destroyer."u The original Egyptian form of the name Seth was Sutekh, which also meant "Destroyer" or "Instigator of Confusion."v Succession without Aggression

26 Another Greek appellation of Apollo is that of Perseus son of Acrisius.w The name Perseus also means "Destroyer" and is synonymous with Apollo and Sutekh. Acrisius ("Ill-Judgment") is patently a pun on the name Re, the jostling judge of Egypt. Heracles (Horus the Younger) was specifically sired by the Supreme God Zeus to replace Perseus.x However, when the inauguration day of Horus the Younger finally came, changes were made. The prolonged and bitter conflict of both Osiris and Horus the Elder with Seth led to reforms in the rules of succession (co-regency) and a new balance of power. The authority of the destructive, younger gods would be curtailed. Horus the Younger was after much debate declared to be the rightful heir. He would be successor, however absolute power was not granted to him. According to the ancient king-lists, it is instead Thoth who heads the final dynasty of the gods. Egypt was ruled with Thoth as regent and elder advisor, Maat as divine queen, Horus as co-regent, and 30 demi-gods as ministers. (Maat is possibly Sheshat, consort of Thoth, and/or "queen mother" Isis). For better or worse, this basic model of government prevailed for the next 3500 years. In the murder of Osiris, Thoth had taken an active role in carrying out the will of the "father" Re. He was later able to wash his hands of the deed, or was officially "justified" as having acted under duress. After the final judgment of Set, Thoth was appointed the intermediary between the aging and retiring older gods and emerging mankind. On the positive side, Thoth was patient, meticulous, reliable, faithful, and obedient. He specialized in written records and formal oratory. He was fast to do for others, and fastidious in his own work. He formed close bonds with all of his contemporaries. He pursued peace through compromise. He was the ideal political animal. However, Thoth also tended to be deliberate, calculating, organized, strict, stoical, pedantic and pompous. As with the other gods, Thoth was later parodied with animal humor. The baboon provided a well-suited lampoon of his love for contemplation and ceremony. The ibis was his most familiar icon, and depicts Thoth as the original "pencil-neck geek." Thoth assumed the role of Atum as the self-created god. Ala Enlil, he was a god of clean hands, who hated evil and meted out severe punishment for disobedience. From Ptah he learned genetics, medicine, magic and mischief. Like Geb, he excelled in the knowledge of plant life and nutrition. Thoth became a master of astronomy and mathematics in the manner of Seth. He was the constant companion of Re and became known as his very heart and tongue. In other words, he spoke for Re and did much of his thinking! In his later years, Re was alternately indecisive and arbitrary and couldn't seem to function at all without the wise counsel of Thoth. In Egypt, Thoth was mainly associated with the moon and stars. However, in Syria and Mesopotamia, Thoth was known as the sun god Utu/Tutu and Shamash, respectively. The solar identity of Thoth would have been transferred to him by his patron, the sun god Marduk-Re. The Greek identity of Thoth is Hermes, "messenger of the gods." The staff or Caduceus of Hermes is the traditional symbol of the medical profession. It is distinguished from others by the symmetry of its two intertwined serpents and

27 matched pair of wings. The wings are usually thought to represent the wide and speedy travel of Hermes, or to signify his diplomatic immunity. The wings of a bird rest on the "shoulders" of the Hermes Caduceus. This signifies the favor of Thoth given to him by the senior gods. A falcon shown resting on the shoulder of a king designated him as "the Horus," the rightful heir to the throne. However, in the ancient world, wings and birds in general were just as commonly the symbols of the healing gods and of the afterlife. For example, a bird is shown hovering over the body of Osiris to signify the flight of his soul (ba) after death. Malachi 4:2 (KJV) reads: "But unto you that fear my name shall the Sun of righteousness arise with healing in his wings ..." The intertwined serpents of the Hermes Caduceus were inherited from the iconography of Enki/Ptah, and represented both life and healing in a genetic sense. Resurrection from the dead was the ultimate form of healing, which under certain circumstances Thoth was said to perform. Osiris was too badly damaged for Thoth to revive in a literal sense, however the mummification process was intended to preserve his essence, that is, his DNA, for "millions of years." One of the identities of Hermes/Thoth in Mesopotamia was as the fertility god Ningishzida. This name has been variously translated as "Lord of the Upright Pole" or "Lord of the Tree of Life"y, i.e., master of the genome. The emblem of Ningishzida was the same as that of Enki, the intertwined copulating serpents. Thoth excelled not only in medication, but also in mediation. Applied to Hermes/Thoth, the dual serpents represented the synthesis of diametrically opposed forces, and to the healing of relationships through arbitration. The bird of prey and the snake were natural enemies. The snake eats the eggs of the bird. The bird of prey eats the snake. Yet, even they seem to be reconciled in the emblem of Thoth/Hermes. The Seventh of Seven Gods In Greek legend, Hermes was celebrated for his musical ability and inventiveness. He is also credited with devising the musical scale.z The common musical scale is that of seven distinct notes that repeat in octaves. The reign of Thoth also represented the fulfillment of a grand cycle. Thoth was not the first note of a new cycle, but the seventh and final note of a completed scale. The number seven is the Biblical number of completion, and is emphasized in the narrative of Lamech. He is said to have lived 777 years. Thoth was the final Patriarch before the Flood, which signaled the end or completion of an Age. In the Book of Genesis, Thoth (Lamech) is the 7th Patriarch in the line of Adam. This was made possible by removal of the god Seth from the succession list. Lamech was to be avenged 77 times if killed in retaliation for helping Seth murder Osiris. The god Thoth changed the Egyptian calendar from ten-day weeks to seven-day weeks. In the Bible, the seventh day, i.e., the Sabbath, was considered holy and a day of solemn rest. Sheshat, the consort of Thoth wore an ornamental headdress notable for its unique seven-pedal flower or seven-spiked star. The number seven is integral to the pyramid with its square base and triangular faces. The Great Pyramid also embodies the number Pi, which is closely approximated with whole

28 numbers by the ratio of 22 divided by 7. Thoth was made the final custodian of the Great Pyramid. The Greek name Hermes means "cairn, or pillar"aa, i.e., a monument or heap of stones. As a fertility god, Thoth was called by the name of Min in Egypt. The Egyptian word men also means monument, as in the name Akhmenu, "most glorious of monuments."ab The symmetry, serenity and solemnity of Thoth's character are misleading. The world he ruled was becoming an increasingly hectic place. Genesis 6:5,11 (KJV) states, "The wickedness of man was great in the earth and every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. The earth also was corrupt before God, and the earth was filled with violence." Maintaining control was a Herculean labor, even for mighty Horus the Younger. However, Thoth (Hermes) and the other gods already realized that it didn't really much matter. The end of the Age was at hand. It was no time for piety or for sobriety. The plan of the day was "eat, drink and be merry ... for tomorrow we die." The god Enlil had opposed both the making and the educating of man. Yet, an even greater sin in his eyes had come next. The "cursed" creatures became one with their blessed begetters. Enlil was enraged at this "evil" and determined to put an end to it. The coming Flood provided the perfect opportunity. The other gods, especially Enki, did not share the sentiment or sentence proposed by Enlil. Nevertheless, as senior god, Enlil pulled rank and imposed his will. Although a difference of opinion among the gods was to blame, it was their children who ultimately bore the shame. We too are bloodthirsty like Cain and Seth. Completely unworthy both Ben and Beth. Our Judgment comes and Nun will thrive. Is an Ark ready? Will knowledge survive? Peace is to have purpose in every breath. Lasting contentment comes only with death. We are the happiest when we can strive, To make life better for being alive.

King James Version Robert Graves, The Greek Myths, (1.1), p 28. Definitions by Robert Graves, The Greek Myths. Robert Graves, The Greek Myths, (126 a,1), pp 475, 477. Ibid, (18.h) pp 69-70. Barbara Watterson, Gods of Ancient Egypt, p 56. Robert Graves, The Greek Myths, (27.a), p 103. Cf Smyrna and Semele. h. Ibid, pp 103-106. i. Antigone, line 1115.

a. b. c. d. e. f. g.

29 j. Michael Astour, Hellenosemitica, p190. k. Associations and definitions by Michael Astour, Hellenosemitica. l. Compare especially Psalm 22, Isaiah 53, and 1 Peter 3:19-22. m. Robert Graves, The Greek Myths, (18.6), p 72; (27.10), p 110. n. Michael Astour, Helenosemitica, p 191. o. Michael Astour, Helenosemitica, p 107. p. Barbara Watterson, Gods of Ancient Egypt, p 56. q. Translation by R.O. Faulkner, The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts, pp 46-47. r. The Wisdom of Ancient Egypt, p 81. s. Barbara Watterson, Gods of Ancient Egypt, p 83. t. 2 Corinthians 11:14 u. Revelation 9:11 v. Margaret Bunson, A Dictionary of Ancient Egypt, p 242. w. Robert Graves, The Greek Myths, (73, 118), pp 237, 446. x. Ibid, (118.d), p 448. y. Michael Astour, Hellenosemitica, pp 156, 161, 229, 301. z. Robert Graves, The Greek Myths, 14, pp 63-67. aa.Definition by R. Graves, The Greek Myths, p 764. bb.Nigel & Helen Strudwick, Thebes in Egypt, p 55.

Note 1: The murder can be reconstructed from the various sources, namely from the legends of "Dumuzi and Enkimdu: the Dispute between the Shepherd-God and the Farmer-God," "Inanna's Descent to the Nether World," and from "The Death of Dumuzi." The first two epics are published by Pritchard in Ancient Near Eastern Texts. The last text is pieced together by S.N. Kramer, et.al., and outlined in The Sumerians, pp 156-160. Michael Astour (Hellenosemitica, p 159) notes that Geshtinanna ("the heavenly vine") was the consort of Ningishzida. The goddesses Bau (Ba-ba) and Belit-Seri were also consorts of Ningishzida. These three names may represent unique goddesses, but are more likely different names of the same goddess, the Egyptian Isis-Sret. Texts relating to the death of Dumuzi are also commented upon by Zecharia Sitchin (The Wars of Gods and Men, pp 216-220). He cites another text (CT.15.2829) in which Dumuzi rapes his sister Gesht-inanna. Gesht-innana is generally assumed to be another unattested sister of Dumuzi, (as by Kramer, cited above, and Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts, p 637 footnote 2; and on p 639). In the city of Lagash, Geshtinanna was the consort of the god Ninurta (Geb). Perhaps Geshtinanna was an unknown sister or even an epithet of Ereshkigal (Nephyths/Persephone), and the attention showed her by Dumuzi provoked the jealously of Inanna. However, it seems more likely that G'esht-innana is an epithet

30 derived from the two common Mesopotamian names of Isis, those being Inanna and Ishtar/Eshdar. The exclusive relationship between Dumuzi (Osiris) and Inanna (Isis) was at the root of the conflict. In the Greek account, Adonis (Dionysos-Osiris) is not killed for raping Aphrodite (Isis), but for withholding his sexual favors from Persephone (Nephthys). Nephthys was not alone in her jealous fury. Many of the gods were also angry at Osiris for monopolizing the affections of Isis. Among these were not only Seth, but Geb (Ninurta) and Thoth. In Mesopotamian tradition, Geshtinanna was also the consort of Ningishzidda (Thoth). According to the Pyramid Texts, Thoth not only had a hand in the "resurrection" of Osiris, but also in his death! The rape of Geshtinanna by Dumuzi, or rather her exclusive relationship with Osiris, would have been equally an offence to Ningishzidda (Thoth). Unfortunately, Sitchin does not associate Mesopotamian Dumuzi (Canaanite Tammuz) with the Egyptian god Osiris. If Sitchin had recognized the equivalence of Osiris and Dumuzi, his thesis and chronology would have been greatly simplified. Note 2: Piercing is a crucial aspect of the Old Testament memory of the death of Osiris. Ps 22:16 (KJV) "For dogs have compassed me: the assembly of the wicked have enclosed me: they pierced my hands and my feet." "pierced" from Heb. ariy (738) ar-ee'; a lion:- (young) lion, + pierce from arah (717) to pluck A play on words alluding to Re/Ares, the god held responsible for the death of Osiris. Isaiah 27:1 (KJV) " punish leviathan the piercing serpent." "piercing" from Heb. bariach (1281) a fugitive, i.e. the serpent (as fleeing) and the constellation by that name:- crooked, noble, piercing from barach (1272) to bolt, i.e. fig. to flee suddenly:- chase (away); drive away, fain, flee (away), put to flight, make haste, reach, run away, shoot. A play on words alluding to Levi/Montu/Set, the god who performed the killing of Osiris. Isaiah 36:6; 2 Kings 18:21 (KJV) " it will go into his hand, and pierce it:" "pierce" from Heb. naqab (5344) to puncture, lit. (to perforate with more or less violence) or fig. (to specify, designate, libel):- blaspheme, curse, pierce, strike through cf naqam (5358) to grudge, i.e. avenge or punish naqam, "avenged," is the word used by Lamech in Gen. 4:24 Zechariah 12:10-11 (NIV) "They will look upon me whom they have pierced, and they will mourn for him as one mourns for an only child, and grieve bitterly for him as one grieves for a firstborn son. On that day the weeping in Jerusalem will be

31 great, like the weeping of Hadad Rimmon in the plain of Megiddo." The word translated by the New International Version as "pierced" is the Hebrew daqar (1856) to stab; by anal. to starve; fig. to revile:- pierce, strike through, wound. Cf deqaq (1855) corresp. to (1854) beat in pieces (small); to crumble or (trans.) crush:- break to pieces Rimmon (Osiris) and Hadad-Rimmon (Horus the Elder, "Horus who is in Osiris") were both slain by Seth. Horus the Elder and Seth staged their final battle at Megiddo (Armageddon). Note 3: In identification with the Osiris cult, there are strong agrarian themes in the Gospels. There is also a deliberate emphasis on wine. The critics of Jesus call him a "wine-bibber." Jesus changes the water into wine, and compared his shed blood to wine. Jesus receives the adoration of women, as did Osiris. However, the sexuality and marriage of Jesus is entirely repressed. This discouraged the association of Jesus with licentious forms of the Osiris cult. It was important to present Jesus as being without sin, a sacrifice without defect. "The good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep." - John 10:11 (NIV) Jesus raised L'azarus ("The Osiris") from the dead, symbolizing that the Osiris cult was itself being "resurrected." At this time, Jesus also predicts his own death and resurrection. Jesus weeps for Lazarus. His followers would in turn weep for him, but are comforted with his symbolic resurrection. Mourners at his empty tomb are told: "He is risen." Jesus is "anointed" for burial prior to his crucifixion, and again when taken down from the cross. This was in recognition of the embalmment of Osiris. However, these substances were intended to disinfect and heal the wounds of Jesus, and not to preserve his corpse. His death and resurrection would not have been literal. Christ forgives the criminal being crucified next to him. In the Osiris tradition, there was hope not only for the misfortunate of this world, but even for the damned. Note 4: 2 Kings 18:4 (KJV) states that a later king, Hezekiah, "brake into pieces the brasen serpent that Moses had made: for unto those days the children of Israel did burn incense to it: and he called it Nehushtan.

32 "brasen serpent" (5180) Nehushtan (Heb. Nechushtan), from nechosheth (5178) "something made of copper, i.e., the copper serpent of the desert." The name Nehushtan is a play on Hebrew words with "serpent," nachash (5175), and "consolation," nacham (5163/5164). Cf Sheth/Seth (8352) "substituted" as in Osiris the substitute for sinners. Cf Sheth (8351) "tumult", an alternate form (8352) and an epithet of the Egyptian Set, the "noisy boaster." Cf fiery serpents AND scorpions in Deut. 8:15; Cf Isaiah 14:29; 30:6; 2 Kings 18:4 Note 5: Strong considers the etymology of the Hebrew name Lemekh/Lamech to be uncertain. However, related Hebrew words are instructive: limmud (3929) instructed:- accustomed, disciple, learned, taught, used. from lamad (3925) to goad, i.e (by impl.) to teach (the rod being an Oriental incentive):- expert, skilful, teach (er,-ing). Among the gods, Thoth was the wise but strict teacher and preserver of knowledge. The root lum means "light." The Latin luna is the word for "moon." Thoth was especially associated with the moon in Egypt. Likewise, on Crete he was called Minos ("the moon's creature"). Definition that of Robert Graves. This connects to another form of Thoth in Egypt, the god Min, who was worshipped at Coptos and Akhmin. Outside of Egypt, Thoth was known as the sun god, and named variously as Utu/Tutu and Shamash. In the Book of Enoch, the name of Thoth/Lamech is Uriel, meaning "flame (or light) of God." Another Biblical pseudonym of Thoth is the wise Lemuel (Proverbs 31:1, 4) The full etymology of the related names Min and Menes is found in the notes of the next chapter. Thoth ruled Egypt with the help of his 30 "sons." The Bible only mentions 3 "sons" of Lamech. They are Jabal, Jubal, Tubal-cain. All three of these names are derived from the Hebrew yabal (2986) yaw-bal'; to flow; causat. to bring (espec. with pomp):- bring (forth) Noah is not mentioned as one of these sons, unless Jabal/Jubal/Tubal are pseudonyms of Noah. In the various myths of the ancient world Noah himself has many names, including Utnapishtim, Ziasudra, Adapa and Deucalion. Note 6:

33 Genesis 4:23-24 (KJV), "And Lamech said unto his wives, Adah and Zillah, Hear my voice; ye wives of Lamech, hearken unto my speech: for I have slain a man to my wounding, and a young man to my hurt. If Cain shall be avenged sevenfold, truly Lamech seventy and sevenfold. Thoth was inventor of the alphabet and writing ("from Adah to Zillah"). He was the messenger and spokesman of the gods. In the Bible, he addresses even his own wives in a formal speech! According to the Schocken Bible: "The names [Ada and Tzilla] suggest 'dawn' and 'dusk.' " [from Theodor H. Gastor] This etymology connects Thoth with the cycles of the sun and moon. His consort Sheshat ("goddess-zilla") assisted him in surveying and shadow measurements. Zecharia Sitchin writes (When Time Began, p 163), "Sesheta too was associated with the number seven. One of her epithets was 'Sesheta means seven' and her name was often written hieroglyphically by the sign for seven placed above a bow." Adah (5711) ornament from (5710) to advance, i.e. pass on or continue Zillah (6741) fem. of (6738) tsel, shade :- shadow hear (8085) shama, to hear intelligently (often with impl. of attention obedience, etc.; caus. to tell, etc.) voice (6963) qowl, to call aloud; a voice or sound:- proclamation wives (802) ishshah (cf Sheshat, pronounced similarly to ishshah) hearken (238) azan, to expand; but used only as a denom. from 241; to broaden out the ear (with the hand) Cf Azriel, the name of an angel. speech (565) imrah, commandment, speech, word. from (561) emer and (559) amar slain (2026) harag, smite with deadly intent (cf Har/Hor/Horus) Cf (2029) to be (or become) pregnant, conceive (helped Isis conceive Horus) man (376) iysh, every(one), (good-, great, mighty) man young man (3206) yeled, something born, i.e. a lad or offspring:- boy, child, fruit, son, young man (one). wounding (6482) petsa, a wound from the verb (6481) patsa "to split" cf (6483) pitstets to dissever; a priest:- Apses (apogee or perigee, the altar or east end of a church) (6475) patsah, to rend, i.e. open (espec. the mouth:- deliver, gape, open, rid, utter. hurt (2250) prop. bound with stripes, i.e. a weal (or black and blue mark itself) from chabar (2266) to join (lit. or fig.); spec. (by means of spells) to fascinate:charm (-er), have fellowship with, heap up, join (self, together), league. avenged (5358) naqam, to grudge, i.e. avenge or punish (cf Nabu) truly, Heb. emoth or amen

34
Living in Truth:

Archaeology and the Patriarchs Chapter 4


"Deadly Drought, Fatal Flood" (Noah to Nimrod)
by Charles N. Pope Copyright 1999-2002 by Charles Pope United States Library of Congress All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions

Sin of Commission Thoth was considered a spirit while he was yet living and active. He was also associated with the "spirits" of the dead. He had perfected the embalmment process, which was an attempt to preserve the DNA or spirits of the deceased. He was Executor of the last will and testament of the gods. He was Executioner of those whom the gods had sentenced to die. His final proclamation was to be one of silence. The rapidly multiplying offspring of the gods with the daughters of men were not to be warned of what was soon to befall them. Through this non-action, the association of Thoth with death was made complete. Chapter 175 of the ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead describes the "Children of Nut" as fractious and guilty of atrocities.1 The Creator asks Thoth what is to be done about it. Thoth urges the Creator to limit their days. The Creator determines to do just that - to destroy them altogether and return the Earth to its primordial flooded state. The gods were getting old and their patience exhausted. New members were not being admitted into the ranks of the immortals to replace them. Even the days of the Great Reckoner Thoth were numbered. The end of an Age was at hand. Genesis 6:3 (Schocken Bible) reads: "YHWH said: My rushing-spirit shall not remain in humankind for ages, for they too are flesh; let their days be then a hundred and twenty years!" The Hebrew word translated as "rushing-spirit" by the Schocken Bible is ruwach (7307): "wind; by resemblance breath, i.e. a sensible (or even violent exhalation; figuratively life, anger; by resemblance spirit, but only of a rational being (including its expression and functions."a The rushing-spirit of the gods was Thoth-Hermes. He traveled widely and quickly in order to carry out their commands. As the senior gods grew old and tired, Thoth became, figuratively speaking, the breath, and literally the voice of the gods. He expressed their wishes and displeasure; he was their heart and their mind. Thoth was also the mediator of disputes among the gods and among men. The Hebrew word translated above as "remain" by the Schocken Bible and "strive" by the King James Version is duwn (1777), defined as "to rule; by implication to judge

35 (as umpire); also to strive (as at law)."b There had been strife and bloodshed from the beginning, first among the gods and then between gods and men. Alal (Abel) was violently deposed by Anu (Cain). Anu was then wounded by a rival named Kingu, which forced him to yield to his son Enlil (brother of Enoch). Enlil-Shu was in turn defied by his brother Enki-Ptah (Enoch), and was disrespectfully ousted by his own designated heir Geb (Gabriel). Those olden gods, that is the Titans, were next pushed aside by their "human" offspring. The five "mixed" children of Geb by the goddess Nut vied for dominance. First Osiris (Mehujael) and then Horus (Mehushael) was killed by Seth. Re (Irad) was made a fugitive for his role in the death of Osiris. Seth was replaced by Horus the Younger only after decades of further conflict and arbitration on the part of Thoth (Lamech). The Torah echoes the sentiment found in the Book of the Dead. Thoth and the elder gods were weary of settling disputes between the "Children of Nut" and amongst emerging mankind. However, the wickedness of men, who were the offspring of the gods themselves, was only a partial explanation for the Flood. It was primarily a rationalization. The cataclysm could be predicted, but not prevented, not with prayer or by repentance. The power of the gods was in this case manifested by their ability to keep secret the knowledge of impending doom. Go West Old Man Even Ptah had to agree that the new race was behaving badly, but still argued that the solution was not to drown the baby in the bath water.c The Earth, i.e., Mesopotamia and the Mediterranean Basin was going to be repopulated eventually. Should it not be by the descendants of a man who had shown at least some redeeming qualities? As for the gods themselves, they were abandoning that world and going away. Where they went is somewhat of a mystery. Their own days being short, an extensive rebuilding program in the Old World was not a viable option. Instead, it seems they chose to spend the remainder of their "golden years" in the warmth of the Americas - a Netherworld that was evidently not destroyed by the waters of that particular flood. According to Egyptian beliefs, the gods entered the "beautiful West," which was connected to their world, but could only be reached with considerable difficulty and danger. It was the hope of the Egyptian to follow the gods to that place in death.d Although bound by oath, it was nonetheless the god of the living waters, Ea/Enki, who leaked news of the killing flood to Noah. In the Book of Enoch, God sends his messenger Uriel to advise Noah. Uriel, meaning "Flame of God," is a Hebrew epithet of Thoth and corresponds to his New Testament identity, the Holy Spirit.e The god who sent Uriel/Thoth to help Noah would have been Ea/Enki. Biblical Noah is given boat building specifications, and a final "heads up" only seven days prior to the Flood.f The interval of seven days further points to an intervention by Thoth. In the Mesopotamian account, Utnapishtim also receives a seven days notice. Enki sees to it that Utnapishtim is instructed in building a submersible ship, and also provides him with materials and labor for the effort. The townspeople are told that Enlil had become angry with Utnapishtim, and that he had to leave the

36 land of Enlil and go to the watery realm of his god Enki. With the wine of Utnapishtim flowing freely, his neighbors are more than happy to help him build the boat and make his exodus. Greek Mythology names the "drunken sailor," Deucalion (Noah), as the grandson of Iapetos [Ea-Ptah].2 The father of Deucalion is named as the king of Crete, Minos ("the moon's creature"), probably the local epithet of Thoth, a moon god in Egypt. In the Gilgamesh Epic, Utnapishtim is named as the son of Ubar-tutu, which is yet another regional identity of Thoth. Ubar-Tutu has been defined as "friend of Tutu." However, this title is better translated as "over-ruler Tutu," i.e., regent Thoth. Thoth was the final god-king of the pre-dynastic period and ruled with Horus as his junior co-regent, and with 30 other "sons" as his ministers. Thoth was likely not the literal son of Ptah. However, he became the vicar of Ptah, as well as all of the other senior gods, including the sun god Re. As such, he assumed many of their attributes and titles. Noah's Flood may have been confined to the Mediterranean and Middle East. The ancient Sumerians defined the "earth" as being the Fertile Crescent and the four regions or "corners" which framed it. This definition is also implicit in the Bible. However, the Biblical Flood may include elements of a much earlier flood or floods associated with the end of the last Ice Age. The extent of flooding at that time would have been considered worldwide, even by a modern definition. The arrival of the gods coincided with a time of widespread flooding, probably even more extensive than that of Noah's day. The Flood that marked the departure of the gods from the "world" was associated with the eruption of Thera (Santorini), a volcanic island in the Mediterranean Sea.3 Neither the Day Nor Hour The Thera eruption is estimated to have been up to 100 times more severe than that of Krakatoa in 1883 making it the second largest eruption of all history. Only the 1815 eruption of Tambora on the Indonesian island of Sumbawa was greater. The tidal waves caused by Thera's collapsing shell, and the fallout from spewing volcanic ash resulted in catastrophic loss of life around the Mediterranean, especially on the eastern rim. The great cultural centers on Thera (Santorini) and the nearby island of Crete were swept away. Traditional estimates for the date of the eruption have ranged between 1380 BC and 1500 BC. A modern study based on tree-ring analysis placed the eruption in 1628 BC. However, the way in which tree-ring dating was applied has been contested.g The chronology proposed here (See Charts 5a, 5b, 14, 15 & 16) can support the 1628 BC date, but is more compatible with the 1380 - 1500 BC time frame. The Thera eruption would surely have had a devastating impact on Mediterranean and Mesopotamia populations. The blast of Thera would in itself have affected weather all over the planet. Yet, it must now be suspected that Thera was not the main event, but only a side effect of a more massive cataclysm. A 2-mile diameter crater has only recently been discovered near the confluence of the Tigris and

37 Euphrates rivers. It was caused by a meteor hit, and may have only been one of many strikes from a meteor shower.4 The preliminary estimate is that it happened about 4,000 years ago. Of course, such an event could well have triggered earthquakes and volcanic eruptions the world over. Convulsive shifting of tectonic plates along the major fault line of the Middle East, that of the Jordan Rift Valley, is known to have occurred in ancient times. Was a "meteor shower" actually expected by the gods? If so, then it should now be possible for us to predict the same. It does not necessarily require space age technology, but could be deduced from "historical data" of the Earth, the Solar System and its natural cycles. In ancient times, the calendar was the Earth's cyclical precession relative to the night sky over a period of thousands of years. The return of "near earth objects" (NEO's), such as comets and meteors could be anticipated as a function of elapsed time measured on an astronomical scale. Zecharia Sitchin (in his "Earth Chronicles" series) presents evidence from mythology that trouble returns to Earth every 3,600 years due to the highly eccentric and retrograde orbit of a NEO called Nabiru. If the 1628 BC date of the Flood is correct, then history should have already repeated itself. 1628 BC is now 3,632 years into the past. However, if previous estimates of the Thera eruption date are more accurate, then we may still suffer the "End of the World," and of our "Age" sometime within the next 200 years. Calculating a more precise date for the meteor strike (triggering the Thera eruption) mentioned above is therefore more than of academic importance. We may not be able to determine the day and hour, but it may be possible to know the year of its coming. Considering its location in modern day Iraq, a closer inspection may require a dash of diplomacy. Yet, the insight to be gained more than justifies whatever measures must be taken. It is also necessary to revisit the tree-ring analysis, and correct any flaws in procedure or application to the dating of the Thera eruption. Every End a New Beginning As the celestial ark of the gods had earlier searched for a landing place amidst the high waters, so Noah looked for a mount to bring his mystery ship to rest.5 In the Legend of Adapa, the Flood Hero and survivor is called the "model human," as though he were another Adam/Atum.h In a sense of loneliness and innocence, he was. Genesis 8:1 (NIV) states that "God remembered Noah and sent a wind (ruwach) over the earth and the waters receded." In the Sumerian Deluge Epic, Flood hero Ziusudra [Noah] opened a window, and "Utu [Thoth] brought his rays into the giant boat."i After Noah arrived safely on dry land, he built an altar and offered up a burnt sacrifice. Genesis 8:21 continues: "the Lord smelled" (ruwach) the pleasing aroma and made a silent declaration "in his heart." The repeated and varied use of the Hebrew word ruwach emphasizes the perceived role of Thoth in the unfolding drama. Moreover, as mentioned above, Thoth was called the "heart" of the gods.6

38 The Biblical benediction of Jehovah made through his ruwach (Thoth) is consistent with Mesopotamian myth. In the Gilgamesh Epic, Enlil is at first furious that he had been disobeyed. After a lecture by Enki, he then relents and decides to make Utnapishtim and his wife as the gods.j Likewise, in the Legend of Adapa, Adapa challenges the gods by exercising a "lord-like" ability to command and curse, and thereby defies the Deluge. He was summoned before the great god Anu to give a report. After Adapa humbly apologizes for his anger, Anu poses the rhetorical question: "Why did Ea to a worthless human of the heaven and of the earth the plan disclose?"k Without waiting for the reply, he concedes that there is nothing more to do than offer Adapa immortality. However, as he had earlier tricked Enlil, Ea also tricked Adapa into refusing the "bread of life." The meek one Adapa was granted "mercy," but he did not attain "eternal life." Whether it was a real event or just another one of man's later "imaginations," the great orator Thoth makes a formal farewell speech in the Genesis text. The best the aging despot could do was to leave his charges with a threat and a promise. Thoth quoted nothing from the elaborate legal codes he wrote during the preceding Golden Age of Strife. Mortal men, left to their own devices, would do well if only to avoid slaking the blood of animals and spilling the blood of their fellows. It is a sad commentary that the gods considered it futile to expect any more from humans than this. Even animals are averse to killing members of their own social units. In the Book of Enoch, the birth of Noah was looked upon not as a sign of judgment and doom, but of imminent relief from oppressive living conditions. The Flood did come as a punishment to those who perished, but was a godsend for those who survived. With the Flood came a dramatic change in climate. The reappearance of abundant surface water and rainfall abruptly ended a long period of increasing drought. The ground once again could sustain life. The traumatized clan of Noah were comforted with the promise that the Earth would never again be destroyed by the waters of a flood, and to date it hasn't. Nevertheless, promises are only as good and lasting as those who make them. The Mediterranean has continued to be active geologically, and is presently the home of the Earth's most active volcano, Mt. Etna on Sicily. On this, the "Water Planet," two-thirds of the globe is covered by ocean. It is not a matter of if, but when, a major flood will occur. The possible list of causes is great, including eruptions, earthquakes, collapse of a continental shelf or glacier, and especially the rogue asteroid or regular meteor impact. This is the mixed blessing of abundant water. Covenant Without Kingship Gen. 9:1 (KJV) states, "And God blessed Noah and his sons, and said unto them, 'Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth.' " Earlier, in Genesis 1:28, God commanded Adam and Eve, "Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it." Strong's Concordance defines subdue (Heb. kabash, 3533) as "to tread down; hence negatively to disregard; positively to conquer, subjugate, violate:bring into bondage, force, keep under, subdue, bring into subjection." Adam and Eve were created not only to serve their Creator, but also to attain mastery over

39 the Earth and all life in it. The Bible implicitly confirms the right of their children to rule as god-kings. Likewise, after the Flood, a line of god-kings emerged from Noah. However, the Torah implicitly rejects the authority of that line of kings. As with Adam and Eve, Noah and those with him are told to "be fruitful and multiply." However, the command to "subdue" the Earth is conspicuously absent. There is only the prohibition of drinking the blood of animals and shedding the blood of men. The Torah is either denying that kingship was "lowered from heaven" after the Flood, or claiming that this kingship had been made null and void, because the terms of the "covenant" had been broken. The author of the Kings/Chronicles history expresses a strong anti-kingship sentiment. 1 Samuel 8:6-22 states, "This will be the manner of the king that shall reign over you: He will take your sons ... he will take your daughters ... your fields ... your vineyards ... the tenth of your seed ... your asses ... your sheep ... And you shall cry out ... but the Lord will not hear you." In Kings/Chronicles, the former kingship of the Patriarchs in Egypt is suppressed, however their sovereignty in Palestine is celebrated. The humbled scions of David and Solomon had drunk their fill of world domination. They had lived by the sword and died by it. Ultimately, they all became victims of the traditional royal "smiting scene." No longer were they the oppressors, but the oppressed. Pride in their glorious past was tempered by the decried hardship of their present new beginnings in post-Exile Israel. The Torah takes this anti-kingship sentiment to the next logical level. In that history the legitimacy of kingship itself is called into question, and the sovereignty of the Patriarchs is completely renounced. Many clues to the royalty of the Patriarchs are carefully interwoven into the text of the Torah, but their kingship is never made explicit, not in Egypt, Palestine or anywhere else. The Torah is the autopsy of a fallen line of autocrats. It is not a "history written by the winners," but by losers. There is a distinct "sour grapes" taste in the vintage Torah narratives. After the Patriarchal line lost its kingship, the institution itself was denounced. The Torah is also a tell-all expose. Discretely, yet fully, the shocking details of ancient royal family life are revealed. In the time of the gods, the excesses of Seth and his generation led to reforms in the kingship model. Thoth tried to assure an orderly succession through the institution of co-regency. Upon the death of a king, the co-regent would duly succeed him. At the same time, the new king would appoint a co-regent from among his own sons or "brothers." The co-regent was fully a king, but did not hold absolute power. If a co-regent died, a new co-regent would be appointed to replace him. Moreover, if the co-regent was found to be unworthy, his "birthright" could be revoked and given to another. In the reign of Thoth, the co-regent was Horus the Younger. He is not named in the succession list of the Patriarchs. His co-regency was either annulled by the gods, or by the Flood. Ea/Enki did not accept the decision of Enlil to rid the "world" of all men. He secretly crowned a new "co-regent," one in whom he found no sin. Noah was evidently more of a lover than a fighter. Enki must have hoped that this compassionate,

40 wine-bibbing seaman would replenish the earth with a happy, peace-loving race. After the Flood, Noah put away his sail and was ready to settle down. However, Noah's "youngest son" intended to subdue the earth even as the gods had done before him. To Ham, the complacency of Noah was the greater disgrace. Boarding the king ship, Noah made a slip. Warm-hearted tiller harbored a killer. Noah had new wine alone on his mind. Ham lusted for fruit of another kind. A Curse With a Cause is Retracted Ham repaid his praying father by preying on him. No sooner had big brother Thoth departed, we are told that Ham sodomized Noah and then boasted about it to Shem and Japheth. This heinous act of Ham toward his father indicates that he may not have been a true son of Noah. If he had been, then the seed of Noah would have already resided in Ham. The name Ham suggests that he was of the line or at least of the nature of the god Har (Horus/Heracles). In a primitive ritual, Ham determined to put his seed in Noah, and thereby usurp his station as "father." In the Legend of Adapa, the Flood hero (Noah) justly curses the south wind of the Deluge. Strangely, despite being violated again after the Flood in an equally degrading fashion, Biblical Noah does not curse his southerly son Ham directly, nor all of his descendants. In Genesis, we are told that Ham was the grandfather of Nimrod, the first great figure of the Post-Flood Age. Nimrod is further named as a son of Cush. This is a true statement, however it is only half the story. The author is deliberately trying to throw the untrained bloodhound off the "grail trail," and he succeeds like a red fox. The author wants very much to disassociate his Semitic ancestors from the great tyrants of the past, and also avoid becoming the quarry of Nimrod's in his present day. Ham is not specifically cursed. Equally surprising, Shem, the favored son of Noah, is himself not explicitly blessed. More precisely, it is the god of Shem that Noah blesses. The reader naturally assumes that the god of Shem is Jehovah, but that was not strictly the case. In the Legend of Etana,l we learn that the god of Shem was Shamash (a form of Thoth). We can also discern from that same epic something even more profound. Shem and his royal wife could not have children. Therefore, Nimrod was fathered by Cush on the behalf of Shem. By right and by choice, Shem became the legal and spiritual father of the first great king and tyrant Nimrod. For this reason, the Biblical author cleverly removes from Ham the curse and withholds from Shem a blessing. Through a covenant between Cush and Shem, the "mighty hunter" Nimrod was born. The legacy of both Ham and Shem became twisted together as one. Therefore, the curse with a cause had to be partially undone. However, Nimrod, as the founder of post-Flood kingship, could not be explicitly blessed. Kingship, in the

41 eyes of the Genesis author, was not a blessing. Oddly, only the capable Canaan is consigned to perpetual servitude. The curse had been uttered by Noah. It could not be fully denied, so it was placed on the head of the scapegoat Canaan. The author of Genesis refused to recall any curse on Ham or his son Cush. To have done so would have been tantamount to cursing Shem. (The "sons born to Shem" listed in Genesis 10:21-22 are identified in the following essay.) House of Eternity The Gilgamesh Epic informs us that after the Flood Utnapishtim was made to "reside far away, at the "mouth of the rivers."m In the "The Deluge" epic, Ziusudra was "caused to dwell" in the "land of the crossing" or the "land of rule" called Dilmun.n Although these descriptions are not very helpful, we can deduce that Noah lived out his days in Egypt, the place where the spirits of the dead were considered to live on indefinitely through a proper embalming and burial. Noah assumed the Egyptian name or title of Nutjeren or Ny-netjer, which is translated as "belonging to the gods" or "as the gods." The Greek root ny also means "god." Therefore, Ny-netjer would suggest "god (of) gods." Noah did not merely reside or dwell in Egypt. He established his family as the "great house"o of Egypt, the source of all future pharaohs, the god-kings of that land. It is perhaps the name and status of Noah in Egypt that led to the Mesopotamian legends of his deification and attainment of eternal life "as the gods." Noah was deified in Egypt, as were his leading sons with him. The name of Ham/Khem is also found among the early dynasts of Egypt. The Biblical name is a shortened form of Sekhemwy, who took the throne name of Bau-netjer, "power of the gods to punish and kill."p The favored son of Noah, Shem, can similarly be seen as an abbreviation of his Egyptian name Semerkhet, "thoughtful friend."q Shem took the throne name of Iri-netjer, "eye of the gods," i.e., favored/heir of the gods. However, as indicated in the Bible, the aggressive Ham usurped the place of both Shem and Noah. Upper Egypt fell to Ham's son Cush ("Ethiopia"), who assumed the names of Scorpion and Horus-Aha.7 Lower Egypt became the domain of Ham's son Mizraim ("Egypt"). He was known in that region as Netjer-ikhet ("divine of the body"),r Djoser ("serpent-king")8 and possibly Cobra, which is also one of the king names or epithets of early dynastic Egypt. The major cities of Mesopotamia were also claimed by these same two sons of Ham. In the Sumerian king-list, Aha (Cush) was called Agga and also Zukakip ("Scorpion"), as in Egypt. Djoser (Mizraim) corresponds to Labasher in the Sumerian king-list.s However, he was best remembered in Mesopotamian lore by the name of Gilgamesh, and his virtues are recounted in the lengthy Gilgamesh Epic. In that tale, the hero Gilgamesh (Misraim) is put forth as the paragon of irrepressible manhood, as his Egyptian name Netjerikhet suggests. Gilgamesh is cut out of the same mold as the earlier Horus action figures. Like Horus the Elder (Adad), Gilgamesh is both "fierce" and "beloved." Like the younger Horus (Greek Heracles), he enjoys the patronage and special favor of Utu-Shamash (ThothHermes). He also strives as Heracles did to win immortality with his mighty labors.

42 Gilgamesh is both athletic and articulate. He gets dirty and dresses dapper. He is honest to the point of irreverence. He is spontaneous and joyful. He is competitive, but not obsessed with winning. He cares more about living than ruling. In pursuit of immortality, a perilous journey is undertaken by Gilgamesh to find "The Faraway" Utnapishtim. Along the way, he is advised by the "scorpion-man,"t who is likely a memory of his brother Scorpion/Horus-Aha. However, the Epic of Gilgamesh doesn't completely hide the hero's flip side. He is adventurous, but recklessly destructive. He is virile, but also vain. He is a loyal friend, but often also a fiend. He spurns the love of a "goddess," but bursts in uninvited upon ordinary brides. He is capable of deep grief, but is specifically called "the killer." He and his sidekick Enkidu not only slay the "bull of heaven" and the "watchman of the forest," but also the "young lions [i.e., princes] in the mountain passes." It is this last excess that his elders and his brother Agga/Scorpion probably found inexcusable. In the Gilgamesh Epic, the god Shamash (Thoth) also does not condone the killings of Gilgamesh, but he is willing to accept a substitute. Enkidu, the ally and close companion of Gilgamesh, is made to die in his place. King of the Beasts What began as a friendly rivalry between Cush and Mizraim eventually turned ugly. It also provided an opportunity for Shem to salvage a measure of honor. The perspective of Shem in this family feud was preserved in the Legend of Etana. Etana (Shem) was declared to be the first king of Kish, and therefore of the "world," following the Flood. As the designated heir of Utnapishtim (Noah), he would have been paired with the preferred female - the fairest of all the fair daughters of men. Nonetheless, as Inanna-Ishtar before her, the wife of Etana could not conceive. (This is an indication of the extensive inbreeding that had already taken place by this time.) In the Legend of Etana, Etana prays daily to his god Shamash for relief, even as his father Utna-pishtim (Noah) had called out to Ea. The "curse" of Etana is not the lack of rain, but a son to carry on his reign. He desperately wants a shumu, which is translated as "name."u In order to get himself this name, he had to have a qualified successor. As the story goes, Shamash finally answers Etana's prayer, probably not directly, but as his "spirit guide."v The desire of Etana for a royal dynasty arouses suspicious. The renewal of divine kingship after the Flood is in contradiction to the edict of Thoth-Shamash given in the Bible. The sons of Noah were not to assume the power of life and death over their fellow man. Noah and his sons are granted authority over the beasts, but not to kill human beings. However, the prohibition against kingship is circumvented in the Legend of Etana through a subtle ploy. The childless Etana is not named as a ruler over men. Instead, he is called "king of the animals." Included among these so-called "animals" are rival princes. Etana is the only fully human character in the story. This serves both to distinguish him from other contenders and to make his divine pretensions more legitimate. Moreover, the plight of Etana (Shem) was so personal and the might of Agga (Cush) so mitigated that their shared predicament was better told as a fable rather than as literal narration.

43 In the opening stanza of the Etana Epic we are presented with an image of befuddled Flood survivors. They had not yet collected themselves well enough to establish a king to rule over them. In fact, the "Seven" (Thoth-Shamash, specifically) and the "Anunnaki-Igigi" (the Assembly of the Gods, in general) are seen as actively opposing the return of civilization and kingship. They have even blocked the gates of the cities such that men cannot re-enter them. This probably alludes to drifts of silt from the Flood. Instead, the Great Gods seek only to confirm the "bounds of Shamash." In the Etana Epic, these bounds clearly correspond to the Biblical restrictions given to the clan of Noah against murder and consuming the blood of animals. However, the "goddess Ishtar," i.e., the wife of Etana, is not at all dismayed by the mud and insists upon the renewal of city and court life. Here, as in the Biblical Creation Story, the woman is revealed as the "civilizing influence." In Genesis 3:12 (KJV), Adam says to his God, "the woman whom thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat." The "strong-man" Etana might also have eased his own guilty conscience regarding his kingly ambitions by weakly muttering, "mistress Ishtar made me do it." In a veiled pursuit of sovereignty, Etana allegorically seeks the help of a condemned "eagle." This eagle had been cast into a pit for slaying the brood of a "serpent." We are told that the eagle and the serpent were once denizens of the same "tree," i.e., shared the same royal lineage. In the Legend of Etana, the eagle logically corresponds to Cush, known in Upper Egypt as Horus-Aha, the "fighting falcon." The serpent represents his sibling and natural rival Mizraim, the "serpent king" of Lower Egypt. In their younger days, the eagle and the serpent form a pact and even help to raise each other's children. But the vain lust of the eagle for glory eventually drives him to murder the children of his brother and ally. In search of justice, the serpent sets a trap for the eagle. He then seizes his former friend and confronts him with his treachery. The eagle cannot bring back the children of the serpent whom he had slain, but he does offer him a bridew with which to start anew. In such a small royal family, there was no more powerful inducement to forgive. Nevertheless, the serpent has nothing but venom for the eagle. Yet, being fearful of Shamash and bloodguilt, he does not kill him. Instead, he throws the ruffed up eagle into a pit and consigns his certain death to the "executioner" Shamash (Thoth). In desperation, the eagle prays to Shamash, and swears to make him his own personal god in exchange for a pardon. He suggests that Shamash is not aware of all the circumstances that led to his sentencing. Nonetheless, the eagle had done what was expressly forbidden. The text implies that the eagle not only killed the young of the serpent, but also "devoured" them. In other words, this creature was not only a killer of men, but possibly also a cannibal. Shamash remains grieved over his evil, and will not help him directly. However, Shamash does offer the eagle an indirect form of redemption and the possibility for parole. Shamash sends the faithful Etana to obtain from the eagle the "plant of birth." The "plant of birth" is a metaphor for human sperm. In Egypt, there was a type of lettuce with milky excretions resembling semen. These lettuces were part of the regular offerings made to the deity Min, a form of Thoth-Shamash as fertility god. In the

44 "Contendings of Horus and Seth," the semen of Horus was secretly placed on such a lettuce and eaten unwittingly by Seth for breakfast. According to this tale, Horus thereby proved his dominance over Seth and secured the kingship of Egypt.x Strange Bedfellows Returning to the Legend of Etana, the hero Etana arrives at the pit and offers some food to the languishing eagle. But, before pulling him out, there is a business matter to discuss. Etana minces no words and demands of the eagle, "produce for me a name!" The doomed eagle is naturally overjoyed to comply. Not only does the jailbird offer to give Etana "a human offspring," but promises to forever "sing his praises." In the Bible, barrenness is not only caused but also cured by the gods.y This belief is also reflected in the Legend of Etana. After the eagle is raised from the pit, he proceeds to take Etana to the heavenly abode of Anu. Ostensibly, they are going there to obtain the "plant of birth" with which Etana's wife can become pregnant. However, we are told that Etana had daily made offerings to his own god for this same purpose. Moreover, the eagle already has the live-giving ingredient in his possession. The "plant of birth" is the semen of the eagle. The trip to heaven is only a symbolic gesture to solicit the gods. The literal interpretation of this passage is that of sexual intercourse. Another clue to the actual history is that Etana (Shem) and the eagle (Cush) do not rise alone. They must be accompanied by the "mistress Ishtar," that is the wife of Etana, who is elevated to the status of a goddess.z Etana has a "fear of flying," at least in the cockpit proposed by the eagle, and he refuses to ascend all the way to heaven. Ishtar had already embraced his desire and his seed to no avail. It would not increase the chances for conception now. It may also have been customary for Etana to establish his dominance by first putting his seed into the eagle, by whatever means. But for Etana (Shem), this wasn't necessary or desirable and his contract didn't stipulate such an act. He chose not to do unto the eagle (Cush) as the eagle's father (Ham) had done unto his father Noah. It was necessary to take Ishtar with them on their flight into the lofty domain of pleasure. Only "alongside" Ishtar could they ascend. In this way, Etana got his heir and his name. In Hebrew, Shem literally means "name," that is, renown. He was acknowledged by posterity, even "unto distant times," as the father and founder of the post-Deluge dynasty. Mesopotamia was henceforth called "Sumer," and the double crown of united Egypt was called the "Semerty."aa The title sematawy signified "unification of the two lands." The four-month harvest ("dry") season in Egypt was called the shemu or shomu. In the second month of Shemu, the Valley Festival was celebrated during which kingship was reaffirmed.ab It was said that Mizraim (a.k.a. Meshkiaggasher)ac "ascended to the mountains." Cush like Mizraim sought conquest in faraway places, but his most famous exploit was upon Mons Venus. With Ishtar, he achieved even greater heights of fame than did Etana. Cush, the "eagle" was granted amnesty by substituting his seed for Etana's. The life of Mizraim, the "serpent," was earlier spared, because another was made to die

45 (substituted) on his behalf. It seems that each brother had at least one opportunity to kill the other. However, according to the Epic of Gilgamesh and Agga, the two may have reconciled in the end. In that story, Agga besieges Erech and it is Gilgamesh who becomes trapped like a bird in a cage. With little other recourse, Gilgamesh offers kind words and his submission to Agga. Swearing "before Utu," i.e., Thoth-Shamash, Agga extends mercy to Gilgamesh. The tale concludes with Agga saying to Gilgamesh: "Your praise is good."ad Nevertheless, the next ruler of Erech would not be the true son of Gilgamesh, but that of Agga by the wife of Etana. Checkered Champions What is the lasting legacy of a great person? Is it the bequeathing of genes or adoption of values by future generations? To the ancient kings passed the active traits of Ham, but well remembered were the passive ideals of Shem. Kings were eager to portray themselves as loving shepherds, called from the flocks to lead and care for the people. They wanted to be thought of as meek, tent dwelling men of great learning and meditation. Such rhetoric was also used as royal propaganda to cover their multitude of sins. In times of peace and in tumult, the most daring and deceitful became kings and queens. Losers in this death struggle mourned as a bereaved goose, winners cried tears of the sated crocodile. The way of Noah and Shem So often was forsaken For the road that was taken In great waste by Cush and Khem. The Bible calls the son of Cush by the name of Nimrod. In Genesis 10:8-9, he is three times called "mighty," which is very high praise for a grandson of Ham. Nimrod was known by the Sumerian name of En-me-kar or Enmerker.ae However, the Sumerian king-list also names him as Balih(k), the legal heir and successor of Etana. Etana and Balih are not Sumerian names,af but Semitic. The Semitic name Balih(k) conveys "tribute," but also "terror and destruction." The Hebrew word belal denotes "anointing, mingling, and the mixing of self."9 In Nimrod, the royal lines of Ham and Shem were co-mingled. Nimrod was the legal heir of Shem and the natural son of Cush. The Semitic royal line and the Hamitic royal line became one and the same. Future kings were as likely to consider themselves shepherds like Shem as they were hunters like Ham. Strong's Concordance does not attempt to translate the name Nimrod. Although it does not have a direct Hebrew meaning, it is not difficult to translate. In fact, the Bible translates it for us as "mighty hunter."10 The Book of Genesis implies that Thoth had blessed only those aboard the ark on behalf of Ptah and the gods. The rest of the "world" had not been granted a stay of execution. Yet, even in the world of the Middle East, the Flood did not kill every living thing, and not every human being. Nimrod took it upon himself to complete the work of Thoth by exterminating all those who had dared to survive apart from divine intervention. In Egypt, Biblical Nimrod was not known by a Sumerian name

46 Enmerkar, or a Semitic name Balih, but by the "Egyptianized" name of Narmer or Na'rmer (with an "ayin" between the a and r). On the famous Narmer Palette, the victims of this great conqueror are dispatched in a number of ways, including ritual drowning. Strong's Concordance lists a variant of Nimrod as Namer. Unlike Nimrod, Namer does have a Hebrew meaning, which Strong's Concordance defines as "to spot or stain as if by dripping; a leopard (from its stripes)." The almost identical Narmer is translated by Egyptologists as "striking catfish." This may have been the intended meaning in Egyptian. However, the name of Narmer is best assailed as an adaptation or transliteration of the Semitic word namer, "leopard." After all, Nimrod was at least partly raised in the House of Shem. Certainly Nimrod/Narmer did cut down (Heb. namal) countless victims like a leopard, and their blood dripped and stained (Heb. namer) where it fell. In the form of Na'rmer the root rm, meaning "seize," leaps out. Also, compare the Hebrew word remah (7412) "overthrow" and the Hebrew na'ar (5287) "rustling of the mane (as of a lion when growling), overthrow." Na'ar is also used in Ex.14:27 and Ps. 136:15 to describe the drowning ("overthrow") of pharaoh and his army during the Exodus. Cruel Beauty The "Narmer Palette" is one of the very first examples of fine art in Egypt. Its practical purpose was to mix and hold the mascara of the Queen Mother, that of "mistress Ishtar" herself. Incongruently, the beautiful green stone is covered with macabre scenes of human execution. On this palette, the Lady of Etana is no longer compared to the bereft and barren Isis, but to a bloodthirsty Hathor. In Egyptian myth, Hathor once decided to destroy mankind. The gods intervened by getting her drunk on beer, which had been dyed red to look like blood. The wife of Shem and mother of Nimrod was determined to be the Hathor of the New Age - the mother of all living, the mother of both gods and men. The post-Flood nest was to be re-filled with her children. All others were to be mercilessly slaughtered. This is how the gods had ordained it, and there would be no deterring "Hathor" this time. It had not only been the ambition of Etana, but that of "Ishtar" his wife, to have a son. Etana called for Shamash to make his wife fertile. His wife looked to Gilgamesh. In the Gilgamesh Epic, Ishtar is not able to seduce the wily serpent Gilgamesh. He only derides her vain ambition. Ironically, Gilgamesh did help her by "clipping the wings" of his brother Agga. In the Legend of Etana, he proudly soars again in the aviary with Ishtar. When the most aggressive male of the family was tethered to the dominant female, he eagerly clutched his kismet. Agga and the wife of Etana were both birds of prey. The chick they hatched scratched out both men and beasts. Enmerkar-Bilah (Nimrod) conquered and he killed. He proved that the earth, as it was then defined, could be united under a single king. He set the standard for all fledgling princes to follow. In the Torah, the knowledge that Nimrod had been a king of any kind is suppressed. The best the author is willing to say is that Nimrod was a "mighty

47 hunter." The Hebrew word for mighty is gibbowr, which is an obvious allusion to "Geb, the heir."ag The text implies that Nimrod was the rightful successor of both Cush and of Shem, but that he had assumed a wrongful office. The gods had blessed the hunting of animals, but not the killing of men. Gibbowr is also a synonym of Nephilim ("giants") and is translated as "giant" in Numbers 13:33 and Job 16:14. This appellation connects Nimrod to the "mighty (gibbowr) men of old" spoken of in Genesis 6:4. These were the god-kings and tyrants from before the Flood, which we are told also endured afterward. Nimrod is likened to his predatory forbears, not only in greatness but also in greediness. The Nephilim were a mixed race, and Nimrod was of mixed lineage. Hebrew words related to gibbowr ("mighty") are gebuwlah and gabal, which denote "territory" and "twisting." The Hebrew word for "hunter" is derived from tsuwd, "to lie alongside." The two fathers of Nimrod lay alongside Ishtar. This "twisting together" of Cush with Shem and his "barren" wife resulted in the birth of Nimrod and the founding of the Egyptian Old Kingdom. Because of continued infertility due to incest, this form of cooperation became an integral part of the reproductive model for future generations of royalty. The Egyptian New Kingdom was established through an identical covenant between two rival princes (see Chapters 9-12). Nimrod was the great father of the Semitic peoples and their kings. He could not be cursed, nor could Cush or Ham. Nimrod had cleared the way for the earth to be replenished by the descendants of Noah. In this sense, he fulfilled the "divine mandate" of Shamash/Thoth. However, by assuming the titles of king and pharaoh, he also prepared the way for those same descendants to be brutally oppressed. Possibly, the mandate itself was misguided or had been misconstrued. Ea-Enki had found in Noah the qualities of a concerned neighbor. But, filling the earth with passive people was going to require considerable aggression. Wailing Wall The Genesis author applies a double standard to Narmer/Nimrod. Despite the fact that he was a relentless hunter of men, he was also renowned for establishing the cult of Ptah as supreme in Egypt. Ptah would later become the leading god of the Biblical Godhead, so it is not surprising that the reputation of Nimrod would be salvaged in the Bible. It was Ea/Enki who proved to be the only member of the Elohim that could be fully trusted to protect man. Ea/Enki was the one god who had helped Utnapishtim (Noah) and his clan survive the Flood. It is only to be expected that this god would from that moment be elevated above all others. He was not only their personal savior, but also their patient teacher and proud father. In this early dynastic period, Ptah was hailed as the "First Among the Gods," "Lord of Truth" and the "Only True God." Together, Narmer and his father Horus-Aha (Menes)11 established a new capital city dedicated to Ptah. The city was called, Inb Hdj, "White Wall." Ptah himself was given the epithet, "He-who-is-south-of-his-wall."ah (Inb Hdj was later called Memphis by the Greeks.) Prior to the Flood, Ptah would have often been found on

48 the sunny side of his temple enclosure making solar measurements. In Memphis, the sun remains in the southern sky year round. However, after the Flood, the above epithet of Ptah takes on a new meaning. From that time forward, Ptah, like the sun, would remain behind the temple enclosure. Consequently, Robert Temple suggests that Ptah was thought of as having been joined with the sun.12 At what juncture after the Deluge did the gods cease to be real and enter into the realm of faith and delusion? Perhaps, they would have tried to find out whether Noah and those with him had indeed survived. Certainly after that, they went missing. It seems that the orphaned family of Noah never did receive a full closure on the matter. There persisted a gnawing paranoia that the gods were not truly dead, but continued to watch over them from a distance. Even in their state of repose, they could still bless and punish. To the Hebrew speaker, the name Inb Hdj, "White Wall," would have sounded like "anab chedai." Anab means "where (is) father?" Chedai provides the answer. It means "at rest."13 By the time of Nimrod/Narmer, the gods, and especially their patron deity Ptah, were presumed to either be dead or gone for good. It was time for a memorial. The White Wall was a wall of remembrance. It was the original "Wailing Wall." The departure of the gods was a mixed blessing. It granted independence to man, but it also meant that mankind was on its own. In Sumerian tradition, it was the god Enki (Ptah) who had warned Utnapishtim (Noah) of the impending Deluge from the opposite side, i.e., "south," of a temple partition. Enki had sworn before the assembly of gods that he would not warn mortals of the coming Flood. He was not willing to tell Utnapishtim face-to-face, but "hid" himself behind an enclosure (hdj). Although he did not appear to Noah directly, he nevertheless did answer his prayer, and then sent his "spirit" Thoth to help him. "The Wall" becomes a metaphor for the period following the Flood. The human race was now permanently separated from their makers. Nevertheless, Ptah retained a symbolic role, and was called "Ptah-hearer-of-prayers." Earshaped votive tablets were found at the Temple of Ptah and elsewhere in Egypt. The supplicant prayed into these ears and believed that Ptah would hear.ai Their savior Ptah would always hear them, especially from behind the wall of his holy shrine. Nimrod not only brought men into bondage, but also took the gods into custody. It would no longer be necessary to scale the heights of heaven or even take to the hills in order to find them. The king and his subjects could conveniently offer praise, seek favor, or ask forgiveness at the local temple. Mankind had been created, or at least procreated, in order to serve the gods. The "spirits" of the gods were now kept alive in order to meet the needs of man, and especially those of the king. The temple was soon the implement of the state. The physical presence of the gods was replaced by graven images made of stone. Only two generations after the Flood, the great-grandson of docile Noah began capturing, counting and killing men as doves. But, it proved easier for him to bind men than to dispel his fear of the gods, and of the unknown. One must then wonder whether the first monument to Ptah was motivated more out of gratitude or from greed and guilt.

49 The ancients built white walls for their revered ancestors and told white lies to their beloved children. There is no true security, but children deserve to feel safe and loved. Sadly, we can say little more to our heirs than our ancestors said to theirs. We have re-learned 3500 years later that our hothouse is hurtling through the minefield of space. The turning heavens hold unspeakable horrors, as does the Earth's burning core. Future traumas will be every bit as great and just as unavoidable. How can those who work and pray blame those who only drink and play? If the gods of this age wish to be remembered, let them construct monuments of science that can withstand earthquake, flood and fire. Let them build arks and fill them with families to carry on the cosmic race.

a. Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible. b. Ibid. c. James Pritchard, "The Epic of Gilgamesh," Old Babylonian Version, lines 170-175, Ancient Near Eastern Texts, p 95. d. Jan Assmann, The Mind of Egypt, pp 158, 180. e. Flame or Fire is also a metaphor for the "Holy Spirit" of God. It can symbolize grace or judgment. For grace, see: Mt. 3:11/Lu. 3:16, Acts 2:3, Acts 7:30, Heb. 1:7. For judgment see: 1 Cor. 3:13-15, 2 Th. 1:8, Dt. 4:24, Heb. 12:29. The god Thoth was said to preside over the judgment of the dead. f. Genesis 7:4 g. http://www.centuries.co.uk/faq.htm (The Centuries of Darkness argue that tree-ring dating has been misapplied in the case of Thera.) h. Enki (Ea) continued to have more human children after being restored by Ninhursag. One of the most remarkable was known as "the human offspring, the son of Ea, the capable, the sage, the most wise (attrahasisa), the model of men, Adapa." Like the Biblical Noah, Adapa/Atrahasis was a sailor, and was distinguished among his peers as an exemplary human. He was submerged in his boat by a great storm, and as Noah, Adapa miraculously survived. The Deluge, and the triumph of Adapa over the elements, signaled the end of a time of great affliction upon mankind. They had suffered the ravages of wild beasts, from plague, famine, and finally from the Flood. i. James Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts, p 44, "The Deluge," lines 207-208. j. Ibid., p 95, "The Epic of Gilgamesh," Old Babylonian Version, lines 170-175. k. Ibid., pp 101-103, "The Legend of Adapa." l. An on-line translation is available at: www.gatewaystobabylon.com/myths/texts/classic/mythetana.htm m. "The Epic of Gilgamesh," Ancient Near Eastern Texts, ed. J. Pritchard, p 95. n. Zecharia Sitchin identified Dilman or Tilman as the Sinai.

50 o. The word pharaoh means "great house." p. For the basis of this definition of bau, see Jan Assmann, The Mind of Egypt, p 145-147. q. Peter Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, p 16. Another Egyptian form of the name Shem may have been "Sma." Sma is a name of the early dynastic period according to Flinders Petrie, The Royal Tombs of the First Dynasty. r. Peter Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, p 32. s. For the linguistic association between these two names, see the section "Suffering Serpent" in Chapter 5 and Note 1 of Chapter 5. t. "The Epic of Gilgamesh," Ancient Near Eastern Texts, ed. J. Pritchard, p 88-89. u. According to S.N. Kramer, The Sumerians, p 298, the early Akkadian word shumu is the same as the later Hebrew word shem. v. Alternatively, Shem may have been directed by one of the "gods" in his immediate family, who played the role of Utu--Shamash. Biblical Ham ("warm") is also called Utu ("hot") in the Sumerian king-list, a form of Thoth/Tutu. w. Literally, "a gift befitting a bridegroom." x. Barbara Watterson, Gods of Ancient Egypt, p 195, 107. y. 1 Sam. 1:5, 19 z. In the Epic of Gilgamesh, Etana (Shem) is named as a god, along with the father of Gilgamesh, who is called Lugalbanda (Ham). The epithet Lugalbanda may have originally applied to Ninurta (see the "Myth of Zu"). aa.There are 300 Semitic loan words in the ancient Egyptian language, and about 100 of Hamitic origin. (See, T.G.H. James, An Introduction to Ancient Egypt.) bb.Nigel & Helen Strudwick, Thebes in Egypt, pp 78-80. cc. See Notes 7 & 8 below, and Chart 13. dd.S.N. Kramer, The Sumerians, pp 186-190. ee.David Rohl points out that "kar is the Sumerian word [or logogram] for 'hunter' (Akkadian Habilu). Thus we have King 'En-me-ru, the hunter'. " Legend, p 215. The Sumerian word me stands for "divine commandments, powers or virtues." Z.Sitchin, The Wars of Gods and Men, p 239. Nimrod was not only known as a "tracker of truth" and "seeker of knowledge," but also as a "seizer of boundaries." The Indo-European root me signifies "marker of time, distance, etc." The Indo-European root mer signifies "darkness, death, murder, and mooring (of a boat)." The root merg/merk denotes "to mark out a boundary by walking around it, to march, to seize." The American Heritage Dictionary. Also, compare the name Ishkur, an epithet of Adad/Horus the Elder. ff. Etana and Balih of the 1st Dynasty of Kish are probably also the Elulu and Balulu of the 1st Dynasty of Ur. (See Sumerian king-list in: S.N. Kramer, The Sumerians, p 329.) In other words, the same father and

51 "son" combination were known by slightly different names in different cities. gg.The Egyptian god-king Geb was called Ninurta in Mesopotamia. The name Nim-rod is very similar to Nin-urta. (Nim ~ Nin and urt ~ rut/rod). As a mighty warrior among the gods, Ninurta became a role model for the later Nimrod. hh.Barbara Watterson, Gods of Ancient Egypt, p 165. ii. Barbara Watterson, Gods of Ancient Egypt, p 169.

Note 1: Spell 175 of the Book of the Dead begins: "O Thoth, what is it that has come about through the Children of Nut? They have made war, they have raised up tumult, they have done wrong, they have created rebellion, they have done slaughter, they have created imprisonment, they have reduced what was great to what is little in all that we have made; show greatness, O Thoth! - so says Atum." Thoth responds: "You shall not witness wrong-doing, you shall not suffer it! Shorten their years, cut short their months, because they have done hidden damage to all that you have made." F.O. Faulkner, The Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead, p 175. Note 2: Robert Graves, The Greek Myths, 39.2, p 146. In the Boeotian version of the Greek flood myth, the survivor is king Ogygos along with his wife Thebe. The name Thebe means "ark." The capital city of Boeotia was also called Thebes, in apparent honor of the ark and/or the wife of this hero. (Michael Astour, Hellenosemitica, p 212, 213) Similarly, the Hebrew word used to describe the boat of Noah is tebah, meaning "ark, chest." This word is only used in one other context in the Bible, and that is to describe the basket in which the baby Moses was placed to save him from genocide. A Greek (Ptolemaic) Period text states that it was the god Ptah in the form of his heir Khonsu who had cleared the Nile Valley of excess water in order to found the city of Thebes in Egypt. (Religion in Ancient Egypt, p 105-106, Byron Shafer, ed.) Note 3:

52 Web sites related to Thera/Santorini: http://www.apnet.com/volcano/msie/Contents/Chapt80_03.htm http://www.arts.cornell.edu/dendro/thera.html http://www.arts.cornell.edu/dendro/climate.html http://www.aip.org/radio/scripts/tree_stories.txt http://www.epas.utoronto.ca/fine_arts/chloris/thera_0.html http://andrewcollins.net/page/interactive/crete.htm http://www.centuries.co.uk/faq.htm http://www.zetatalk.com/theword/tword10t.htm http://www.mint.net/~eld/atlantis.htm http://www.mc.maricopa.edu/academic/cult_sci/anthro/lost_tribes/thera/minoan.htm l http://www.zen.org/~elana/Gmccoy.html http://www.ucd.ie/~classics/94/Luce94.html http://www.dragonridge.com/greece/akrotiri.htm http://www.dragonridge.com/greece/santorini.htm http://www.lexiline.com/lexiline/lexi59.htm http://www.lexiline.com/lexiline/lexi300.htm http://sciborg.uwaterloo.ca/earth/waton/greece2.html http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Academy/6040/flood05.htm http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Lab/8063/volcanic.htm Note 4: "Meteor Clue to End of Middle East Civilisations" By Robert Matthews, Science Correspondent (Filed: 04/11/2001) http://portal.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2001/11/04/wmet04.xml& sSheet=/news/2001/11/04/ixhomef.html http://old.smh.com.au/news/0111/06/world/world11.html Note 5: The Akkadian (Semitic) name of Ptah was E-a, which means "(Whose) House (is) Water." In Greek Mythology, Ptah is known both as the "hurrier" Iapetos (Roman: Jupiter) and Poseidon (Roman: Neptune), god of the seas. A variant of the name Poseidon is Potidan ("father of Dan"). This identifies Iapetos as the father of Greek Dan-el ("Divine Judge"), an epithet of Re son of Ptah. Prometheus was another Greek name or title of Ptah, which was also later assumed by his son Re. Both the Greek Iapetos and Latin Neptune contain forms of the P-t combination found in the Egyptian name Ptah. There is some consensus among scholars that the Greek name Aegy-ptos ("Mansion of Ptah") derives from Ptah and was later applied by the Greeks to the entire country of Egypt. The name Copt (ka-pt) probably also derives from Ptah, meaning "soul of Ptah." Compare English words, such as pith ("heart, vital force,

53 spine"), python ("enormous but venom-less snake"), and scepter. The was scepter of the pharaohs was that of Ptah (See Note 11). Note 6: The Hebrew word used for "heart" (leb) alludes to Uriel ("flame of God"), which is the name of Thoth in the Book of Enoch. Cf libbah (feminine of leb) and labbah, "flame" Cf lebanah (3842) white, i.e. the moon. Thoth was a moon god in Egypt. Note 7: Aha, perhaps pronounced as Akka by some speakers, is the Egyptianized form of the Mesopotamian king name Agga son of Enmebaraggesi (Mesannepadda). Agga and Gilgamesh were rivals in Sumer, as indicated by the Epic of Gilgamesh and Agga. It can now be said that their conflict spilled over into Egypt as well. Kemit was the ancient Egyptian name for Egypt, commonly translated as the "black land" after the dark alluvial soil, but perhaps also named for Ham/Khem. The "Two Lands" of Egypt were divided between Misraim ("Egypt") and Cush ("Ethiopia"), the two leading sons of Ham ("warm") found in Genesis 10. Cush gained control of Upper Egypt (Nubia/Cush). His brother Mizraim held sway over Lower Egypt. See Chart 14 for the chronology of this period. In Egypt, Agga was called Horus-Aha and Scorpion. The name of "Men" is also probably associated with both Horus-Aha and Scorpion. On the decorated mace of King Scorpion there is a seven-pointed star next to the head of the king along with the picture of a scorpion. As in the headdress of the goddess Sheshat (see Chapter 3), the seven-pointed star associates King Scorpion with the patron god of Thoth-Minh (Men). See Note 11 below regarding Men and the mythical figure of Menes. The symbol of Horus (Har) was the falcon. Horus-Aha is translated as "Fighting Falcon." Ref: Peter Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, p 16. Another bird, the vulture, was also a traditional symbol of Upper Egypt. In the Bible, falcon and eagle are roughly synonymous. Hebrew racham (7360) raw-khawm'; from 7355; a kind of vulture (supposed to be tender towards its young):-- gier-eagle racham (7355), raw-kham'; to fondle; by impl. to love, espec. to be compassionate:-- have compassion (on, upon), love, (find, have, obtain, shew) mercy (iful, on, upon), (have) pity, Ruhamah, x surely. Racham ("eagle") is perhaps a play on words alluding to Ra (god of Egypt) and Ham.

54 One of the sons of Cush is called Raamah (Gen. 10:7) The name Aha, like that of Narmer, has meaningful Hebrew connotations. Compare Aha and the following Hebrew words (definitions from Strong's Concordance): Aha (162) ahahh (a-haw'); appar. a prim. word expressing pain exlamatorily; Oh!:ah, alas. Ah (253) ach (awkh); a var. for 162; Oh! (expressive of grief or surprise):- ah, alas (251) ach (awkh); a prim. word; a brother (used in the widest sense ) Comp. also the prop. names beginning with "Ah-" or "Ahi-" Ahab (256) brother [i.e., friend] of (his) father Ahban (257) brother (i.e. possessor) of understanding Ahijah (281) brother (i.e., worshipper) of Jah Ahihud (282) brother (i.e., possessor) of renown (270) achaz; to seize (often with the accessory idea of holding in possession) Ahaz (271) achaz; possessor (268) achor; the hinder part; hence (adv.) behind, backward; also (as facing north) the West (309) achar; a prim. root; to loiter (i.e., be behind); by impl. to procrastinate:continue, defer, delay, hinder, be late (slack), stay (there), tarry (longer). Note 8: "Egypt" can be substituted for "Mizraim" in the Biblical text of Genesis 10. (See notes in the New International Translation.) However, the direct Hebrew meaning of Mizraim is "fortifications," a salient attribute of the Egyptian Delta. In Egyptian the root ms (mose) signified "son of." The name Mizraim would suggest "son of Ra." In the Sumerian language, the root mus means "serpent." The symbol of Lower Egypt was the serpent, or more specifically the cobra (uraeus/wadjet). In Egypt, Gilgamesh was known as the "serpent king" Djoser (Zoser/Zeser/Cobra) and as Netjer-i-khet, meaning "godly in body." The Egyptian word Djeser also means "holy, divine" i.e., godlike. In Mesopotamia, the primary residence of Mizraim/Gilgamesh was at Eanna (Uruk/Erech). In the king-list of Erech (see Chart 13), Gilgamesh is not surprisingly the most prominent king and is given three different names. Like the Biblical name Mizraim, the Mesopotamian names Gilgamesh and Meshkiaggasher contain a word play on the root mus. (Mesh means "safety/security" or "freedom" in Hebrew.) The root lab in the name Labasher also connotes serpent as in the Biblical name libhyethen (Leviathan). According to Flinders Petrie (The Royal Tombs of the First Dynasty), Zeser is a name of the transitional period before the 1st Dynasty. (See commentary in Zecharia Sitchin, The Wars of Gods and Men, p 36.) This Zeser has not previously been identified with the Djoser (Zoser) of the 3rd

55 Note 9: The Semitic name Balih is related to Hebrew words balah (1086) consume balahh (1089) to terrify, trouble ballahah (1091) alarm; hence destruction:-- terror, trouble below (1093) excise (on articles consumed):-- tribute bala (1104) to make away with (spec. by swallowing); gen. to destroy:-- cover, destroy, devour, eat up Bela (1105) a gulp; fig. destruction:-- devouring, that which he hath swallowed up. Balaq (1110) to annihilate:-- (make) waste. Belal (1101) to over-flow (spec.with oil); by impl. to mix :-- anoint, confound, x fade, mingle, mix (self), give provender, temper. Cf Bel, an epithet of Marduk-Re (and earlier belonging to Ninurta) Note 10: Nimrod (5246), "the mighty hunter before the Lord," literally, "strong (rud) seizer (nim)" The root nim has the meanings (see below) of "number," "quickness/nimbleness" and "seize." The second component of the name Nimrod, rod/rud, means "strong." Therefore, the name Nimrod can be defined as "strong and swift seizer," or more freely, "mighty hunter." Etymology of "mighty" Mighty gibbowr (1368) ghib-bore'; intens. From the same as 1397; powerful; by impl. warrior, tyrant:-- champion, chief, X excel, giant, man, mighty (man, one), strong (man), valiant man. gebuwlah (1367) a boundary, region:-- border, bound, coast, landmark, place. From gabal (1379) gaw-bal'; to twist as a rope Cf Egyptian god Geb, "the heir" From The American Heritage Dictionary (William Morris, editor, published by Houghton Mifflin Company, 1981):

56 reudh- red, ruddy, hard, strong, robust ret- rod- cross, rude reu- reud/raud- bellow, roar reug- roar, rut, riot Etymology of "hunter" Hunter tsayid (6718) tsah'-yid; the chase; also game from tsuwd (6679) stood; to lie alongside Extracted from The American Heritage Dictionary: root Nem (2) To assign, allot; also to take. For example, "quick at learning, seizing," from Old English numol Compare the English word nimble, meaning "quick and clever in action or acumen." Compare the roots nem and men (see Note 11). Khmenu was the city of Ptah and Thoth worship in Middle Egypt. Khnum was the name of Ptah in Upper Egypt. Nim is a transposition of Men (Minh), an epithet of Thoth, the great reckoner and inventor of mnemonics. The wise king Nemuel of the Book of Proverbs is likely another Biblical memory of Lamech-Thoth. Note 11: Narmer (Nimrod), the natural son of Horus-Aha (Cush), shared his father's devotion not only for conquest but also for the god Ptah. There is currently an academic debate regarding whether the legendary warrior Menes was based on Narmer or Horus-Aha. See: Jacques Kinnaer, "Aha or Narmer. Which Was Menes?" KMT Journal, Vol. 12, No. 3, Fall 2001, pp 75-81. The name of Men is found side-by-side with that of Horus-Aha on one artifact found in Egypt. It has been speculated that this indicates Men was one of the royal names or epithets of Aha. Others think that Men could have been the name of his father and/or predecessor, namely Narmer. In the current model, Horus-Aha follows Narmer, however with help from the Bible and the Sumerian king-list it is now clear that it was Narmer who followed Horus-Aha and was his son. Menes of myth was probably a composite of the father and son combination of Aha and Narmer. Etymology of Menes manes, Manes (ma'nez, ma'nas) 1. The spirits of the dead, especially ancestors, deified as minor gods. 2. Any revered spirit of one who has died. Used with a singular verb. Compare lemurs. (Latin manes, probably "the good ones," from manis, good. See ma (1)"

57 ma (1) Good; with derivatives meaning "occurring at a good moment, timely, seasonable, early." The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language William Morris, editor, published by Houghton Mifflin Company, 1981. The following is condensed from the root etymologies provided in the The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Root men (1) form mnMneumonic, from Gk. mnemon, mindful form menRemember, from Latin meminisse. Spirit, from Gk. menos. form monMonument, remind, from Latin monere. Remember, amnesia (forgetfulness), from Gk. mnasthai, Latin mentio. Root men (2) To project, menace, from Latin minae. Eminent, prominent, from Latin -minere. Mountain, from Latin mons. Root men (3) Remain, manor, mansion, permanent, from Latin manere. Root men (4) Rare, sparse, from Gk manos. Single, sole, from Gk monos. The equivalence of the words manes and lemurs also strengthens the link between the Patriarch Lamech/Lemek and Min/Thoth. (In Egypt, the god Min is a form of both Ptah and Thoth. This god was especially associated with ancestor worship.) The Egyptian word men (see form mon above) means monument, as in Akhmenu, "most glorious of monuments." Nigel & Helen Strudwick, Thebes in Egypt, p 55 Hebrew etymology of Menes:

58 "MENE, MENE, TEKEL, PARSIN This is what these words mean: Mene: God has numbered the days of your reign and brought it to an end. Tekel: You have been weighed on the scales and found wanting. Peres: Your kingdom is divided and given to the Medes and Persians." - Daniel 5:25-28 (NIV) mene (4484) (Chald.) men-ay'; pass. part. of 4483; numbered:- Mene men (4482) mane; from an unused root mean. to apportion; a part; hence a musical chord (as parted into strings) mena/menah (4483) men-aw'; corresp. to 4487; to count, appoint:- number, ordain, set. manda (4486) (Chald.) wisdom or intelligence:- knowledge, reason, understanding. manah (4487) maw-naw'; a prim. root; prop. to weigh out; by impl. to allot or constitute officially; also to enumerate or enroll:- appoint, count, number, prepare, set, tell. manah (4489) mo-neh'; prop. something weighed out, i.e. (fig.) a portion of time, i.e. an instance:-- time. Menahem (4505) comforter, epithet of the Holy Spirit minyan (4510) (Chald.) enumeration:- number menorah (4501) a chandelier:- candlestick A menorah is a "ceremonial seven-branched candelabrum of the Jewish Temple symbolizing the seven days of the Creation." The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: See Exodus 37:17-24 Seven was the number of Thoth. Note 12: The Egyptian scepter had two heads (or a head and a tail), which indicates a dual purpose. However, it likely was designed to serve a great many functions. The shaft was curved at one end and held a distinctive faceplate. The opposite end of the shaft (the "tail") was forked. With the forked end pointed up, the scepter crudely resembled the split handle of a shepherd's staff. When cast on the ground, i.e., flipped over, the curved end of the rod became the top. In this orientation, it resembled the head of an animal, especially a dog, donkey, or serpent. A grandson of Ptah named Set became particularly adept at using this scepter. The distinctive features of the curved end of the scepter became known as the Set symbol or "Set animal." In folklore, Set (Satan, the Devil) was depicted as having pointy ears and a forked tail, a personification of his own scepter! This scepter of Ptah was no shepherd's cane, magic wand or devil stick, but a precision instrument. It was a "101 uses" utility pole. These functions were accomplished with a number of attachments or accessories. In The Crystal Sun,

59 Robert Temple provides new insight into the various staffs/scepters that were used by the gods and later by the pharaohs. The principal function of Egyptian "rods" appears to have been for analyzing sun and moon shadows. Robert Temple explains that the split tail functioned like a pin-hole for sharpening the shadow-tip cast onto a temple floor by a gnomon or obelisk. The point of the shadow needed to be well defined in order to make accurate calculations of the time of day or year. Other probable applications of the scepter would have been in surveying (determining positions through triangulation) and in astronomy (determining the elevation and azimuth of a star or planet in the sky). A variant of this scepter is found in the Biblical account of Moses. Such was the mighty morphin' rod of god that Moses brought before pharaoh in order to prove his own royal knowledge and confirm his kingly status. As a king, Moses (through Aaron) demonstrated that he knew how to use the scepter, not only for scientific or engineering purposes, but probably also for "shadow art." One can easily imagine how he demonstrated that his mastery of the device excelled that of the Egyptian priests. "Swallowing" their shadows with his own was probably pure showmanship. The truly divine side of human nature demands a bit of fun. The gods, and pharaohs after them, no doubt used these scepters to create a great number of entertaining wall shadows, much as people playfully do today with their hands or other objects using a back light. The waset scepter was also copper based, which suggests a possible application in dowsing, i.e., as a "divining rod." Ptah was the god of "magic" and renowned for his mischief. To those who did not understand his science and methodology, the scepter of Ptah may have appeared to magically find subterranean water or precious metals. The underlying physics (if any) and especially the knowledge needed to locate hidden resources was itself concealed, or at least not explained to the uninitiated. Ptah was also "god of the pole" in a true or geographic sense, rather than the magnetic pole. This again points to an association with the copper and other metal constituents of the scepter. Copper is alloyed with zinc to make brass. It stands to reason that the scepter was made from essentially the same ingredients that were used by the Biblical Moses to make the "brasen serpent" that was raised upon a pole. It may have been a scepter that was lifted up before the dying people (see discussion on Osiris in Chapter 3). According to Robert Temple, the waset sceptre was also known as the tcham sceptre. He writes, "The word tcham, incorporating the hieroglyph of this same sceptre, refers to an unknown precious metal." (The Crystal Sun, p 388) Temple does not speculate as to the type of metal. However, the "pillars of Solomon" (obelisks or statues) were made of, i.e., plated with, brass. See 1 Kings 7:15; 2 Kings 25:13-16. Note 13: Inb an (575) where, whither ab (1) father anab, "where (is) father?"

60 In Hebrew, the word for "white" is laben or laban The consonants are transposed in the Egyptian as inb Cf Heb. eben (68/69/70) stone Cf Egyptian Inb and Hebrew words: naba (5012) naw-baw' prophesy naba (5042) naw-bah' gush forth This connotes that the White Wall of Narmer and Hor-Aha was a "Flood Memorial or Prophesy Wall" Enki-Ptah had predicted ("prophesied") the coming Flood. Hdj chadar (2314) to inclose (as a room) chedai/chedel (2308/2309) cease, end, rest, i.e., the state of the dead Compare hdj with the English words hide and hedge.

Living in Truth:

Archaeology and the Patriarchs Chapter 5


"Biblical Dark Ages" (From Nimrod to Sargon)
by Charles N. Pope Copyright 1999-2002 by Charles Pope United States Library of Congress All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions

Grafted onto the Root of Adam In previous chapters, two fundamental types of twisting in the Torah were unraveled. The first involved the identity of Biblical Jehovah as a composite of multiple deities, primarily the gods Ea and Enlil, but also the primeval goddess Gaia. The second type of twisting in the Torah derives from the intermarriage of "the sons of god" with "the daughters of men." These so-called human offspring were described in the Book of Genesis as "the mighty men of old." They were also the great heroes of Mythology. One such prodigy was Noah (Adapa), who alone was found "righteous" in the last generation before the Deluge. After the Flood, Noah's great-grandson the "mighty hunter" Nimrod (Narmer/Bilak) carried on the tradition of tyranny in the Middle East. His own strength was based on a combined inheritance from both Ham (Utu) and Shem (Etana). Nimrod is handled with extreme discretion in the Genesis account. His wideranging exploits are presented in only five verses. Nothing at all is said about his sons or successors. The master weaver of the Torah considered the kings after

61 Nimrod to be nothing more than dull and idolatrous oppressors. They followed the example of Nimrod in lording over men, but not in their devotion to the Lord EaPtah. Nimrod/Narmer was apparently not succeeded by a true son, but possibly by a brother or son-in-law within the house of Cush (see Chart 14). Soon after the reign of Nimrod, the Old Kingdom pharaohs replaced Ea-Ptah with Marduk-Re as supreme god of Egypt. Therefore, these kings were themselves judged and suppressed by the author of Genesis. No redeeming qualities were found to compensate for their unpardonable "error." The portion of the scarlet thread corresponding to the Old Kingdom was removed. The Middle Kingdom pharaohs, who are representing by the second genealogy of Adam through Seth, were then grafted onto the "loose end" of Nimrod's reign by forming a knot in the narrative of Genesis 10. The "generations" of the first Adam listed in Genesis 4:1-24 are identified as: Genesis 4 Adam Cain Enoch Irad Mehujael Mehushael Lemekh Noah Shem Ham Cush Nimrod Mesopotamia Anu Enki Marduk Dumuzi Adad Tutu Utna-pishtim / Adapa Etana Utu Agga Enmerkar Egypt Atum Anubis Ptah Re Osiris Horus the Elder Thoth Nut-jeren / Ny-netjer Semerkhet Khem Aha Narmer

Nimrod (Narmer/Enmerkar) was in the direct line of descent from the first Adam, the god Atum. He was the natural son of Cush (Agga) and a grandson of Ham (Utu). However, starting with Genesis 4:25 and continuing through the end of Genesis 5, another line of descent from Adam is introduced. This new succession is through a son of Adam called Seth, which means "substituted." We are told that the second line of Adam was granted by God to replace that of the martyred Abel. The reader takes for granted that the two lines of Adam through Cain and Seth are contemporary and collateral. Original Ordering Gen. 4:1-24 Gen. 4:25-5 Adam Cain Enoch Adam Seth Enosh Re-Ordering for Comparison Gen 4:1-24 Gen 4:25-5 Adam Enoch Adam Seth Enosh / Enoch

62 Irad Mehujael Kenan Mahalalel Jered Enoch Methuseleh Lemekh Noah Cain Mehujael Irad Mehushael Lemekh Noah Kenan Mahalalel Jered Methuseleh Lemekh Noah

Mehushael Lemekh Noah

The two lists are almost identical. They both begin with an Adam and end with a Lemekh and a Noah. With the exception of Seth, the names are also very closely matched they have only slightly different spelling and ordering. Enosh is a variant of Enoch. Kenan is a variant of Cain. Jered is a variant of Irad. Mahalalel is a variant of Mehujael. Methuseleh is a variant of Mehushael. It has previously been suspected that the two "genealogies" of Genesis 4 & 5 are not unique but two different versions of the same Patriarchal line. However, the dual bloodlines cry out from the ground of archaeology for justice. It can now be proven that they were unique lists, and that the Patriarchs of each list are named in their correct order. The two dynasties were not contemporary, but widely separated in time. They represented two different portions of the same Patriarchal line. The later set of Patriarchs, which corresponds to the second genealogy of Adam, was considered to be a more righteous "repetition" of the first line of Adam. The comparison between the two sets of kings was made more compelling by juxtaposing the two in the text of Genesis. Side-by-side, the two lines of Adam enter the "splice" of Genesis 10. Only the line of the second Adam emerges. We are deliberately told that the sons of Shem listed in Genesis 10:21-31 do not pertain to an elder brother Shem but are those of a younger brother named Shem. The second Patriarch named Shem was not an eldest son. He was instead the younger "brother" and successor of the second Noah, and only a distant son of the first Noah. In the days of that later Noah, there was also a great flood, especially in Egypt where it brought an end to the Egyptian Middle Kingdom. Excessive high waters associated with the inundation of the Nile did not last 40 days, but ravaged Egypt annually over a period of 40 years. The reoccurrence of devastating floods provided a convenient and logical post on which to tie together the histories of the two lines of Adam. At this juncture in the narrative, an abrupt change in time period and king-list takes place. The first Shem (Etana) did not have any royal sons to speak of, at least not biologically or Biblically. Nimrod was considered to be the legal son and heir of Shem (Etana). However, he was the natural son of Ham. For this reason, the famous "Table of Nations" found in Genesis 10 does not start with the sons of Shem. Instead, the descendants of Noah's younger sons Japheth and Ham are given precedence. Moreover, when the sons of Shem do finally get named in Genesis 10:21-31, they are most certainly not those of Etana. In verse 21, the author uses a subtle gloss to fool the na ve and school the initiate. The Shem

63 referred to in this verse was not the son of the first Noah but of a second and much later Noah. God-Kings Adam Cain Enoch Irad Mehujael Pharaohs (M.K.) Adam II Seth Enosh Kenan Mahalalel Jered Enoch II Methuseleh Lemekh II Noah II (Nile Flood) Shem Arphaxad Shelah Eber ...

Mehushael Lemekh Noah (Great Flood) Shem Nimrod

With the profuse red of the "mighty hunter" Nimrod, the rhetoric of the first Adam suddenly dries up in the Genesis narrative. After Nimrod, the veneration of Ea-Ptah began to be neglected in Egypt. It did not become prominent again until the advent of the second Adam, founder of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom. The Egyptian name, Inyotef, and Mesopotamian name, Tudiya-Adamu, of this founding father both contain forms of Ea. Inyotef means "Born of Yo." Tudiya-Adamu means "Born or Beloved of Ya, Adam." Tudiya was transliterated into Egyptian as Inyotef. Yo and Ya are both common Biblical (Hebrew) short forms of Jehovah. This cherished champion Tudiya stands at the head of both the Babylonian and Assyrian kinglists. He also represents the historical origin of the second and later line of Adam given in Genesis. In the dynasty of the second Adam, Ea-Ptah was incorporated into a new super cult, that of Amen. This was of great importance to the Genesis author - for it was not from Ea-Ptah directly, but from Amen that the Biblical Jehovah was ultimately to emerge. Genesis 4:26 declares that men first "began to call upon the name of the Lord" in the time of Enosh son of Seth, who was the second successor of Adam II. The second successor of Inyotef in Egypt was pharaoh Amenemhet, who is the historical identity of Patriarch Enosh. The name Amen-em-het means "Amen (is) in the Forefront." He was not only the first king of the legendary Egyptian 12th Dynasty, but also the first king to include the god Amen in his royal name. His foremost god was not that of the Old Kingdom pharaohs, Re, but emphatically the

64 Biblical "Lord" - yes and Amen! For the Genesis author, this marked a crucial turning point in both history and theology. With the introduction of the second line of Adam, another type of twisting becomes apparent in the text of the Torah. It derives from the phenomenon that "history repeats itself." The first two turnings convolve gods and race. The third involves royal persons who were of a different time but lived in the same place. This third type of twisting consumes most of the actual narrative of the Torah and is analyzed in detail in Chapters 8 through 16. The new thematic element represents the "scarlet thread" of kingship. There was only one Patriarchal line from the first godman Adam to the last king Zedekiah. This thread was often frayed but never broken. However, one portion of the royal line is not discussed in the Genesis narrative. The omitted rulers belong to the period between Narmer (Nimrod), founder of the Egyptian Old Kingdom, and Inyotef, founder of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom. Twisting the later line of Adam together with the earlier one allowed the Genesis author to skip over Old Kingdom pharaohs. Suffering Serpent The fall from grace of Nimrod's line began with pharaoh Djoser of the Egyptian 3rd Dynasty. The root Dj in Egyptian signifies "serpent" or "backbone of Osiris." The root oser (of Dj-oser) also relates to Osiris, which was written as Asar or Ser in Egyptian. The name Dj-oser would then connote "serpent lord" or "spine of Osiris." Through a uniting of Egyptian and Sumerian records with Biblical records, we can raise our consciousness of this serpent king. In the Sumerian king-list,a Pharaoh Djoser corresponds to Gilgamesh. Immortality of the gods was denied him, however through identification with Osiris his wish was symbolically granted. Another Mesopotamian name of Djoser is King Labasher.b The Hebrew root asher/osher denotes "happy, honest, prosperous." The root lab has many possible meanings.1 Because it was converted to Dj in Egyptian, the primary meaning of lab must have been as in the name Leviathan. In Hebrew, Leviathan is Libh-yethen or Livyathan. Strong's concordance defines Leviathan (3882) as "a wreathed animal, i.e. a serpent (espec. the crocodile or some other large sea-monster); fig. the constellation of the dragon; also as a symbol of Babylon:-- leviathan, mourning." In Egypt, the "dragon-king" Djoser was not happy and blessed, but in a state of misery like the tortured Osiris. During his reign the Nile did not overflow its banks for seven straight years. This extreme and extended drought brought bitter suffering to Egypt and its people. In desperation, Djoser turned to a man of princely birth, Imhotep, in whom it was said resided the spirit of Thoth. Like his role model Thoth, Imhotep was also called "son of Ptah," god of the waters. In the form of Khnum, Ptah was thought to control the annual floodwaters of the Nile. Imhotep directed Djoser to seek the help of Khnum, which is not surprising. However, he also advised him to reinstate the "throne of Re."c In addition to the honorary title, "son of Ptah," the base of a statue names Imhotep as the "High Priest of Heliopolis" (Biblical On), the holy city of Re the sun god.

65 For a prince patterned after Thoth, the distinctions of "High Priest of Re" and "son of Ptah" are perfectly consistent. Re had been appointed by Ptah to rule over Egypt in a time of sustained drought. When Re was subsequently banished for murder, Thoth became his most faithful and active supporter. Thoth eventually was able to bring the "fugitive" Re back from exile and even restore his kingship. Because of their close relationship, Thoth was called the "heart and tongue of Re." In the 3rd Dynasty, it was not Thoth, but Imhotep who expressed the will of Re. According to both archaeology and legend, Imhotep aped Thoth in every possible way. Imhotep officiated not only as high priest, but also as a lector (oratory) priest within the cult of Re. In addition to "son of Ptah" and "High Priest of Re," Imhotep was also renowned as an architect, stargazer, wise man, healer and teacher in the tradition of Thoth. Djoser counted on Imhotep for everything. Imhotep even kept track of the king's wealth. In fact, "Treasurer of the King" was listed as the first of his official titles. The Book of Ecclesiastes reveals the ancient mindset that compelled Imhotep to emulate Thoth: "What has been will be again, what has been done will be done again; there is nothing new under the sun. Is there anything of which one can say, 'Look! This is something new'? It was here already, long ago; it was here before our time. There is no remembrance of men of old, and even those who are yet to come will not be remembered by those who follow."d The little that has endured from the time of Imhotep is still more than sufficient to reconstruct his role in 3rd Dynasty Egypt. The typecasting of Imhotep is very strong. His mission could not have been any clearer. As it had been in the time of the gods, so it was destined to be among men. Before the Deluge, Thoth architected the return of his "father" Re. It was the role of Imhotep to reinstate the cult of Re as pre-eminent in Post-Flood Egypt. The first tangible evidence of this renewal is the sudden interest in pyramids. Imhotep is credited with building the Step Pyramid of Djoser. However, as with the cult of Re, it was only restored by the counsel of Imhotep. It is extremely doubtful that any major stone pyramids were constructed from scratch during the Egyptian Old Kingdom. The Egyptian Delta was only one corner of the world that these kings ruled. Egypt was a place of seasonal "sojourn" for the royal court. A prestigious burial in Egypt was certainly a high priority, but they would not have devoted all of their time and resources to it. The correct date for the reign of Djoser is not earlier than 1450 BC. However, recent carbon dating of the Giza Pyramids place their construction between 2700 and 2500 BC.2 This means that the Old Kingdom pharaohs did not in any way build the Giza Pyramids, and they did not claim to have done so. Most if not all of the larger pyramids, including the Step Pyramid of Djoser, would also have been built in the time of the gods. They were as much as 1000 years old by the time of Imhotep and would have been badly in need of repair! When the cult of Re was revived, the many pre-existing pyramids were reclaimed by the pharaohs and refurbished as grand centerpieces for administrative and mortuary complexes. Who Built the Pyramids, P'Re Tell?

66 In the third dynasty, Djoser and Imhotep restored the Step Pyramid. Snofru, the first pharaoh of the fourth dynasty, restored as many as four pyramids. These included the Bent Pyramid and the Red Pyramid at Dahshur, which are both larger than the third Giza Pyramid. Collectively, this effort is thought to have been a greater enterprise than the building of the largest Giza Pyramid, greater than that of the Great Pyramid itself. However, it again only points to a program of renovation, and not original construction. Snofru was performing a service for Re, in whose name these pyramids would have been originally built. Evidently, Snofru felt that his sacrifices were being accepted. He gave one of his sons the name of Ra-hotep ("Re is appeased/expatiated"). The matching statues of Rahotep and his wife Nofret are among the masterpieces of the Old Kingdom (assuming that they were not also reworked relics from the time of Re). The name of the next pharaoh was Khnum-khuefui, "Khnum is Protecting Me", or Khufu for short.e He is thought to have been a son of Snofru by the daughter of Huni.f The choice of this name suggests that the annual flooding of the Nile, or lack thereof, was still a pressing concern. In the Drought Legend, Djoser was promised in a dream that the Nile would never again fail, and that harvests would always be plentiful. A good annual flood obviously did return after the 7th year, however the general trend toward desertification in Africa continued. Khufu must have felt betrayed by his namesake, because in his reign the temples were closed. The temple of Ptah built by Narmer/Huni would have been among these, and this event must have followed almost immediately upon the death of Narmer/Huni. In the drought years of the Egyptian New Kingdom, the pharaoh Amenhotep IV would also reject his namesake god in favor of Re (Aten). He changed his name to Akhen-aten, and shortly after the death of his predecessor Amenhotep III he closed the temples of Amun and other gods. The suppression of Ptah/Khnum in Khufu's time would have been equally unpopular. Unlike Djoser and Snofru, Khufu did not seem to have a genuine concern for the welfare of Egyptians. Khufu (Greek Cheops) was not remembered as the builderrenovator of the Great Pyramid, but as a hated oppressor. Likewise, Akhenaten was not hailed as a reformer, but libeled as "The Heretic." Khufu was not content with the lesser pyramids. He had the audacity to claim the Great Pyramid for himself. However, a tale written down during the Hyksos Period (part of the Westcar Papyrus) reveals that Khufu not only did not build the Great Pyramid of Giza, he could not even figure out how to get inside! In this legend, Khufu consults the wise men concerning how to enter "the secret chambers of the sanctuary of Thoth," but is only frustrated in his quest.g He is told a descendant of his would succeed in this task, but that he could not. In the ancient mindset, because Khufu tried and failed it must have been his fate. The tale indicates that a 5th Dynasty pharaoh did break into the Great Pyramid, therefore this was not only divinely ordained but considered to have been a fulfillment of prophesy. There is presently a controversy over several cartouches belonging to Khufu (Cheops) and/or his second successor Khafre (Chephron) who may have buried him. These cartouches were purportedly found on the walls of two inner chambers

67 of the Great Pyramid in the 19th Century. Zecharia Sitchin argued that they were forged by Howard Vyse, the man who discovered them.h Sitchin also argued that the "Inventory Stela" of Khufu is genuine, and that this work confirms that both the Great Pyramid and the Sphinx predated the reign of Khufu. Conversely, Egyptologists generally consider the Great Pyramid cartouches to be legitimate, but the Stela to be a later pastiche. Whether the cartouches and Stela were fashioned during the reign of Khufu, by Khafre upon his death, by a 5th Dynasty pharaoh in honor of him, or at any time afterward is now a moot point. It is proved here that Khufu was not the builder of the Great Pyramid based on chronological grounds alone. Apart from the ruined mortuary temple ("Temple of Isis") adjoining the Great Pyramid in which the Stela was found archaeology has uncovered almost nothing of Khufu's reign. Instead, Khufu emerges as an absentee landlord. Rather than go to the effort of building new monuments, the Great Pyramid was merely adopted by him. His living interests lay elsewhere within the four quarters of the world he ruled, or perhaps even beyond. Djedefre, a co-regent of Khufu who likely predeceased him, was the first pharaoh to assume the title, "Son of Re." Djedefre (a.k.a. Rededef) dutifully helped with the mortuary complex of Khufu. However, his own mortuary complex and pyramid was located well to the north of Giza at Abu Rawash. It may have been unfinished when he died after a reign (or co-reign alongside Khufu) of only eight years.i Djedefre wrote a primer for scribes called the "Instruction," and also delved into theology. In appreciation for the favor Ptah had shown mankind, the traditional role of Atum as the primeval, self-created god had earlier been transferred to Ptah. In the theology of Ptah, Atum (called Nefer-tem) was made the heir of Ptah rather than the other way around. However, from the time of Djedefre, Re superseded Ptah and Atum as "Father of the Gods." In Egypt, the self-begotten god Ptah who had saved them from certain destruction became a shelved and forgotten dod.j The radical theology of Khufu and Djedefre was further refined by pharaoh Khafre who succeeded them. In retrospect, the rise of the cult of Re after a period of "exile" can only be seen as inevitable. It may have been argued that Ptah even required it. Was it not Ptah himself who had made his "first born" son Marduk-Re the ruler of Egypt? Hadn't his dominion in Egypt been honored by all of the other gods? There would have been some discontent among the populous in Egypt with the renewed status of Re as Supreme God. It may have even been made an issue in dynastic power struggles. However, the recognition that different gods were entitled to sovereignty over different regions of the "world" is accepted both in Mythology and in the Old Testament.k The idea even carries over strongly in the New Testament theology of Paul.l After the Flood, a single royal family ruled over both Egypt and Mesopotamia. Although Re was made "All-Lord" in Egypt, he was not a lord at all in Mesopotamia. Throughout the Egyptian Old Kingdom, the deities of Anu, Enlil (Shu), Enki (Ptah) and Ninhursag (Tefnut/Hathor) continued to be the most revered in Sumer, and by the very same family that ruled over Egypt. Other gods and goddesses were also worshipped to a lesser degree in Mesopotamia, such as Ninurta (Geb) in the district of Lagash.

68 Pharaoh Khafre (Chephron) claimed the 2nd Giza Pyramid for his mortuary complex. His successor, Menkaure followed by taking the third and smallest Giza Pyramid. His devotion to Re was also smaller than that of Khufu and Khafre. Menkaure is most noted for authorizing the reopening of Egyptian temples. Rather than being celebrated for his tolerance, Menkaure was later censured. He was adjudged by posterity to be in defiance of the gods, who had declared that the temples should be permanently closed in Egypt. Egypt suffered a further 150 years of inadequate annual floods. In hindsight, Menkaure was conveniently made the scapegoat. Egypt was a land of extremes, and lent itself to extremes in religion. The jealous veneration of Ptah was displaced by an even more zealous "monotheism." Egypt once again became the all-encompassing realm of Re. Any tolerance of 4th Dynasty pharaoh Menkaure was eschewed by the time of pharaoh Unas in the 6th Dynasty. This pharaoh boasted that he "ate the biggest and best gods for breakfast," and Ptah was as large and lauded as any of the tabled champions of Egypt. Unas is the first pharaoh who can be said for sure to inscribe the inner walls of "his" pyramid. The practice that he initiated became known as the Pyramid Texts. Drought was depicted in the Pyramid Texts of Unas, but there was no mention of the Great One Ptah. In fact, there are only a handful of references to either Ptah or Khnum in any of the Pyramid Texts of later pharaohs. Unity Breeds Division The names of the 5th Dynasty pharaohs who preceded Unas are easily shown to be variations of the names of contemporary rulers in Mesopotamia (2nd Dynasty of Kish). The equivalence between the 5th Dynasty Egypt and 2nd Dynasty Kish is even more obvious than that of 3rd Dynasty pharaohs, e.g., pharaoh Dj-oser in Egypt and king Lab-asher of Sumer. (See chart below.) 5th Dynasty of Egypt Userkaf Sahure Shepseskare Kakai Ini Kaiu Isesi (Djedkare) Comparison 2nd Dynasty of Kish Puzur-Sin Ur-Za-baba Simudarra Usiwater Nannia Ishme-muti Ishme-Shamash (Mesilim)n

User ~ Puzur Sahur ~ ZaUr kare ~ darra Kak ~ Usim Ini ~ anni ? Is ~ Ish

Old Kingdom Egypt reached the pyramidion of its greatness by the end of the 5th Dynasty. However, the prosperity was due more to sustained unification of the "world" rather than devotion to Re or the beneficence of the Nile in Egypt. Likewise,

69 the collapse of the Old Kingdom should not be attributed to a failure of the annual flood, but to a rupture in the royal family. The feud began during the long reign of Mesilim (Egy. Djedkare), the final ruler of the 2nd Dynasty of Kish. The reign of Djedkare possibly extended over four decades in Egypt. Reigns of this length invariably led to succession battles. While Mesilim was alive, the rival princes UrNanshe of Lagash and Ush of Umma accepted terms of peace, and a "standing stone" was placed as a boundary between their respective inheritances. This stela was uprooted by Ush, presumably upon Mesilim's death, who then founded the independent dynasty of Umma. In succeeding generations, an uneasy parity was maintained between the two territories and inter-related royal houses. Ur-Nanshe had been the designated successor to the greater throne of Mesilim (DjedkareIsesi). Ur-Nanshe assumed the similar sounding name of Unas in Egypt. Judging from the vain boasting of Unas in the Pyramid Texts mentioned above, he had something to prove. He was the first pharaoh in many generations who did not possess absolute power over the "four quarters of the world." The third pharaoh of the 6th Dynasty, Pepi, called his pyramid Mn-nefer, "Pepi is established and good."o The architectural wonder of Eannatum, third king of the Lagash Dynasty in Mesopotamia, was a grand canal, which he dubbed "Lummagimdug, 'Good (?)- like-Lumma,' Lumma being Eannatum's Tidnum name."p Eannatum re-enforced the boundary with Umma and allowed the king of Umma to cultivate the border region in exchange for payment. This seems to have amounted to a socially acceptable form of tribute, as Eannatum (Pepi I) was clearly the dominant king of Mesopotamian and even extended his claims to Elam (protoPersia) during this time period. He also called himself the King of Kish, which traditionally signified rule over all of Sumer. For most of his 50-year reign, the co-regent of E-annatum (Pepi I) was Enannatum, who corresponds to Pepi II in Egypt. Upon the death of E-annatum, Enannatum in turn appointed Entemena as his co-regent, who corresponds to Menenre in Egypt. In Mesopotamia, Entemena (Menenre) defeated the rival king of Umma and became ruler of both Lagash and Umma. This put an end to the independent line of kings at Umma. Pepi I is presently thought by Egyptologists to have been succeeded first by Menenre and then by Pepi II. A synthesis with the Mesopotamian history indicates that Menenre was indeed appointed as pharaoh upon the death of Pepi I, however only as co-regent. He then died before Pepi II. Technically, Pepi II did not succeed Menenre, but was forced to name a new coregent to replace Menenre. (See Chart 14 for the chronology of this period.) There was possibly a short-lived prince named En-annatum (Merenre II?) who ruled alongside the elder En-annatum (Pepi II). However, the final co-regent of Enannatum can be identified as a prince named Enetarzi. Upon the death of Enannatum (Pepi II), Enetarzi then took the throne in his own right. Enetarzi may have been an elderly man upon his succession, and would have had no shortage of rivals who protested that succession after the 64-year reign of En-annatum. To help secure his authority, Enetarzi claimed the title King of Kish. In Kish proper, Enetarzi was known as Ur-Zababa (an epithet of Ninurta, patron god of Lagash).

70 According to protocol, Enetarzi/Ur-Zababa also established his dynasty by appointing a co-regent of his own named Lugal-anda. Little record of Lugal-anda's tenure at Lagash has been found. It seems likely that this prince was required by an unsettled Ur-Zababa to resign his post in Lagash and accept the lesser domain of neighboring Umma. In Umma, this "disgraced" prince became known as Lugalzaggesi.. He was replaced as ensi of Lagash (and as co-regent) by another prince named Urukagina. Sargon, the Water Boy who would be Lord of the Seas It was at this time that Ur-Zababa and Urukagina were both attacked and defeated by the angry Lugalzaggesi of Umma. Lugalzaggesi destroyed Kish. He also sacked Lagash and spoiled her temples. During the twenty or so year reign of Lugalzaggesi bitterness over the desecration of Kish and Lagash began to fester. It was at least a convenient justification for another rival prince to begin plotting the overthrow of the usurper. While Lugalzaggesi was away, the capital was seized by an interloper named Sargon. When the unsuspecting Lugalzaggesi returned, Sargon overwhelmed his personal forces and led him away in a collar to be harangued by royalty and commoners alike.q The assumed name Sar-gon (Sharru-ken) connotes "ruler (by/of) right(eousness)/ knowledge/judgment." In Egyptian terms, Sargon was claiming to be the "true Horus," the rightful heir to kingship. Horus the Younger, the "legitimate" but persecuted heir of Osiris, had been secreted away in the Egyptian marshland by Isis. Horus the Elder was even earlier hid by his mother Hathor to protect him from an aggressive but less worthy rival. In identification, Sargon recorded that he also had been placed in a reed basket as an infant and hidden by his mother in the river. In the same inscription, Sargon states that he did not know his natural father. It can be inferred that he did not know him personally, because his father was of a collateral and rival royal line. His father and his father's kinsmen were certainly not unknown. Sargon named his "adoptive" or legal father as "Akki, drawer of water," that is, a royal steward in charge of irrigation works. Sargon does not name his own mother, but simply refers to her as a "changeling." This word can be translated as "high priestess." However, the title has a deeper meaning that connects to the nature of Sargon's birth and character. Although Sargon was not raised by his real father, he was not necessarily born out of wedlock. In the tradition of the ancient royal court, a "barren" wife could discretely consort with one or more close male relatives in order to produce an heir for her husband. The mother of Sargon was compelled to "change" sexual partners. As a result, she was venerated by Sargon as an Inanna (Isis-Ishtar) figure. Inanna became the patron goddess of Sargon and his dynasty. So much so that the dynasty of Sargon was called the "Dynasty of Ishtar." The adjective changeling could be interpreted as "possessing a unique or unusual physical trait." There was probably "something different" about this woman. Alternatively, changeling may suggest "agent or proponent of change."

71 Inanna/Ishtar was the goddess of impudence, rebellion, change and innovation. Sargon was a "son of Ishtar" who "rebelled" against his master. He would bring sweeping changes to the Middle East and to kingship. He also changed the capital from Lagash and Kish to a new city called Agade. The temple of Ishtar was the most prominent one of Agade. The dynasty of Sargon was noted not only for the construction of a new capital, but for changes in administration, agriculture, language, religion and especially warfare. The population of Mesopotamia was growing rapidly. At the same time, the region was becoming more arid and the soil was losing its fertility. Only innovation could rescue a society on the verge of collapse. Sargon began his career as an engineer over irrigation works. However, his wars would ultimately do more to alleviate the problems of over-crowding. During his reign, Sumerian was replaced with the Akkadian language as the lingua franca. Sumerian language remained important in the royal court, however Sargon viewed the former culture of Sumer with some contempt. According to his own autobiography, the young Sargon did not seem destined to be anything other than a glorified water boy. In the modest account of his origins, Sargon tells us that his legal guardian Akki appointed him as "gardener." In the Sumerian king-list, the "father" of Sargon was also called a gardener.r Like father, like son. However in this humble station, Sargon somehow caught the eye and favor of his majesty Ur-Zababa, King of Kish. Ur-Zababa duly appointed Sargon to be his personal "drawer of water," that is the Royal Cupbearer. With the mention of his royal title in the Sumerian king-list, the "rags to riches" autobiography of Sargon ceases to hold water. Commoners were rarely if ever appointed to official posts. They certainly did not rise to positions with intimate access to the king of Kish, who was the nominal "king of the world." The mother and adoptive father of Sargon were part of the immediate family of this lofty king. Sargon was a bona fide prince from birth. Sargon was an assumed epithet. There is only one record of his princely name. It is found on a tablet written by a scribal apprentice as a school exercise.s The assignment of this student was to list the various priest-kings of Lagash and summarize their great irrigation works. It preserved a most valuable succession list within the dynasty of Sargon. Akki, the adoptive father of Sargon, is named as A-kigal-a-gub-a. This name connotes "water reservoir," or "director of irrigation" (from the Sumerian roots: a - "water"; ki -"ground/earth"; gal - "big/great"; and gub - "to stand").t Sargon was the legal son of "Steward Aki." Sargon himself was named on the tablet as Ningirsu-ki-ag, "beloved (of the god) Ningirsu. Ningirsu (Lord Girsu) was the local name of the god Ninurta/Nergal at Lagash. Sargon Dynasty Akki Sargon Kings of Lagash A-ki-gal-a-gub-a (Urukagina) Ningirsu-ki-ag

72 Rimush Manishtutshu Naram-Sin Gudea Enlile-ki-ag Ur-Bau (not named as an ensi of Lagash) Gudea

Akki, the father of Sargon, was likely an elder brother or male relative of the king. In Akkadian (and later Hebrew), the name Aki or Akki would have connoted "brotherly or brother of." In fact, difficulty in producing an heir may have spoiled Akki's own bid to be king. Instead, he had to content himself with the role of tanist, i.e., the "twin" or "double" or the king. By the time Sargon was born, a younger prince had already fathered a son and thereby "stole the birthright." It is a frequently reoccurring theme in the royal court. What made this instance special was the trouble to which Akki and his wife were willing to go to in order to finally gain an heir. The namesakes of the Sargon dynasts not only honored former kings of Lagash, but also of Umma.u This is another indication that the biological father of Sargon was not among the princes of Lagash, but of Umma. It would have been a factor against Sargon as a young prince. However, the mixed lineage worked to his advantage later in life when he assumed the role of unifier. As a scion of two rival houses, Sargon was better able to build a coalition. Putting two and two together, Akki the adoptive father of Sargon, that is, ensi Aki, must have also been known as ensi Urukagina,v the designated heir or tanist of UrZababa of Kish. Prior to the coup of Lugalzaggesi, his own legal son and heir Sargon would have been a leading candidate for the greater throne. The assumed name of Sargon ("rightful ruler") is generally considered to be propaganda, but it now becomes evident that it was not unfounded. Sargon was being groomed to succeed his father as ensi of Lagash. Ur-Zababa had also taken the young prince under his wing, and made him Royal Cupbearer. The title given to Sargon in the backwater of Egypt was not nearly as understated. There he was made the rightful ruler of an entire province or nome, i.e., a nomarch. In Egypt, Sargon assumed the name of Inyotef (A). At the great temple of Karnak in Egypt, this Inyotef was the earliest to be venerated in the "Hall of Ancestors."w On the other hand, the Akkadian rulers of Mesopotamia recalled a king named Tudiya as their great ancestor. The name Tudiya means "Beloved or Born of God." The name Inyotef is generally not translated by Egyptologists. However, it means "Born (literally, spit out) of Yo." Inyotef is easily recognizable as an Egyptian transliteration of the Akkadian name Tudiya. The Hebrew roots tef and tud are synonymous, and mean "cherished." These roots are also equivalent to the name of Sargon at Lagash, Ningirsu-kiag, "Beloved (of) Ningirsu." Tudiya is therefore an epithet of Sargon/Ningirsu-kiag and the source of his Egyptian name Inyotef. As mentioned above, Sargon does not name is own father, only his legal guardian Akki. He also does not name his own mother (Ittibel?), but calls her a "changeling." In Egypt, the father of Inyotef (legal or otherwise) is not known. Instead, Inyotef is singularly distinguished as the son of the high-ranking princess Ikui.

73 Spilling a River of Blood, Drowning in a Whirlpool After humbling Lugal-zaggesi, Sargon and a younger son named Rimush recaptured Lagash and the other leading cities of Sumer. Rimush was first made ensi of Lagash. When he was appointed as co-regent of Sargon in Mesopotamia, his "older brother" Manishtushu-Irba3 (Ur-Bau) was possibly then designated as his tanist and given the title ensi of Lagash. It was Ur-Bau4 who first began restoration of Lagash, however he eventually departed with many ships and men for "Magan and Meluhha." In his classic work, The Sumerians, Samuel Noah Kramer notes that in the preceding Sumerian period, these were lands of the Nile, i.e., Egypt and Ethiopia. They were again considered to be such in the 1st Century BC. However, during the intervening period of the great Akkadian ("Semitic") dynasties of Mesopotamia in the 2nd Century BC, scholars presently associate Magan with the lower Persian Gulf and Meluhha with the Indus Valley. Kramer disagreed and passionately argued that a consistent identification of these regions should apply throughout ancient times. Consequently, Kramer believed that the conquest of Egypt and Ethiopia was undertaken by Sargon and his dynasty.x Magan and Meluhha can also be associated with Egypt and Ethiopia on linguistic grounds.5 Charts 14 & 15 show the relationship between the Sargon Dynasty and the Egyptian 11th Dynasty. Manishtushu sailed beyond the Persian Gulf and defeated 32 kings in battle.y By virtue of his triumph, Manishtushu assumed the pharaonic name Montuhotep (I), and called himself Tepy-aa, "The First One." He was indeed the first one of Sargon's dynasty to become a pharaoh. He appointed his son as his co-regent, and also gave him the Egyptian name of Montuhotep (II). It was the second Montuhotep who consolidated both Upper and Lower Egypt, after which he appended a new epithet to his throne name, "Uniter of the Two Lands." At least part of the conquest of Egypt must have occurred in Sargon's own lifetime, as he boasted that the ships of Magan and Meluhha moored at his capital city Agade. Although he was remembered for having united Egypt, Montuhotep II caused division back in Mesopotamia. The story is preserved in Judges 3:15-31, where Montuhotep II is called Ehud, meaning "Uniter." After conquering Egypt, Montuhotep II declared his independence from Mesopotamia and burned his bridges behind him. The statue of Montuhotep II represents a man of imposing size and strength. His uncle Rimush (Montuhotep A) was in his younger days a mighty champion and military hero. However, as his empire expanded, he also became great in girth. In the Judges account, Rimush (Ri-mu) is called Eglon, meaning "vitulant," i.e., calf-like or rotund.z Eglon was king of Moab, which in those days referred to the "Father-Land" of Mesopotamia, and not the Trans-Jordan. On a trip back home, Ehud presented his tribute to Eglon. He then returned to deliver a personal message, as though he had forgotten to tell the king of some urgent matter before leaving. Having already received the tribute of Ehud, the reassured Eglon sent away his attendants. Ehud then revealed to Eglon a long dagger, which was urgently thrust through Eglon's bulging belly! After killing Eglon (Rimush), Ehud (Montuhotep II) quickly fled to Canaan, where he had

74 the protection of his own army and a secure kingdom. From there, the Book of Judgesaa indicates that Ehud was able to dominate "Moab" for a long time. A Mesopotamian record speaks obliquely of Rimush, referring to him as the one "whom his servants killed with their tablets."ab The particular servant who killed him turns out to be the son of Manishtushu. However, the above phrase indicates that propaganda carved out by the scribal pen was mightier than Ehud's sword in destroying the legacy of Rimush and his reign. It also suggests a larger conspiracy against him. Rimush was not succeeded by a true son, or by the "twin" Manishtushu-Irba. Rather, a younger brother Naram-Sin was elevated to the greater throne in Mesopotamia. Naram-Sin may not have acted in concert with the son of Ur-Bau, but he was the beneficiary. The daughter of Ur-Bau was eventually removed as high priestess in Ur. However, Ur-Bau apparently remained the nominal ensi of Lagash. Naram-Sin was eventually able to mount successful campaigns as far west as the Mediterranean Sea and into the Taurus Mountains of modern day Turkey. On the island of Cyprus he was proclaimed a god. To the north he subdued Armenia, and to the east he annexed Elam. Naram-Sin was then able to turn his attention to Ur-Bau (Manishtushu) and his rebel son. One would think that the assassin Montuhotep II would have been the primary object of his revenge. However, this may not have been the case. Manishtushu (Montuhotep I) may have been the target instead. In his inscriptions, Naram-Sin claimed to have captured the king of Egypt, who is variously called Manium and Mannu-Dannu. These names could refer equally to Manishtushu or his son.6 Man is a variant of Mon or Montu.ac Dan or Dannu means "Judge." The lot of Manishtushu and his heir was to rule or judge Magan and Meluhha as "servants" to the greater throne. Ehud is one of the first judges of Israel mentioned in the Book of Judges. In a chronological sense, he was the first along with his father. Possibly both Montuhotep's were either captured or killed by Naram-Sin. The same enigmatic account mentioned above in connection with the death of Rimush speaks of Manishtushu as he "whom his palace killed."ad Presumably, the killing of Manishtushu in his palace was carried out by order of Naram-Sin. After disposing of Manishtushu (Montuhotep I), Naram-Sin became pharaoh in Egypt under the name of Inyotef (I). Naram means "beloved," therefore Inyotef (as a transliteration of Tudiya, "Beloved of God") was the expected choice.ae Inyotef had also been the Egyptian name of Sargon. An inscription of Naram-Sin boasts that he quarried stones in Magan (Egypt) and carried back other spoils from his campaign. From this moment forward, he referred to himself as "the divine NaramSin, the mighty, the god of Akkad, king of the four quarters."af It was a status that he would not vaunt for long. Despite, or inspite, of his self-deification, Naram-Sin was overthrown suddenly by a horde of mountain men from the north. Mesopotamian King-List Sargon / Tudiya Egyptian King-List Inyotef A ("The Ancestor")

75 Rimush / Adamu Manishtushu / Manishtu Ur-Bau Namaghami? Naram-Sin Gudea Ur-Ningirsu Ugme Nam-hani Montuhotep A Montuhotep I / Manium Tepy-ya, "The First One" Montuhotep II / Mannu-Dannu? Inyotef I Inyotef II Inyotef III Montuhotep III Amenemhet I

The Guti, as these people were called, did not descend upon Naram-Sin from the Zagros Mountains on their own accord. They were marshaled there by Gudea, a younger brother or half-brother of Naram-Sin. Gudea was not a noble savage. He was no more Gutian than Gulliver was a Lilliputian. It would not even be proper to call him a noble. He was a pure blooded royal. He was a younger son of Sargon and the son-in-law of the murdered Ur-Bau. The Guti tribe had earlier been subdued by Sargon (who was himself repeating the exploit of Lugal-annemundu/Nimrod). From that time forward, the kings of the Sargon Dynasty ruled over the Guti, and assumed Gutian names. In the case of Gudea, his name was so similar to the tribe name of Guti that it probably was not necessary for him to adopt a Gutian name, per se. Like the man himself, the name Gudea is both short and extremely rich. His name would have had a natural appeal to Gutians. It was equally winsome to both Sumerian and Akkadian speakers. One Sumerian scholar defines Gu-dea as "the one who is called to power"ag Within the multi-lingual royal court, gu-dea (deo) would also signify "(the one who is ) proclaimed (as) God," or in a Biblical sense, declared to be Israel. The name probably reflected the newly won status of Sargon at the birth of this son, however Gudea made both the name and the title his own.ah Taken as Gu-de-a, the name suggests "Verbosity."ai If archaeology is any indication, Gudea was a prolific communicator. Two cylinder scrolls containing almost 1400 lines of text commemorate the painstaking process and intense passion with which Gudea built and dedicated the main temple of Lagash in Girsu. It is the lengthiest of all surviving Sumerian texts.aj Another Sumerologist interprets the name Gudea as something akin to "prophet."ak The "Guda" was an important type of Sumerian priest. Broken down as Gud-e-a, this name connotes "Rampaging Bull."al This interpretation reflects the rage with which Gudea led the Gutian horde against Naram-Sin. Gudea is also very similar in form to the Akkadian names Tudiya and Dudu, both meaning "beloved of God." An even more liberal translation would be as a hybrid Sumerian-Akkadian name, that is, Gud-ea, "Bull of Ea." Ea/Enki was called the "Bull of Eridu." In Egypt, the sacred bull of Ptah (Ea/Enki) was the renowned Apis Bull. At this time, a transition from Sumerian to Semitic language was taking place. The Susa monument of Manishtu(shu)-Irba, father-in-law of

76 Gudea, was inscribed "in a language which is a mixture of Sumerian and Semitic." It was also in the form of pyramid and made from Egyptian diorite (see Endnote 3). The death of Montuhotep I (Ur-Bau) and/or Montuhotep II was avenged by his sonin-law Gudea. At least this would have been one justification for the coup. Once in power in Mesopotamia, Gudea also usurped the Egyptian name of his vanquished predecessor, Inyotef.am He is known today as Inyotef II. Just as Naram-Sin had done, he brought back diorite stone from Magan (Egypt) for use in his own monuments. Gudea rebuilt at least 16 temples in his beloved district of Girsu. In addition to stone from Egypt, he gathered exotic and precious materials from many other locations. Sadly almost nothing remains other than the seals and a number of the statues of Gudea that were carved from the diorite of Egypt. Experts are divided in their opinion of the artistic excellence of the statues. To some they are considered bland, others call them exquisite.7 Those who depreciate the quality of the statuary likely do so because Gudea is presently not considered to have been a Sumerian prince, but a barbarian with unknown antecedents.

a. www-etcsl.orient.ox.ac.uk/section2/tr211.htm b. Djoser (variants Zoser and Zeser) is the popular Egyptian name of the Biblical Mizraim, the brother of Cush (Horus-Aha/Scorpion). See Chapter 4 for discussion and notes. The Egyptian 1st Dynasty only contains two unique names, that of Aha (Cush) and Semerkhet (Shem). The other 1st Dynasty kings are listed under alternate names in the 3rd and 4th Dynasty king-lists. See Chart 14 for the chronology of the early dynastic period in Egypt. c. "The Tradition of Seven Lean Years in Egypt," from the Drought Stela (Ptolemaic Period), Ancient Near Eastern Texts, James B. Pritchard, ed., p 31. d. Ecclesiastes 1:9-11 (NIV). The philosophy of Ecclesiastes is connected to the Egyptian notion of neheh, cyclical time. Until the Egyptian 19th Dynasty, it was believed that all things were destined to repeat. For an expanded definition of neheh, see Jan Assmann,The Mind of Egypt, pp 18, 242-246. See also Meeks and Favard-Meeks, Daily Life of the Egyptian Gods, p 19. e. Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, p 69. f. Huni ("Smiter") is the name of Narmer in the 3rd Dynasty king-list. The reign of Huni/Narmer was contemporary with that of a half-brother Snofru, who possibly also became his son-in-law and the father of his successor. g. Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, p 70. h. The Stairway to Heaven, pp 256-282; The Wars of Gods and Men, pp 136-7. i. Miroslav Verner, The Pyramids, pp 217-223.

77 j. The Hebrew epithet dod means "loved one." k. Daniel 10:13,20 l. See Romans 8:28; Ephesians 3:10, 6:12; Colossians 1:16, 2:15. m. kak ~ usi = support/strength n. Ish-me = Me-ish ~ me-shi/mesi o. Peter Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, p 66. p. S.N. Kramer, The Sumerians, p 55. q. S.N. Kramer, The Sumerians, p 59. r. www-etcsl.orient.ox.ac.uk/section2/tr211.htm s. "Rulers of Lagash." www-etcsl.orient.ox.ac.uk/section2/tr212.htm t. See on-line Sumerian Lexicon by John A. Halloran, www.sumerian.org u. The throne names of the immediate successors of Sargon, viz., Rimush and Manishtushu, both point back to Ush, the aggressive founder of the Umma Dynasty. v. There is at least some phonic resemblance between Sharuken (Sargon) and the name Urukagena. (uruk ~ sharuk; ken ~ gen/gena/gina) w. Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, p 143. x. S.N. Kramer, The Sumerians, pp 276-288. y. S. N. Kramer, The Sumerians, p 61. z. Compare the Sumerian root mu, meaning "fattened." aa.Judges 3:30 bb.Lost Civilizations, Sumer: Cities of Eden, p 124, by the editors of Time-Life Books, Alexandria, Virginia. cc. The Semitic Rim/Aram/Man are closely related to the Egyptian Montu. dd.Lost Civilizations, Sumer: Cities of Eden, p 124. ee.Naram might also connote N'aram, "serpent-king of the mountains." Also, compare Nar and na'ar, "overthrow." ff. Lost Civilizations, Sumer: Cities of Eden, pp 124-5. gg.Lost Civilizations, Sumer: Cities of Eden, p 139. hh.See Chapter 7 for further discussion of Gudea. ii. "Flowing speech" from gu, "throat, eat, swallow, speak" and de-a, "to pour" jj. S. N. Kramer, The Sumerians, p 67. kk. Jean Bottero, Mesopotamia, p 295. ll. "Breaking out (of the) Bull" from gud, "bull" and e-a, "emerge, take out" (See on-line Sumerian Lexicon by John A. Halloran, www.sumerian.org) mm. The name Gudea is an obvious variant of the Akkadian name Tudiya/Dudu, which is in turn equivalent to the Egyptian Inyotef.

Note 1:

78 Lab-asher, "happy mouth, labor, fairness?" or "black and white?" i.e. mixed? leb, heart, flame Lab, "white" or Leb, "heart, flame." leb (3820) the heart, wisdom laban (3835) to be (or become) white; also (as denom. from 3843) to make bricks. lebenah (3843) a brick (from the whiteness of the clay) labash (3847) wrap around, i.e. (by impl.) to put on a garment or clothe (oneself, or another), lit or fig. libhyethen (Spelling from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language) or livyathan (3882) from 3867 a wreathed animal, i.e. a serpent (espec. the crocodile or some other large sea-monster); fig. the constellation of the dragon; also as a symbol of Bab.:-- leviathan, mourning. lavah (3867) prop. to twine, i.e. (by impl.) to unite, to remain; also to borrow (as a form of obligation) or (caus.) to lend Lubbiy (3864) to thirst, i.e. a dry region asher (833) aw-share'; or ashar , aw-shar'; to be straight (used in the widest sense, espec. to be level, right, happy); fig. to go forward, be honest, prosper osher, o'sher; from 833; happiness, happy. ashur (838) from 833 in the sense of going; a step Cf The Step Pyramid of Djoser Cf Ser/Asar, Osiris Other connotations of the roots Esh/Ish/Ash would be "out pour" (793), "to flow out" (7640), to "grow out" (7641, 7644), to "branch out from" (7640), "foundation" (787, 803), "sacrifice" (801) "step forth/out" (838), "split into a forked tongue as a flame" (7632), "seventh" (7637), "black" (Ashur), and (784) "burning, fiery, flaming, hot." Lab-Ashur would connote black and white, i.e., mixed or inter-racial. Djoser is sometimes written as Zoser. Compare Zoser and zohar (6713) to dazzle; sheen, i.e. whiteness:-- white Note 2:

79 The Middle Kingdom pharaohs built mud brick pyramids, a few of which have also been carbon dated. Quoting from an article written by members of the David H. Koch Pyramids Radiocarbon Project: "Two samples from mud bricks and mud layers on the ruined core of the pyramidof Amenemhet I produced dates more than 800 years younger than the end of his reign in 1962 B.C. As Dieter Arnold of the Metropolitan Museum later informed us, there was settlement from Dynasty 13 through the New Kingdom Ramesside Period (Dynasties 19 and 20) at this pyramid. Here the radiocarbon dating gives a loud and clear signal of a mistaken sampling - apparently these two samples were material from the later settlement." See, "Dating the Pyramids," Archaeology, Sept/Oct '99, p 31. www.archaeology.org The "apparently mistaken" samples of the Koch study were actually quite consistent with the chronology proposed here. It was necessary for Koch et.al. to conclude that a later settlement at or near the site was responsible for material that was on the pyramid itself. The article goes on to say that they had "better luck" with straw samples taken from the pyramid of Senusret II. Samples were also taken from the pyramid of Amenemhet III, however the article does not mention any dates that may have been determined for this material. The only thing that comes across "loud and clear" is that the established chronology is so far off from reality that scientific dating cannot be reasonably conducted. Researchers are forced to throw out the good samples and collect a "statistically significant" group of "false" readings. This is a challenge in itself. However, to do otherwise would guarantee academic ridicule and possible discrediting. Note 3: Inscription linking the names Manishtu-shu and Ur-Bau www.noteaccess.com/Texts/OAntiquities/Sa.htm Memoires de la Mission, vol i., p l. ix.
Dlgation en Perse, Memories publis sous la direction de M. J. de Morgan, dlgu-gnral (quarto, Leroux, editeur, Paris, 1905)

Note 4: "Bau was a goddess worshipped almost exclusively at Lagash." (J. Black and A. Green, Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia, p 39) More precisely, Bau would have been the name of Ninti/Ninhursag used almost exclusively at Lagash.

80 Ba-u, meaning "fertile, provider," was the local name of Ninhursag at the city of Lagash where she was considered the consort of her son Zababa (Ninurta), patron god of Lagash. See ANET, pp 165, 533 Bau in Egyptian is the plural of Ba, the deceased soul. Manium could be interpreted as the plural of Mane, the deceased soul. "Land of Thoth," "state of the spirits/deceased," Egypt was burial place of gods and god-kings. Compare the Biblical Kirjaith Arba, "city of Arba" and Irba (Manishtushu) Note 5: Magan magen (4043) maw-gane'; from 1598; a shield (i.e. the small one or buckler); fig. A protector; also the scaly hide of the crocodile:-- x armed, buckler, defence, ruler, + scale, shield. magan (4042) maw-gan'; a denom. From 4043; prop. to shield; encompass with; fig. to rescue, to hand safely over (i.e. surrender):-- deliver meginnah (4044) a covering (in a bad sense), i.e. blindness or obduracy:-- sorrow. migereth (4045) reproof (i.e. curse):-- rebuke. maggephah (4046) a pestilence; by anal. defeat:-- (x be) plague(-d), slaughter, stroke. Meluhha milluah (4396) mil-loo-aw'; fem. of 4394; a filling , i.e. setting (of gems):-- inclosing, setting. millu (4394) mil-loo'; from 4390; a fulfilling (only in plur.), i.e. (lit.) a setting (of gems), or (techn.) consecration (also concr. a dedicatory sacrifice):-- consecration, be set. mala (4390) maw-law'; to fill be at an end, be expired, be fenced, replenish, satisfy, set Ethiopia was considered the furthest extent of the "world" in which they had been commanded to "replenish," i.e., refill with their own descendants.

81 Mizraim (4714) dual of 4693; Mitsrajim, i.e., fortresses, defenses, figuratively Egypt. Matsuwr (4693) maw-tsore'; the same as 4692 in the sense of a limit; Egypt (as the border of Pal.):-- besieged places, defense, fortified. Note 6: Mannu-dannu, king of Egypt." Dan means "judge," and this is possibly why Ehud is named as one of the first judges of Israel. Variously called Manium. The name Manium is rich in meaning. Mannu-Dannu (Montu the Judge) men (4482) mane; to apportion; a part manah (4490) maw-naw'; division/lot/portion Cf meniy (4507) apportioner Dan (1835) dawn; from (1777); judge duwn (1777) doon; to rule; by impl. to judge (as umpire); also to strive (as at law):-contend, execute (judgment), judge, minister judgment, plead (the cause), at strife, strive. Note 7: Information and Images of Gudea on the Web: http://www.dia.org/collections/ancient/mesopotamia/82.64A.html (Gudea of Lagash) http://www.hp.uab.edu/image_archive/ue/ueg.html (Classical Agade) http://www.louvre.fr/anglais/collec/ao/ao3293/ao_f.htm (Seated statue of Gudea, prince of Lagash) http://www.kajima.co.jp/prof/culture/freud/collection/me02.html (Mesopotamian votive 'nail' with the name of Gudea) http://www.piney.com/BabRulLagash.html (Rulers of Lagash) http://www.utexas.edu/courses/classicalarch/readings/Ningirsu.html (The Building of Ningirsu's Temple) http://www.sbmuseart.org/collection/antiquities/headOfGudea.html (Head of Gudea) http://www.ianlawton.com/mes4.htm (Guide to Sumerian Texts) http://www.freehomepages.com/maddie/(Lagash) http://iws.ccccd.edu/Andrade/WorldLitI2332/SlidesofMesopotamia.html (Slides of Mesopotamia)

82 Gudea in Classical Mesopotamian Studies: Samuel Noah Kramer, The Sumerians: Their History, Culture, and Character Hans J. Nissen, The Early History of the Ancient Near East Georges Roux, Ancient Iraq

Living in Truth:

Archaeology and the Patriarchs Chapter 6


"God is One God" (Origins of Biblical Jehovah in the Egyptian Religion of Amen)
by Charles N. Pope Copyright 1999-2002 by Charles Pope United States Library of Congress All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions

Principalities and Powers During the Old Kingdom, the "monotheism" of Re had become complete in Egypt. This god was referred to as the "Universal God," the "All-Lord," or simply as God, as if there were no other.a Re was certainly known in Mesopotamia (by the name of Marduk), but was not a leading god there during the Old Kingdom. As discussed in the previous chapter, a single family ruled over both Egypt and Mesopotamia, and evidently did not consider this to be a contradiction. The traditional deities of Anu, Enlil, Enki and Ninhursag remained supreme in Mesopotamia throughout this period.b However, toward the end of the Old Kingdom, Mesopotamia began to experience the same dry conditions that had long plagued Egypt. As Mesopotamia was increasingly stricken with disease from famine and overcrowding, Ninurta, the god of pestilence and decimation gained in importance. Ninurta was the namesake of Sargon at Lagash where he was called Ningirsu-kiag, "Beloved of Lord Girsu (Ninurta)." Reverence of Ninurta did not bring relief to drought-ridden Akkad and Sumer, therefore Sargon resorted to an even more extreme measure. After Sargon founded the new city of Agade, he decided to reestablish the cult of Marduk-Re. This was later perceived as a sin and sacrilege. It was said that the mistake of Sargon was not in honoring Marduk, but in neglecting his traditional city of Babylon. In other words, it was not the idea of re-introducing Marduk that was wrong, but how it was implemented. Rather than rebuilding the temple (the Esagil) and ziggurat (the Etemenanki) of Marduk, Sargon removed soil from Babylon and built a "new Babylon" in the precinct of Agade. In retrospect, this became the explanation for the troubles of Sargon late in his reign, and was also used to justify

83 the ultimate destruction, abandonment and curse of glorious Agade. It would not be until the time of Hammurabi in the 1st Dynasty of Babylon that the Ante-Diluvial temple and ziggurat ("Tower of Babel") of Marduk-Re were finally rebuilt.c This was undertaken by the exiled Egyptian prince Wah-ibre (Patriarch Eber), who took up residence at Babylon in identification with the god Marduk-Re, and assumed the name of Hammurabi (see Chapter 8). The pharaohs of the early Egyptian Middle Kingdom lived in "topsy-turvy" times, not only in terms of politics but weather. The traditionally moderate climate of Mesopotamia was drying out. However, in Egypt, beneficial floods were returning after 150 years of poor harvests. In response, the Dynasty of Sargon began to restore worship of the full pantheon in Egypt. The assumed Egyptian names of the 11th Dynasty pharaohs clearly indicate a change in patron deity. They did not honor the sun god Re, but the god of the waters, Ptah (Ea/Yo). They also honored Montu (Seth), which reflected the prevailing political winds of chaos and conflict. The initiative of Sargon (Inyotef A) to renew the cult of Marduk-Re in water-starved Mesopotamia was judged to be ill advised. It was aborted by the fourth king of the dynasty, Gudea (Inyotef II), along with the new city of Agade. On the other hand, the return of all the gods to Egypt was crowned with both immediate and lasting success. This took form not only in the revival of individual cults, but especially in a new cult called Amen. Amen became the namesake of four prominent 12th Dynasty pharaohs. For Thinking of Every God A hymn to Amen dating to the Egyptian 18th Dynasty reads: The Eight gods were thy first form, until thou didst complete them, being One ..." d During the 18th Dynasty, the eight gods of Egypt were: Atum-Re (Marduk), the self-created and solar god. Ptah (Ea/Enki), the artful fashioner and savior of mankind. Shu (Enlil), lord of the air, authority figure and disciplinarian. Geb (Ninurta), earth and vegetation god, known as "the heir." Montu (Set/Baal), the bellicose god, and night sky astronomer. Osiris (Dumuzi), god of wine, the slain and resurrected god. Horus the Elder (Ishkur/Adad), the god of mountains and the thunderbolt. 8. Thoth (Utu/Nabu/Ningishzidda), the god of writing, wisdom, mediation, healing, mummification, and final caretaker of the Pyramids. The theology of Amen was clarified in another text of the Egyptian 18th Dynasty. Pharaoh Hatshepsut wrote: "I have done this because ofmy loving heart for Father Amen ... My heart urged me to make for him two obelisks with tcham coverings, the pyramidions of which should pierce the sky ... I made them for him in rectitude of heart, forhe is thinking of every God."e It is not clear whether it was Amun who was thinking of every god, or if Hatshepsut, by thinking of Amun, was herself 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

84 thinking of every god. However, the effect is much the same. Amun embodied every god, and allowed the reverence of every god. Like the Biblical Jehovah (YHWH), the hidden aspect of Amun was associated with his name. "The priests of Amen claimed that there was no other god like Amen, who was the 'one one' and had 'no second.' This concept resembles that of the Hebrews, who said, 'Yahweh our God is one Lord' (Deuteronomy 6:4)"f The obelisk was primarily a solar symbol and used to make solar measurements. Amun was a solar god after Atum-Re. Hatshepsut and other rulers proudly erected obelisks at the main Temple of Amun in Karnak. As Re (Marduk), Amun was god of the "pure mountain,"g that is the pyramid. Also in the manner of Atum-Re, Amun was considered to be self-created. He was his own father and mother. This androgynous, self-created quality of Atum had earlier been made an attribute of Ptah. The newly formed cult of Amun was not exclusive, but all-inclusive. Amun originally possessed both masculine and feminine (Amunet) natures. The cult embodied all of the major gods and goddesses. In Chapters 1-3, it was demonstrated that Jehovah (Amun) included the primeval mother goddess Iusaas (Greek Gaia/Iahu). Two Biblical passages in the Book of Exodus reveal that Jehovah could on occasion be a goddess, especially Isis. In Exodus 33:17-23, the Lord who passes in review before Moses is clearly styled as a goddess.h The Lord who appears to Moses in the account of the burning bush (Exodus 3) is also a goddess, and is specifically identified as Isis, the "I am (that) I am." In both passages, the role of the goddess is played by the dominant woman in the life of Moses, that of his mother. She ruled as Queen of Egypt and was considered the living representation of the goddess Isis/Maat (See Chapter 16). Sargon and his successors were especially devoted to the goddess Isis (called Inanna in Mesopotamia). After "the four corners of the world" were once again subdued, Montu ceased to be a namesake of kings in Egypt. The popular name of Montu-hotep, "Montu is expatiated" was replaced by that of Senu-sret, "man of (the goddess) Sret." Sret was a form of Isis as an "Earth Goddess," or more specifically, goddess of the mines where precious metals and jewels were found. A new breed of king preferred to be thought of not as marauders, but as builders, craftsmen, shepherds and lovers. In the 12th Dynasty, the king name Senusret was the second most popular after that of Amen. The masculine aspect of the Amun league derived from a synthesis of eight gods. In the earlier "monotheism" of Ptah, the all-supreme deity was also conceived of as having eight forms. The Ogdoad ("group of eight") of Ptah at Memphis incorporated Ptah-Nun ("watery chaos"), Ptah-Ta-tanen ("primeval mound") and Ptah-Nefertem ("Beautiful Tem", i.e., a variant of Atum, the self-created one). Unfortunately, the names of the other five manifestations are now lost to us, so it isn't possible to know whether it included only androgynous, abstract deities, or distinctly male and female elements. There was a different Ogdoad of Ptah at the city of Khmenu in Middle Egypt. This group of eight deities also included the god Nun, however in that formulation each male deity was paired with a female counterpart. For example, the feminine aspect of Nun was called Nunet or Naunet. The female

85 complement of Amun was called Amunet. These deities were or became abstract, and emphasized the creative power of Ptah. Together, Nun and Naunet symbolized the "watery abyss," which corresponds to the Biblical "face of the deep." Amun and Amaunet, represented the invisible or "hidden" aspect of the creative process, the genetic/microscopic or "unseen hand of God." Huh and Hauhet symbolized "shapelessness," or the Biblical concept of a primeval world that was "void and without form." Kuk and Kauket stood for "darkness," which was said in the Bible to have prevailed before the speaking forth of light by God. Over time, a relatively obscure aspect of Ptah and of divine creation, namely the invisible or "hidden" aspect, became the most salient. At this juncture in history, the gods had for all practical purposes disappeared. It was necessary to derive a concept of divinity that was appropriate for the day. Surely the gods were not truly dead or gone forever. If so, then by what authority could the royal line descending from Noah continue to justify their dominion over the Earth and their enslaved brothers? Barbara Watterson writes: "The soul of Amun was supposed to be enshrined in a serpent-shaped sceptre known as Kem-at-ef (He-who-has-finishedhis-moment) which was perhaps his original fetish."i The serpent scepter was one of the accouterments of Ptah, but was also adopted by most of the other gods and goddesses. When the pantheon was refashioned and transformed into a super cult, they were collectively given the name of Amun, "The Hidden/Invisible God." Toward the end of the Age of the Gods, Thoth assumed the role of retiring Ptah as the self-created god. The Ogdoad of Khmenu became associated with Thoth rather than Ptah. As fertility gods, both Ptah and Thoth were worshipped in the form of Min-Kamutef, i.e., "Min, the Bull of his Mother." Incest between mother and son was practiced by the gods, and remained a venerated aspect of the divine in the cult of Amun. In Mesopotamia, Ptah was called Enki, the Bull of Eridu. In Egypt, the sacred bull of Ptah was called the Apis. This fertility attribute of Min was assimilated into the cult of Amun, who was likewise called Amun-Kamutef.j Amun himself was depicted as a virile young man, and sometimes with erect penis in the manner of Min. Amun was also considered to be the ba (soul) of Osiris. In the likeness of Osiris, Amun could be painted with black skin,k and was noted for his youthful vigor and beauty. In death, Amun was associated with the lotus,l a symbol of rebirth. Amun was a god of the air like Shu. The bird of Amun was the goose of Geb, known for its protective instincts. Psalms 91:4 (NIV) reads, "He will cover you with his feathers, and under his wings you will find refuge." However, there was a more sinister side of Amun. The animal of Amun, the ram, was borrowed from the cult of Montu (Seth), a god of war. With the Cross of Amun Going on Before The prominence of Seth in the rainbow coalition of Amun is somewhat of a surprise, but still consistent with the militant nature of that era. Amun, like Seth/Montu, was first and foremost a god of aggression and war. His banner

86 waved boldly in the forefront of the armies of the king. And like the Biblical Jehovah, the origins of Amun were in the military camp. The founders of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom were "wandering Aramaeans." The name Aram came to be associated with a mountainous region of NW Mesopotamia and Syria. After his eviction from Egypt, Seth/Montu became lord of Aram. The name Aram is itself synonymous with Seth/Montu. The epithet, "wandering Aramaean," then takes on the fuller meaning, "marauders of (the god) Montu." These Babylonian devotees of Aram roamed not merely in search of pasture but of conquest. They carried Aram, the god of conquest with them, and all of the other gods for good measure. The "barque of Amun" would have originally remained with the military. However, when Amun became a bureaucratic state religion, the image of the god and his shrine "dwelled" within the temple. These icons were taken on parade only twice a year during the Opet and Valley Festivals of Amun. Like the Biblical Ark of the Covenant, the barque of Amun was a holy boat. There were two versions of the barque, both of which were typically refurbished or replaced year by year. One version was smaller and could be carried by priests using long poles like the Biblical Ark. A second, larger version could actually float and transport the image of Amun over the Nile. The statue of Amen was placed amidships and within a cabin shrine. This decorative cabin shrine was a variant of the funeral chest placed in the middle of the holy boat of the god Ptah-Sokar. During observances, Ptah-Sokar was transported by his priests around the walls of the temple. The Ark of Ptah had once saved Noah. A symbolic replica now served to rescue the memory of the gods. The favor had been returned. Although the practice of parading the chest of Ptah and the image of Amun was later discontinued in Judaism, the notion that the presence of Jehovah remained within the Holy of Holies (Egyptian djeser djeseru) was not. The military chapel is shared by the major faiths even today. In the American military, Protestant, Catholic and Jewish chaplains all conduct their services under the same roof. The austerity of military life demands this kind of tolerance. Likewise, in the ancient military camp, a means was provided for each soldier to reverence and petition the god of his own choosing, and no one prays like the soldier on the eve of a battle. The concept was so popular that it was eventually decided to build permanent temples to house this inter-denominational god of the armed forces. Like Ptah, Amun was a god who listened to prayers. "It was believed that certain high-ranking gods such as Amun, who was a supreme power, and Ptah, who was a force in creation, could hear the prayers of individual persons. Special sections of the temple were reserved for persons making appeal to Amun, and we find ears carved on the surfaces of stelae dedicated to Ptah." m Amun was quickly elevated in Egypt to the status of state god. Church Serving State Although an abstract deity, Amun began to be worshipped as a personal or patron god by kings and commoners. Unfortunately, these developments caused the cult to lose its power as a unifying principal. Amun became a means of discriminating

87 between Egypt and other nations, between rival princes of Egypt, and even between one worshipper and another. Like so many revolutionary ideas, the new cult of Amen was at first liberating, but inevitably served only the needs of corrupt power. Temples became places of terror and yearning rather than science and learning. The priesthood was less about piety than politics, less about truth than triumph. The cults of the individual gods, as well as those of the goddesses, continued to exist. However, there was increasing pressure to control all religious expression for the purposes of revenue and centralization of the state. According to one tradition, the god Amun swam up the Nile from the city of Khmenu in order to found the new cult center. Amun was the name of one of the abstract deities of the Khmenu Ogdoad. Amun means "hiddenness" and symbolized the secret or invisible aspect of life and creation. The name of Amun likely did derive from the Ogdoad of Khmenu in Middle Egypt. Amun was at first "one of eight" abstract deities comprising the Khmenu Ogdoad of Ptah. However, Amun was later reformulated as the god who was "eight in one." Moreover, this new and separate cult of Amun was said to have been "born in Nubia," not at Khmenu. It was evidently in Nubia that the militant Middle Kingdom founders seized upon the new religious concept. Although the first stone chapel dedicated to Amun was probably built in Thebes, the birth of the cult within the army tent was remembered. An important temple of Amun at Napata of Nubia (in modern day Sudan) was eventually constructed. In Napata, Amun was called Amun-the-Bull, Lord of Nubia. At the beginning of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom, what would become the Temple of Amun at Karnak was then only a small and probably neglected shrine of Ptah. The Temple of Montu was the dominant one of the region, as Upper Egypt was traditionally the domain of Seth/Montu. This temple of Montu was located less than 15 km upstream from Karnak on the opposite side of the Nile. The rapid growth of the new temple of Amun at Karnak did not create a conflict. Ptah and Seth were the two most prominent gods in the Amun godhead. At this time, there would have been no opposition between Amun and Montu. In the temple of Amen, Seth was at peace with Osiris and all of the other deities. Divide and Conquer, Conquer and Divide In the 18th Dynasty, pharaoh Amenhotep II recorded on his Sphinx stela: "The strength of Mont is in hisAmun's limbs." n Earlier, Thutmose III wrote at Karnak that this strength was extended to him as king in battle.o However, later in that same dynasty, political infighting led to a bloody and bitter war between royal family members who were divided in their allegiance to these cults. Proximity of the two temples ultimately did breed contempt. The pharaohs of the 19th Dynasty who ruled from the Delta attempted to reconcile Amun and Seth, and also the god Re. However, there remained an undercurrent of hatred in Thebes. The Karnak temple of Amun remained a ready and willing vessel for those princes who desired a return to the dominance of Upper Egypt.

88 During the Egyptian New Kingdom, Amun was provided with a consort Mut, and a divine heir named Khonsu. Mut and Khonsu were also rather abstract in nature, and were probably also composite deities, as was Amun. Mut would have assimilated Amunet, the feminine side of Amun. Mut, which meant "mother," also represented the generic mother goddess, and logically embodied Tefnut, the great "Mother of the Gods." Compatible with Amun, Mut was a goddess of war, as were the goddesses Hathor, Neith, Isis and Nephthys. Mut was symbolized by the vulture of Nekhbet-Hathor, known for its large wing span and nurturing qualities. Mut was a sky goddess like Nut. Mut was also characterized variously as a cow like Hathor, a cat like Bastet, or a lion like Sekhmet. Mut was adorned with the feather of truth and the ankh ("life") symbol, which were also associated with the goddess Maat (a form of Isis). Mut was sometimes shown with male genitalia, and suggests that many of the royal women, such as Hatshepsut, may have been hermaphrodites (See Chapter 14). In the birth temple (mammisi) at Philae in Nubia, Amun-Re represents the king, probably Ptolemy III, which is typical. However, the queen is characterized by Isis rather than the expected Mut. In this temple, Isis is also called by Mut's own title, "Mother of the Gods." p Khonsu son of Amun was "adopted" by Mut, as Isis had adopted Horus. The divine child Khonsu was depicted with the side-lock of a youth. He is primarily associated with Thoth-Min as a god of the moon, fertility and conception, and especially healing. However, as the "heir" of composite Amun, he may have separated out the functions of all the junior male deities, including Geb, Horus, Seth and Osiris. The triad formed with Mut and Khonsu allowed Amun to be addressed more purely as "Father," as did Hatshepsut in the inscription cited above. One World, One King, One God This cavalier and artificial mixing and matching of deities is a clear indicator that these beings were no longer considered to be living or active. Gods who under their own power had roamed widely and freely throughout the world were now content to live in solitary confinement and to be carried about by priests. Their moment was finished, their day in the sun was done. However, designer cults were perpetuated as a matter of tradition and superstition. Fear of the gods continued to fill an important need and hold a powerful grip over both rulers and subjects. Approval of the gods was necessary in all things. Actions had to be justified, or at least rationalized. All effects had to have a cause. Misfortune was the result of sin, therefore a guilty party had to be identified and punished. The gods were no longer manifest without. But they could still speak from within the temple, from within the hidden elements of nature, and from within the recesses of the mind. Priests and parishioners used a variety of methods, including musical incantation, ecstatic dance and drug-induced hallucinations to elicit "dreams and visions" of the gods. Many of these rites had been practiced by the gods themselves and were cultivated again after their departure. In the ignorance

89 of later times, little if anything would have been accomplished, but it temporarily freed the soul and cleared the conscience. As the royal court grew in sophistication, the immature and barbaric exploits of their divine predecessors would have become increasingly repugnant and embarrassing, especially when comparable results could no longer be achieved. Although possessing great knowledge and physical prowess, gods and goddesses often carried on in the most uncouth manner. They accepted the worship of "mortals," but they themselves seem to have had no other role model than rude nature itself. The hallowed members of the pantheon (Biblical Elohim) often did not behave as an old and sagacious race, but exhibited extreme human emotions often to their disgrace. They are characterized in Mythology less as patient parents and more as child prodigies playing a new game, running amuck and making up the rules as they go along. They were on a wild ride of discovery -experimenting with wine one day and fire on the next. Rivalry on occasion led to cruelty and even murder. The more senior deities rarely intervened until the damage was done, and were just as often the instigators. The pattern of recurring rivalry among the gods was later played out with each successive generation of mortal kings. Because of their far shorter life cycles, emulation of the gods was an extremely destructive model for men. It brought continual intrigue, warfare and suffering. It was inevitable that they would emulate their divine ancestors, whether prohibited from doing so by the departing gods or not. How could they be expected to do as the gods had said and not as they had done? Tragically, even the best efforts of kings and queens were a poor and pathetic imitation of what had been done in the age of the gods. It was gradually and painfully realized that it behooved men to seek a higher standard than the one set by their derelict gods. Individually, the gods and goddesses were self-centered and capable of vicious aggression. However, they also exhibited a childlike capacity for mercy, forgiveness and reconciliation. Taken collectively, the pantheon could still achieve a sense of balance and sound judgment. Through redeeming his wayward gods, man was attempting to elevate himself. The time had come for a god of man's creation, and one made in his own idealized image. Euphemism and abstraction in theology began immediately after the Deluge with respect to the god Ptah. It was declared that the gods and goddesses had not been conceived by masturbation of Atum, but in the mind of Ptah. Creation was visualized as something more than a crude physical act. It was the result of intelligent determination. From the perspective of the Creator, it did not require sperm or even spittle but only the spoken word to issue living things into the material world. There is no indication that the individual members of the ancient pantheon recognized any omniscient power or presence. Yet, Amun was ultimately transformed into the Biblical Yahweh, who was not only "above all gods," but also an eternal and universal spirit without character faults or corporal needs. In Amun, the gods had been made perfect, without flaw or faux pas. Amun was not typically

90 shown in animal form, if ever.q His image was that of a man. However, in time, even a human representation was considered inappropriate. But why should the great gods need to be completed, somehow made something more than what they originally were? This transformation of flesh and blood beings into a Supreme Spirit appears to have been inspired by the need to find meaning and security - a resting place in the chaos of every generation. It was also a predictable process of generalization and simplification. In a more practical sense, the cult of Amun was ideally suited for the ancient kingship model, and was fashioned to serve the needs of that era. There could only be one rightful ruler of their world. He was seen as the image and incarnation of the one true God of the Universe. We have outgrown the notion of autocratic government, but the accompanying religious mindset remains. Judaism is now revealed as a very late form of Amunism, a highly abstract or composite "faith." Judaism only appeared to be "monotheistic" much later when the origins of the cult were lost. It is the remnant of a religion that was shaped over many centuries by both constructive and deconstructive forces. It was not set in stone until long after the Jewish elite had been removed from Egypt. It never became fully homogenized. Within the books of the Old Testament there is a great deal of variation in theology. For example, Osiris, one of the charter members of the Amun godhead, is venerated in the Book of Isaiah and in the Psalms, but denigrated by Ezekiel. The form of Amenism that was carried to Babylon into exile was highly intolerant of the individual gods and goddesses from which it was originally comprised. In later Jewish and Christian religion, it was forbidden to have a personal patron god other than Yahweh (Amen). However, it was permissible to choose a "guardian angel" from among the members of the pantheon. Rather than suppress the gods completely, they became sanitized as Archangels. Horus became the warring Michael, Geb became Gabriel, Osiris became Raphael, and Thoth became Uriel. Re and Seth were the "fallen angels" Leviathan/Belial and Lucifer/Satan.

For example, see the 10th Dynasty text, "Instruction for Merikare." S.N. Kramer, The Sumerians, p 118. H. Saggs, Babylonians, p 166. Leiden papyrus, coming from a tomb in the reign of Amenhotep III, translated by Alexandre Piankoff, Mythological Papyri, Bollingen Series XL, 3, Pantheon Books, New York, 1957, Vol I, Texts, p. 12. See commentary in Robert Temple, The Crystal Sun, p 365, and in Jan Assmann, The Mind of Egypt, p 350. e. Wallis Budge, Cleopatra's Needles and Other Egyptian Obelisks, pp 111-124, 1926, 1990 Dover Publishers, NY. See commentary in Robert Temple, The Crystal Sun, p 390. f. Anthony Mercatante, Who's Who in Egyptian Mythology, p 6. g. Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, p 339. a. b. c. d.

91 h. Moses (Akhenaten) is being compared in this passage to the Greek god Actaeon who peeped on a goddess from behind a rock. See, Michael Astour, Hellenosemitca, p 164. See also, commentary by Jonathan Kirsch in Moses: A Life, pp 259-261. i. Barbara Watterson The Gods of Egypt, p 136. For further commentary on Amun-Kematef, see Jan Assmann, The Mind of Egypt, p 363. There is an interesting word play between the two epithets of Amun, Kamutef and Kematef. j. Nigel and Helen Strudwick, Thebes in Egypt, p 45. k. Martin Bernal, Black Athena, Vol. 2, p 172, 262. Amun was also painted with blue skin. (Heike Owusu, Symbols of Egypt, p 49) Osiris is often colored green. l. Margaret Bunson, A Dictionary of Ancient Egypt, p 20. m. Religion in Ancient Egypt, Byron Shafer, ed., pp 53-54. n. Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature, p 41. o. Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature, p 32. p. Meeks and Favard-Meeks, Daily Life of the Egyptian Gods, pp184186. q. The god Amen-Re could be depicted as a hawk-headed man.

Living in Truth:

Archaeology and the Patriarchs Chapter 7


"A Sceptre Shall Rise" (The Genesis of Israel)
by Charles N. Pope Copyright 1999-2002 by Charles Pope United States Library of Congress All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions

The Generations of Israel, the Second Adam Sargon is considered to be the first Semitic king of Mesopotamia. He took the throne at a time when the Akkadian (Semitic) language was becoming predominant both as the common tongue and in the royal court in Mesopotamia. Sargon was Semitic, however no more so than his royal predecessors. It was shown in Chapter 4 that Nimrod (Enmerkar/Narmer) was both the natural son of Cush (Agga/Aha) and the legal heir of Shem (Etana/Semerkhet). The Old Kingdom pharaohs and Mesopotamian kings who descended from Nimrod were simultaneously Hamitic and Semitic. Sargon was no exception.

92 And like Nimrod, Sargon was the son of a "barren" princess. He was sired by a rival prince on the behalf of his legal father Akki (Aki-galaguba), the priest-king of Lagash. Sargon could claim inheritance from two rival lines. Early in his life, this was not an advantage but a liability. His claim to kingship was not fully recognized. He was perceived as a threat. What should have been his by right was not attained without a fight. Sargon was big, bold and beautiful. Yet, he had at least two factors ruling against him. First of all, he was not the biological son of his father. Secondly, his father was himself probably not the true son of the reigning king, Ur-Zababa, but a brother or legal heir. In other words, Sargon was the adopted son (ben) of a tanist (yem), a "ben-yem."a By law, he was as legitimate as any other royal prince. In practice, his pedigree was a disappointment and he faced discrimination. Both his legal father and especially Ur-Zababa would have preferred to carry on their respective dynasties through a true son. They did not want to place the natural son of a rival prince upon the throne until all other options had been exhausted. Therefore, it is expected that either or both of them were still actively trying to father such a son, or considering the appointment of sons born to them through minor wives. Sargon was certainly a leading candidate for the throne, however his status was also extremely precarious. The young prince Sargon was naturally anxious for the old king Ur-Zababa to pass on. This would guarantee his father's succession, and in turn compel his father to appoint him as the next co-regent. According to the legend,b Sargon was a little too eager. He dreamed that on his own behalf Ur-Zababa was to be "drowned in a river of blood." He also had the poor judgment to boast of it to the king himself. Not surprisingly, Ur-Zababa became paranoid, and had Sargon hand deliver his own execution order. It was Lugalzaggesi of Umma who was charged with performing the unpleasant task, possibly because he was Sargon's closest blood relative.c Needless to say, the writ was not carried out. It is not possible to discern from the broken text of the story whether Sargon did not submit the dispatch, or Lugalzaggesi refused to act upon it. Irrespective, Lugalzaggesi did not fail to recognize that the disgrace of the heir apparent Sargon represented an open invitation for him to claim the throne for himself. Lugalzaggesi attacked and destroyed the cities of Kish and Lagash. He not only deposed Ur-Zababa, but also the tanist Urukagina in Lagash. (In Chapter 5, it was shown that Urukagina was likely an alternate name of Akki, who was ensi of Lagash and legal father of Sargon.)d Urukagina is the first known reformer of PostFlood civilization, and a champion of the "little guy."e The world of the Patriarchs had been nearly depopulated by the Flood and subsequent re-conquest of Nimrod. By the time of Urukagina, it was again teaming with the offspring of Noah. These descendants were not to be oppressed, but blessed. A noble society was not to be ruled by might, but by law. Nevertheless, high-minded Urukagina was brought low by Lugalzaggesi, an "old school" brute and braggart. Lugalzaggesi had not only opposed constructive change, but also crushed any dynastic hopes of Sargon. The bitterness of Sargon boiled for two decades while the pax Lugalzaggesi prospered.

93 Lugalzaggesi imposed his peace from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea. However, he was only able to secure token submission of Egyptian princes at best. In Egypt, Sargon was called Inyotef, "Born of Yo," but connoting "Beloved of Yo" to Semitic speakers. The Hebrew root tef means "beloved," and corresponds to the Egyptian root mer, as in the Egyptian name Mery-re, "Beloved of Re." It also relates to the name of Sargon at Lagash, that is, Ningirsu-kiag, "Beloved of Ningirsu/Ninurta." After the coup of Lugalzaggesi, Sargon became known as MarYamina and Ben-Yamina,f both of which have the meaning "Son of the South."g However, in Hebrew, Mar-Yamina does not connote "Son of the South," "Beloved of the South," or even "Son of the Tanist," but "Bitter, Rebellious, Terrifying Lord of the South."1 To the south of Mesopotamia the strength of Sargon continued to grow along with his resentment toward Lugalzaggesi. When Sargon deposed Lugalzaggesi, he was no longer a mere bin-yem or ben-yamina on the run. He emerged as the Biblical Benjamin, which means "Son of the Strong Hand." He proved himself to be the strongest "son" of Ur-Zababa by prevailing over all of his brothers. This royal but "red-haired step-child" broke in through the back door and seized ownership of the house. Lugalzaggesi had shown no mercy on the reformer Urukagina, nor any respect for the holy precincts of Kish and Lagash. The angry Sargon showed no mercy on him, regardless of what their blood ties might have been. Nor was he lenient with any other prince or city that resisted his rule. Sar-gon is a Semitic name. However, in Sumerian, the root gon/gun means "to swallow." Sar-gon would then connote "Lord Gulper," or Lord Bela in Hebrew. The Hebrew name Bela means "swallow, destruction" and is an obvious allusion to Bilah, the Semitic name of Nimrod used in the Sumerian king-list. Another Biblical epithet of Sargon was in fact Bela, which was also a play on the Sumerian a-bala, "drawing water" and the Sumerian ba.al, "hostility, enemies." Sargon seized power with a vengeance. By his own admission he destroyed cities. According to legend, he "caused thousands of clay tablets, engraved with timeless legends, precepts of wisdom, manuals of medicine and magic, produced by generations of scribes, to be thrown into the Euphrates."h The epithet of Bela was also shared with his co-regent, Rimush. The name of Rim-ush (Rim-u) also connotes "Destroyer" in Sumerian.i His son and heir would have campaigned with Sargon and for him. Their combined reign was known both for both constructive and intensely destructive change. In the Assyrian king-list, Sargon is named as Tudiya, "Beloved of Ya." His successor Rimush is called Adamu. Adamu is an adaptation of the Sumerian roots ri, "to beget" and ush, "a man." In the Babylonian king-list, Tudiya and his son Rimush are composited together as Tu-ub-ti-ya-mu-ta (Tudiya-muta).2 Mut means "man" and is a synonym of Adam. Collectively, the father and son combination of Sargon and Rimush were known as Bela in the Chronicles genealogies, but were dubbed as the second Adam by the author of Genesis. They were both credited with the Semiticization of Mesopotamia, and with the creation of what was later known as Israel, a federation of tribal nations in Canaan.

94 The Egyptian name of Sargon was Inyotef, "Born/Beloved of Yo," as noted above. It is a faithful rendition of the Babylonian name Tudiya, "beloved of Ya." That is, the root tef in Inyo-tef is an Egyptianized form of the Hebrew root tseph/tsaph.j In addition to "beloved," this root connotes "crowned." To a Semitic speaker, Inyotef suggests "Ruling by/as God." It is the origin of the Biblical name Israel. Another innovation of Sargon was an increased emphasis on divine kingship. Sargon did not invent the idea of divine kingship. However, he did make it more explicit. After over twenty years of unrequited thirst for power, he relished every drop of glory. According to the Biblical typing, Israel was first called Jacob. Tef is in turn synonymous with another Hebrew word chob,k meaning "a cherisher." A Hebrew equivalent of the names Tudiya and Inyotef is Yechub, meaning "Cherished/Cherisher of God." However, in the Bible the name of Inyotef/Tudiya is not written simply as Yechub, but was deliberately modified to Ya'aqob (Jacob). Instead of meaning "Beloved of God," "Crowned by God" or "Ruling by/as God," the nickname Jacob takes on the very different meaning of "heal-catcher (i.e. supplanter)." Tudiya/Inyotef did not found a new dynasty through love of God and his fellow man alone, but by coldly overtaking a rival royal brother. With his triumph over Lugalzaggesi, Sargon was transformed from a "rebel of the south" to Ben-yeminah, the "son appointed by God." Yechub the grabber became Israel, "He Rules as God." The "dynasty" of Sargon is somewhat of a misnomer. It was a succession of usurpers. Sargon had deposed the usurper Lugal-zaggesi and made rebellion respectable. The sons of Sargon (Inyotef A) then took turns overthrowing each other. First Montuhotep II killed Montuhotep A (Rimush). Then Inyotef I (NaramSin) killed Montuhotep I (Manishtushu/Ur-Bau) and possibly his son Montuhotep II also. Finally, Inyotef II (Gudea) overthrew Inyotef I and his co-regent Sharkalisharri, "Ruler of Rulers." By virtue of being the final usurper of his generation, Gudea became "Benjamin son of Benjamin (Sargon)." Among the sons of Sargon, Gudea proved that he was the "son of the right/strong hand" by taking the throne by force from his brother Naram-Sin. In other words, he was the last brother standing. However, the epithet of Benjamin applied originally to Sargon himself. In the Book of Ezra (1:5; 4:1; 4:59; 10:9-10), the name of Benjamin is equated to Israel. Benjamin is both a pseudonym of Sargon (Jacob-Israel) and a nickname of one of his prominent sons. Sargon was Benjamin. Gudea was Benjamin son of Israel. Like Sargon, Gudea has multiple Biblical identities. He is also called Uzziel, "Strong (One) of God," and Huppim/Hupham. The related names of Huppim and Hupham are synonymous with Tudiya and Inyotef. They have the meaning, "to cover," however they do not imply covering in the sense of loving and cherishing, but "acting secretly." Sargon had used the element of surprise when overthrowing Lugal-zaggesi. Gudea also appears as a world-class conniver. Like Sargon, Gudea became Israel, the "divinely appointed ruler," not by election but insurrection. And like Sargon, Gudea also chose the Egyptian name of Inyotef. Unlike Sargon and his immediate predecessor Naram-Sin, Gudea did not publicly glory in his divine status. He did not portray himself to be a living god, even if he privately considered

95 himself to be such. The name Gudea itself connotes "proclaimed (as) God," which may have made more explicit declarations of divinity unnecessary. Despite their differences, both Sargon and Gudea are strongly the archetypes for the much later Patriarch Jacob, "the grabber." (See Chapter 15.) There are four variants of the Benjamin genealogy in the Bible. Two are found among the "family records" of 1 Chronicles. One of these (1 Chron. 7:6-12) is a genealogy of the first Benjamin, Sargon. The other genealogy (1 Chron. 8:1-5) is actually a composite. It melds together the genealogy of Sargon with that of Gudea, both of whom were called Benjamin. The genealogy found in the Book of Genesis (46:21) and the one in the Book of Numbers (26:38-41) are variations of this composite Benjamin genealogy. (See Chart 11.) Sargon and his rebel sons are pivotal in the Biblical formulation of history. Sargon (Inyotef A) became the ancestor and archetype of four prominent Jacob figures. The first was Gudea (Inyotef II), one of Sargon's own younger sons. The second was Senusret II, who grabbed the throne in the 12th Dynasty (Middle Kingdom) under very suspicious circumstances. He became the father of the archetypal Joseph. The third is Hyksos king Yakubher (Ammi-ditana) son of Samsu-iluna (Biblical Joktan), who reclaimed the throne after the death of Salitis (Abi-eshuuh) in the 15th (Hyksos) Dynasty. The last and most notable Jacob from the perspective of Genesis is Amenhotep II of the 18th Dynasty (see Chapter 15). Besides being a role model for later upstarts, Sargon was himself also considered to be a second Adam (Atum). Sargon (Inyotef) and the Egyptian Middle Kingdom pharaohs who succeeded him to the "divine" throne were compared somewhat loosely with the "god-kings" from before the Great Flood. The number, ordering and naming are not identical. Nevertheless, the concept that "history repeats itself" was very much established even at this early date (Chart 2). As the narrative of Genesis moves forward in time, the descriptions become more detailed and comparisons between earlier and later Patriarchs more complete. In fact, every major Patriarch in the Torah is depicted as a repetition of at least one earlier ancestor. In this manner, the history of the Torah, rather than being a linear progression, spirals downward through time (Charts 3 &4). In the Torah, the accounts of all the major Patriarchs from Adam to Moses are composites made up of as matching pairs. Each of the early Patriarchs is the archetype or "father-figure" of a later Patriarch. Conversely, the life of each later Patriarch is modeled after that of a prominent ancestor. Rather than being fully unique, each character of the Torah is a product of two "parents." It is the dominant theme of the Torah, and a literary creation modeled after "genetics." Both sets of rulers (earlier and later) were stripped of their divine status by the Genesis author. However, they were all still claimed as great ancestors. Historically speaking, the Patriarch Jacob corresponds to pharaoh Amenhotep II of the Egyptian 18th Dynasty (See Chapter 15). Amenhotep II had two queens, Tia (Leah) and the more favored Merit-Amon (Rachel). As in the story of Patriarch Jacob, six princes were born to Tia (Leah) and two were the sons of Merit-Amon

96 (Rachel). Jacob is characterized in the Bible as crafty, but also as a caring husband and father. He was accused of "stealing his brother's birthright." Nevertheless, he tried (somewhat unsuccessfully) to prevent similar strife from repeating itself among his own sons. Ultimately, he did as his father had done, and appointed a younger son to be his successor. In later life, Jacob is quoted as saying, "My years have been few and filled with affliction."l The Egyptian name Inyo(tef) is similar in form to the Hebrew aniyah, meaning "groaning, lamentation, sorrow." From Patriarch Jacob's depiction we can also gain a glimpse of the character of his archetype Sargon/Inyotef, and the price that he paid to establish a new dynasty. The name of Israel is not introduced in the Book of Genesis until the account of the Patriarch Jacob, grandson of Abraham. This is long after the time of Sargon, the second Adam. A leading theme in the life of Patriarch Jacob (Amenhotep II) is how this brainy son of Isaac managed to prevail over his elder and more brawny twin brother Esau (Saussatar).m After wrestling with his brother and with "God" (his father Isaac), the Patriarch Jacob receives the "birthright" (kingly succession) and is declared to be Israel. Upon "grabbing" the throne, Amenhotep II, like the earlier Gudea, was renowned in the Bible (if not archaeology) for gathering expensive building materials from abroad, including timber from the forests of Lebanon, in order to build a magnificent temple. (See discussion in Chapter 9.) The title of Israel ("He Rules as God") was bestowed upon Amenhotep II (Patriarch Jacob). However, he was not the original Israel. Jacob son of Isaac had twelve sons. Eight were by his two wives Leah and Rachel, and four were by two "concubines" Bilhah and Zilpah. These sons were given the familiar names of the twelve tribes of Israel. However, we can now understand that these tribes and tribal names predate the time of the Patriarch Jacob (Amenhotep II). They derive from Sargon (Inyotef) and his "dynasty." Sargon had many renowned sons. However, the "twelve sons" of the archetypal Jacob-Israel were the names of the twelve successors to his throne (see Charts 1 & 11). These powerful kings each founded one or more clans, which naturally were named after them. These clans or tribes initially settled in Egypt. They would not make their Exodus until the end of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom. Adam and Seth: Inyotef and Montuhotep There are three ways to approach the identification of Adam II and Seth. All three provide insight and are worth outlining. In the genealogy of the second Adam (Sargon), Enosh is the first Patriarch of distinction. Patriarch Enosh corresponds to pharaoh Amenemhet I, founder of the Egyptian 12th Dynasty. We are told that it was not until his time that "men began to call upon the name of the Lord [Jehovah-Amen]." The kings were not of any particular interest to the Genesis author and no details are given. They are simply named as Seth and Adam. We do know from archaeology that prior to Amenemhet there were four kings named Inyotef and four others named Montuhotep. The

97 name Montu is easily identified as an Egyptian form of the Biblical Seth.3 (Note) Rather than discriminating between the four predecessors of Enosh named Montuhotep (of whom the Genesis author does not seem to care about), it may have been easier to group them together and collectively call them Seth. The four kings named Inyotef would then correspond to Adam. A second approach is to recognize that the immediate predecessor of Amenemhet was his uncle Montuhotep III. The predecessor of Montuhotep III was Inyotef II (Gudea). Inyotef II (Gudea) was the father of Montuhotep III and the grandfather of Amenemhet. Patriarch Adam could logically be determined in this way as Inyotef II (Gudea). His son Seth would literally correspond to Montuhotep III (Ugme). We cannot say for certain that Gudea was responsible for creating the new cult of the Amen. However, Gudea fancied himself as the humble servant of all the gods, which is consistent with the original spirit of Amen. Sargon declared himself a living god. However, Gudea compared himself to a lowly but loyal donkey, anxious to carry the burden of the gods. The name of Gu-dea, "proclaimed God," probably made it unnecessary for him to explicitly boast of divinity. A third approach is to realize that it was Sargon who was looked upon as being the founder of a new dynastic house. Although Inyotef II (Gudea) is the more prominent figure from archaeology, his father Inyotef A (Sargon) was far more famous in legend. It is also Sargon who stands at the head of the Assyrian king-list. He is named as Tudiya, "Beloved of Ya." The Akkadian nickname Tudiya is derived from Sargon's Sumerian king name Ningirsu-kiag, "Beloved of the Lord Girsu (Geb/Ninurta)." The son and successor of Sargon is named in the Assyrian king-list as Adamu. The informal epithet Adamu is derived from the throne name of Rimush. In the Babylonian king-list, father and son are composited together under the name of Tu(ub)tiya-muta. Tu(ub)tiya is a variant of Tudiya. Mut ("man") is synonymous with Adam ("man"). Therefore, in the Babylonian view, Sargon and Rimush are collectively Tudiya-Adamu, "Beloved of God, Adam." From the perspective of Egypt, the most renowned Seth was Montuhotep II. It was this Seth who was considered founder of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom. He assumed the title of "Uniter of the Two Lands," and was remembered in the Book of Judges as Judge Ehud, which also means, "The Uniter." The motivation for simplifying the dynasty of Inyotef-Sargon in the Book of Genesis was two-fold. First of all, it placed greater emphasis on Amenemhet and the emergence of Jehovah-Amen in particular. Secondly, it allowed the line of Sargon to be styled more closely after that of the earlier god-kings. Although condensed in Genesis, all eight predecessors of Amenemhet, that is, the four Inyotef's and four Montuhotep's, continued to be venerated, and were duly recorded in the various Biblical genealogies (see Charts 1 & 11). In most cases, these eight kings had at least one popular Hebrew epithet. Besides the lofty title of Israel, Sargon was also remembered as Benjamin and Bela. The pastoral narratives and colloquial names used in the Book of Genesis have masked the true identities of the Patriarchs as the Sovereign Lords of ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt. When recognized as a royal line, the succession of Patriarchs named in Genesis readily correlates to the

98 king-lists of both Egypt and Mesopotamia. Stone Age Adam is the great progenitor of the gods, named in Egypt as the "self-created" Atum. Atum and his immediate successors match the list of Patriarchs following the first Adam. Bronze Age Adam is associated with Sargon the Great and his dynasty. Enosh: Amenemhet I Enosh, son of Seth, represents the historical pharaoh Amenemhet I, first king of the Egyptian 12th Dynasty. The Bible states that in the time of Enosh: "Men began to call on the name of the Lord," i.e., Yahweh-Amen. Amen-em-het means "Amen in the Forefront." With the reign of Amenemhet, the god "Yo" (Ea-Ptah) gave way to a new namesake of kings and men, that of Amun. Rather than apostasy, this change was seen as a step in the right direction by the author of Genesis. Amenemhet chose the Horus name, Wehem-meswet, "Repeater of Births." This designates his reign as yet another new beginning and himself as yet another Adam (Egyptian Atum/Tem). Enosh, meaning "a mortal, a man" is itself a synonym of Adam, and is derived from the word anash, meaning "frail, feeble." Enosh (or Henosh) is also an adaptation of this king's name in the Assyrian king-list, Hanu. At the city of Lagash, Amenemhet was variously known as Nam-hani, Nam-mahni and possibly also Nam-maghani. Although he is considered the successor of Montuhotep III (Seth) in Egypt, he was the son of another prince named Senusret (designated by Egyptologists as Senusret A). The nominal founding of a new dynasty ("dynastic break") is evidence that he represented a collateral line. In Mesopotamia, his claim to the throne was based on his family ties both with Gudea (Inyotef II) and with Ur-Bau (Montuhotep I). Nam-hani married a daughter of Ur-Bau even as Gudea had done much earlier. In Lagash, Nam-hani was the third successor of Gudea. In Egypt, he was the third successor of Inyotef II (Gudea). Despite his high standing in Mesopotamia, Amenemhet seemed especially proud of his Egyptian heritage. He boasts of his birth to Nefert, a "Nubian woman"n from Elephantine Island in the Land of Seth, that is Upper Egypt. Amenemhet was first appointed Vizier of Upper Egypt before being named as successor of Montuhotep III. As pharaoh, Amenemhet I was a prolific builder in Egypt. He established a new capital in the Delta, which he named after himself, Amenemhet-Itj-Tawy, "Amenemhet, Seizer of the Two Lands." In the genealogy of Benjamin, Amenemhet is called Bilhan son of Jedeiel.o Bilhan, which means "timid," i.e., pacified, is derived from the verb "to terrify." This name is an adaptation of the name Hani, and of Amenemhet's praenomen, Se-hetep-ib-re, "The Heart of Re is Contented." The god Re had punished Egypt with famine since the days of the pharaohs Djoser and Snofru. At last, in the reign of Amenemhet good floods began to return. In fact, the king claimed that his coming had been prophesied in the time of Snofru! This "prophesy" was still a popular school exercise in the Egyptian New Kingdom.p In it, Amenemhet is called "The Son of Man," which later became one of the most popular epithets of Jesus in the Gospels. It was said that the coming of Amenemhet would signal the end of Egypt's impoverishment.

99 Amenemhet I is also the archetypal Manasseh. Manasseh is another variant of the name Amen and means, "made to forget." The dynasty of Sargon was characterized by turmoil. One brother usurped the station of the next. After Gudea, the transfer of power became somewhat more orderly. However, Amenemhet was not without rivals. Shattered pottery from this period in Egypt was inscribed with death wishes for Zebulon (Wegaf?), Ameni (Amenemhet I?), and Senusret the younger (Senusret I?). The curses include: "Ameni, born to Hetep [Nefert?] and son of Senusret [Senusret A?], shall die."q (From this pottery we also have possibly the earliest reference to the city of Jerusalem. During this time period, Jerusalem would not have refered to Jebus/Salem in Palestine, but to Western Thebes in Egypt.) These may have been idle threats. However, as almost all of his predecessors, Amenemhet's reign did not end in peace. He too fell victim to a usurper. The devotion of Amenemhet to building up Egypt may have led to the neglect and loss of his throne in Mesopotamia. Ur-Nammu, founder of the 3rd Dynasty of Ur claims responsibility for killing Nam-hani (Amenemhet I). The Egyptian texts provide additional information. The Instruction of Amenemhet, written after the death of Amenemhet, serves to explain how "Amenemhet the Triumphant" could have suffered such an ignominious fate.r We are told that the weary king had laid down to rest when he was surprised in the night. His men were overcome and Amenemhet was left defenseless. The interloper is not named, which would have served to immortalize his treachery. However the Instruction does name him as a former recipient of Amenemhet's favor and support, who had turned ungratefully against him. Ur-Nammu and Nam-hani were certainly close family relations, and probably on friendly terms in earlier days. It is expected that the whereabouts of Amenemhet would have been a wellguarded secret, especially if he was away from a fortified city. Therefore, it must have been suspected that there was an informant at the court who had betrayed the king's position or itinerary. According to the Tale of Sinuhe, the crown prince Senusret was campaigning with the military when he learned of the death of his father Amenemhet. His courtier Sinuhe overheard Senusret talking to other aides and suddenly became terrified. Sinuhe fled the country in search of refuge. Presumably, he feared that he would become a victim in the coming bloodbath. Kenan: Senusret I The next pharaoh, Senusret I, corresponds to the Patriarch Kenan. The name Kenan means, "fixed," and is derived from qen, "a nest," and qanan "to nestle." Nestled about Senusret's own pyramid were nine smaller pyramids for the many royal ladies of his reign. Senusret is the archetypal Ephraim, meaning "doubly fruitful." Because of his many marriages and royal children, Senusret I became the eponymous ancestor of two tribes of Israel, namely Ephraim and Asher. In the separate genealogy of his father Manasseh (1 Chron. 7:14), Ephraim is called Asriel. The name Asriel (Ashriel) is in turn derived from the same Hebrew root as Asher. In the two Middle Kingdom genealogies of Benjamin, he is variously called

100 Kenaanah, Shaharaim (1 Chron 7:10) and Ahishahar (1 Chron 8:8). Kenaanah is a variant of Kenan. Ahishahar means "brother of the dawn." Shaharaim means "double sunrise." Shaharaim is similar in form to Eph(a)raim, but is actually derived from Senusret's throne name Kheper-ka-re, "The Soul of Re Comes into Being."s Kheperkare includes the name of the sun god, Re, and also Re in his rising form, Kheper. Senusret served as co-regent during the final 10 years of Amenemhet's 30-year reign. However, in the dawn of his career, the prospects of Senusret were not as rosy. He became the "eldest son" of Amenemhet, but was initially a younger son. Kenaanah is listed as the fourth son of Bilhan (Enosh/Manasseh), i.e., the fourth son of Amenemhet. In the first 20 years of Amenemhet's reign, one or more other co-regents would have ruled alongside their father. The eldest son of Bilhan in the genealogy of Benjamin is called Jehush. The name Jehush indicates that this son was being typecast as a mighty warrior like Rimush, the favored son of Sargon. The name Kenan is also a variant of Cain. By this choice of epithet, the Genesis author signified that Senusret played the role of Cain among the Middle Kingdom pharaohs. If Senusret was responsible for the death of a more favored brother, he was not disgraced for it. In the Age of the Gods, divine kingship continued through Cain (Anu) who had killed Abel (Alal). The kingly line of the Middle Kingdom continued through Senusret. The likely identity of the ill-fated co-regent that preceded him is that of Wegaf, who is listed as the first pharaoh of the unlucky 13th Dynasty. This was primarily a grouping of Middle Kingdom co-regents who predeceased their fathers, but also included kingly lines that were contemporary with the 12th Dynasty. The so-called Instruction of Amenemhet was not written by Amenemhet himself, but by his son and successor Senusret. In this work, Senusret claimed that his departed father spoke to him in a dream. By dictating the auto-eulogy of Amenemhet, Senusret both confirms the divinity of his father and his own right to succeed him. The Instruction also sets the tone for a courtly house cleaning. Upon the death of Amenemhet, Senusret had the power to eliminate any courtiers who may have been suspected of betraying his father. He would also have disposed of any who had objected to his earlier election as co-regent. Whether rumors of Wegaf's murder were true or not, those who had whispered not so quietly behind Senusret's back were now going to be silenced. Treason in association with the death of his father would have made a convenient accusation. This may have been the primary concern of Sinuhe and the reason for his flight. Mahalalel: Amenemhet II The first priority of Senusret I (Kenan) was securing the mineral wealth of Nubia and the Sinai. Senusret I (Kenan) was renowned as a trafficker, not only of foreign goods, but also foreign wives. The variant Kenaanah means merchant. Through this kind of diplomacy, relations seem to have been "normalized" with the rival

101 house of Ur-Nammu in Mesopotamia. However, upon the death of his father, Senusret did something a bit out of the ordinary. The "doubly fruitful" Ephraim established a dual co-regency with his two leading sons. The more prominent of the two is the Patriarch Mahalalel ("praised of God"). The name Mahalalel is synonymous with the more familiar epithet of Judah, "praised, celebrated." However, Mahalalel was chosen in order to associate him with the pre-Flood Patriarch of Mehujael. Mehujael means "smitten of God," and was identified in Chapter 3 as the celebrated but slain Osiris. Like Osiris, Amenemhet II was brutally killed. And like the archetypal Judah, Rimush son of Sargon, Amenemhet II was murdered by a jealous brother (see next section). Prior to his death, Amenemhet II had ruled alongside Senusret for 33 years. Together, they led a strong recovery from the setback associated with the death of the first Amenemhet. At the Temple of Montu at el-Tod (just south of Hermonthis on the opposite side of the Nile) were found items from Greece and Mesopotamia. The first Amenemhet had been killed when his camp was attacked at night. The second Amenemhet would also be killed in an ambush. In fact, we are told that two sons of Ephraim died in a raid. 1 Chron. 7:21 (NIV) states, "Ezer and Elead were killed by the native-born men of Gath, when they went down to seize their livestock." The death of two pharaohs, especially in the act of seizing property, was a huge embarrassment and a bitter tragedy for the family. As Re had mourned for Osiris, the setting sun god Ephraim grieved over his embalmed sons "for many days." Elead, also called Shuthelah in 1 Chronicles 7, is the younger but "stronger" son of Ephraim.t He is the Patriarch Mehalalel of Genesis. His older brother Ezer is variously named as Zabad in 1 Chronicles 7. Zabad and Issachar were equivalent (interchangeable) Hebrews names, much like John and Jack in English. Issachar is the Hebrew form of the Egyptian name Sekhemkare, a pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty list.u House of Jacob (12th Dynasty) Jared: Senusret II It became necessary for Ephraim to replace the two fallen heirs with a younger son. In other words he was forced to name new co-regent and successor. There were other prominent princes in the reign of Senusret I. These included Khnumhotep (II) of Beni Hassan, Sarenput (II) at Elephantine and Djehutyhotep of Bersha. The exact relationship of these princes with Senusret I is not known. According to 1 Chron. 7:20-23, the slain sons of the elderly Ephraim (Senusret I) were replaced by a younger son named Bered. On account of the tragic event, the name Bered was changed to Beriah ("trouble"). After three decades of steady expansion, Senusret I died in humiliation and grief. His successor was called or assumed the name of Senusret II.

102 Perhaps the biggest source of trouble facing the new pharaoh was in turning excess floodwater from a bane into a bumper crop. The diversion of Nile water into the artificial lake region of the Faiyum was a desperate and initially successful attempt to increase food production. The project would have sustained a larger population and a bigger army with which to compete with their rivals, not only in Egypt and Canaan, but also in Mesopotamia. It was in the reign of Senusret II that prince Khnumhotep (II) received ambassadors and gifts from Abi-Shu of the Hyksos, "rulers of foreign lands," i.e., Mesopotamia. About this time, the reigning king of the 3rd Dynasty of Ur would have been ShuSin. For propaganda purposes, a routine state visit from Mesopotamian dignitaries and customary exchange of gifts may have been boasted of as tribute. However, the presence of Hyksos ambassadors indicates that the might of Egypt was on the increase and the rulers of Mesopotamia were eager to maintain good relations and spy on their progress. It is interesting that the Hyksos did not come to Senusret II, but to Khnumhotep (II) of the old regime. Leading princes of the reign of Senusret I such as Khnumhotep II, Sirenput II and Djehutihotep retained their power into the reign of Senusret II.v Rather than forcing the submission of these nomarchs, Senusret was compelled (as were the Hyksos) to induce their cooperation with gifts and honors. However, there were younger princes who were not so easily placated. After about a decade of rule, the sons of the fallen pharaohs Amenemhet II and Sekhemkare became old enough to understand what had been taken from them, and strong enough to take it back. The Genesis author does not call Senusret II by the name of Beriah or Bered, but Jered. In the Genesis list, Jered follows Mahalalel. The name Jered means "fallen, cast down." The pseudonym of Jered was chosen in order to forge a connection with the Ante-Diluvian Patriarch Irad. This typecasting suggests that Senusret II had something to do with the deaths of his predecessors. It was Irad (Re) who arranged for a trap to be set for Mehujael (Osiris), which led to his vicious murder. Re was brought to justice for his role in the crime. We must now suspect that the men of Gath were prepared for the raid of Amenemhet II and Sekhemkare on their livestock. In other words, Amenemhet II and Sekhemkare thought they had the element of surprise on their own side. However, they were the ones who were ambushed by conspiracy of the future pharaoh Senusret II. The role of Senusret II as a 12th Dynasty "Jacob the grabber" will be explored further in the next chapter. Enoch II: Auibre Hor (Wahibre) In the Genesis narrative, the lines of the two Adam's are twisted together. One artifact of this literary device is that attributes of the earlier group of "god-kings" appear to be mixed up with those of the later group. Conversely, attributes of the later line of Adam are obviously much more appropriate for the earlier gods. The cross coupling was probably intended, but it does lead to some confusion. For example, extraordinary life spans are attached to the second line of Adam, which correspond to the Middle Kingdom pharaohs. These pharaohs were renowned for their long reigns, but they did not live exceptionally long lives by today's standard. It

103 was the gods who possessed great longevity. However, we are not told how long each Patriarch descending from the first Adam lived. The fantastical life spans of those earlier god-kings are instead attached to the second line of Adam. In Chapter 3, it was noted that the 777 years attributed to Lamech was only a symbolic figure. The number seven was the number of Thoth (Lamech I), it was the number of the Great Pyramid, and also the Biblical number of completion. The Patriarch Enoch was said to live 365 years. This figure of 365 is likewise highly symbolic. The god Enki (Enoch) was "Lord of the Earth," and responsible for determining the properties of Earth. Of course, 365 is the number of whole days in one year. The Earth revolves around the Sun in approximately 365.25 days. The 365 years of Enoch are the fewest of all the early Patriarchs. However, there is no indication that the life span of the god Enki was in any way cut short. In the lore of Mesopotamia, Ea-Enki remained alive (if not fully active) right up until the time of the Great Flood. He did "vanish" at this time, but so did the rest of the pantheon. The premature disappearance of Enoch would then seem to apply more to the second Patriarch by that name. It was once considered possible that an ephemeral 13th Dynasty pharaoh named Au-ibre Hor actually belonged to the late 12th Dynasty. The rationale for this was that Au-ibre Hor had been buried within the pyramid complex of the 12th Dynasty pharaoh Amenemhet III at Dahshur. In addition to the coffin and mummy of Au-ibre Hor, his tomb also contained a funerary chest inscribed with the praenomen of Amenemhet III, Nymaatre.w According to the Turin king-list, Auibre ruled for only a matter of months. However, there is a variant of Au-ibre in the Egyptian 13th Dynasty, that being Wah-ibre, who was considered to rule for over 11 years. If these two pharaohs were actually one and the same, then Wah-ibre/Au-ibre Hor would have been appointed as co-regent very early in the reign of Senusret II. Auibre Hor is best known for another item found in his tomb. This is a full-scale "kastatue" of the naked Auibre Hor in a striding pose. Nudity in burial statues may have symbolized rebirth along with the removal of guilt for the sins of one's lifetime. The media of carved wood accentuates the natural state of the pharaoh. Antennalike arms of the ka symbol protruding from his head, and the spooky inlaid eyes of the statue lend an alien quality to the departed Auibre.x The first Enoch, that is the god Enki, was believed to have ascended to heaven on more than one occasion. However, the disappearance of the second Enoch can be attributed to more mundane factors. Au-ibre maimed a rival prince and was forced into exile. He was given refuge in Mesopotamia and eventually was able to renew his kingship. During the reign of Amenemhet III, he returned to Egypt with a vengeance. We shall also return to this mysterious figure in the next chapter, and learn more about his sudden departure from Egypt, if not from the world. House of Judah (12th Dynasty) Methuseleh: Senusret III

104 Senusret II (Jared) and Auibre-Hor (Enoch) were succeeded, and quite probably also deposed by the warrior king Senusret III. In Genesis, Senusret III is called the Patriarch Methuseleh ("Man of the Missle") and by association was considered a repetition of the earlier Patriarch Mehushael (Horus). As Horus became the champion of his fallen father Osiris, so Senusret III avenged the death of his father Amenemhet II, the Middle Kingdom Osiris. He usurped the place of the usurper. One of his Biblical epithets is Malkiel, "king (appointed) by God," which hails back to the earlier grabber, Sargon/Israel, "ruler by right/God." His father Amenemhet II had a world-view. The towering Senusret III also looked outward. According to Manetho, Senusret stood seven feet and two inches tall. Herodotus makes him a more modest six feet and six inches. One Biblical epithet of Senusret is Ishod, "man of great size."y The legendary long legs of Senusret were certainly put to good use in his wide travels. Another Biblical epithet of Senusret is Shashak, the "pedestrian." Although not confirmed by archaeology, Manetho asserted that Senusret "conquered all Asia in 9 years and Europe as far as Thrace."z Senusret assumed the Kassite (Indian/Sanskrit) name of Gandash. In China, he was remembered as Kun, founder of the very first imperial dynasty of China. In Mesopotamia, he was first known as Gunganum, king of Lagash. At this time, Ibbi-Sin was king of the still powerful 3rd Dynasty of Ur. However, Ibbi-Sin was overthrown by one of his own ministers named Ishbi-Erra. It was said of Ishbi-Erra that he was "not of Sumerian seed." This was probably no more than name-calling. Ishbi-Erra had been a high-ranking minister of Ibbi-Sin. Senusret III evidently made an alliance with Ishbi-Erra and encouraged his rebellion. After Senusret III took possession of Ur, the daughters of Ishbi-Erra stayed on as high priestesses in that city. Moreover, Ishbi-Erra himself was allowed to retain the throne of Isin. As lord of all Mesopotamia, Senusret would later assume the lofty title of Suma-abum. There is a "striking" resemblance between the name Methuseleh "Man of the Missle/Spear" and that of Senusret meaning "Man of (the goddess) Sret." The Egyptian sret would have been similar in pronunciation to the Hebrew seleh. Sret, also written as Wosret, was the manifestation of Isis as the Earth Goddess or Goddess of the Mines. Another Biblical name for Methuseleh is Resheph son of Beriah. Senusret III was not the literal son of Senusret II (Beriah), however he was his political successor. The name Resheph means "thunderbolt." This nickname links the famous military man Senusret III (a.k.a. Sesostris) to the patron Greek god Zeus. In the Bible, the long-lived Methuseleh dies one year before the Flood. After a sole reign of over 39 years, Senusret III died about one year before the cataclysmic flood of the Nile that occurred at the end of the 12th Dynasty in Egypt.aa The timing of Senusret's conquest is remarkable. Only a year after his death, Egypt was itself overcome by uncontrollable flooding. Rather than bringing down the line of the Middle Kingdom pharaohs, it provided the impetus to make Mesopotamia the primary court once again.

105 Lamech: Khendjer In the Babylonian king-list, Sumu-abum (Senusret III) is followed by Sumulael (Amenemhet III). However, in the Larsa king-list, there is an additional king between Gungunum (Senusret III) and Sumu-El (Amenemhet III). This king is called Abisare. Abisare would have been the first co-regent of Senusret III, and was probably a younger brother rather than a true son. In the genealogy of Manasseh (Amenemhet I), he is named as Abi-ezer, "Father of Help."ab The name Abi-ezer corresponds closely to Abi-sare. It also corresponds to Azarah ("helper") in the Assyrian king-list. Among the 13th Dynasty group of co-regents, the name of Khen-djer is the closest match. The Egyptian word djer is equivalent in meaning to the Semitic ezer/azar. An artifact of the Egyptian king-list is that the 12th and 13th Dynasties are interleaved rather than being sequential (See Chart 6).ac The Middle Kingdom pharaohs were renowned for their long reigns. Moreover, the Middle Kingdom was also noted for the practice of co-regency. A number of these co-regents did not survive their long-lived fathers to reign in their own right, but were nevertheless considered pharaohs. Abi-sare/Azarah would be one such ruler included in the 13th Dynasty king-list. The small but influential Biblical clan of the Ken-ites probably has its origin in this pharaoh Khendjer. The association made by the author of Genesis between Khendjer/Abisare and Lamech indicates that this pharaoh was involved in some kind of murder scandal. Although djer means "help," the full name Khendjer has the curious meaing of "Boar." This also associated this pharaoh with the patron god of Seth, murderer of Osiris. The "crime" of Khendjer and his "punishment" will be discussed in the following chapter. Between Sesostris (Senusret III) and the female ruler Skemiophirs (Queen Sobeknofru), Manetho lists three pharaohs, namely, Lamares, Ameres and Ammenemes. Two of these three names must correspond to last two pharaohs of the Middle Kingdom, Amenemhet III and Amenemhet IV. The Biblical name of Lamech bears an obvious resemblance to that of the Greek Lamares. In the Book of Genesis, the "son" of Methuseleh is named as Lamech. Manetho notes that Lamares "built the Labyrinth in Arsinoead to be his tomb." Khendjer built a labyrinthine pyramid at Saqqara. However, the structure more typically associated with the Labyrinth of legend belonged to the Pyramid complex of his replacement Amenemhet III. Possibly, this structure was started by Khendjer, but subsequently usurped and finished by Amenemhet III. Manetho gives Lamares a reign of eight years. Abi-sare is thought to have ruled for about 10 years at Larsa. The length of Khendjer's reign is not known. Noah: Amenemhet III After the death or disgrace of Khendjer, the next co-regent of Senusret was Amenemhet III. Amenemhet ruled for about 45 years. About 30 of those 45 years

106 were alongside Senusret III. Amenemhet III was a king of the late Egyptian Middle Kingdom. However the circumstances of his reign provided a convenient place for a "flash back" to a great hero and event of a much earlier age. Amenemhet was seen as a repetition of the Great Flood survivor Utnapishtim, who was memorialized in the Gilgamesh legends and in the Bible beginning with Genesis 6. Senusret III recorded the annual flood level of the Nile during the first eight years of his reign. When Amenemhet III was appointed co-regent, he assumed this responsibility. Many of these readings have now been destroyed, however enough remain to indicate that Egypt was being vexed with greater and greater amounts of river water during this time period. The troubled expressions on the faces of Amenemhet III and Senusret III suggest that there were more disastrous floods than beneficial ones. The chosen throne name (praenomen) of Amenemhet III was Ny-maatre, which means "Belonging to the Justice/Truth of (the god) Re." His Babylonian name was Sumulael. The suffix "la-el" also means "belonging to God." Ny, or Noah II as he is called in the Bible,ae was the Patriarch who was forced to cope with the actual Middle Kingdom Flood. He was not entirely successful in this endeavor, and the statuary of his reign attempts to portray him as empathizing with the suffering of the people. However, in Mesopotamia there must have been much cause for rejoicing. An article of jewelry belonging to princess Merit, daughter of Senusret III, names Amenemhet III as "the good god, lord of both lands and all foreign lands."af The fortunes of Amenemhet III now lay beyond the borders of Egypt. Shem: Amenemhet IV Upon the death of Senusret III, Amenemhet III became master of the realm and appointed a co-regent of his own, Amenemhet IV. Although they shared a common Egyptian name, this designated successor was probably not a son of Amenemhet III. Amenemhet IV was more likely a younger brother of Senusret III. The name Shem is synonymous with the Egyptian Het, "forefront, renown." Another Biblical nickname for Shem is Tahan son of Telah (Chart 7). Tahan, which means "station," is synonymous with the name Shem, "conspicuous position." Tahan is derived from the Hebrew word chanah, which is a variant of Hanan/Amen. As the pseudonym Shem indicates, this king was also more concerned with the land of Mesopotamia (Shumer) than that of Egypt. When he succeeded to the greater throne upon the deaths of Amenemhet III and Amenemhet IV, Egypt was devastated. The primary royal court was eventually moved back to Mesopotamia. Although there is little or no evidence of the Patriarch Shem in Egypt, he was somewhat better attested in Babylonian as the wise king and appointee of judges, Sabium. Shem (Sabium/Amenemhet IV) is portrayed as the dominant Patriarch after the Great Flood of Egypt. This was necessary in order for the Genesis author to pattern the Egyptian Middle Kingdom after the earlier time of the gods. Like Etana, the first Shem, the second Shem had powerful rivals. During the late Middle Kingdom, Mesopotamia was being conquered by Egyptian kings and princes. The

107 five "sons" of Shem given in Genesis 10:22 is a "Who's Who" of contemporary powers. Although Aram is listed fifth, his sons are given priority over the others. He was the first of this group to achieve kingship. In fact, his kingship actually preceded that of Shem himself. House of Issachar (12th Dynasty) Aram: Sobekhotep II Senusret III had help in disposing of Senusret II. At least one son of Sekhemkare was also involved in avenging the death of his own father. This son received or took a share of the throne for his role in the coup. The Biblical record of this event is found in 1 Chronicles 2:22-23. In that brief account, Patriarch Jered (Senusret II) is called by the variant of Jair. We are told that he ruled 23 towns in the region of Gilead (Amenemhet II) son of Makir (Senusret I). The territory of Jair and 37 others towns were captured by two princes named Geshur and Aram. Geshur is likely either a pseudonym of Senusret III, or a variant of Asshur, the brother of Aram. Senusret III was obliged to recognize the right of Aram to re-establish the kingship of his fallen father Sekhemkare. In the Bible, Aram is also called Shechem. Both names have the same meaning, "highlands." Shechem is also an obvious Hebraized form of the Egyptian name Sekhem-kare. In Egypt, Aram/Shechem was known first as Prince Montuhotep (Aram is synonymous with Montu), and later as pharaoh Sobekhotep II. The crocodile god Sobek was also seen as a form of the god of war and chaos, Montu. In honor and identification with his father, he took the throne name (praenomen) of Sekhemkare-khu-tawy, that is Sekhemkare "Protector of the Two Lands (of Egypt)." Aram also became a powerful king in Mesopotamia under the name Rim-Sin. His brother Asshur founded a new dynasty in Assryia of Mesopotamia, as the name Asshur implies. In Egypt, Asshur was known as Prince Haankhaf. He was the father of the future pharaohs Neferhotep (Sin-Muballit), Si-Hathor (Zimri-Lim) and Sobekhotep IV (Shamshi-Adad). Chart 15 shows the chronology and relationships between the three rival lines of Jacob, Judah and Issachar in the 12th Dynasty. Arphaxad: Sobekhotep III One of the sons of Sobekhotep II (Shechem/Aram/Montu-hotep) was named Amenemhet. This prince assumed the epithet, "(son of?) the avenger of his father." This again points to a vendetta against Senusret II on the part of the sons and even grandsons of Sekhemkare. It appears that this prince became pharaoh Sobekhotep III. He took the praenomen of Sekhemkare se-wadj-tawy, that is Sekhemkare "who makes the Two Lands to flourish."ag Shelah: Neferhotep I

108 Sobekhotep III was in turn succeeded by his cousin Neferhotep I, the eldest or most favored son of Prince Haankhaf (Chart 8). This pharaoh corresponds to the Patriarch Shelah. Another Biblical name for Shelah/Salah is Ammihud ("people of splendor"). The Hebrew word hud means "beauty, splendor," and is synonymous with the Egyptian word nefer. The Babylonian name of Neferhotep I was Sinmuballit.ah Shelah has meaning of "breaking or forsaking weapons." It is probably derived from the name Mu-ballit, or is a pun on this name.ai

a. Yem is a proto-Indo-European root meaning "twin" or tanist. J.P. Mallory, In Search of the Indo-Europeans, p 140. b. For translations of the Sargon Legend, see: wwwetcsl.orient.ox.ac.uk/index.htm, www.piney.com/BabSarLeg2.html, www.earth-history.com/sumer-sargon-legend.htm c. An expression used in the contemporary Instruction of Merikare from Egypt indicates that it may have been expected that Lugal-zaggesi "kill his son' [Sargon] for the sake of his brother' [Ur-Zababa]." d. If not one and the same, Urukagina would certainly have been a very close male relative of Akki, perhaps his father. e. S.N. Kramer, The Sumerians, pp 35, 58, 75, 79-83, 124. f. Joan Oates writes, "Another tribal federation of this period [of Hammurabi] were the Maru- or Binu-Yamina, a name meaning Sons of the South' which is linguistically related to the Old Testament tribal name of Benjamin." Babylon, p 56. g. Mer and Mar are different roots, however they lend themselves in this case to word play between Egyptian, Sumerian and Akkadian languages, and even between dialects of Akkadian and Canaanite. h. Pierre Levy, Cyberculture, Introduction, University of Minnesota Press (http://www.upress.umn.edu/Cyberculture.html) i. from the root rim/erim/erin, "enemy, destruction, hostile, evil." The direct meaning of Ri-mush in Sumerian may have been something like: "Surging/Flood Serpent," "Inundation Inspector" or "Far/Place Explorer"; or from Ri-mu: "Well-Formed Begetting/Plan" or "Take/Exchange an Oath/Name." j. English spelling: zeph/zaph. Related Hebrew words based on this root are tsepheth ("to encircle"); tsephiyrah ("a crown, as encircling the head"); tsaphan ("to hide by covering over"); and tsaphah ("expansion, overlay"). k. Chob is a contraction of the word chabab, meaning "to hide (as in the bosom), i.e. to cherish (with affection), to love." The Biblical name Yechubbah means "hidden." l. Gen 47:9 (KJV) m. See Chapter 15 of this book. n. "The Prophesy of Neferti, in Ancient Near Eastern Texts, J. Pritchard, ed., p 445.

109 o. From the genealogy of Benjamin in 1 Chronicles 7:6-12 it appears that Senusret A (Jediael) was the most junior of the three sons of Gudea (Benjamin). p. "The Prophesy of Neferti," in Ancient Near Eastern Texts, J. Pritchard, ed., p 444. q. "The Execration of Asiatic Princes," in ANET, J. Pritchard, ed., p 329, parentheticals mine. r. "The Instruction of King Amen-em-het," in ANET, J. Pritchard, ed., p 418-419. s. Peter Clayton, Chronicles of the Pharaohs, p 78. t. Elah means "strong." In other genealogies, Amenemhet II (Elead/Shuthelah) is called Eladah, Gilead and Imnah ("right hand, prosperity"). See Chart 7. u. In other genealogies, pharaoh Sekhemkare (Issachar/Zabad/Ezer) is called Ishvah/Ishvi, Tahath and Hezron. See Chart 7. Ishvah/Ishvi and Tahath are synonymous and signify "flatness." This appears to be a pun on the Egyptian name Sekhem (Shechem), which in Hebrew denotes just the opposite, "hilly." Hezron has the meaning of "enclosed courtyard," i.e., an "expansion" or enlargement of a house. The House of Senusret I was enlarged through this double dynasty. v. Miroslav Verner, The Pyramids, p 385. w. Miroslav Verner, The Pyramids, 426. x. Compare the 6th Dynasty statues of Meryre-ha-ishetef, Overseer of Entertainers. y. In the genealogy of Manasseh (Amenemhet I), the eldest son of Gilead (Amenemhet II) is named as Ishod. Strong's Concordance defines Ishod (379) as "man of grandeur (i.e. an imposing form and appearance." (from 376 and 1935) Ishod is a fitting epithet for the gigantic Senusret III. z. G. Verbrugghe and J. Wickersham, Berossos and Manetho, p 138. aa.David Rohl, Pharaohs and Kings, p339. bb.The second "son" of Gilead is named as Abiezer ("father of help"). 1 Chron. 7:18. cc. For a more complete list of 13th Dynasty pharaohs see Aidan Dodson, Monarchs of the Nile, p 207. dd.Possibly referring to the Arsinoite Nome. ee.Noah means "rest." Amenemhet, the second Patriarch named Noah, is also called Telah, which has the meaning of "breach." This nickname may allude to the uncontrollable waters of the Nile, and the required evacuation of Amenemhet and his court. ff. Miroslav Verner, The Pyramids, p 419. gg.Peter Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, p 90. hh.Cf Sanballat of the book of Nehemiah. Sin (or Suen) was the name of the Babylonian moon god. ii. The Hebrew root nuw (5106) means "to refuse, forbid, dissuade, or neutralize:- break, disallow, discourage, make of none effect."

110

Note 1: An "amplified" profile of Sargon would be as a man who was large, handsome, active, and domineering, with a distinctive facial feature (such as throat/voice, beard or nose) and a bitter, rebellious attitude (something stuck in his craw). mara (4754) maw-raw' to rebel, hence (through the idea of maltreating) to whip, i.e., lash (self with wings, as the ostrich in running):-- be filthy, lift up self. marad (4775) maw-rad'; to rebel:-- rebel(ious) mare (4756) maw-ray'; domineering; a master:-- lord, Lord. Or mora (see 4172) "terror" mora (4172) from 3372; fear; by impl. a fearful thing or deed:-- dread, (that ought to be) fear (-ed), terribleness, terror. mareh (4758) mar-eh'; handsome, a vision murah (4760) moor-aw'; something conspicuous, i.e. the craw of a bird (from its prominence). marah (4784) maw-raw'; to be bitter; (fig.) to rebel (or resist; causat. to provoke):-bitter, change, be disobedient, disobey, grievously, provocation, provoke(ing), (be) rebel (against, -lious). meriy (4805) mer-ee'; bitterness, i.e. (fig.) rebellion; concr. bitter, or rebellious. meriy' (4806) mer-ee'; from 4754 in the sense of grossness, through the idea of domineering (comp. 4756); stall-fed; often (as noun) a beeve:-- fat (fed) beast (cattle, -ling). Note 2: The Hebrew word mutta means "sceptre, rule." Therefore, Ya-muta could be interpreted as "God Rules" or "He Rules as God." This latter definition is the same as the name or title of Israel, which was later bestowed upon the Patriarch Jacob. matta (4302) mat-taw'; something planted, i.e. the place (a garden or vineyard), or the thing (a plant, fig. of men); by impl. the act, planting. (Cf Sargon, son of the Gardiner.) Note 3:

111 The Biblical name of Seth derives from the god known in the Egyptian Delta as Set or Seth. In Upper Egypt, Seth was called Montu. In Canaan and Syria this same god was called Ba'al or Aram. Aram means "elevated place, highlands," i.e., the mountainous regions where Baal worship was most prevalent. Baal/Seth was a god with a thundering (bellowing) voice. His home was among dark clouds of the high mountains. He represented the strong and handsome champion. Baal was bold and beautiful, the god of the "over-dog." The Bible documents the bitter dispute that arose in later times regarding whether Yahweh (Amen) or Baal was to be venerated as the supreme god. However, in the dynasty of Sargon, the cult of Amen was newly formed and not in conflict with that of Montu. Montu-hotep means "(the god) Montu is Appeased." Montu was a god of aggression and war, and the dynasty of Sargon indulged Montu with almost continual warfare. Three other prominent sons and grandsons also assumed the Egyptian name of Montuhotep. Manishtushu/Ur-Bau became pharaoh Montuhotep I. His son and co-regent was also a Montuhotep (II). Ur-Gar, a son of Gudea became Montuhotep III.

Living in Truth:

Archaeology and the Patriarchs Chapter 8


"The Fullness of Time" (The Dual Identities of Joseph, Moses and Joshua)
by Charles N. Pope Copyright 1999-2002 by Charles Pope United States Library of Congress All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions

Kings and Shepherds The rise of Joseph from obscurity to the highest administrative office in Egypt is brilliantly scripted in the Biblical narrative (see Chapter 15). Nevertheless, in the ancient world all positions of power were reserved for favored members of the ruling family, and for them alone. It was within their right to flaunt royalty, but often their delight to disguise it. With consummate understatement, Joseph is depicted as only a cherished shepherd boy with a dream to be someone great. He was in fact an eminently pedigreed royal prince in a family with a very long tradition as "shepherds of the people." Joseph did more than leave a legacy, he lived out a legacy. For this reason, his story is not told as a simple biography, but as a repetition of an earlier ancestor.

112 In the Book of Genesis, the lives of the Patriarchs do not appear to be completely their own. It is as if they are powerless to resist their fates. For example, Abraham and his royal sister-wife Sarah are urged to abandon their comfortable home in Babylon, and are then "carried away by the Lord" to the strange land of Egypt. Similarly, the Patriarch Joseph is ushered out of a pastoral setting in Canaan so that he can become the "double" of pharaoh, and be used by God himself to preserve life. "It is this very dramatic power of the story that has caused some modern biblical critics to view it as something other than a recitation of the facts of the 'historical Joseph's' life. Some have suggested that, before it became the biblical story of Joseph, a tale of this sort must have existed in schematic form, a folktale, which was only later 'tacked on' to fit the family and circumstances of the biblical Joseph."a It can now be said, in literary terms, that the Torah (first five Biblical books) is written as a series of epic cycles.b However, the cycles of the Torah have an additional element of complexity, because they are also doublets. Each main character (cycle) combines the memory of two persons, not one. More specifically, every major Patriarch is described as a "second coming" of some previous ancestor. As with the second Adam (Sargon-Israel) and his descendants, so it is with the later figures of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph and Moses. Genesis does not explicitly tell us the kingly identity of Patriarch Joseph, much less that of the earlier ancestor within the Patriarchal line that served as his archetype. Neither does Genesis provide this information for any of the other Patriarchs. However, all Patriarchs and their archetypes can now be determined with the help of archaeology. This is possible, because the Bible provides us with a nearly continuous family history from the first king of Sumer until the last king of Jerusalem. In Stranger in the Valley of the Kings, Ahmed Osman proved that the identity of Biblical Joseph was that of Prime Minister Yuya in the Egyptian New Kingdom. However, there is another dimension to this discovery that may now be understood. An ancestor of Yuya in the Egyptian Middle Kingdom served as his role model. This earlier member of Yuya's family had a similar name and held an identical office to his own. Working backwards from the time of Yuya in the Egyptian 18th Dynasty, the identity of the first Joseph can be found among the great princes of the 12th Dynasty. A Middle Kingdom context for the Biblical Joseph has recently been championed by David Rohl in Pharaohs and Kings: A Biblical Quest.c Rohl identifies Amenemhet III as the pharaoh who appointed Joseph as Vizier (Prime Minister) of Egypt. In the late 12th Dynasty, it was also pharaoh Amenemhet III who commissioned the building of the legendary Labyrinth at Hawara in Lower Egypt. Rohl presents evidence that this enigmatic structure functioned as a sophisticated granary before being incorporated into Amenemhet's mortuary temple. The remains of this vast complex are found near Amenemhet's own pyramid. Both the pyramid and mortuary complex of Amenemhet were built alongside an offshoot of the Nile that is known even today as the Bahr Yousef ("Waterway of

113 Joseph"). Rohl proposes that the Biblical Joseph modified a parallel branch of the Nile in order to divert excess floodwater into the vast artificial lake of the Faiyum (a.k.a. Moeris). During the reign of Amenemhet III, disastrously high water levels were recorded at the second cataract in Upper Egypt. The civil engineering of the first Joseph was performed in order to divert some of this excess into the new agricultural district of the Faiyum, and to prevent the Delta from being swamped. However, beginning with Year 20 of Amenemhet III, the annual floodwaters of the Nile rose to even higher levels. Flood control was either inadequate or overwhelmed. Consequently, normal planting and harvesting was not possible. The myriad compartments of the "Labyrinth" at Hawara would have made ideal "safe deposit boxes" for the grain reserves of Egypt's many temples and estates, which were stored away during "good years." This food was then "withdrawn" and distributed during the years of famine. House of Joseph Joseph: Inyotef IV During the early Egyptian 12th Dynasty, Egypt became separated politically from Mesopotamia. The founder of the 12th dynasty, Amenemhet I, was killed by a rival prince, Ur-Nammu. Ur-Nammu seized control over Mesopotamia, and founded the 3rd Dynasty of Ur.d This effectively stranded the house of Amenemhet in Egypt. Nevertheless, the pharaohs of the Egyptian 12th Dynasty ultimately recaptured the throne of Mesopotamia and reunited their "world." In the Egyptian New Kingdom, Egypt was again cut off from Mesopotamia, much as it had been during the Egyptian Middle Kingdom. Collateral lines of the royal family were ruling independently over those respective regions as they had in the Middle Kingdom. The pharaohs of the New Kingdom looked back upon that period for inspiration and for a plan.e Despite the intrigue and conflict among Egyptian princes of the Middle Kingdom, they still managed to prevail over their rivals in Mesopotamia. The princes of the New Kingdom carefully followed the earlier example, even to the point of assuming their names, relationships, actions and alliances. Even so, the New Kingdom royals were not able to re-conquer Mesopotamia. Nevertheless, the extreme measures they undertook to emulate their Middle Kingdom ancestors became the basis for the Torah narratives. The story of Joseph in the Torah is a composite of two historical persons. The Joseph of the Egyptian 18th Dynasty was patterned specifically after a prominent royal person of the 12th Dynasty. The first major event in the life of Biblical Joseph was his persecution. Joseph was favored by his father, which along with his pride provoked the jealousy of his elder brothers. He was cast into a pit and then left to die. However, he did not perish but was instead rescued by his brother Judah. The metaphor of being left to die in a well is an obvious allusion to the Legend of Etana. The prince who was cast into the well was not rescued for purely humanitarian reasons. He was needed in order to produce an heir for Etana. (See

114 Chapter 4) Likewise, Joseph was spared by Judah for dynastic purposes. The Middle Kingdom Judah was Amenemhet II (Patriarch Mehalalel). In exchange for his life, Inyotef produced an heir, named Auibre, on the behalf of Amenemhet II. According to the Biblical typecasting, Joseph was the son of Jacob. The leading Jacob figure of the 12th Dynasty was pharaoh Senusret II. Therefore, it can be deduced that he was the father of Inyotef (Joseph). Shortly after the birth of Auibre, Senusret II supplanted Amenemhet II and Sekhemkare, probably through treachery. However, like the earlier Gudea, he was careful to present himself as a pious, compassionate king.f In an attempt to appease the deposed house of Amenemhet II, Senusret II named a very young Auibre as his co-regent. Although Auibre would have been a legal son of Amenemhet II, he was the biological grandson of Senusret II through Inyotef. However, Amenemhet II and Sekhemkare had other sons who challenged this arrangement. They no doubt considered themselves to be the rightful heirs of their fallen fathers. Both Auibre and Senuret II were eventually overthrown. Senusret III (Patriarch Methuseleh) reclaimed the throne of his father Amenemhet II and named a brother Khendjer (Patriarch Lamech II) as his co-regent. Sobekhotep II (Aram) re-established the throne of Sekhemkare (Issachar) and named Sobekhotep III (Arphaxad) his co-regent. With the demise of Senusret II (Jacob) and Auibre, the fortunes of Inyotef (Joseph) also fell. There was no place for him in the new order of Egypt. (See Chart 15 for the chronology of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom.) In the previous chapter, the "scarlet thread" of kingship was traced down through the Patriarch Shelah, who was identified as the Mesopotamian king Sin-Muballit and Egyptian pharaoh Neferhotep I. Neferhotep (Shelah) was the successor of Sobekhotep III (Arphaxad). Two brothers of Neferhotep ruled alongside him as his own co-regents. The Egyptian names of these brothers were Si-Hathor and Sobekhotep IV. In Mesopotamia, Si-Hathor was known as Zimri-Lim king of Mari, and Sobekhotep IV was called Shamsi-Adad king of Assyria. The pharaohs of this period were naturally proud of their newly won Asiatic dominions. The term "Asiatic" ceased to be a pejorative epithet, and instead became a mark of distinction even in Egypt. After ruling alongside Senusret III for about 10 years, Khendjer either died or was disgraced. He was replaced as co-regent of Senusret III by Amenemhet III. At this time Sobekhotep IV was the dominant king of the secondary ruling house. It was during the tenure of Sobekhotep IV (Shamshi-Adad) that the Egyptian Delta was overrun by yet another "Asiatic" prince. This family rival of Sobekhotep assumed the Egyptian name of Dedumesiu. In Mesopotamia, he corresponds to Dadusha king of the important city of Eshnunna, and a known contemporary of ShamshiAdad.g It can be deduced that he was a son or grandson of the disgraced Inyotef. See the section "Hammurabi and the Hyksos," below). After the conquest of Dedumesiu, Pharaoh Amenemhet III appointed a new vizier, none other than Inyotef, the father or grandfather of Dedumesiu. Inyotef became no ordinary minister, but was given pharaonic titles and powers. He is designated as the fourth pharaoh by this name.

115 In the Genesis narrative, Joseph was pardoned, released from prison, and given divine status because he was able to both tell the pharaoh his forgotten dream, and also interpret it!h There had been famine in Egypt before. Storing up grain was not a new idea. However, the plan of Inyotef (Joseph) to store grain and control flooding of the Nile on an unprecedented scale and complexity likely was novel, at least in the dynastic period. Because of the defeat of Sobekhotep IV by Dedumesiu, Amenemhet III also saw the wisdom in selecting Inyotef as the one best qualified to implement that plan. From this time, the house of Sekhemkare (Biblical Issachar) was replaced by that of Inyotef (Biblical Joseph) as the secondary kingly line in Egypt. In the Book of Genesis, the leading "son" of Patriarch Lamech (Thoth) was named in Genesis as Jabal, which has the curious meaning of "water course," i.e., canal.i As noted in the previous chapter, statements made about a particular god, e.g., Enki (Enoch) or Thoth (Lamech), also have an application in the life of a later Patriarch who was patterned after him. Jabal of the pre-dynastic period is an archetype for the canal building Joseph. After the demise of the second Lamech (Khendjer), Inyotef IV (Joseph/Jabal II) came to power in Egypt. The Bahr Yuseph ("Waterway of Joseph") named for this deified vizier was one of the most significant projects of the entire Egyptian Middle Kingdom. Inyotef IV is found among the 13th Dynasty king-list, which is a collection of coregents and deified viziers who ruled alongside 12th Dynasty pharaohs. The Biblical name Joseph (Heb. Yo-ceph) is actually a more direct adaptation of the Egyptian name Inyotef than is the name Jacob (Yo-tsef ~ Ya-chob). In Gen. 41:45, Joseph is given the Egyptian name of "Zaph-enath Paaneah." However, this epithet now emerges as a Hebrew transliteration of the actual Egyptian name, Inyotef. Zaph ("covered, cherished") is the Hebraized form of the Egyptian tef, as demonstrated in the etymology of the name Jacob given in the previous chapter. The Hebrew anath/enath means "answer." This can be derived from a metathesis of In-yo-(tef), i.e., Yo-in. The Hebrew ya-an is synonymous with anath and means "respond." The Hebrew word nath means "give or add," and corresponds to the name Joseph (Heb. Yoceph), which itself means, "let him add, increase." Therefore, Zaph-enath (Tsef-ya-an) is a Hebraized form of Inyotef. In Judges 3:31, Anath is named as the father of the Judge Shamgar. From archaeology, a pharaoh of the (later?) 16th Dynasty is also called Anather. Either, or both, could have been regional names of Inyotef IV (Zaph-anath). David Rohl notes that in the Egyptian language, Pa-aneah, the second part of Joseph's Egyptian name, conveys "the life."j In the Genesis narrative, Joseph is hailed as the savior of Egypt, which makes this an appropriate interpretation. However, the Patriarchal family were both Egyptian and Hebrew speakers. Names with relevant meanings in both languages should be expected. In Hebrew, Paa-neah can alternatively be interpreted as "the mouth of Noah." The deified Vizier Inyotef IV (Joseph/Jabal) became the "double" of pharaoh Amenemhet III, the Noah of the second Adam's line. Except by the word of Joseph, nothing was to be done in all of Egypt (Gen. 41:44).

116 The Cycle of Life It should cause no consternation that a pharaoh such as Amenemhet III could be a contemporary of archetypal Joseph, but also depicted in the Bible as a second Noah, that is, the Utnapishtim of Gilgamesh fame. The Patriarchal history corresponding to the Middle Kingdom, like that of the New Kingdom, was typecast as a repetition of even earlier kings and catastrophes. The time of the gods came to an abrupt end with the Great Flood. The Great Nile Flood likewise swept away the Egyptian Middle Kingdom. The flow of history in the Bible is more like a drifting eddy than a plummeting waterfall. The culture of the royal court changed little over the centuries. Within any given generation, there were only so many roles to play. Each prince and princess was at an early age steeped in the family history, and was given nicknames that connected him or her to the heroes and heroines of past dynasties. Young royals reveled in their assumed identities, and each eager youth tried to live up to or even excel the expectations that went along with those identities. Ancient kings considered themselves de jure rulers of the world, if not always de facto. The greatest kings truly were renowned the world over. The legends of their triumphs and defeats were naturalized to Greece as they were in Israel, only using a different language and geography. The Patriarchal line was the stock from which came all the leading dynasties of Babylon, Assyria, Egypt and elsewhere in the ancient Near East from the Middle Kingdom onward. With this firmly established, the dynamics of Greek myth and Biblical tradition can finally be comprehended. With the help of archaeology, the drifting eddy of ancient royal history is no longer a hopelessly complex enigma, but can be understood as a perfectly simple and natural phenomenon. The wealth of cultural information from the Bible and other sources can finally be used to breathe life into sterile statues and other public monuments from the ancient world. For better or worse, blessing and curse, the Western World is the legacy of the Patriarchal family. We formerly looked upon these gods and goddesses through a glass darkly, but now we see their statuary and mummified remains face to face, and can be satisfied. Eber (Moses I): Auibre/Wahibre A critical element in unlocking both the history and chronology of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom is determining the exact relationship between Joseph and Moses. The Biblical account of the Exodus implies that a great deal of time elapsed between the death of Joseph and the Exodus led by Moses. In fact, one gets the impression that Moses was not even born until after the death of Joseph. But this turns out to be misleading. In Historicae Philippicae by Pompeius Trogus, Moses was identified as the son of Joseph.k This was literally true in the New Kingdom repetition of the history, as will be abundantly demonstrated in later chapters of this book. But was the archetypal Moses the literal son of the archetypal Joseph? The answer is emphatically yes! There is sufficient evidence to infer that the New Kingdom relationship was based specifically on the Middle Kingdom pattern. In the progression of Senusret II - Inyotef IV - Auibre we have

117 the archetypal sequence of Jacob - Joseph - Moses. This same sequence was intentionally reproduced in the New Kingdom. These roles were at that time played by Amenhotep II (Jacob), Vizier Yuya (Joseph) and Akhenaten (Moses). The New Kingdom relationships are analyzed in Chapters 15 and 16 of the book. The first Sojourn of the Patriarchs corresponds to the Egyptian 12th Dynasty (Middle Kingdom). The second took place during the Egyptian 18th Dynasty (New Kingdom). New Kingdom persons and events were fashioned as a repetition of the Middle Kingdom. The Middle Kingdom was in turn seen as a repetition of the Age of the Gods. Neither repetition was a perfect one, and the comparisons are in some respects strained. However, the Torah clearly preserves an ancient belief that history was spiraling downward through time. The Middle Kingdom fell short of the ideal established during the "First Time." Although glorious, the New Kingdom also did not fulfill the expectations set by the Middle Kingdom. The protagonists had each played their part, but the final act ended in tragedy, not triumph. During the second "Sojourn" of the Egyptian New Kingdom, Pharaoh Amenhotep II played the role of Jacob. One of his archetypes was Senusret II, the Jacob of the Middle Kingdom. In addition to the epithet of Jacob, Senusret II was also called the Patriarch Irad. This name associates him with the god Re. Vizier Yuya of the New Kingdom was typecast as a second Joseph. The archetypal Joseph, Inyotef IV, was in turn seen as a repetition of the demi-god Jabal from before the Great Flood. The New Kingdom Pharaoh Akhenaten assumed the role of Moses. This role had earlier been played by Auibre of the Middle Kingdom. Auibre was himself typecast as a second Enoch. It had been Enoch (the god Ptah-Enki) who acted to save Noah and his family. Likewise, the second Enoch, Pharaoh Auibre, took it upon himself to save many descendants of Noah who were being overcome by a great flood of the Nile in Egypt. Before Au-ibre could save others, he first had to be saved himself. Au-ibre was a promising young crown prince who suddenly vanished from Egypt. In this stage of his life, he is first given the pseudonym of Enoch II by the author of Genesis. However, this second Enoch was not taken up to heaven, but away to exile. It will be shown that he committed a high crime and was forced to seek refuge in Babylon of Mesopotamia where he assumed the Semitic name of Hammurabi. As noted above, Senusret II the grandfather of Auibre/Hammurabi was also subsequently deposed. The throne was claimed by Senusret III (Methuseleh), a son of Amenemhet II (Mahalalel). He in turn named his brother Khendjer (Lamech II) as co-regent. In the genealogy of the second Adam, Enoch II is followed by Methuseleh and Lamech II. The Lamech of the first line of Adam corresponds to the god Thoth.l The lament of Lamech found in Genesis 4 preserved the role of Thoth in the murder of Osiris. However, this lament was deliberately composed to also apply to the circumstances of the second Lamech, Khendjer. It is another example of the

118 "cross-talk" or cross coupling between the two lines of Adam, which are twisted together in the Genesis narrative. The homicidal thoughts of Khendjer, the second Lamech, were considered justified by the Genesis author. According to Jewish tradition, the second Lamech was blind.m In Genesis 4, the speech made by Lamech to his two wivesn expresses a desire to murder the one who had injured him. Genesis 4:23 is most accurately translated in the future tense. In other words, Lamech states, "I will kill a man for wounding me, and a young man for bruising me." Thoth, the first Lamech premeditated the murder of Osiris (Patriarch Mehujael). It can now be deduced whom it was that the second Lamech, Khendjer, wished to kill. It was none other than Auibre (Enoch II), the crown prince who disappeared toward the end of the reign of Senusret II. The Hebrew phrase translated "for my bruise" in Genesis 4:23 is le-habburati." What we have here is a word play on the name of Hammurabi, the most famous of all Babylonian kings, and which is the name Auibre chose for himself in Mesopotamia. The verse was intended to imply, "I will kill a man for wounding me, and a young man, the Hammurabi. In the case of the second Lamech, Khendjer, he may well have murdered commoners, however his vision to take revenge on the young crown prince Auibre/Hammurabi did not go beyond the intent to kill. Babylon, City of Refuge The flight of Auibre took place as much as three years prior to the end of Senusret II's reign. Senusret II was the god with whom Auibre (Enoch II) walked, and the one who took him away to safety in exile.o The city of Babylon was occupied by Auibre first as a "city of refuge." When the god Re had himself been exiled from Egypt, he chose this very location as his own "minimum-security prison." At the city of Babylon, Auibre cum Hammurabi would have been obliged to acknowledge the sovereignty of his wardens.p These would have included the major powers of that time, viz., Sumu-abum (Senusret III), Abisare (Khendjer), Sumu-lael (Amenemhet III), Sabium (future Amenemhet IV), Apil-Sin (Sobekhotep III) and Sin-Muballit (Neferhotep I). In exchange, the sanctity of his refuge was also respected. The exile of Auibre served to insulate him from further conflict in this highly volatile period. He was not hindered in his pursuit of knowledge or in rebuilding both the temple and ziggurat of Re.q Meanwhile, his many "brothers" competed with each other to retain possession of other important Mesopotamian sites. Rather than weakened by constant warfare, the strength of Hammurabi grew through his neutrality and the cultivating of good relations with all factions. In Year 21 of his exile Hammurabi erected the famous Law Stela. This was not the first collection of laws, nor the first public display of laws. Samsu-iluna, the coregent of Hammurabi at Babylon, referred to an earlier stela of this kind at the city of Ur in his Year 5. Year 5 of Samsu-iluna likely corresponds to Year 7 of Hammurabi.r The stela of Hammurabi dating to his Year 21 was a magnificent work of art and also of high literary quality. However, it differed markedly from the laws of his predecessors in a philosophical sense. Instead of the customary monetary

119 payment for certain crimes, physical punishment and the death penalty were often called for, and applied even to nobility. The "eye-for-an-eye and tooth-for-a-tooth" justice of Hammurabi amounted to a significant departure from earlier tradition. There certainly would have been resistance to any laws that increased the liability and personal jeopardy of the noble class. Moreover, these laws served to exonerate Hammurabi with respect to the action that had caused his banishment from Egypt. As god-elect, the young prince Auibre had blinded a fellow prince Khendjer, presumably for having maimed or killed others of lesser nobility.s The new laws of Hammurabi not only justified the punishment he had imposed on Khendjer, but required it. However, as an exiled prince, Hammurabi had no authority to impose his laws. He could only recommend them for use, and there is no indication that they were adopted by any other king, either in the time of Hammurabi or later. This makes their re-appearance as the "Laws of Moses" in the Torah all the more significant. Brothers in Law After 30 years of exile, Hammurabi once again became a contender to the greater throne. This was made possible with the defeat of Sobekhotep IV (Shamshi-Adad) by Dedumesiu (Dadusha), and the elevation of his father Inyotef IV to the status of pharaoh in Egypt. Hammurabi no longer campaigned only through his co-regent Samsu-iluna, but directly. The submission of Mesopotamia was achieved in about three years' time. Joan Oates writes: "After Shamshi-Adad's death, Assyrian power declined, and the letters suggest that Hammurapi was now in a position to request or even order military reinforcements from the Assyrian king."t The new king of Assyria was Shamshi-Adad's son Ishme-Dagan. The two pharaohs that follow Sobekhotep IV (Shamshi-Adad) in the 13th Dynasty king list, Sobekhotep V and Merneferre Ay, appear to the continuation of Sobekhotep IV's line. Two prominent sons of Shamshi-Adad are known from Assyrian and Babylonian archaeology. Ishme-Dagan was the eldest, and corresponds to Sobekhotep V in Egypt. Yasmah-Adad was his bumbling and much-maligned brother, and corresponds to Merneferre Ay (Ya ~ Ay) in Egypt. The resurgent Hammurabi became renowned not only as a lawgiver, but also as a census taker, a usurper of temple authority, a tireless administrator, and like his role model the fallen god Re, a willing judge.u Oates writes of Hammurabi's reign: "There is evidence to suggest the appointment of more permanent judges known as 'judges of the king', first attested under an earlier monarch, Sabium." Although Sabium is presently considered to be an earlier inspiration of Hammurabi, this was not actually the case. These two were very much contemporaries and collaborators. You might even call them "brothers in law." A third great lawgiver is considered to be the predecessor of Sabium. Lipit-Eshtar of Isin is the last king to have written laws in the Sumerian language. However, he too was a peer of Hammurabi. In fact, Lipit-Ishtarv could very well have been the name of Sabium or Sumu-abum at Isin.

120 The expression to "dwell in the tents of Shem and Eber" meant to be a scribe, and a master of law, science, astronomy and wisdom.w The Patriarch Eber corresponds to the great sage Hammurabi/Au-ibre. Patriarch Shem (II) corresponds to the Babylonian king Sabium, who later was crowned Amenemhet IV in Egypt. Amenemhet IV was the last in the line of contemplative 12th Dynasty (Middle Kingdom) pharaohs. Amen-em-het means "Amun in the forefront." The Hebrew word shem means "conspicuous position," and is synonymous with the Egyptian word het. Sometime during his fourth decade of rule, Hammurabi felt confident enough to declare himself "King of the Four Quarters (of the World)." Despite this claim, Hammurabi was still not welcome back in Egypt. Khendjer was long dead, but the crime committed against him was not forgotten or forgiven by Senusret III. Upon the death of Inyotef IV (Joseph), Senusret III did not allow Auibre (Hammurabi) to take his father's place. The elder statesman Sabium (Amenemhet IV) was appointed ahead of him. Even after Senusret III died several years later, his will continued to be honored, and Amenemhet IV was confirmed as successor to Amenemhet III is Egypt. The former prince Auibre probably accepted that he would not again be king in Egypt. Nonetheless, the pharaoh who sought to kill him was now dead, and he was free to return to the land of his youth. Crashing the King's Party When Sabium traveled to Egypt for his crowning (as pharaoh Amenemhet IV), he was joined or followed by Hammurabi. It was the occasion of Amenemhet III's Sed Festival or Jubilee.x Not only was he celebrating 30 years of kingship (as coregent), but his succession to the greater throne upon the passing of Senusret III. But these were not days of rejoicing for Egyptians or Israelites.y After the death of Inyotef IV, disastrously high floods prevailed for several more years. It was then that Senusret III also died in his 39th year of rule. Auibre-Hor, typecast as Enoch (II) had once vanished from Egypt. He "crossed over" the waters of the Euphrates only to resurface as the Patriarch Eber in Mesopotamia. The Hebrew name Eber means "to cross over," and especially to go across the Euphrates. It is patently a play on the Egyptian name of Au-ibre. After a literal 40 years of exile, he then returned to Egypt and became Moses. With the return of Hammurabi and Sabium to Egypt there arrived yet another devastating annual flood, and possibly the greatest Nile flood of all the Middle Kingdom. Only a disaster of this magnitude could compel a million or more people to abandon the relative security and prosperity of Egypt for the perils of the wilderness. They did not merely leave, but fled away from the rising waters and from the whip of Amenemhet III. An equally tempestuous Moses was once again denied the throne of Egypt, but he would become king and deliverer of a nation of Egyptian refugees. As the sun god Re,z Hammurabi was seen as stirring up the winds and creating dry land from the Nun, that is, the chaotic floodwater of the Nile. When cataclysmic natural and political events coincided, a drama like none other

121 unfolded. It would leave an indelible mark on the culture of the region and ultimately on the psyche of all mankind. Right or wrong, the throne of Egypt had once belonged to Auibre. He may have become powerful enough to reclaim his birthright by force. However, it appears that Hammurabi did not invade Egypt intent on conquest. Neither did he try to play spoiler and prevent the crowning of Amenemhet IV. Rather it appears that Hammurabi was motivated by the power of a name and of family honor. In Egyptian, Au-ibre means, "Re Succors the Heart."aa Succor is defined as "assistance or help in time of distress; relief literally, to run to the aid of."ab The former Auibre did not demand that Amenemhet III surrender the rule of the land but he did insist on taking away its people. The royal court of Egypt had begun its exodus at least a generation earlier. The fall of the 3rd Dynasty of Ur opened up a world of open space and new possibilities. However, the other descendants of Sargon-Israel were still pent up by pharaoh and the Nile. By the end of the Middle Kingdom, the tribes of Israel would have grown quite large, especially if they assimilated earlier groups occupying the land. They began to suffer, not only from overpopulation and overwork, but also from the unpredictable floods that brought an end to the high civilization of Middle Kingdom Egypt. They were the oldest tribes descending from Sargon/Israel. However, instead of being the most respected, they had become the most oppressed. They were the furthest removed from the ruling pharaoh and his immediate family. In Joseph (Inyotef IV), they may have enjoyed some relief. Although famine caused by excessive flooding continued for seven years, the people were provided for. But then Joseph died. Reserves from the "storehouse of Joseph" either expired with him or were deliberately withheld. Egypt was being ruled by two aging pharaohs whose thoughts increasingly turned to the extent of their kingdom in Mesopotamia and Asia. "Asiatic" campaigns probably required considerable resources from Egypt. The demands of Senusret III and Amenemhet III upon their Egyptian subjects were not held back. Nor did the insufferable flooding come to an end. After the death of Inyotef IV, compassion was not shown to the Israelites. The rations of the workforce were reduced, but their production quotas were increased. In addition to foreign conquests, monuments and houses of eternity for gods, living and dead, had to be built, rain or shine, feast or famine, in sickness or in health. Senusret III and Amenemhet III were not getting any younger. In fact, within five years Senusret would be dead. Amnesty for Lost Sheep and Shepherds In an attempt to win popular support in Mesopotamia, the freedom of persons who had recently fallen into slavery was restored. The extent to which a private citizen could be forced to work on behalf of the king was also limited to four days each month. However, the same benevolence offered to the dispossessed of Mesopotamia was not extended to the Israelites and other subjects living under the rule of pharaoh in Egypt. Hammurabi did not advocate the abolishment of slavery,

122 or of the permanent slave class. Helping a slave to escape was an offence punishable by death in his "code." Yet, Hammurabi evidently did agree that noble persons should be given their liberty, both in Mesopotamia, and especially in Egypt. The name Hammurabi had the meaning of "the people's ruler." Within the limits of his jurisdiction, it was possible for any citizen to bring their case before the king himself. All citizens were encouraged to know the law, and a scribe was presumably provided to read it to them upon demand. The father of Hammurabi himself, Inyotef IV, had devised a plan to save the people, but it also served to enslave them. Hammurabi must have pitied these persons and felt that it was his obligation to redeem them. In the calamity of Amenhotep III's reign, even the nobles were forced to deed not only their property but also their very souls to the state in exchange for food to keep them alive. These were descendants of Sargon (Inyotef A) and his immediate successors. They had been the nobility of the land during the 11th and early 12th Dynasties. None of their proud heritage had been forgotten by the time of Hammurabi. They were actually more closely related to the ruling king than those people recently freed in Mesopotamia. This double standard of the Egyptian imperialists favored their new subjects in Mesopotamia and discriminated against native Egyptians. Auibre returned to Egypt on a humanitarian mission. The work of his father was unfinished. Those whom Joseph had saved were now in need of deliverance. These proud but destitute children of Israel were in no position to refuse his help or his laws. Hammurabi designated his Year 41 as the "Year of Tashmetum." Year 42 was called the "Year after the Year of Tashmetum." Clearly these year names were symbolic of something very important. Tashmetum was consort of the god Nabu (Thoth), and she corresponds to the goddess Maat (a form of Sheshat) in Egypt. The preoccupation of Hammurabi at this time was with an appeal to Ny-Maat-Re, Amenemhet III. Hammurabi appealed not only to Amenemhet III, but also to the "Justice of Re," as a basis for setting free the Israelites in Egypt.ac As in his earlier Egyptian incarnation, the tactics Hammurabi employed were less than honorable. They included "divinely" ordained killings, which were carried out by the "Angel of the Lord." In this historical context, the "Angel of the Lord" logically refers to the newly crowned co-regent Amenemhet IV. Authorized or not, Auibre found himself once again fleeing for his life from a pharaoh who wanted to kill him. His life had come full circle. He left Egypt the first time as Auibre (Enoch). He returned to Egypt as Hammurabi (Eber). He departed once more as Moses. The "Angel of the Lord" (Amenemhet IV) left with him and Pharaoh (Amenemhet III) gave chase to both. In the Bible, we are told that a young Moses killed an Egyptian (or Israelite labor foreman) for abusing a Hebrew slave. This would have been resented, however the crown prince Auibre could not have been impugned for blinding or even killing a commoner. No, the true nature of this act involves an attack on a rival prince. Khendjer ("the Boar") may have proscribed blinding or other cruel and unusual

123 treatment of workers. Extreme corporal punishment and even torture were hallmarks of kingship in all ages. However, in ancient Egypt, capital punishment was not as prevalent as one would expect. Those condemned to die were often consigned to hard labor or some indirect form of execution. If guilty of a capitol offense, noble persons were required to take their own lives. Royalty were offered asylum through exile. The prohibition of Thoth-Shamash against the taking of human life still held considerable power. There existed a belief that "all men are created equal," that all descendants of Noah were "holy."ad This high standard was perverted by kingship. After the Great Flood, Etana (Shem I) was called "king of the beasts." In the Egyptian 4th Dynasty, the renowned Egyptian despot Khufu begrudgingly acknowledged that his subjects held the status of "noble herd."ae Lessons Learned and Remembered The life of Biblical Moses was in jeopardy both as an infant and as an adult. In both time periods, there would have been older qualified princes. Auibre/Wah-ibre would have been considered a threat for that reason alone. An analogy is drawn in the Bible between the peril of the baby Moses and that of the Hebrew slave children. The Bible indicates the babies of commoners were being put to death as a remedy for overpopulation. As fate would have it, many of these slaves participated in the Exodus and became Jews. Therefore the identification of the royal prince Moses with oppressed Hebrews was considered appropriate and egalitarian as well. In his youth, the crown prince Auibre had used his humanitarian ideals for political advantage. His newly acquired kingly prerogative was exploited in order to repay Khendjer in kind for his cruelty to inferiors. It may have been within his "divine right," but the ulterior motive of Auibre was wrong. Although calculated, it was also not particularly astute. Khendjer was a son of the late Amenemhet II (MahalalelJudah), and possibly his most favored son. He may have been considered by many as the rightful heir of the greater throne of Egypt upon his father's death. The blinding of Khendjer was the type of offense that could and probably did lead to civil war.af It was certainly the real reason for Auibre's flight to Midian (Mesopotamia). It must also have given Senusret III and Sekhemkare the justification they needed to overthrow Senusret II only a short time later. With the overthrow of Senusret II, the kingdom was split into three parts. Senusret III (Methuseleh) assumed the throne of his father Amenemhet II (MahalelelJudah). Sobekhotep II reclaimed the throne of his own father Sekhemkare (Issachar). Although humbled, the line of Senusret II would recover. A son of Senusret would later become the deified Vizier Inyotef IV (Joseph). Surprisingly, this proliferation of princes did not lead to a weakened empire, but was accompanied by rapid expansion. In the decades that followed, Middle Kingdom pharaohs re-conquered all of Mesopotamia and led expeditions into Europe and Asia. See Charts 12 & 15 for the mapping of Biblical Patriarchs to Middle Kingdom pharaohs and Babylonian kings.

124 The pharaohs of the Egyptian New Kingdom believed that if they repeated this same model, they would achieve the same results. During the reign of Amenhotep II in the 18th Dynasty, the empire of New Kingdom Egypt was deliberately divided into three parts. These three kings were three sons of Amenhotep II, namely Thutmose IV, Yuya and Osokhor. These princes assumed the identities of their Middle Kingdom ancestors and were called Judah, Joseph and Issachar, respectively. This strategy promoted rapid growth, even as it had in the Middle Kingdom. However, the greater throne of Mesopotamia was not recovered. Their cousins ruling Mesopotamia were equally aware of what had happened in the Middle Kingdom era. The 3rd Dynasty of Ur had collapsed and was easily overrun by the princes of Egypt. The new rulers of Mesopotamia must have been just as determined to keep that history from repeating itself. This was something the New Kingdom pharaohs may not have counted on. Despite the constant campaigning of the warrior king Thutmose III and the best efforts of his successors, Mesopotamia did not fall. Rather, Egypt was eventually conquered by Mesopotamian kings. Hammurabi and the Hyksos Genesis 10:25-26 states that in the time of Eber's "son" Peleg, "the world was divided." Although it was Eber who lost his throne in Egypt, the Bible associates the splitting of the family's "world empire" with Joktan and Peleg. Eber was very highly esteemed in Jewish tradition, therefore it was important that he not be associated with the calamity. Joktan is listed first, however the name Joktan means "made small, diminished." In Babylonian history, the first successor of Hammurabi was Samsu-iluna. This "son" of Hammurabi is named as Elishama ("God of Hearing") in Numbers 10:22, where he is placed over the prestigious tribe of Ephraim.ag Elishama is very close in form to the historical name of Illishuma, which is evidently the name of Samsu-iluna in Assyria.ah Here, and in the genealogy of Joshua (1 Chron 7:25-27), Elishama is named as the son of Ammihud (Neferhotep I). Therefore, Samsu-iluna was not likely a true son of Hammurabi, but a legal son produced on his behalf. Moreover, archaeology indicates that Samsu-iluna was not entirely successful in subduing his rivals. (Oates, Babylon, p83-84) Regardless of whether he died or was disgraced, the birthright (kingly succession) did not pass (in the immediate sense)ai to any of the many sons of Joktan, but to a son of Peleg. Peleg was a contemporary of Eber (Chart 8), and probably a half-brother. He was a son only in the political sense. However, naming Peleg as a "son" of Eber gave the desired appearance that the "division" occurred after Eber's time, and was not related to his aborted reign in Egypt. In the Exodus account, the "mantle" is transferred by Moses (Eber) to Joshua son of Nun (Num 27:18-23). The names Peleg and Nun are synonymous, and correspond to a single historical person. Nun, also written as Non, means "to perpetuate by division."aj In Egyptian mythology, Nun is associated with the waters of chaos from which the world separated and sprang to life. Therefore, Nun

125 signifies regeneration, which is a more positive outcome of division. On the other hand, the name Peleg has the meaning of "earthquake," and is derived from the verb palag, "to split, divide."ak Rather than having a positive connotation, the name Peleg emphasizes the traumatic effects of both geological and political rift. The record in Genesis of the family split was deliberately placed after Eber's watch. Instead of Eber, his "sons" Peleg and Joktan were made to bear the shame. A Prophet Like unto Moses The next Patriarch in Genesis after Peleg is named as Reu. In the Exodus account, Reu son of Peleg is called Joshua son of Nun. Numbers 11:2 states that Joshua was the "young aide" and "constant companion" of Moses (Eber/Moses). The Hebrew name Reu means "friend, associate, constant companion." In the Babylonian king list, the second successor of Hammurabi is named Abi-eshuuh ("Father of Salvation?"). The Babylonian name Eshuuh is an obvious form of the Biblical name Joshua. The Bible states parenthetically in Numbers 13:16 that Moses gave Hoshea son of Nun the name Joshua (Jehoshuah). In other words, Joshua/Hoshea was not his original name. Formerly, Abieshuuh was known as Ibal-pi-el. (Note: Dadusha was also known to be the king of Eshnunna at this time, and is the likely father of Ibal-pi-el.) Prince Ibal-pi-el of Eshnunna wrote: "When Hammurapi is disturbed by some matter, he does not hesitate to send for me, and I go to him wherever he is."al It is the conquest of Abi-eshuuh that is described in the book of Joshua. In addition to his victories in Palestine, Abi-eshuuh established the Hyksos dynasty in the Egyptian Delta under the name Salitis. The title of Hyksos meant "Ruler of a Foreign Land." The homeland of Salitis and of the Hyksos rulers who followed him was no longer Egypt, but Babylon. This name Salitis is related to the English words salvation, salutation and salubrious, and therefore is also synonymous with the name Joshua. Salut! is a greeting that wishes "health and preservation."am Yet another Biblical name of Joshua was Salmon. This name contains the root sal, however the name Salmon means a "garment, robe, or mantle." It was upon Joshua that Moses placed his mantle, which symbolized the transfer of kingly succession from the previous co-regent Joktan/Elishama (Samsu-iluna) to Joshua/Salmon (Abi-eshuuh). Difficulty in producing heirs is a constantly repeating theme in the Bible. As with Moses (Hammurabi), no true sons of Joshua (Reu) are mentioned in the book of Joshua or elsewhere in the Bible. The book of Ruth was originally written to explain how the rule of Israel passed from Joshua son of Nun to the collateral line of Boaz (Serug).1 In the opening passage of Ruth, the magnate Joshua is named by the generic title of Elimelech ("God of/and King"). The two sons of Elimelech/Joshua died young. The symbolic nicknames given to these sons indicate that they were sickly. They both had been given wives, but neither produced an heir before their deaths. Ruth was the widowed wife of one of these sons. According to the courtly protocol, she was "redeemed" by her wealthy

126 kinsman Boaz. By virtue of the marriage of Ruth and Boaz, the "birthright" subsequently passed to their son Obed. According to Ruth 2:1 (NIV), Boaz was "from the clan of Elimelech" and "a man of standing."an Serug (Boaz) follows Reu (Salmon) in the Genesis king-list.ao Which Exodus According to the 3rd Century B.C. Jewish historian Artapanas (as quoted by the later Christian historian Eusebius), the first Exodus occurred after the reign of a king called "Khenephres." David Rohl has convincingly identified "Khenephres" as the pharaoh Khaneferre Sobekhotep IV of the late Middle Kingdom (13th Dynasty). Sobekhotep IV was a contemporary of the first Moses, Auibre/Hammurabi. He was certainly one nemesis of the young Hammurabi. However, it was shown above that another pharaoh named Khendjer was the pharaoh (and the Patriarch) who first wished to kill him. The Biblical Exodus includes the account of a second Moses who followed the second Joseph of the Egyptian 18th Dynasty. This Exodus was liberally documented by the 3rd Century B.C. Egyptian priest Manetho (as quoted by the Jewish historian Josephus). In the 18th Dynasty, famine resulted from the lack of water, rather than excess. However, the method of preparation, that is stockpiling grain, was very much the same. The two men who administered these programs had similar names and held identical offices. The upbringing and career of the Egyptian New Kingdom Joseph, namely Yuya, was typecast in the book of Genesis as a repetition or fulfillment of the earlier Middle Kingdom archetype. The Moses and the Exodus that followed the Sojourn of the 18th Dynasty Joseph is likewise described in the Torah as a composite or repetition of the earlier Middle Kingdom (12th/13th Dynasty) Exodus.ap The Exodus is the climax of the Torah. It is also the most pronounced cycle of the Torah. Four of the five books of the Torah are devoted to this event. On the other hand, there is only one book, Genesis, describing all previous Patriarchal history. In the Torah, Egyptian 18th Dynasty royals are depicted as repetitions of great 12th Dynasty ancestors, and are even called by the names or nicknames of those ancestors. The character of Moses (Hammurabi + Akhenaten) is no exception. In fact, in the account of Moses the genre reaches its most complete form. Similarities between New Kingdom royals and notable ancestors were seized upon by the 18th Dynasty royals themselves, and were not merely applied retrospectively by later writers. The ancients delighted in repetitions of family heroes and consciously cultivated them. A comparison did not need to be perfect in order to be considered appropriate and useful. Persons and events of the Egyptian New Kingdom were more recent and therefore more dominant in the Torah narratives. However, that which was still remembered about the earlier Middle Kingdom archetypes was also carefully preserved. Exodus 6:26-27 confirms the existence of more than one Moses when it states, "It was this same Aaron and Moses...who spoke to Pharaoh king of Egypt about

127 bringing the Israelites out of Egypt. It was this same Moses." The passage is trying to discriminate between this Moses (Hammurabi) and another Moses (Akhenaten) who led "Hebrews" out of Egypt at another time and under different circumstances. The New Kingdom protagonists were not exact duplications of Middle Kingdom Thespians, but the similitude was compelling enough to be useful as a construct in dramatizing the history. The Biblical compilers were attempting to harmonize, or at least salvage, material from two distinctly different Sojourns. The Exodus of Akhenaten occurred at the end of the 18th Dynasty. As expected, this later event is the more lucid, and provided the overall structure for the Biblical narrative. Yet, the Exodus of Akhenaten was not depicted as a unique event, but quite strongly as a repetition of the earlier 12th Dynasty Exodus. Knowing this, can we still say that the later pharaoh Akhenaten was truly Moses? Yes and No. In Moses: Pharaoh of Egypt, Ahmed Osman convincingly compared Akhenaten with Biblical Moses. Recent titles by Jan Assmann (Moses the Egyptian) and Jonathan Kirsch (Moses: A Life) have eloquently contrasted the two figures. The story of Moses in the Torah is actually a "mosaic." It was an attempt to do justice to the travails of both Akhenaten and the earlier Hammurabi. Therefore, it is not an exact representation of either. The Exodus narratives include detailed information from the life of Hammurabi, who was the archetypal Moses. Therefore, the depiction of Akhenaten as a repetition of Hammurabi goes well beyond the broad typecasting of other Patriarchs in Genesis. The Biblical Moses account is a composite sketch of the archetype Hammurabi and his "repetition" Akhenaten. Hammurabi became Moses. Akhenaten played Moses. The Biblical account is simultaneously the story of Hammurabi and the story of Akhenaten. Certainly there were distinct similarities and differences between Akhenaten and Hammurabi. A young Hammurabi (Wah-ibre) must have been optimistic about his future. Upon his election, Middle Kingdom Egypt was burgeoning. The dawn of Akhenaten's reign was likewise entirely auspicious. The reign of his predecessor Amenhotep III had seen unprecedented growth in wealth, industry and culture. However, Akhenaten, like his ancestor Wahibre/Hammurabi, was rejected after being appointed as co-regent. Both Wahibre (Hammurabi) and Waenre (Akhenaten) would ultimately recover their thrones. After Moses (Wahibre/Eber) was "exiled" from Egypt, the Biblical account tells us that he sought refuge in "the land of Midian." During the time of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom, Midian referred to Mesopotamia. The root meso actually means "middle." Mesopotamia is literally the "middle country between the two rivers," and corresponds to the Hebrew Naharaim, "(land between) the two rivers." The two rivers are the Tigris and Euphrates. Mesopotamia is the first of at least three Biblical "Midians." The last of the three Midians was in the Trans-jordan, and this is now considered the traditional site. However, Midian would not have referred to the Trans-jordan at the early date of the first Moses, Wahibre/Hammurabi.

128 Akhenaten did not flee to the Median of Mesopotamia, but built a city of refuge for himself at a deserted locale in Middle Egypt. The use of generic names such as Moses and Midian is deliberate, because it allows a double history to be told. Akhenaten called his city Akhet-aten ("Horizon or Resting Place of the Aten.") In Exile, Akhenaten changed his name from Amenhotep IV,aq and adopted the title of Wa-en-re ("Unique One of Re"). The choice of Wa-en-re was not only made to identifiy with the earlier Wah-ib-re, but also an attempt to redefine the role. The New Kingdom royals may not have seen themselves as the exact replicas (reincarnations?) of Middle Kingdom ancestors. However, they carefully crafted their lives to be variations on the earlier theme. Hammurabi had spent a literal 40 years away from Egypt. This amounted to the entire reign of Senusret III. Senusret was the brother of the pharaoh who had determined to kill Hammurabi and the one who also upheld his banishment from Egypt. The pharaoh who forced out Akhenaten was forced out by Aye and Amenhotep III. Amenhotep III, like Senusret III, reigned for almost 40 years. However, Akhenaten was deposed in his Year 5, which corresponded to Year 32 of Amenhotep III. He only spent about 7 years in exile before "returning to [Upper] Egypt" upon that pharaoh's death. Yuya (Joseph II) died at about this same time as well. Only about 5 years separated the time of Yuya's death and the Exodus led by Akhenaten. (See Chapter 16 of this book for more detail on the second Exodus.) This very closely matches the amount of time between the death of Inyotef IV, the first Joseph, and the Exodus led by Hammurabi, the first Moses. Family relationships were complex, however it can be determined that Hammurabi (Moses I) and his successor Abi-eshuuh (Joshua I) were separated by roughly only a generation. Exactly one generation separated Akhenaten from his son Tutankhamun. The second Joshua (Tut) was the literal son of the second Moses (Akhenaten), however this relationship is not made explicit in the Exodus account. The reason is that the first Joshua was not the natural son of the first Moses. The Exodus narrative was made to apply equally to both sets of Israelite leaders. Moses was the son of Joseph in both periods. The author of the Book of Exodus had other reasons for disguising this direct relationship, which will become evident in Chapter 16 of this book. The Exodus account states that a generation passed between the Exodus and the Conquest of Joshua. However, it was not necessarily a literal 40 years. In the second Exodus, the orphaned survivors were resettled in the reign of Tutankhamun. Tut was the successor of Akhenaten and being projected as a second Joshua prior to his early death. Resettlement of the second Exodus participants took place within 4 years of their departure from the Delta (See Chapter 16). In this second journey, only Akhenaten and his court fled to the Sinai desert. The Mount Sinai of this Exodus was likely not the same as the earlier Exodus. Two distinct wilderness journeys are described in the Torah. As part of a "covenant" made with family rivals, Akhenaten returned from Mount Sinai to the Egyptian Delta. Unlike Hammurabi, his return to Egypt was not entirely voluntary. The Hebrews that he drew out of the Delta were not bound for freedom,

129 but to be liberated from their contagious and incurable diseases. He did not lead this "Exodus party" back through the Sinai to Palestine, but to his sacred city of Akhet-aten in Middle Egypt. This location where the Israelites "dwelt for a long time" is called by the generic name of Kadesh ("holy city") in the Exodus account. The use of a symbolic descriptor allows the narrative to represent both desert treks. Hammurabi was undoubtedly also criticized for meddling in a business that was no longer his own. In the Exodus account, 250 tribal leaders of Israel rejected his right to take the people out of a land of milk and honey that was Egypt. (Korah's Rebellion, Num 16) Joan Oates further notes that unlike contemporary kings, "Hammurabi never assumed the title of divinity in any form." On the other hand, Akhenaten was consumed with his own deification, at least until the coup that forced him to abdicate in his Year 17. Akhenaten, like Hammurabi/Amminadab, showered his "Midianite" courtiers with liberal gifts. However, blame was ultimately laid on him for the extreme suffering and deprivation endured by the people of Egypt as a whole during his ill-fated reign. The Bible downplays the kingship of Moses and makes pains to portray him in exodus as thoroughly broken, "the most humble man on earth." (Num. 12:3) The conquest of Mesopotamia had already occurred by the time of the first Exodus. Akhenaten must have realized that the re-dramatization of his time was going horribly wrong. He was trapped in a bad play and was given no choice but to finish the last act. At the end of his over 40 year reign, Hammurabi could at least claim sovereignty over the "Four Quarters of the World." At the end of his 17 years of rule, the sun of Akhenaten set in disgrace. Nevertheless, the comparisons between Akhenaten and Hammurabi still gleam. Although made a scapegoat in his own day, Akhenaten was nonetheless honored in the Torah tradition as a great philosopher in the order of Hammurabi. The top panel of the famous "Law Code Stela" depicts Hammurabi in prayer before the sun god Shamash (Thoth/Hermes). Akhenaten likewise worshipped the sun god Aten and was remembered as Hermes Trismegistus ("Hermes Thrice Great") by the Greeks. He was the last great philosopher pharaoh in a dynasty of Thoth's, the Egyptian 18th Dynasty. Habeas Corpus If the mummy found in the tomb of Auibre is actually his own, then the bones of Hammurabi, the archetypal Moses, are now in the Cairo Museum. The death of Moses is spoken of in Deuteronomy 34. Moses had personally reburied the body of his father Joseph, the living god Inyotef. IV. The body of Moses was also taken and buried "by God." In this time period, the greatest god was Amenemhet III. He was the pharaoh who resisted the Exodus. The confrontation of Moses (Auibre/Hammurabi) and Aaron (Amenemhet IV/Sabium) with "pharaoh" (Amenemhet III) was a standoff between brothers. Prior to the death of Senusret III, these three brothers would have been allies, and must have had countless

130 discussions on kingship, philosophy and justice. After Senusret's death, they remained the three most powerful kings on earth. It was this power that divided them. In the final debate over the matter of slavery in Egypt, Auibre and Amenemhet III did not see eye-to-eye. However, Amenemhet remained a brother to him in death. Auibre was buried within the mortuary complex of Amenemhet III at Dasshur. This complex had earlier been abandoned by Amenemhet when the adjoining pyramid began to have structural problems. He built a new pyramid for himself at Hawara. The abandoned mortuary complex later became the site for Auibre's tomb. This burial appears to have been commissioned by Amenemhet III himself, as a canopic chest with his name was found among the tomb equipment. The mummy of the second Moses, Akhenaten, has not been located or at least has not been identified with any certainty. It has been speculated that his mummy is the one found in the Valley of the Kings, tomb KV55. However, this is probably not the case. This mummy is more likely that of Smenkhare. Akhenaten built a tomb for himself in his city of refuge. However, it does not appear that he was actually buried there. "Fate" may have dictated that Akhenaten (Wa-enre) be buried in the tomb of Amenhotep III, even as Wah-ibre had been buried in a tomb complex originally belonging to Amenemhet III. How far were the ancients determined to go in fulfilling their "destiny?" Tutankhamun, the second Joshua, died young and was buried in the "Valley of the Kings" in Upper Egypt. On the other hand, the archetypal Joshua (Abi-eshuuh) was said to have lived to a ripe old age. He was also said to have been buried in the "hill country of Ephraim," indicating northern Palestine (Joshua 24). The New Kingdom relationships were not exactly the same as those of the Middle Kingdom, but they were certainly close enough to evoke a deep meaning to the family. Tutankhamun was deliberately patterned after Abi-eshuuh at a very young age. In the Amarna Letters, a young Tutankhamun is named as "Tutu," and is called the "chamberlain" of Akhenaten, that is, Akhenaten's young steward or assistant (Reu). By the age of seven, Tutu had already been sent as an emissary to Damascus, and the king of Damascus addressed Tutu directly in his letters. Although Tutu was given his own tomb at Akhet-aten (and none is acknowledged for Tutankhamun), archaeologists refuse to even entertain that Tut and Tutu could have been one and the same person. Rather, it is conjectured that Tutu must have been an elderly minister of Syrian origin. The Joseph of the second Sojourn, Prime Minister Yuya, was buried in the prestigious Valley of the Kings. His well-preserved tomb (KV 46) and mummy were found by Theodore Davis in 1905. Of all the tombs that have been discovered in the Valley of the Kings, this tomb is second only to Tutankhamun's in perservation, and in the quantity and quality of its burial goods. However, in the book of Joshua (24:32) we are told that Moses took the bones of Joseph out of Egypt and buried them in Shechem of Palestine. These would have been the bones of the Middle Kingdom Joseph. According to Jewish tradition, the bones of

131 Joseph had become submerged beneath the waters of the Nile.ar This is another indication that the first Exodus occurred during a time of massive flooding. The Book of Joshua is not part of the Torah and was not written in the style of the Torah. More specifically, the history in the Book of Joshua is not told as a repetition, but pertains entirely to events occurring shortly after the first Exodus in the 12th/13th Dynasty. The Joseph, Moses and Joshua it refers to are those of the Middle Kingdom. The Book of Joshua has nothing to do with the second Joseph, Moses and Joshua of the Egyptian 18th Dynasty. However, for lack of a more appropriate place, the Book of Joshua comes after the Torah in the Bible's table of contents. This only served to canonize the misconception. But, we now see just how misleading a "Table of Contents Chronology" can be. According to 1 Kings 6:1, Solomon began construction of his temple 480 years after the Exodus. Scholars have long noted a mismatch between this figure and the one derived from the year numbers given in the books of Joshua, Judges, Ruth, and 1 & 2 Samuel. These books have until now been thought to cover the intervening period between the Torah and the book of 1 Kings. To summarize, there is more than 500 years of history in the book of Judges alone. To this must be added the reigns of David (40 yrs) and Saul (42 yrs), and the time of Samuel. Moreover, there had been 40 years of "wandering in the wilderness" after the Exodus, and about 40 more years between the Conquest of Joshua and his death at the ripe old age of 110. One could arrive at an elapsed time of 600 years or more by this method. On the other hand, the 480-year figure can be derived from the Torah by working backward from the time of Shiloh (Solomon) to that of Eber (Moses I). This is an indication that the author of 1 Kings 6:1 did understand the relationship of the Kings narrative with the Torah, and may have even used the year numbers specified in the Torah history to make their own calculation. Although an attempt was made to create a running narrative in the Book of Judges, it is clear that not all of the history of that book is in its proper chronological order. The introduction of the book specifies that Joshua was deceased, however the narrative backtracks at multiple points in order to assimilate older history. For example, the account of Ehud, grandson of Benjamin (Inyotef A/Sargon) found in Judges 3:12-30 takes place in the Egyptian 11th Dynasty, long before the time of Joshua, the first Exodus or even the Patriarchs Shem (Sabium) and Eber (Hammurabi). The defeat of Jabin king of Hazor found in Judges 4-5 is evidently also described in Joshua 11. Gideon of Judges 6-8 and Abimelech of Judges 9 are the stories of Tao II and Thutmose I of the later Egyptian New Kingdom period (See Essays 3, 4 & 5). However, the story of Samson in Judges 13-16 does not belong to the New Kingdom, but is a return to the Middle Kingdom or Hyksos Period. Therefore, the book of Judges cannot be said to strictly come after the book of Joshua, because it includes at least one account that is associated with the Conquest of Joshua, and other material that precedes the book of Joshua. Note: The 14th Dynasty pharaoh Nehesy aligns with the archetypal Phineas, who received an "everlasting (divine) priesthood." The name Phineas is a Hebraized

132 form of the Egyptian name Pa-Nehesy ("the Southerner"), the founder of Manetho's ephemeral 16th Dynasty. The last story of the book of Judges (20:28) mentions, parenthetically, that "in those days Phineas was ministering." If the editor was correct in his assessment, this places the final episode of Judges only a short time after the first Exodus, and therefore, shortly before the conquest of Joshua. (We learn in the book of 1 Samuel 2:27-36 that the eternal franchise of Phineas was annulled only two generations later. This accounts for the brevity of the 16th Dynasty king-list.) There were two very distinct Moses figures, however only one Exodus account was included in the Torah. As with Joseph, the story of Moses is not a pure biography but an epic cycle. The second Moses (Akhenaten) was depicted as a repetition of the archetypal Moses (Hammurabi). Material belonging to both persons and events was integrated into a single narrative. It was later mistakenly assumed that the Book of Joshua followed the Exodus account and therefore, the entire Torah in time. The Joshua of the Books of Joshua and Judges was a younger contemporary of Eber, and he is not composited with a later person. In a chronological sense, the Book of Joshua should be inserted immediately after the Patriarch Eber of the Genesis narrative. The Book of Joshua cannot be said to follow the composite Exodus account, because the Torah account is a single history covering two time periods. Chart 9 compares the "table of contents" chronology of the Bible with the actual relationships between books.

a. James L. Kugel, In Potiphar's House, Harvard University Press, 1994, p 14. See also, Donald B. Redford, A Study of the Biblical Story of Joseph (Genesis 37-50), Supplements to Vetus Testamentum 20 (Leiden: Brill, 1970). b. A cycle is defined as "the aggregate of traditional poems or stories organized around a central theme or hero." American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language c. See especially Chapter 12. d. The Ur-Nammu dynasty was likewise denied access to the traditional burial ground of Egypt. The tombs of Ur III are the first royal burials known in Mesopotamia. e. From archaeological evidence alone, Jan Assmann concludes, "the early rulers of the Eighteenth Dynasty modeled themselves closely on the Twelfth Dynasty in the style of their inscriptional and artistic self-representation." (The Mind of Egypt, p 199.) f. In addition to Jered, Senusret was also called Jerahmeel (3396), meaning "God will be compassionate." Cf Jerahmeel (Heb. Yerachm-el) and Rekem/Racham (1 Chron. 2:43-44. g. Joan Oates, Babylon, p 80. h. Egyptian subjects were required to "bow the knee" to Joseph, that is to recognize his divinity. i. Genesis 4:19-24

133 j. David Rohl, Pharaohs and Kings, p 350. k. See citation by Jan Assmann, Moses The Egyptian, pp 35-36. l. See Chapter 3 of this book. m. James Kugel, In Potiphar's House, Chapter 6, "Why Was Lamech Blind?", pp 159-172. n. The inclusion of two wives is a further indication of a double history. o. Genesis 5:24 p. Rim-Sin (Sobekhotep II) and Shamshi-Adad (Sobekhotep IV) are notable exceptions. q. The temple was called the Esagila and the ziggurat Etemenanki, the "Tower of Babel." r. The regnal years of Hammurabi and those of his co-regent Samsuiluna appear to be offset by about two years. Year 1 of Samsu-iluna would have begun in the second or third year of Hammurabi. It is presumed that Samsu-iluna was appointed co-regent of Hammurabi upon the death of Senusret II. s. The blinding of slaves was one remedy for rebellion. t. Joan Oates, Babylon, p 64. Parentheses mine. u. Joan Oates, Babylon, Chapter 3 v. Senusret, "Man of Sret (Ishtar)" was a popular king name in the 12th Dynasty. It was the name of Sumu-abum in Egypt. w. James Kugel, In Potiphar's House, pp 100-1. x. David Rohl, Pharaohs and Kings, p 339. y. The distinction between these groups is rather arbitrary. They are both the descendants of a continuous line of kings, the main difference being that the later group may have not yet fully lost their Akkadian language, culture and identity. z. Compare the Egyptian 10th Dynasty text, "Instruction for Merikare" and see commentary in Religion in Ancient Egypt, Byron Shafer, ed., p 103. aa.The variant Wah-ibre means "Constant is the Heart of Re." Both translations by Peter Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, p 91, 195. bb.The American Heritage Dictionary. cc. Sobeknefru, daughter of Amenemhet III, became a female pharaoh about this time. The reference to Tashmetum may suggest a role of this queen in the Exodus. dd.Compare Numbers 16. ee.In Ancient Egypt, commoners were variously called "noble herd" or "flock of the god." "Tales of the Magicians," Joseph Kaster, The Wisdom of Ancient Egypt, p 264. As in the Tale of Etana, a loophole in the law of Thoth was found by declaring men to be animals! ff. In the Exodus account (Num. 16:1-14), rebels are summoned to appear before Moses, but refuse to go. They exclaim, "Will Moses also blind us!" It is evident that Moses had a reputation for putting eyes out. In Deut. 34:7 we are assured that the eyesight of Moses himself was not diminished in his old age. In other words, his own

134 eyes had not been put out. It was the second Moses, Akhenaten (Greek Oedipus), who blinded himself. gg.Only 38 regnal years are recorded for Samsu-iluna. The Exodus would have occurred around his 39th year. hh.In the "Sargon Chronicle," Illishuma is named as the king of Assyria during the reign of Sumu-abum (Senusret III). Ref: Ancient Near Eastern Texts, ed. J. Pritchard, p 267. By association, Illishuma is likely an alternative name of Samsu-iluna. ii. Ammi-ditana (Yakubher), the "successor" of Abi-eshuuh was probably a son of Samsu-iluna, which represents a resurgence of his natural line. jj. A fuller form of the Biblical name Nun/Non was Naashon, which means "enchanter." In Numbers 10:14, the tribe of Judah led by Naashon marches out before the tribe of Ephraim led by Elishama. kk. Abingdon's Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible used for all Hebrew word studies. ll. Joan Oates, Babylon, p 64. Year 4 of Ibal-pi-el corresponded to Year 17 of Hammurabi. Joshua may have been youthful looking, but was not especially young by the time of the Exodus. In 1 Samuel 9:1, Joshua is named as Aphiah ("breeze"), the great ancestor of King Saul. Aphiah is similar to the Hebrew word aphiyl, meaning "immature fruit," and relates to the description of the "youthful" Joshua. mm. Compare the Latin salutare and salus (stem salut-) Ref. The American Heritage Dictionary. nn.Obed corresponds to Ammi-ditana (Hyksos Yakubher). However, the next king Ammi-saduga claims to have been the son (of the male line) of Samsu-iluna! oo.The name Serug is derived from the Hebrew verb serag, meaning "to intertwine." This is perhaps symbolic of his "intermarriage" with the woman Ruth of "Moab." However, in a broader Biblical sense, intertwined implies strong. Ecclesiastes 4:12 (NIV) states: "A cord of three strands is not quickly broken." Likewise, the root "az" in Boaz also indicates strength in Hebrew. The name Moab means "Father Land," i.e., the Patriarchal family homeland of Mesopotamia. Moab, like Midian, refers to Mesopotamia during the time period of Ruth, and not to the Trans-Jordan. pp.It has been shown that the 13th Dynasty did not follow the 12th Dynasty, but was fully overlapping with it. The two "dynasties" concluded with the Great Nile Flood and evacuation of a sizable percentage of the population. qq.Akhenaten rejected his given name Amenhotep (IV). He extolled a form of the sun god Aten, and became the scourge of YahwehAmen. In his name, the temples of Amun were desecrated and closed. In the book of Exodus, it is not Moses but Jethro who offers the first sacrifice to Yahweh in the wilderness. Moses evidently

135 refrains from participation. (See commentary by Jonathan Kirsch, Moses: A Life, p 232.) rr. James Kugel, In Potiphar's House, p 131.

Note 1: In Joshua 2 a harlot (or innkeeper) named Rahab hung a "scarlet thread" from her window so that her home would be "passed over" by the invading army of Joshua. The rabbis later construed this to mean that she became the mother of a king. In Matthew 1, she is named as the mother of Boaz by Salmon. It is significant that she is made a contemporary of both Joshua and Salmon. Salmon turns out to be another name for Joshua. However, Joshua/Salmon was not succeeded by one of his own biological sons. Princesses on occasion play the role of prostitutes or wanton women in Scripture. Rahab may indeed have been a royal woman, however there is no other indication in the Old Testament that she became the mother of the successor. The Book of Ruth is the story of how the throne passed from Joshua (there called Elimelech) to the son of Boaz and Ruth. Boaz was a "kinsman" of Joshua/Elimelech, but not a son. He was more likely the son of Joktan (Samsu-iluna). The next to last king of the Hammurabi dynasty, Ammisaduqa was considered to be the son (of the line) of Samsu-ditana (Joktan) rather than Abi-eshuuh (Joshua). See "List of Year Names: Samsu-iluna, King of Babylon," Ancient Near Eastern Texts, ed. J. Pritchard, p 271. The Hyksos name of Boaz was Yakub-her, a form of Jacob. This choice of name suggests that succession upon the death of Salitis to Yakubher was not entirely smooth. In other words, Yakubher was not elected by Salitis to be his successor. Ruth, the wife (queen) of Yakhubher and former daughter-in-law of Salitis (Joshua) is likened unto the two wives of Jacob, Rachel and Leah (Ruth 6:11). This could be an anachronism resulting from late editing of the text of Ruth. Alternatively, it could be alluding to the royal wives of an earlier Jacob, especially the archetypal Jacob, Sargon the Great. In Ruth 6:12, there is a definite anachronism. This was the result of confusion between the Middle Kingdom twins Peresh and Sheresh and New Kingdom twins Perez and Zerah. See Charts 1 & 7 and Chapter 12. The conflation of these two sets of prominent kings is also evident in the genealogy of 1 Chronicles 2, and was propagated in the New Testament genealogy of Matthew 1. It is an artifact of the strong typecasting of New Kingdom kings as repetitions of their Middle Kingdom ancestors. This may seem like a relatively minor and understandable error, however it had enormous implications in terms of chronology

Living in Truth:

Archaeology and the Patriarchs

136

Chapter 9
"Right in Their Own Eyes" Perspectives on the United Kingdom of David and Solomon (Overview of Chapters 10 through 15)
by Charles N. Pope Copyright 1999-2002 by Charles Pope United States Library of Congress All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions

Introduction The individual books of the Hebrew Bible ("Old Testament") are overflowing with genuine ancient history. Yet, the Bible as a whole does not take on the shape of any archaeological container. There is a very simple explanation. A surprising and little known fact is that the binding together of historical books in the Old Testament did not take place until well after the New Testament was compiled. Prior to this, the five books of the Torah, the Book of Joshua, the Book of Judges, and the Kings/Chronicles narrative represented separate works by different authors. These individual accounts, which now make up the Old Testament, were not originally written as a unified history of war and peace in the ancient Middle East. Instead they represented independent histories that overlapped extensively in time, but differed radically in perspective. Chart 9 shows the first fourteen books of the Old Testament as they appear in the Bible's "table of contents." It has been taken for granted that these books lead the reader through a highly linear progression in time. However, there is now overwhelming archaeological data to prove that they are not sequential histories. Chart 10 shows how those same books actually relate to each other in a chronological sense. This includes the correct relationship between the Kings/Chronicles narrative of David and Solomon and that of the Genesis Patriarchs. For much of the Biblical time period, there are two and even three independent accounts of the same persons, places and events. The two main histories of the Bible are the Torah (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus and Deuteronomy)a and the Kings/Chronicles Narrative (Ruth, 1&2 Samuel, 1&2 Kings and 1&2 Chronicles). These two histories reflected very different provincial and familial biases. They were highly partisan and inherently opposed to one another. Not surprisingly, opinions varied dramatically with respect to many of the same persons, places and events. However, it is this same quality that now makes them infinitely more valuable from a historical perspective. Despite the confusion caused by the Biblical ordering of books, it actually led to a tidy preservation of alternative traditions. If one history had been declared the "official" account of a given person, place or time, then competing versions would have eventually been suppressed and ultimately lost. The method used to include competing histories in the Bible was so simple and so effective that it has remained completely undetected for well

137 over 2000 years. With the help of archaeology, the correct time period and cultural setting of all of the books of the Old Testament can be faithfully restored. But how could independent accounts dealing with largely the same time period ever have been confused as histories of entirely different time periods? First of all, these two passion plays of Israel's glory days were formulated using very different methods of history writing. The specific approach taken in the book of Genesis was to depict the Patriarchs as walking in the ways of earlier ancestors. This later gave the impression that Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and Joseph belonged to a much earlier period than David and Solomon. However, a closer look at the book of Genesis using the telescope of archaeology reveals that they certainly were not. Secondly, ordering one history after the other avoided endless argument. So-called "Higher Criticism" of the Hebrew texts has also led to the theory that the Kings/Chronicles narrative ("Court History") and parts of the Torah ("Book of J") were written at about the same time, and by members of competing factions.b One must suspect that these groups agreed to use a completely different set of personal names in their respective histories, but this was perhaps not necessary. Heroes in one history were the villains of the other, and vice versa. The beloved conquerors of one region were hated as oppressors in another. Matriarchs and Patriarchs who were remembered by their common names or by favorable pseudonyms in one history were given pejorative epithets in the other. By the time these histories were included in the Bible, the regional and familial differences that they represented would have been long forgotten. However, this would not have made it any easier to harmonize such strongly opposing frames of reference. Instead, one history was simply placed after the other in the Biblical sequence. The books of Joshua and Judges serve as an artificial bridge between the two histories. It was actually the great disparity of the competing histories that made this possible, and with little or no editing at all. The histories were so diverse that the late compilers of the Bible may no longer have even realized that they were dealing with largely contemporaneous accounts. Thirdly, early archaeologists were passionate in their efforts to find confirmation of the Bible. Ironically, in their zeal to prove their mistaken concept of the Scriptures, they established a chronological framework in which the Biblical characters could not possibly have existed. As a result, modern (secular) archaeologists and Biblical literalists now live many, many worlds apart. The chasm has only widened with the inculcation of preaching and scholarly tradition. It is difficult to appreciate just how contorted our view of the ancient world is until we begin to see it directly rather than through the circus mirror of the prevailing academic chronology. An accurate chronology of the ancient world can be derived now that the proper relationship of the Torah with other historical books of the Old Testament are once again understood. In the book of Genesis, the flight of the Patriarchs from Babylon and their "Sojourn" in Egypt is liberally attested. Their royalty, both in Babylon and in Egypt is frequently alluded to, however the exact form of their kingship is never made

138 explicit. Conversely, in the Kings/Chronicles narrative, the Patriarchs are explicitly named as sovereigns. However, the seat of their dynasty is assumed to be modern day Jerusalem in Palestine rather than the Jerusalem of Egypt. On the contrary, it will be shown that prior to the Babylonian Exile, the Jerusalem of Biblical record was not tiny Jebus/Salem in Palestine. It was instead the Semitic name of the mighty capital of Egypt on the Nile. The Egyptian New Kingdom was the time of ancient Egypt's last great empire, when its borders literally reached "from the Nile to the River Euphrates." The story in the Torah of how this "United Kingdom" of Egypt was won and lost is quite different than the rendition found in the Kings/Chronicles narrative. However, through a synthesis of the two counterpoising traditions with archaeology a rich and balanced understanding of the period emerges. The Kings/Chronicles Narrative of David and Solomon is a very different approach to history writing than is found in the Torah. Nevertheless, these two histories provide highly complementary accounts of the same renowned empire. The two approaches were equally effective in preserving even the most intimate family history without directly associating their forefathers with what later became vehemently denounced as the idolatry, pride, incest and genocide of ancient Egypt. By overlaying the archaeology of New Kingdom Egypt onto each of these Biblical stories, the biographies of the greatest Biblical kings and Patriarchs, both personal and public, both official and unofficial, can now be retold in vivid, verse-by-verse detail. Courtly Chameleons, Masters of Disguise During the "Divided Kingdom" Period, there are sparse references in Assyrian inscriptions to tribute received from the Biblical kings of Israel and Judah. However, there is absolutely no evidence anywhere of the glory days of the "United Kingdom" when David and Solomon established the most famous empire on earth. The existence of at least sparse confirmation in the weakened late period of Israel and Judah stands in stark contrast to the total absence of any record of the more dominant and only slightly earlier period. There is also no testimony outside the Bible of any Biblical character prior to David and Solomon. Most surprising of all, there is no mention of any Biblical king in Egyptian records. This is a clear indication that the true nature of the "United Kingdom of David and Solomon" has been tragically misunderstood. The glorious "United Kingdom of David and Solomon" is in fact liberally attested in Egypt, Palestine and Phoenicia. It is represented by the superabundant archaeology of the Egyptian 18th Dynasty, including the now famous figures of Tutankhamun, Nefertiti and Akhenaten. This most renowned of all ancient kingdoms was founded by royal refugees from Babylon. Akkadian, a Babylonian dialect, was the ancient world's lingua franca, and would have been the first of many languages practiced by all courtly chameleons. However, in Egypt, official inscriptions always referred to the pharaohs in traditional Egyptian style and using their assumed Egyptian names and identities.

139 Publicly, the rulers of New Kingdom Egypt were upstanding Egyptians. Privately, they were a branch of the international ruling elite, and largely the products of Babylonian culture. They spoke with each other in the Babylonian tongue, and preferred to be called by their Akkadian (Semitic) names and nicknames. When they became separated from Babylon, the form of their language became "frozen." By the end of the Egyptian 18th Dynasty, the pharaohs of Egypt wrote to their kingly cousins in Mesopotamia using words and expressions that had already become archaic back in Babylon. This anomaly has been noted by scholars who have studied the Amarna Tablet correspondence of the late 18th Dynasty, however the significance of the phenomenon has not been discerned. The reason obsolete language was used in the Amarna Letters can now be learned from the missives of the Bible. Immediately preceding the rise of the Egyptian 18th Dynasty, Canaan and Egypt was being ruled by the kings of 1st Dynasty Babylon. In Upper Egypt, these Babylonian kings assumed traditional Egyptian titles. For example, the last king Samsu-ditana assumed the throne name of Senakhtenre in Thebes. (This formal name was shortened to "Terah" in the Bible.) However, in Canaan and Lower Egypt, these Babylonian kings were known as the "Hyksos, literally translated as "rulers of a foreign land." The Hyksos name of Samsu-ditana was Apophis I. The foreign land of these landlords was Babylon. (See Chart 16 for the chronology of Hyksos Period and early New Kingdom.) Hyksos kings were feared throughout the Near East for the swiftness of their attacks, and the strength of their fortresses. Members of the extended Hyksos family also had cause to fear each another. Samsu-ditana was himself suddenly overthrown in Babylon by an alliance of his own kinsmen. In the following chapter, it will be shown that these rival "brothers" of Samsu-ditana (Terah) had the blessing of the "godfather" of the family empire himself, Ammi-saduga (Patriarch Nahor). Wahibre (Eber/Moses I) had earlier been banished from Egypt, but allowed to re-establish himself in Babylon under the name of Hammurabi. Conversely, Samus-ditana (Terah) was forced out of Babylon. He was allowed to reorganize in Canaan and Egypt, at least up until the time that he chose to withhold tribute from the brother who was appointed to replace him (see Chapter 10). At the end of the Egyptian 17th Dynasty, the dispossessed crown prince Abraham arrived in Egypt with his half-sister and royal wife Sarah. The same family rivals who usurped the couple's waiting throne in Babylon soon ushered their armies into Canaan and Egypt. Genesis 14 describes the ensuing war against these four kings "from the East," which was won by the erstwhile Babylonian "Lord" Abraham with help from his ally Mamre. A highly complementary version of this same epic confrontation is found in Judges 6-8, where credit for the victory is given to "Gideon and the Lord." Descriptions of ancient kings, and especially pharaohs, tend to be grandiose. We find it hard to believe that these privileged persons were not always surrounded by pomp and circumstance. Rather, on occasion they were reduced to nothing more than their wits in dealing with interpersonal and political conflict. The details of Abraham's war in Genesis, including the names of the four invading kings, are equivalent to those of Gideon's battle given in Judges. The names of

140 these kings are also easily associated with four historical kings known from archaeology (see Chapter 10). This also serves to fix the time period as being the end of 1st Dynasty Babylon. The Ancient World was Their Stage The Biblical narratives differ significantly in their opinions of bygone royals. However, they make use of a common literary device to present the history of a great prince or king without explicitly naming his royal superiors. In the story of Gideon, if the actual name of his royal patron had been given, then it would have detracted from the importance of the hero of the narrative. If the name of the flesh and blood "Lord" had been provided, the reader would realize that the champion was only an equal or even a subordinate to another royal person of that time. Often this other family member was perceived as a real or potential rival of the hero, which made it even more convenient to omit their name in the narrative. On the other hand, by having "the Lord" reveal himself and direct the hero in abstract form, the status of this hero is actually increased, not diminished. Unless tribute had been received or a decisive victory in battle had been won, real life kings also avoided mentioning their rivals by name, especially in public inscriptions. This behavior is only to be expected knowing human nature, however it has fooled archaeologists and Biblical scholars alike. Because a king or pharaoh did not explicitly refer to another ruling king or pharaoh (or even a co-regent) in his inscriptions, it is generally assumed that his rule was unchallenged. This was the desired effect, but was often not the case. Kings and even entire dynasties that were actually contemporary have for this reason been placed one after the other. It has resulted in hundreds of years being added to the ancient chronology derived by archaeologists. As we have seen, a similar process resulted in an inappropriate lengthening of Biblical history. The identity of the "Angel of the Lord" who "appears to" and guides the indecisive Gideon is not revealed to us in Judges. However, through synthesis with the Genesis account, we can be confident that it was none other than Abraham himself. In Chapters 10 & 11, the historical identity of the wavering warrior Gideon/Mamre is proven to be the late 17th Dynasty pharaoh Sequenenre (Tao II). In Chapters 12 & 13, the mentor of Gideon/Mamre, Abraham, will be identified as the eminent nobleman Djehuty of the late 17th Dynasty and early 18th Dynasty. The desperate defense of Canaan was the defining moment in the foundation of the Egyptian New Kingdom. After the link with Babylon was severed, Egypt and Canaan became the Patriarchal family's primary holding. Instead of being dominated by a new group of foreign ("Hyksos") rulers, a native dynasty was established in Egypt by the descendants of the fallen Babylonian king Samus-ditana (Terah). After the invading armies of Mesopotamian rivals were repelled, the many sons and grandsons of Terah (Tao I) then dueled with each other for the right to succeed Terah as the sovereign lord of a new Egyptian house. There was intense rivalry between the many princes of the extended royal family.

141 Yet, because of infertility caused by mandatory "sister" marriages, these "brothers" were highly dependent upon each other for producing heirs. This is a recurring theme in almost every Biblical generation. Birthright and Bragging Right The plight of Abraham and his half-sister Sarah is a sterling example. In order for a crown prince such as Abraham to be appointed co-regent or king, it was normally required that he himself first produce one or more royal heirs. This was a safeguard against future succession problems. In Chapter 12, it will be shown that Abraham and Sarah were invited to the court of the pharaoh in Egypt, and that this pharaoh was none other than their half-brother Mamre/Gideon (Sequenenre Tao II). They traveled to the site of the harem in order to produce the all-important royal heir (Gen 12) for Abraham. Gideon/Mamre had already been named to succeed Terah as pharaoh in Egypt. This is a strong indication that he had produced a suitable royal son of his own by this date. The heir of Gideon is called Jether in Judges 8. With his own kingship secure, Gideon/Mamre was in a position to render due benevolence unto Sarah, the wife of his brother Abraham. Unfortunately, Gideon/Mamre (pharaoh Sequenenre Tao II) and Sarah were also infertile. Nevertheless, Abraham and Gideon/Mamre remained allies as evidenced by the matching accounts of their shared triumph over the kings of Mesopotamia (Midian) in Judges and only two chapters later in Genesis 14. A second attempt by Sarah to have a child with a different close male relation was recorded in Genesis 20. The appearance of Sarah at the court of "King Abimelech" was implicitly for the purpose of royal reproduction, as it had been at the court of Pharaoh Tao II. Despite the deliberately misleading rebuke of Abimelech (Gen 20:3-7), we can be positive that this liaison was successful in siring a child on Abraham's behalf. The birth of this son is recorded in the very next chapter. In Chapter 12, it will be demonstrated that Isaac was not only the son of King Abimelech, but indeed became the most relentless military king of his era. The Book of Genesis chooses not to divulge specific details about Isaac's "blessing" of kingship or his military battles. However, we are told that the "fear of Isaac" (Gen. 31:42,53) was felt as far as Aram Naharaim, "the land between the two rivers" of the Tigris and Euphrates. The symbolic name Abimelech means "father of THE king," and is confirmation that he was the natural father of the renowned warrior king Isaac, the historical Thutmose III. In Chapter 12, it will also be demonstrated that the historical identity of Sarah is that of the ephemeral Egyptian 18th Dynasty Queen Isis, known from archaeology to have been the mother of Thutmose III. It is never explicitly acknowledged that any of the Patriarchs of Genesis were kings. Consistent with this, it is admitted that the Matriarch Sarah was a princess, but not that she became a queen and mother of a great king. In the Book of Genesis, Isaac (Thutmose III) is revered, however his father Abimelech (Thutmose I) is not. This father and son, Abimelech and Isaac, are composited together as one in the Kings/Chronicles narrative of "King David." Thutmose III (David the Younger) and his freebooting forbear Thutmose I (David

142 the Elder) are both highly esteemed in that tradition. They share the same name and equal honor. When it later became difficult to write about them separately, it was convenient to combine their exploits and failures. We know that this was a popular means of history writing, because of the famous ancient account of King Sesostris. Sesostris was also a composite of two great pharaohs by the same name, viz., Senusret I and Senusret III of the 12th Dynasty. The methods of preserving history in ancient times were somewhat different than they are today. It was acceptable to combine the memories of two or more rulers having the same name as though they were but one extraordinary king. Probably this practice also reflects the ancient concept of dynasty and immortality. Senusret I was the grandfather of Senusret III. On the other hand, Thutmose I and Thutmose III were father and son. In the Kings/Chronicles narrative of the Bible, they are collectively considered to have founded the Egyptian New Kingdom. Events from the lives of both Thutmose I and Thutmose III are merged in the story of King David. In the Kings/Chronicles narrative, Thutmose I is both hero and central figure. There is no motivation to disguise his identity by using the symbolic pseudonym of "Abimelech." Instead, he is called by the unmasked Hebrew form of his Egyptian name. The association of the name David (Heb. Dvd) and Thoth (Egy. Twt) was first made by Ahmed Osman in House of the Messiah. The passion and daring genius of Thutmose I eclipsed Djehuty, who was a stately and retiring man of great learning. In the Kings history, it is the greatness of Thutmose I and his natural son Thutmose III that is paramount. The legal rights and spiritual flights of Djehuty are not the heavenly sights of that Biblical reckoning. Thutmose I had won the crown with his roguish charm and ruthless arm. Nevertheless, the son who established New Kingdom Egypt as the leading power of the Near East was born to him by Isis (Sarah), the legal wife of Djehuty (Abraham). According to the custom of the ancient royal court, all children born of Sarah lawfully belonged to Abraham. David the Younger Starring as Horus the Younger, Rightful Heir and Mighty Hero In the Genesis account, it is Abraham (Egyptian Djehuty) who is to be considered the rightful father of Isaac (Thutmose III) and therefore the "official" founder of the Egyptian New Kingdom. The author of the Genesis account maintained that Djehuty was assured of this everlasting distinction by none other than his father Tao I, and later by Thutmose I (see Chapter 12). Although Thutmose I (Abimelech) was implicitly acknowledged as the natural father of Thutmose III (Isaac), he was not fully revered in the book of Genesis. According to Judges 9:1-6, some of his tactics were very difficult to swallow. It was not palatable to combine the main courses of Thutmose I and Thutmose III as one in the Genesis account. Instead, Abimelech and Isaac were better served as separate personages. Although the identities of Abimelech and Isaac remain distinct, there is another form of compositing in the Book of Genesis. In that history, New Kingdom celebrities are combined with those of earlier time periods. Issac (Thutmose III), like Abraham, Jacob, Joseph and Moses, is depicted in Genesis as a repetition of

143 an earlier ancestor. He was the New Kingdom version of Methuseleh (Senusret III). Each was hailed as the leading military figure (and mighty Horus) of their respective dynasty. And both had a "laughable" facial feature. Senusret III was a lanky 6'6" giant with "Dumbo" ears (symbolizing wisdom). Thutmose III was 5'3" tall and had a "Cyrano de Bergerac" nose. Senusret III was called Shashak ("strider"), and Thutmose III was called Yitshak, meaning "laughter, mocking." However, these were men who would only have been mocked behind their backs ... certainly not to their funny faces. In Genesis, the next important person in the Abraham narrative after Mamre is that of Abimelech. In Judges, the story of "Gideon and the Lord" is also followed immediately by the brutal rise to power of King Abimelech. In Judges 9, Abimelech executes "seventy" of his "brothers" and is declared king (not judge) of all Israel. The Genesis account of Abimelech states that he was King of Gerar, a city of the Philistines (Gen. 20:2). Thutmose I was an extremely controversial person, and was handled with the utmost discretion in Genesis. Despite the characterization of David in the Kings/ Chronicles narrative, not everyone loved Thutmose I, to say the least. The naming of Thutmose I as the king of the Philistines rather than of Israel is an underhanded compliment. However, Genesis does not go so far as to say that Abimelech was a Philistine, only that he was their king. In the Kings/Chronicles narrative, a young David (Thutmose I) is an ally of the Philistines in their war against king Saul. However, he was offended by the Philistine commanders and thereafter became their enemy. When Saul died, David (Thutmose I) was named King "over all Israel" in his place. He subsequently "defeated the Philistines and subdued them," i.e., became their king.c See Chapter 11 for further discussion. There was a bitter succession struggle among the Hyksos princes of the late 17th and early 18th Dynasty. The prevailing line emerged from an accord between Thutmose I, Thutmose II, and Djehuty (see Chapters 11-13). However, the Hyksos princesses had no small role to play in the founding of the Egyptian New Kingdom. A determined Isis (Sarah) brought her young son Thutmose III (Isaac) to Thebes as heir apparent, not only to her legal husband Djehuty (Abraham), but also to the pharaohs Thutmose I (Abimelech) and Thutmose II (Ephron). Sarah met an untimely death in Thebes. Consequently, her son was denied power for over two decades by his aunt Hatshepsut. Hatshepsut was herself the widowed wife of Thutmose II and the highly favored daughter of Thutmose I. The frustration of Thutmose III in receiving his promised inheritance of kingship is depicted allegorically in Genesis 26. The far more detailed account of his succession struggle is found in 2 Samuel 13-20.d We are told in the Genesis account that Isaac ultimately did receive his "blessing." After the demise of Hatshepsut, Thutmose III reigned alone for three decades, and conducted 17 known military campaigns. The Pillars of Understanding Solomon Very late in his long reign, Thutmose III (Isaac) finally chose his successor to be Amenhotep II (Biblical Jacob). After some deliberation, Amenhotep II in turn

144 appointed one of his younger sons, Thutmose IV (Biblical Judah), to succeed him. In Chapter 15, it will be shown that the nine-year reign of Thutmose IV was not a sole reign, but that he ruled entirely as the co-regent of his father Amenhotep II. Thutmose IV predeceased his father. The reign of the next pharoah, Amenhotep III, began upon the death of Amenhotep II, and not upon the death of Thutmose IV as is presumed by Egyptologists. The contiguous reigns of Amenhotep II and Amenhotep III are combined in the Kings/Chronicles narrative as the story of the great king Solomon. The reigns of Abimelech (Thutmose I) and Isaac (Thutmose III) were also contiguous and are combined in the Kings/Chronicles narrative as the composite story of King David. Figuratively speaking, it can be said that King David (Thutmose I/III) was followed by Solomon (Amenhotep II/III). Ahmed Osman established in House of the Messiah that the story of David and Solomon was based on the historical kings Thutmose III and Amenhotep III, respectively. It will be shown here that the account of Biblical David also incorporates Thutmose I, father of Thutmose III. The account of Solomon is based primarily on Amenhotep III. However, it also absorbs the reign of his grandfather and immediate predecessor Amenhotep II. The magnificent new 18th Dynasty royal residence and temple at Malkata in Western Thebes is described in great detail in the Book of 2 Kings. It was finished in the reign of Amenhotep III, however preparations and probably initial construction were likely begun in the reign of his immediate predecessor Amenhotep II. Only remnants of the foundations and two massive and bare stone statues now remain. The statues once framed the entrance to the sprawling complex. They were called the "Colossi of Memnon" by Greeks.e The fabled "Pillars of Solomon" would also have graced this structure (1 Kings 7:21). 2 Kings 25:16 states that Nebuchadnezzar removed from them more bronze than could be weighed. Ahmed Osman logically stopped short of saying that David and Solomon were one and the same as Egyptian New Kingdom pharaohs Thutmose III and Amenhotep III. Hundreds of years distance the accepted time of the Egyptian 18th Dynasty (14th Century BC) from that of David and Solomon (10th Century BC).f Given the presently accepted chronology, it would be completely unreasonable to conclude that the Biblical story of the United Kingdom of David and Solomon was anything more than an aspiration by later kings to achieve the earlier Egyptian New Kingdom ideal. Notwithstanding, the overwhelming evidence to be presented in this work will remove the chronological impossibility that confronted Ahmed Osman, and confirm his original associations of David and Solomon with pharaohs Thutmose III and Amenhotep III.

a. It is likely that the Books of Genesis, Exodus and Deuteronomy were also written by different authors, although composed in the same genre. b. Harold Bloom, The Book of J. See also, Richard Friedman, The Hidden Book of the Bible.

145 c. 2 Samuel 5:2; 8:1 d. The Biblical identity of Queen/Pharaoh Hatshepsut is given in Chapter 14. e. Memnon was the Greek name of Amenhotep III, and bears some similarity to the name of Solomon. f. Hundreds of years also separate Abraham and David in the apparent Biblical timetable, however they turn out to not only be contemporaries but also half-brothers!

Living in Truth:

Archaeology and the Patriarchs Chapter 10


"Contending with the Almighty" The Fall of 1st Dynasty Babylon and Rise of the Egyptian New Kingdom
by Charles N. Pope Copyright 1999-2002 by Charles Pope United States Library of Congress All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions

Name Associations Biblical Name(s) Obed, Zeror Amraphel, Zalmunneh Jehiel, Jesse, Shua, Shinab Abiel, Jeiel, Job Joash, Ner, Tou/Toi Abraham, Shemeber Abdon, Eliab Baal, Jerub-Baal, Bela Jerubbesheth, Gideon Purah/Phurah, Birsha Bera, Abimelech Zur, Caleb II Kish, Kenaz, Achish Amenhotep I Thutmose I Djehuty(mes), Teti,

Egyptian Na Sobekemsaf II

(Babylon: Ammi-sad Senakhtenre Tao I,

(Kassite: Agum II/K

(Babylon: Samsu-di

Sequenenre Tao II,

King of Mitanni (King of Aram Naha Chieftain of Kush

146 Othniel (Son of Gideon) (Steward of Abram) Introduction Egyptologists have pieced together a fuzzy picture of early New Kingdom Egypt (late 17th Dynasty, early 18th Dynasty) from a handful of inscriptions and other very meager archaeological evidence. The succession of rulers, the lengths of their reigns, and the extent of blood relation, rivalry and alliance between these kings is not well understood. In Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times, Donald Redford states, "the publication of a new stela often changes the picture completely, or appears to do so." However, the most extensive records of the early New Kingdom have been completely overlooked, that being the account of Abraham and Isaac in Genesis 11-26; the accounts of Gideon and Abimelech in Judges 6-9; and the story of King David in the "later" books of Samuel, Kings and Chronicles. With a new understanding of these records, the early New Kingdom is no longer a shadowy transitional time of anarchy, but becomes one of the most liberally documented periods of antiquity. It was shown in Chapter 8 that Joshua was one and the same as the Patriarch Reu in the Genesis narrative. Therefore, the Books of Joshua, Judges and 1 Samuel parallel the Genesis narrative from the time of Patriarch Reu. A massive number of synchronisms become evident when the books of the Old Testament are aligned with one another based on this association (See Charts 1, 9 & 10). For example, Genesis 14 and Judges 6-8 turn out to be highly complementary passages that describe the war of independence fought by the displaced sons of Terah against a coalition of four kings of Mesopotamia. These same kings had previously forced Terah's retreat from Babylon to his minor kingdoms of the West, including Canaan and Egypt. The four Mesopotamian kings are considered to be rulers of new "Kassite" and "Hurrian" dynasties in Babylon and Assyria. They were in fact led by family rivals of the Biblical Terah, and were headed by Ammi-saduqa, the father of Terah himself. The overthrow of Samsu-ditana (Terah) is thought to be the end of the line of Hammurabi in Babylon (1st Dynasty). However, this is not at all the case. Later kings of both Babylon and Assyria claimed Hammurabi and the other kings of the 1st Dynasty of Babylon as their ancestors. The kingly line of Terah endured and continued to rule Egypt and Canaan after he was dethroned in Babylon. Mesopotamia was itself split up into the separate empires of Babylon and Assyria, which were ruled by collateral lines descending from Terah's father Nahor (Ammisaduqa). The abandonment of Babylon by Terah and his court was a second example of exodus, followed by a time of warfare and re-stabilizing of the ousted branch of the Patriarchal royal line. As discussed in Chapters 7 & 8, this was not the first exodus of that line, nor would it be the last (See Chapter 16). The Biblical Eber was earlier

Kamose, Khamudi? Apophis III? Unattested

147 forced to abandon his titles in Egypt, and to re-establish his throne in Babylon. Conversely, the exodus of Terah was from Mesopotamia back to Canaan and Egypt. It will be shown in this chapter that the account of Abram son of Terah and his ally Mamre found in Genesis 14 mirrors the exploits of "Gideon and the Lord" in Judges 6-8. Genesis 14 provides the perspective of Abram in this epic confrontation with powerful family rivals hailing from the land of Midian, i.e., Mesopotamia. Judges 6-8 is the record of the same conflict told from the perspective of Abram's ally Mamre, who is named in Judges as Gideon. In Genesis, Abram and Mamre divide a company of 318 men, attack the enemy by night, and drive the armies of the East out of Palestine. In Judges, the Lord (Abram) and Gideon (Mamre) also divide a company of 300 men and throw the armies of the East into a panic at night. It will be shown below that the epic war between the new imperialists of Mesopotamia and the recuperating old line of Babylon has a sound historical basis, and that it precipitated a brutal struggle between the sons and grandsons of Terah (Tao I) for the throne of a revived Egypt. The scope of this chapter is restricted to the account of Gideon in Judges 6-8. However, to provide context, the champions of Judges 1-5 are re-identified in Note 1. In a broader sense, the stories of Judges complement the Genesis narrative in detailing the heroic age during which the Patriarchal line ruled most if not all of the ancient Near East. The equivalence of the Biblical character Abimelech of Genesis 20-26 and the Abimelech of Judges 9 will be demonstrated in the next chapter, and further confirms that the reassessment of Judges is necessary. Babylon is Fallen! The defining moment leading to the establishment of the Egyptian New Kingdom can now be recognized as the war of "Four Kings against Five" described in Genesis 14 and Judges 6-8. The four invading kings of Genesis 14 can be strongly associated linguistically and archaeologically to the four invading kings of Judges 6-8, and to four contemporary historical kings of the ancient Near East. Moreover, they were also all close family relations of Terah and Abraham. Archaeology Arik-den-ili Tudhaliyas Kak-rime / Agum II Kidinu Genesis 14 Arioch Tidal Amraphel Khedorlaomer Origin Ellasar (Assyria) Goiim (Hatti) Shinar (Babylon) Elam (Persia) Judges 6-8 Zeeb Oreb Zalmunnah Zebah Origin Midian (Mesopotamia) Midian (Mesopotamia) Midian (Mesopotamia) Midian (Mesopotamia)

148 1) Biblical Arioch, king of Ellasar corresponds to the historical king of Assyria, Arik-den-ili. Arioch is an adaptation of the Hebrew words ari, meaning "lion," and yereq, meaning "yellowish green." The name given to this king in Judges is Zeeb meaning, "to be yellow" or "a wolf." 2) Biblical Tidal corresponds to the historical Hittite king Tudhaliyas. Tidal ("fearfulness") and Tudhaliyas are variants of Tudiya (Inyotef), founder of the Babylonian and Assyrian line of kings. Tidal is further designated as the king of Goiim, meaning "the Horde." The name given to Tudhaliyas in Judges is Oreb, meaning "Swarm." 3) Biblical Amraphel corresponds to the historical Kassite king Agum II/Kakrime. The Hebrew root amar/omar is similar in meaning to the Indo-European root rime, "to encircle, border, bind." The root kak is also Indo-European (Sanskrit) in origin, and means "to help or enable." Kakrime connotes "strengthening bonds," or "strong binder." The name Kak-rime is also synonymous with Agum, "to collect," i.e., bind together. However, the Judges nickname Zalmunnah ("removing bonds, covenant") is the antonym of Kakrime. The Judges account accuses Kakrime of double-dealing. Kakrime did "strengthen bonds" between three other younger sons. However, the pejorative epithet Zalmunnah reveals that Kakrime broke a binding covenant with his eldest son and erstwhile heir Samsu-ditana (Terah). 4) Biblical Khedor-laomer is the Hebrew adaptation of a historical Elamite king named Kidinu. The second portion of the name "la-omer," means "belonging to the binder," and designates him as the son and vassal of Kakrime (Amraphel/Zalmunnah. This name is also a further indication that "binder" is the proper interpretation of -rime (in the name Kak-rime). In Judges, Kindinu is called Zebah, meaning "slaughter" or "sacrifice." Zebah may be a word play with the name Eber, meaning "from the east, beyond, opposite or across." Khedor-la-omer of Elam was the easternmost king listed in the Genesis 14 alliance. Although Amraphel is the senior member of the alliance, it is to Khedor-laomer that tribute was due. This indicates that he was the beneficiary of the transferred birthright. It is also Khedorlaomer that takes the initiative when tribute is withheld by the clan of Terah. (Expanded etymologies of these four Biblical/historical kings are found in Note 2.) The above associations lead to the very surprising conclusion that the Kassite rulers of Babylon did not represent a foreign line at all. Instead, the Kassite king-list is a Sanskrit version of the Babylonian king-list (See Chart 5a and Chart 5b). The first Kassite king Gandas would therefore be Sumu-abum, founder of 1st Dynasty Babylon itself. The 10th king of the Kassite list can now be fixed as Agum (II) / Kakrime. He, in turn, corresponds to Ammi-saduqa, the 10th king of 1st Dynasty Babylon. Agum is not Sanskrit, but a Babylonian name. Kakrime is a Kassite (Sanskrit) adaptation of Agum. Ammi-saduqa is thought to only have reigned for about 20 years in Babylon. His successor Samsu-ditana is known to have reigned

149 for 31 years. However, Ammi-saduqa was still living at the end of Samsu-ditana's reign, and was primarily responsible for his son's overthrow. The rule of Ammi-saduqa was then obviously much longer than 20 years. It is evident that he abandoned his Babylonian throne name of Ammi-daduqa in favor of the Sanskrit king name of Kakrime. The "center of gravity" of the empire was shifting to the east. Not long after his Year 20, Ammi-saduqa would also demote Samsu-ditana and demand that he pay tribute to a new most-favored son, Kidinu, ruling in Elam (proto-Persia). Samsu-ditana complied for a number of years, but then "rebelled." With the blessing, support and direction of Ammi-saduqa, Kidinu brought an army against Samsu-ditana in order to bring him back into submission by force. The book of Judges identifies all four invading kings as being of "Midianite" origin. Midian (Heb. Midyan) means "Land of Strife." It is a word play on other language roots, such as the Indo-European midjo, the Latin medius, and the Greek mesos, all of which signify "middle." Therefore, Midian, as its name also connotes in English, is the "Middle Land," a rich land that was perennially contested through intrigue and warfare. During the Hyksos Period and earlier, Midian most certainly referred to Mesopotamia. The name Mesopotamia literally means the "middle country between the two rivers," and corresponds to the Hebrew Naharaim, "(land between) the two rivers." The two rivers are of course the Tigris and Euphrates. Mesopotamia is the first of at least three Biblical "Midians." The last and latest Biblical Midian was in the Trans-jordan, and this is now considered the traditional site. However, the application of Midian to the Trans-jordan would not have predated the Egyptian New Kingdom. The origins of the Kassite and Hurrian peoples are unknown. However, it is now clear from this study that neither the Hurrians nor Kassites came into Mesopotamia as conquerors. Their rulers as listed in Genesis 14 and Judges 6-8 were all members of the Patriarchal family. These Kassite and Hurrian subjects were therefore resettled from other regions under the Patriarchal family's sphere of influence.2 After withholding tribute, Kidinu and Kakrime augmented their combined armies with Hurrian and Kassite conscripts in order to punish the rebellious Samsu-ditana and reconfirm the "new world order." Samsu-ditana was forced to retreat to Canaan and Egypt. It was there that he and his sons made their desperate defense. Through a clever ruse, the "volunteer" troops of Kidinu and Kakrime were thrown into a panic. Kakrime himself was captured and put to death. Three other leading sons of Kakrime were also killed. The vast domain of the 1st Dynasty of Babylon extended as far as India to the east, Greece in the west, and Egypt to the south. It is possible that an attempt had been made to establish other courts in Spain and even China. The demise of the "Binder" Ammi-saduqa led to the collapse of this steadily expanding empire. As a result, smaller independent kingdoms arose in Asia Minor (Hatti), Assyria, Babylon and Egypt. In this time of division, the descendants of Samsu-ditana in Egypt naturally looked to the princes of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom for inspiration, and

150 were confident that the world would be theirs for the retaking. History was on their side. Nevertheless, it would be another 400 years before these regions would again be reunited under a single king. And it would not be a king of Egypt, but one from Babylon who managed to achieve it. The second Sojourn of the Patriarchs in Egypt ended in defeat. Founding a New Kingdom in Egypt After the clan of Samsu-ditana (Terah) won their independence from Babylon, the struggle was far from over. The sons and grandsons of Samsu-ditana vied with each other to win the fallen king's favor, to secure a new kingdom in Egypt, and to begin preparations for the re-conquest of Mesopotamia. The chronology of this period is presented in Chart 16. The last three pharaohs of the Egyptian 17th Dynasty are considered by Egyptologists to be Tao I (praenomen Senakhtenre), Tao II (praenomen Sequenenre) and Kamose (praenomen Wadjkheperre). These three pharaohs can be shown by linguistic, archaeological and textual proofs to be the father, half-brother and nephew of Egyptian nobleman Djehuty, the Biblical Abram/Abraham (see below and Chapters 11-13). In Genesis 11, the name of Abram's father is given as Terah, which is identified here as a hypocorism (shortened/informal form) of Senakhtenre Tao I.3 It will also be shown that Sequenenre Tao II is the half-brother of Abraham, and the faithful partner named as Mamre in Genesis and Gideon in Judges. The name of the Egyptian pharaoh Kamose translates into Hebrew as Iscah.4 The Biblical Iscah was the grandson of Terah by his son Haran, and is named as the nephew of Abram in Genesis 11:29. The 17th Dynasty pharaoh Tao I and the 15th Dynasty Hyksos king Apophis I are considered fully contemporary and had nearly identical praenumina. However Egyptologists presently maintain that they were separate individuals. Nevertheless, with a little help from the Bible, it can easily be demonstrated that they were indeed one and the same person. The term Hyksos meant "ruler of a foreign land."5 For most of his reign, Terah (Tao I/Apophis I) was largely an absentee landlord in Egypt. His primary court was in Babylon. It was not until his overthrow in Babylon and loss of the greater kingdom that Terah (Tao I) and his descendants became proactive in building up an impoverished Egypt. This marked the end of what is known as the 2nd Intermediate Period and beginning of New Kingdom Egypt. And what a sudden and spectacular rebirth the resulting Egyptian New Kingdom was! Prior to the great battle of Genesis 14, we find Abram "criss-crossing" the land of Canaan and Egypt, and calling upon the name of the Lord. This is an obvious allusion to the earlier "evangelist" Nabu-Thoth who traveled "throughout the lands" garnering support for his exiled father Marduk-Re. Senakht-en-Re (Terah), the father of Abram had also been banished. His loyal son Abram hoped to rally the Israelites of Canaan behind him. Zecharia Sitchin writes, "Nabu had the same meaning and came from the same verb by which the Bible called a true prophet: Nabi, one who receives the divine words and signs and in turn expresses them to the people."a The Hebew word for prophet used in Judges and in Genesis is nabiy (naw-bee').

151 The first stop of the evangelist Abram is at Shechem were "the Lord" appears to him. This was not a spiritual visitation of Yahweh to Abram. It was instead a purely physical encounter of Abram with his half-brother, the Lord Tao II. Prior to Terah's disgrace, Abram was heir apparent with respect to the greater throne of Babylon. His half-brother had already been named as a pharaoh in the lesser kingdom of Egypt. The place of meeting is named as the "great tree of Moreh" (cf Mamre) in Genesis. A highly complementary account of this same meeting is found in Judges 6. In Judges, the meeting place is named as the "oak in Ophrah." There the Bible states that God sent a "prophet" to the Abiezrites, i.e., the Israelites.6 This sending of a prophet is another direct allusion, this time in Judges, to the divine prophet and messenger ("angel") Nabu. It is not Nabu/Thoth himself who has returned, but a royal person assuming his identity. In Chapter 13 it will be shown that the assumed Egyptian name of Abram was Thoth (Egy. Djehuty). In the Judges narrative, Abram is called "Prophet," "Angel of the Lord" and "Lord of Peace." These were all epithets of Thoth, and Abram adopted both the name and role of Thoth. It is the Lord Abram (in the guise of the god Thoth) who speaks faceto-face with Gideon and who has been sent to deliver the Israelites. This appearance of Djehuty to Tao II in Judges 6 is mirrored by the Genesis 12 account in which the "Sovereign Lord" Tao II appears to Djehuty! Abram's designation as "prophet" is confirmed in Genesis 20:7 as part of the subsequent story of Abimelech (discussed in full as part of Chapter 12). The word prophet (Hebrew nabiy) is only used once in Genesis and once in Judges. Both instances refer to Abram. In Judges, Gideon (Mamre/Tao II) sacrifices a seven-yearb old bull and calls Abram "The Lord of Peace." This title reflects Abram's quiet confidence and understated nobility. Conversely, in Genesis, Abram offers sacrifices and calls Tao II "Sovereign Lord." When the two accounts are combined, one can discern a stirring example of ancient chivalry between Abram and Mamre/Gideon (Tao II). Each defers to the other as being the greater. However, this custom was also selfserving. The practice of honoring another royal person as a "Sovereign Lord" and even "God" reinforced the image that these persons wanted to project to commoners. It was not necessarily intended to be a statement of theology. Abram and Tao II were part of the "Lord's Club." It served both of their interests to honor one another as divine persons. However, the Bible carefully separates the God-like roles of Mamre/Gideon (Tao II) and Abram from their very much human nature. By the time these stories were compiled, this former practice of the Patriarchs was considered idolatrous. Fire of Jehovah! In Judges, the Lord (Abram) commands Gideon to "tear down your father's altar to Baal."c Gideon does as he is instructed, and the next day the angry townspeople go to Gideon's father Joash ("Fire of Jehovah") to demand his punishment. To the great surprise of Shechem's angry Baal worshipers, Terah stands up for Gideon (Tao II), and even launches into a diatribe against Baal. Even so, the nickname of

152 Joash would have been applied to Tao I with considerable sarcasm. The Biblical account indicates that it was Terah's sons Abram and Mamre who were primarily responsible for initiating the change in emphasis from Seth/Baal to Amen/Yahweh, which would have been more "politically correct" in ancient Egypt. It would have also been done in emulation of the Middle Kingdom pharaohs who initially reverenced Seth/Baal/Montu, but then elevated the cult of Amen as supreme after ties with Babylon were severed. Abram (Djehuty), the eldest son of Terah (Tao I) was due to inherit the superior kingdom in Babylon. Possibly, he had already been named as crown prince and king in Ur. Gideon (Tao II), who was a younger son of Terah by his wife "Maaca" (see below), was heir to the lesser Egyptian/Canaanite kingdom. Together, Abram and Gideon took the lead in stopping the advance and devastation of the four kings from Mesopotamia (Midian) that had earlier forced the family's retreat from Babylon. These four kings set on the thrones of four new dynasties in Babylon, Assyria, Turkey (Hurrian Hittite Empire) and Elam. In Genesis Chapter 14, Tao II is identified as Mamre, the foremost ally of Abraham. The name Mamre may be an adaptation of Sequenenre, the praenomen (throne name) of Tao II. A direct linguistic or phonetic association between "mamre" and "nenre" is unlikely, however the meaning and crude phonic similarity of the colloquial name Mamre make it a suitable hypocorism (informal short form, nickname) of the formal throne name. Mamre in Hebrew lends the direct meaning of "ambitious, vigorous and lusty, and also corresponds to an epithet of Sequenenre, i.e., "the Brave." The name Mamre is derived from the Hebrew word mara, which means to "lift up oneself," and to "whip" or "lash." This connotation of the name Mamre connects more directly to the praenomen Sequenenre itself, which means, "Who Strikes Like Re."d In Judges 6:16 (NIV), Gideon is told by the Lord (Abram), "you shall strike down the Midianites as though they were but one man." Mamre also connotes "rebellious," "bitter," and "domineering, a master or lord." Related Hebrew words are mareh, marah, mered and morah. Related names are Plain/Hill of Moreh, Miriam, Merari, Mardock, Merodach, and the "waters of Meribah." Therefore, the colloquial name Mamre fits Tao II quite well. Abram was typecast as Thoth. Mamre points back to the god-king Sargon the Great, known as Maru-Yamina. The nickname Mamre connects to the chosen throne name of Tao II. It further reflects his rebellion against foreign oppressors, his personal ambition to consolidate Egypt, his lordly standing, his terrifying struggle against powerful family rivals and his bitter death. His mummy shows deep head wounds from an assortment of weapons thought to have been inflicted in battle. In Chapter 11, it will be shown that Tao II was actually captured and executed by members of his own immediate family. Gideon, meaning "Warrior," is a symbolic name and does not appear elsewhere in the Bible or in any Biblical genealogy. However, from a second nickname ascribed to this hero in Judges we can infer his given name. In other words, this second nickname was a word play on his given name. That nickname was Jerub-baal,

153 meaning "Contends with Baal." Gideon's given name was simply Baal. The Egyptian version of this name is Tao. Both names, Tao and Baal, mean "the Lord" or "Master."e By direction of "the Lord," Gideon (Tao II) tore down the altar of his namesake god Baal, and earned the ironic pseudonym of Jerub-baal. Gideon was also famous for his indecisiveness. Gideon asked "the Lord" to first make a piece of lamb fleece wet and the ground dry. Then, he changed his mind and asked that the fleece be kept dry and the ground made wet (Judges 6:36-40). This tendency to vacillate was a trait that he shared with his father and namesake Tao I. In the Kings narrative (2 Sam. 8:9-10), the name Tao is modified to Toi, which has the meaning in Hebrew of "The Wavering One." The Father of Intervention In both the Genesis and Judges accounts, four great kings hailing from the east overwhelmed the region of Israel. As demonstrated above, the armies were largely made up of "eastern people," namely Kassites and Hurrians. However, the kings who commanded them were of Patriarchal stock. In the Genesis account, the four invading kings are opposed by a coalition of five Canaanite kings. Shemeber of Zeboiim (Memphis) is the only one of the five Canaanite king names that has an entirely positive meaning.7 Shemeber was allied with Bera and Birsha of "Sodom and Gomorrah" in order to deal with a common threat. However, the Canaanite alliance is routed by Khedorlaomer and his allies. Only then does the account of Genesis 14 say that Abram intervened along with 318 of his "household servants" in order to organize a counter attack. The numerical value of the name Eliezer is 318.f However, Eliezer is not introduced in the narrative until Genesis 15:2 (KJV), where Abram calls him "the steward of my house." The New Internation Version (NIV) translates this Hebrew phrase as "the heir of my estate." This is one legitimate example of Kaballah style symbolism. The account of Abram's victory over Khedorlaomer does not mention Eliezer by name, only by "number." This is a strong indication that there is something more to the relationship between Abram and Eliezer than is being made explicit in the narrative. Despite his designation as a servant of Abram, Genesis 14:14 implies that Eliezer was also considered his legal heir. In Genesis 15:2 we learn that Eliezer of Damascus is due to inherit his estate.g Of course, Abraham eventually does gain two more prominent sons, namely Ishmael and Isaac. For this reason, the role of the initial heir Eliezer is handled with great subtlety. It seems that he was later rejected or demoted by Abram in favor of Ishmael and then Isaac. Considering the desperate circumstances, Eliezer ("God of Help") is an appropriate pseudonym for one of the key actors. Eliezer is essentially the same name as Abiezra ("Father of Help"). As noted above, the account of Gideon in Judges does not call the beleaguered citizens by the name of Israelites, but as Abiezrites. With Eliezer ("God of Help") at the side of Abram, it is a sign that the tide is about to turn to the side of the displaced clan of Terah. This is a family feud. Among the four invading kings is Terah's own father Nahor/Amraphel. In Ruth he is called Obed, meaning "keep in bondage." The five kings that resist him are his own son and

154 grandsons. In confusion and defeat, Terah and his princes are given pseudonyms that disguise their identity. Shinab is Terah; Shemeber is Abram; Bela is Mamre (Baal/Gideon); Birsha is Aner (Phurah); and Bera is Eschol (Abimelech). (See Note 7) In victory, the five kings are called by their more common and recognizable names. When the four sons of Terah return triumphantly, Terah/Joash himself goes out to bless them, and especially their leader Abram. Terah is in this capacity called Melchizedek, meaning, "a king (has) turned to righteousness." Earlier in the passage he is called Shinab, which means, "a father has turned (to iniquity)." The priest-king Tao I does not bless in the name of his own god Baal, but in the god of Abram for saving his line from certain destruction. By Hook or Shepherd's Crook The Genesis account emphasizes the cowardice of the armies of Sodom and Gomorrah. This helps to set the stage for their destruction a few chapters later. The Judges account calls the place of their encampment Harod, literally the "fountain of trembling." The fear of the men is duly noted, however flight in the face of battle is not mentioned. Instead, the "terrified" troops are directed by the Lord (Abram) to return to their homes. Through the use of an ancient I.Q. test, the Lord (Abram) further reduces the size of the force to only 300 men. Gideon (Mamre) and Purah/Phurah then slip into the Midianite camp as spies and gain confidence that Abram's plan will work. Purah corresponds to Abram's ally Aner of the Genesis account, and to the future pharaoh Amenhotep I.8 The identity of Abram's third ally Eshcol as Thutmose I is addressed in the next chapter. The espionage of Gideon and Purah suggests that Sequenenre and Amenhotep understood the language of at least one contingent of the invaders as a result of the family's roots in Babylonia. Judges states that the enemy coalition included Amalekites and Ishmaelites, some of whom may have acted as informants. The Ishmaelites were later honored as the namesake of Abram's son by Hagar. One of Terah's own royal daughters was also married to an Ishmaelite.h Abram's "intelligence officers" would have learned that the camp of the "Midianites" was on edge. An army formed from Hurrians, Kassites, Ishmaelites and other rival ethnic groups would have been prone to fracturing. Despite their victory and spoils, the army was far from home and supplies would have been in short supply if not completely exhausted. This would have only served to increase tension in the camp. Panic and even infighting among the invading forces could be triggered with a clever ruse. The conscripts that were brought into Canaan by Kakrime were great in number but not in experience. The terrain of this region would also have been alien and daunting to involuntary soldiers from the eastern flat lands, if not to their Patriarchal commanders. In their haste to get back to Mesopotamia, the departing kings may not have chosen an ideal campsite or properly guarded their position. It appears to have been in the midst of steep and rocky embankments. Rather than being sheltered, they were actually somewhat vulnerable from above. The three hundred men were broken up into three groups, logically led by Abram's three allies Mamre, Aner and Eshcol. It is recorded in Genesis 14:15 (KJV) that

155 Abram "divided himself against them, he and his servants, by night, and smote them." According to the Judges account, the small contingent climbed above the restless invaders and startled them with the breaking of clay pots, raising of torches, and blowing of trumpets. Possibly they also rolled boulders down the hillsides upon them as well, which would have had a fearsome effect at night. Judges 7:13 (KJV) reads: "a cake of barley bread tumbled in to the host of Midian, and came unto a tent and smote it." However, the Hebrew of this verse can alternatively be translated as "an advancing shadow (or idol) of terrifying destruction overthrew the army of Midian, and came unto a tabernacle and smote it." The word translated by the KJV as "bread" is lechem, which is a play on Lemech (Thoth), god of the moon and of measuring shadows. It seems that the primary weapon used by Abraham was an imaginary one. The patron god or symbol of one ethnic group was made to creep down slowly as a shadow over their side of the camp. It then "invaded" the side of the rival ethnic group encamped below them. The shadow settled over their shrine and appeared to be flattening it. In the chaos that ensued, the four Midianite kings separated from their hordes, and were pursued. The Judges account chooses to emphasize the capture and execution of the four invading kings. The Genesis author mentions the "slaughter" of Khedorlaomer and his allies in passing, but omits the graphic details of their ignominious death. In Judges 8:20, Gideon offers to his firstborn son Jether ("Excellency") the "honor" of killing Zalmunneh (Kakrime, the "Covenant Breaker") and his newly appointed successor Zebah (Kidinu, "the Slaughterer"). Kakrime would have been the youth's great-grandfather! Jether is too afraid to kill his elders, so Gideon performs the execution himself. Joash (Terah/Tao I) would later sentence Gideon (Tao II) to the same fate (see next chapter). Regardless of Kakrime's actions, he was still "God." In his anger and haste, Tao II did not seize the opportunity to impose a return to the former unity and world order under his father Tao I. Instead, he irreparably divided the body of Kakrime and his kingdom. In both the Genesis and Judges accounts, Gideon (Mamre) receives spoils from the victory. There is no mention in Judges of offerings being made to "the Lord," i.e., to Abram. In Genesis 14, Abram is honored by his father Melchizedek, "King and Priest" of Salem. However, he refuses any reward or "spoils of the victory" as compensation for his actions. He had no need for either. As royalty of the "highest order," he addressed great kings as equals, and was a "mighty prince" (Genesis 23:6) in his own right. He was the eldest son of Terah, and the leader of the victorious campaign. He accepted his father's blessing. However, he refused payment from "Bera, king of Sodom" (i.e., his younger brother Eschol/Thutmose I). To have done so would have been tantamount to compromising his birth right. Judges 8:23 (NIV) records that the people offer Gideon (Tao II) kingship, however he declares that neither he nor his son would accept this honor, but that "the Lord [Abram] will rule over you." Consistent with this, Genesis 12:7 (NIV) preserves that Tao II vowed to Abram, "To your offspring I will give this land." The hero of the Genesis account is clearly Abram, however credit is nobly shared with Mamre and his "brothers" Aner and Eschol. Conversely, Gideon (Mamre) is the champion in

156 the Judges account. The Judges author humbly defers to "the Lord" as the greater, but conveniently neglects to tell us the Lord's name (or possibly it was edited out). The difference in perspectives is quite clear, however the overall story line is the same. It is actually the differences in the two accounts that lend an element of credibility to them. However, one must keep in mind that the rulers of the Egyptian New Kingdom were notorious for their brazen use of hyperbole and propaganda. The Impatience of Job If the book of Job is based on any historical person, it would have to have been Tao I. Job is described as "the greatest man among all the people of the east."i The Karnak inscription quoted above mirrors Job's concern and continual sacrifices on the behalf of his children. Despite Job's devotion to his God, Chaldean and Sabean marauders destroyed everything Job possessed. The Sabeans are generally associated with Kush and Ethiopia, however in this context they are revealed as family rivals of Terah. (The Patriarch Shem was the Babylonian king Sabium and "father" of the Sabeans.) These rivals attacked his holdings in Mesopotamia and possibly also raided his kingdom in Upper Egypt. In a spiritual sense, the Bible portrays Baal/Seth (Biblical Satan) as destroying everything, including Job's health. However, he recovered and became a devotee of Yahweh. Job is said to have "contended with the almighty," that is Yahweh (Job 40:2). After being humbled and converted (Job 42:6), Job prospered once again, and became even greater than he had been before. The "moral" of the Book of Job was not that a sinner learned the error of his ways and had been restored, but that a righteous king discovered that in his ignorance he was revering the wrong god. This was the only "sin" of Job. However, the "Quarrel of Seqnen-Re and Apophis" quoted above indicates that Samsu-ditana turned to Baal worship once again at the end of his life. The real life king Samsu-ditana suffered a surprise attack early in his reign. The "Hittite" king Mur-shili (Mursilis I) sacked Babylon and carried off the statue of Marduk to his capital in Asia Minor. The Hittite Old Kingdom would also have been from Patriarchal stock. The name of the founder, Labarnas I, is the same as the Patriarch Arphaxad (also known as Libni/Laban). The name of the second ruler, Hattu-shili (Hattusilis I), is a variant of the Patriarch Shelah/Salah. There is a gap between the time of Arphaxad (Shilli-Adad/Sin-Muballit) and Terah (Samsu-ditana), therefore the exact relationship between Mur-shili and the Patriarchal line is not clear. However, based on the similarity of names, Mur-shili must have been a close relation of Samsu-ditana (Terah). In concert with the attack of Mur-shili, Chaldean peoples invaded from the south (Sealand). However, Samsu-ditana recovered fully from this setback and reigned in Babylon for at least 10 more years before being disinherited by his father. After 24 years in exile, the "kidnapped" statue of Marduk was recovered not by Samsu-ditana, but by his father Ammi-saduqa (Agum II/Kakrime). Samsu-ditana once again survived humiliation, but was apparently not able to reclaim the throne in Babylon a second time. The name Job means, "persecuted, hated," and is probably a contracted from of the name Jashub, "he shall retreat, return, convert." Job is said to have had three

157 daughters and seven sons. Three sons of the retreating Terah are named in Genesis 11:26 as Abram, Nahor and Haran. A more complete list of sons is found in the two variants of the Benjamitej genealogy of 1 Chronicles 8 & 9. In 1 Chronicles 8:29-31, Terah is named as Jeiel, which has the symbolic meaning "carried away by the Lord." According to the Genesis account, Terah was "carried away by the Lord" from Ur to the city of Haran in NW Mesopotamia. In the duplicate genealogy of 1 Chronicles 9:35-37, Terah is not named as Jeiel, but by the variant Jehiel, which has the meaning of "God will live/revive." In the Kings narrative, Tao I is called Jesse, which means, "existing," i.e., surviving. Earlier in his reign, Terah had managed another miraculous escape from certain death at the hands of Mirsilis. Combining 1 Chronicles 8:29-31 with 1 Chronicles 9:35-37 renders: "[Jeiel/Jehiel/Ner] the father of Gibeon lived in Gibeon. His wife's name was Maacah, and his firstborn son was Abdon, followed by Zur, Kish, Baal, Nadab, Gedor, Ahio, Zeker/Zechariah and Mikloth." The first three sons of the Chronicles genealogy, viz., Abdon, Zur and Kish correspond to Abram, Nahor and Haran, the three sons of Terah provided in Genesis. Abdon means "worshipper," and is highly descriptive of Abram/Abraham. (Abdon should not be confused with the name Abaddon, which derives from a different Hebrew root.) The names Abdon and Abram further correspond to Eliab, the firstborn son of Jesse. The Chronicles genealogy of Jehiel/Jeiel implies that a single woman Maaca was the mother of all of Terah's prominent sons. Maaca is a generic title for "Queen." Tao I has at least three royal wives, i.e., three Maaca's. The first "Maaca" of Tao I is known from archaeology to be Tetisheri, who was the daughter of the "Judge" Tjenna and the Lady Neferu.k This Maaca was the mother of Abram, Nahor and Kish. Another Maaca was the mother of Tao II, who is named as the fourth son, Baal (Gideon/Mamre), in the Jehiel/Jeiel genealogy. In Greek tradition "Belos" (Baal/Tao II) is considered to be a relation of "Epaphos" (Apophis/Tao I).l In fact, they were father and son. There are ten sons listed in the Chronicles genealogy instead of the expected seven. Jesse had either seven or eight sons, depending upon whether one goes by the narrative of 1 Samuel 16 or the genealogy of Jesse given in 1 Chronicles 2:13-15. The Jeiel/Jehiel genealogy may have redundancy or include prominent grandsons in the list.9 Alternatively, it may be including the sons of another royal wife that is not recognized in other genealogies. In Genesis, only the sons of one wife are mentioned. It is common in Chronicles to find important ancestors in a genealogical sequence whether they technically belonged there or not. Biblical genealogies can serve more as political commentaries rather than purely familial records. Political "sons" are often listed alongside biological sons. Moreover, the standing of a particular prince varies as a function of family or regional bias. The process of resolving individual differences in order to develop a unified "family tree" was partially accomplished. More radical harmonizing would have been clearly impossible

158 without enormous argument. A rich diversity of overlapping genealogies was thankfully preserved. By arbitrarily eliminating discrepancies, a tremendous amount of information would have been destroyed. Fortunately, it was not, and it is now possible to tease out the actual relationships with the help of archaeology. In Canaan, Terah presided at Shechem/Gibeah, where he earned the nickname Joash. Biblical Gibeah (variously spelled Gibeon/Gibea/Geba) was a region in the tribal territory of Benjamin (Inyotef II) and would have been but one of several royal residences of a king of Senakhtenre Tao I's magnitude. Through integration of the two Biblical narratives (Genesis 14 and Judges 6-8), we can glean that Senakhtenre Tao I had at least four homes, not counting the ones he lost in Mesopotamia (Babylon, Ur, etc.). He held court in the Egyptian Delta under the names of Apophis I and Apepi I. The Greek prefix "apo" means "off or away." The Greek word apophuge means "to escape." Therefore, the alias Apophis strongly relates to Terah's nickname Jeiel, "carried away by the Lord." Other nicknames of Tao I that have similar meanings are Jephunneh (II) and Jered, "brought/came down." As noted above, the name Job has the meaning "he will retreat, return." The name Apepi contains the root "pep," which means to "invigorate," i.e., "revive." This name relates to Terah's nickname Jehiel, meaning, "God will live/revive." In Thebes of Upper Egypt, Terah was known as Tao I and by the throne name Sanakht-en-re ("Perpetuated like Re").m The meaning of this throne name also relates strongly to Jehiel, to Jesse, which means "existing," and to Shua (a man of "riches", who was "humbled," but "saved"). Finally, the royal harem is revealed in Judges as being in Tabor, a region or city of Phoenicia such as Byblos, or possibly Damascus in Syria. Abram's "servant" Eliezer is said to have been "of Damascus." That is, he had perhaps been born at the royal nursery in Damascus/Tabor. Phoenicia and Syria were especially valued possessions of the Hyksos kings, because of their role in international trade.

Zecharia Sitchin, When Time Began, p 324. It was shown in Chapter 3 that seven was the number of Thoth. Judges 6:25 (NIV) Peter Clayton, Chronicles of the Pharaohs, p 94. Compare the related words Taoism and dowager. David Kahn, The Code Breakers, p 92. Abram's "servant" Eliezer is possibly one and the same as Gideon's youthful son Jether ("Excellency") in Judges 8:20. This could have been a son produced for Gideon by Abram. h. 1 Chron. 2:17) i. Job 1:3 (NIV) j. In Chapter 8, it was demonstrated that the genealogy of Benjamin was not that of the son of Patriarch Jacob (Amenhotep II of the Egyptian New Kingdom), but that of Inyotef A (Sargon) and Inyotef II (Gudea) of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom.

a. b. c. d. e. f. g.

159 k. Aidan Dodson, Monarchs of the Nile, 1995, Rubicon Press, p72. l. Martin Bernal, Black Athena, Vol I, p 95. m. Peter Clayton, Chronicles of the Pharoahs, p 94.

Note 1: -Joshua was identified in Chapter 8 as the Babylonian prince Ibal-pi-el, who assumed the Babylonian throne name of Abi-eshuuh (Biblical Hoshea/Joshua). He was also known as the Hyksos king Salitis. -Caleb was the son of Jephunneh and grandson of Jether/Jethro (the father-in-law of Hammurabi/Moses). The account of Caleb states that he was kept alive for an additional 45 years in order to receive his promised inheritance. The "inheritance" of the original Caleb was claimed by Abraham's aggressive brother Nahor ("snorter"). The name Caleb means "dog-like." The two Caleb's were combined as one. It appears that the latter Caleb (Nahor) may have actually had a role in the coup that forced his father Terah and brother Abram out of Babylon. Regardless, Nahor did not become king of Babylon, but relocated in the Biblical land of Aram Naharaim (Judges 3:8). This region was called Nahrin and Mitanni in New Kingdom Egypt. Mitanni/Nahrin was a power ONLY during the late 17th Dynasty and 18th Dynasty of New Kingdom Egypt. The Mitanni were overthrown by the Hittite (Hurrian) Empire prior to the end of the Egyptian 18th Dynasty, and were no longer a factor by the time of the Exodus of Moses (Akhenaten). Nahor was the father of Biblical Thahash/Nahash (Egyptian pharaoh Ahmose) and Biblical Ephron/Perez (Egyptian pharaoh Thutmose II). -Othniel ("Force of God") the son of Kenez ("Hunter") in Judges 3 corresponds to Abram and Nahor's nephew Iscah (Gen. 11:29), the son of Haran/Kish ("Bow"). The Hebrew name Iscah translates directly to the Egyptian name Kamose. (See Note 7) "Mighty Kamose," the last Pharaoh of the 17th Dynasty, is therefore Othniel. -Ehud son of Gera, also found in Judges 3, was identified in Chapter 7. He belongs to a much earlier time period, and was a hero of the Egyptian 11th Dynasty - A version of the story of Heber and his victory over the king of Hamath in Judges 4-5 is also told in the book of Joshua, Chapter 11. Note 2: The following word study demonstrates the linguistic associations between the king names provided in Genesis and Judges, and their counterparts from archaeology.

160 The name or title Kakrime conforms to a common royal type. Kakrime would have had the direct meaning of "strong seizer (binder)" and therefore, would be a Kassite rendition of the Biblical name Nimrod. Gen 10:8-11 defines the name Nimrod as "mighty hunter/warrior (strong seizer) before the Lord." Nimrod was one of the first great kings of Mesopotamia, and would have continued to be a popular king name or kingly epithet. From the The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Indo-European Roots: "kak-1 To enable, help. Sanskrit saknoti, he is able, he is strong: Shakti, Sikh." The Sanskrit kak is equivalent to the Hebrew azar, meaning "to succor, strengthen." Nimrod founded one of the greatest dynasties of Mesopotamia, and would have been a popular kingly name or epithet in many languages. The following is a quote from: "Dating the Fall of Babylon," by H. Gasche, J.A. Armstrong, S.W. Cole and V.G. Gurzadyan, University of Ghent and the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, Publisher, 1998. Available through Eisenbrauns Publishers (www.eisenbrauns.com) "Remembering that the Babylon year formulae in the documents from Tell Muhammad cluster between 36 and 41 years after "Babylon was resettled," we see a new significance in the epithets claimed by Agum-kakrime: '(I am) king of the Kassites and the Akkadians, king of the broad land of Babylon, the one who (re)settled the land of Eshnunna with an extensive population, king of Padan and Alman, king of the Gutians...' " The Kassites were first subjugated by Suma-abum (Gandes/Senusret III), founder of the 1st Dynasty of Babylon. Another interpretation of rime is as a reference to the Hindu god Rama. Kakrime would then mean, "Rama Strengthens." Rama is "any of three incarnations of Vishnu, regarded as heroes. [From Sanskrit Rama, dark-colored, black]" The American Heritage Dictionary The Sanskrit Rama probably corresponds to the Biblical Baal (Ram/Aram), a god shrouded in the mountain clouds. (Yahweh-Amen was not a god of the mountains, but is also said to dwell in "thick darkness," Heb. araphel). Ram was written as Rim in Babylonian, which is almost identical to Rime. A notable Babylonian king of the period was known as Rim-Sin (Patriarch Shelah). Rime might also connect with the Hebrew ramah/remah, (7411/7412) which means to "cast down." A connotation of Kakrime might then be, "casting down the strong," specifically his own son Terah. Like the name Tudhaliyas, Kakrime recalls a Patriarchal founder, Montuhotep (Seth/Aram/Ram). Amraphel might also elicit the connotation of Am-araphel, King of "Dark People," i.e., people of India. (However, the Hebrew word for people (am) is not the same spelling as in Amraphel.) Amraphel, King of Shinar = Kakrime, Kassite King of Babylon = Zalmunnah The root -rime has been equated by the Judges author to the Hebrew word amar.

161 amar (559) to declare, challenge amar (6014) to heap; figuratively to chastise (as if piling blows); specifically (as demonstrative from omer (a sheaf) to gather grain:-bind sheaves of grain. The two Hebrew words rendered "amar" in English have a slightly different spelling and pronunciation in Hebrew. omer (562) promise, word imriy (566) wordy [from (559)] omer (6016) a heap, i.e., a sheaf aphel (6075) to swell; fig. be elated:- be lifted up, presume. ophel (6075) a turior; also a mound, i.e. fortress, a ridge in Jerusalem aphel (651) to set as the sun; dusky:- very dark ophel (652) dusk:- darkness, obscurity, privily araphel (6205) thick darkness Strong's Concordance states that Amraphel is of uncertain derivation. It seems that the form of the name was deliberately made ambiguous in order to allow many interpretations. For example: Imriy-phel = "wordy divider," i.e., covenant breaker from pala (6381) to separate, be great, difficult, hidden, too high Cf Palluw (6396) distinguished Am(a)r-aphel = "lofty talker," i.e., strong words, big talker Am(a)r-rapha-el = "wordiness of God is cured" from raphah (7495) cure; rapha ( 7496) dead The name Amraphel is then a more liberal or sarcastic translation of Kakrime. The similar sets of roots amar/omer (559/562) and amar/omer (6014/6016) allowed the Genesis author to create a suitable Hebrew nickname for Kakrime that emphasized his verbosity. It characterizes Kakrime as a man of lofty words rather than faithful action, at least with respect to his dealings with Samsu-ditana (Terah). In Judges

162 8:21, the wordy one Kakrime (Amraphel) remained in character even when facing execution at the hands of his grandson Tao II (Gideon). Tao II later suffered a similar fate. See Chapter 11. On the basis of chronological and linguistic comparisons, Amraphel is therefore securely identified as the historical Kassite king Kakrime (Agum II). However, it must be said that there is not necessarily a single correct meaning for the name Kakrime (or Amraphel). As we have seen in the previous chapters,names were often carefully chosen in order to express multiple levels of meaning, and also to carry useful meanings in multiple languages. The Patriarchal line was an international ruling elite. They were conversant in many languages, and comfortable in many geographic and cultural settings. They were the original "culture vultures." The Patriarchal king Agum II became the king of an Indian (Sanskrit) speaking people. He not only assumed a Sanskrit name, Kakrime, but an identity that was meaningful (as well as intimidating) to this new group of subjects. Zalmunnah means, "withheld/removed covering/protection/covenant/bonds/binding," i.e., covenant breaker. alummah (485) = "sheaf, bind" salma/salmon = "covering" Zalmunnah is derived from the Hebrew words alummah, meaning "sheaf, bind," and salma/salmon, meaning a "covering." As noted previously, the name Salmon was a nickname of Joshua and signifies "mantle," birthright and kingly succession. Hammurabi removed salmon from Elishama/Joktan and gave it to Joshua son of Nun (Reu son of Peleg). Late in life, the father of Terah likewise decided to strip him of his mantle and give it to another one of his son's. He considered the holdings of Samsu-ditana (Terah) in Babylon to be expendable and facilitated his overthrow. What Terah may have done to provoke this action on the part of his father is not made known in the Bible. The name Agum is related to the Hebrew agam, to collect. The Hebrew word aguddah means "to bind, band, bundle." The Biblical name Agur means "gathered," and was a nickname of Solomon. Solomon also called one of his two famous pillars Obed, apparently after himself and his great ancestor Kakrime. The father of Terah (Jesse) was also called Obed, which means "keep in bondage." In the genealogy of King Saul (1 Sam 9:1), Terah/Jesse is called by yet another alias. He is named there as Abiel ("Father of God"). The father of Abiel is in turned named as Zeror. Zeror means "a package, e.g. of grain" and is derived from the verb tsarar, "to cramp, oppress." Khedorlaomer, King of Elam = Kidinu, King of Elam = Zebah Khedor ~ Kidinu omer = "sheaf, to bind"

163 -la-omer = "belonging to the sheaf/binder," or freely translated "son/vassal of Zalmunnah" Cf lael (3815) = "belonging to God" ; laanah (3939) = "to curse, poisonous" ; laeg (3934) = "foreign buffoon" ; laaz (3937) = "foreign tongue" Cf omer ("bind") and omar ("speak") -laomer/laomar is a play on words having the double entendre of "son of the wordy one," and "son of the binder." Therefore, Khedorlaomer = "Kidinu, son of the binder/wordy one," or more specifically, son of the one who spoke empty words and broke binding agreements (Biblical Zalmunnah/Amraphel). Zebah = "slaughter, sacrifice" Possibly Zebah is also a play on Eber meaning "from the east, beyond, opposite or across." Arioch, King of Ellasar = Arik-den-ili, King of Assyria = Zeeb ari = lion cf ocher = yellow Arioch = "yellow lion?" yeraqraq = "yellowishness" See Psalm 68:13, "yellow gold" from (3418) yereq = "pallor," "sickly, yellowish green" from (3417) yaraq = "spit" Zeeb ("to be yellow," "a wolf") Cf The ancient Assyrian city of Nimrod on the River Zabus (Great Zab) Cf Hebrew yareach (3394) the moon Tidal, King of Goiim = Hittite (Hurrian) King Tudhaliyas = Oreb Tidal = "fearfulness" Goiim = "horde" Oreb = "swarm" Note 3:

164 Senakhtenre = Se-nakht (renewed) + en (like/as) + Re (the sun god) The Biblical name Terah has no Hebrew etymology and was probably formed from his Egyptian throne names Senakhtenre. Terah may "derive" from the final phonic (sound) of the praenomen, i.e., "Tenre." The Egyptian "n" was possibly dropped in the colloquial Hebrew. Also, "n's" and "r's" are frequently interchangeable in Biblical names. Example: Achan/Achar. A related Biblical name, Serach, may derive from the first part of Senakhtenre. Senakhtenre Tao I was known as Apophis I in Lower Egypt. Au-ser-re, the throne name of Apophis also bears a resemblance to the Biblical name Terah, and means, "Great and Powerful like Re." Note 4: Mose, meaning son, is roughly equivalent to the Hebrew/Chaldean roots Esh/Ish connoting "issue" or "seed." Cah is a transliteration of the Egyptian word Ka, meaning "spirit" or "soul." Chaldean, Kah (3541) signifying presence, heaviness/weightiness According to Strong's concordance, the Hebrew/Chaldean word kah is formed by the prefix k, and hiy (1931) signifying the self. Therefore, Ka-mose is equivalent to Is(h)-kah with the roots transposed. Transposition of words, roots, and especially individual letters is extremely common when translating ancient and modern languages. Examples: Egyptian Hopte becomes Anglicized as Hotep. The ancient city of Ebla is as frequently written as Elba. Standardized spelling is largely a modern phenomenon "deriving" from Webster and his dictionary. Related words: Chaldean, Kahen (3541) a priest (modern day Jewish surname of Cohen/Kahn/Kuhn) Chaldean, Kowkab (3556) "a prince" Iscah cannot be Sarah as Strong's Concordance suggests, because Sarah is said to be the half-sister and not the niece of Abram. Note 5: A comprehensive treatment of the Hyksos is found in Donald Redford's book, "Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times." As a sample of the widely varying perspectives on the significance of the Hyksos see:

165 http://www.realshades.com/history/ap-hyksos-001.html http://corp.arabia.com/DesertLand/shepherd.html http://www melanet.com/clegg_series/mothers.html http://emuseum.mankato.msus.edu/prehistory/egypt/history/people/ahmose.html http://velikovsky.collision.org/ce/hammurabi.html Note 6: "The Angel of the Lord" is actually sent to the "Abiezrites." The terms "Abiezrites" and "Israelites" are used interchangeably in Judges. The name Abiezrite literally means "father of help" (Heb. Ezra/Azar, "to help, succor.") The Israelites could expect deliverance, because they belonged to the "Father of Help." Azarah was also the Mesopotamian name of the Patriarch Lamech. The "father of Azarah" (Abiezra), was the Patriarch Methuseleh. Methuseleh corresponds to the Babylonian king Suma-abum, founder of 1st Dynasty Babylon. The suffix -abum also means "father." Suma is perhaps related to the Hebrew words shama/shema, meaning "to hear," and figuratively to help or deliver. Cf suma and the English word summon ("to send for") Quite probably, Abiezrite is then a title that connects the Israelites of the book of Judges to the Patriarch Methuseleh ("man of war"), who was known in Babylon as the "great father (of help)," Suma-abum, and in Egypt as Senusret (Sesostris) III. Alternatively, David Rohl proposes that Abiezrite can be interpreted as "follower of Osiris" (Legend, p 415-416). Rohl's etymology of Mizraim (the Biblical name of Egypt) is m-izr (followers of Osiris). Abiezrite would therefore relate to the descendants or adherents of one Izr/Azar/Osir(is), or the father thereof. In Egyptian tradition, the father of Osiris was the god Ra/Re. Egypt revered Osiris and his son Horus. Seth/Baal was considered the brother and murderer of Osiris. Rohl's idenitfication would also appear to be more reasonable in light of Abraham's association with Osiris (See Chapter 13). Note 7: Bela, King of Zoar Bela is a pseudonym for Abram's main ally Mamre, who is called Gideon and Jerub-baal in Judges. His given name was Baal (Tao II), a variant of Bela. Bela (1104, 1105) = "to make away with (spec. by swallowing); generally to destroy:-cover, destroy, devour, eat up, be at end, spend up, swallow down (up)," "destruction:-devouring, that which he hath swallowed up" Hebrew baal (1166) "to be master"

166 * In Greek tradition "Belos" is considered to be a relation of "Epaphos" (Apophis). See "Black Athena" by Martin Bernal, Vol 1, p 95. More specifically, Belos (Tao II/Apophis II) was the son of Epaphos (Tao I/Apophis I). Shemeber, King of Zeboiim Zeboiim means "twin cities," and corresponds to Memphis. The Greeks called Memphis by the name of Delphi. Both Memphis and Delphi mean "city of the oracle." However, Delphi also connotes "twins." See "Black Athena" by Martin Bernal, p 68. Shemeber means "name of pinion," i.e., the "Illustrious." However, Shem-eber is also a compound name corresponding to Abram. Abram was a "wise man" of the order of the Patriarch Shem (King Sabium). He was also a notable "Eber," i.e., one who "crossed over," in the manner of the Patriarch Eber. Abram is type-cast as a repetition of Amenemhet IV/Sabium and Wahibre/Hammurabi/Moses. In addition to the god Thoth, the archetypes for the New Kingdom Patriarch Abram (Abraham) are the sage Shem (Amenemhet IV/Sabium) and the stilted prince Eber (Wahibre/Hammurabi). The Torah is a legacy of the ancient wisdom cult. Abraham/Djehuty epitomized that tradition, and is therefore the central figure of the Genesis narrative. Abraham alone is righteous. His four royal allies are given symbolic king names that indicate their inferiority to Abraham. The Torah is strongly pro-Abraham in its bias. Abraham must not only devise a plan to rescue his nephew Lot, but must overcome the inadequacies of his "fickle" father and "boorish" brothers. With brains rather than brawn, Abraham rebels against oppressors and repels their great army. Bera, King of Sodom According to Strong's Concordance, Bera is of uncertain derivation. Related words are: Bara (1254) "to create; (qualified) to cut down (a wood), select, feed (as formative processes:- choose, create (creator), cut down, dispatch, do, make (fat) Baara (female name) brutish, stupid, consume (by fire or by eating), bring/put/take away, burn, waste" Beriah (Jah has created/cut down, derives from the name Bara), son of Ephraim. Berith (1285, 1286) A Shechemite deity and a type of fire offering (Gen 15:9-18) Bera is a pseudonym for Eschol (Thutmose I) of Genesis 14.

167 Connotations of the root Esh/Ish/Ash are: "out pour" (793), "to flow out" (7640), to "grow out" (7641, 7644), to "branch out from" (7640), "foundation" (787, 803), "sacrifice" (801), step forth/out (838), "split into a forked tongue as a flame" (7632), "seventh" (7637), "black" (Ashur), and "burning, fiery, flaming, hot" (esh) (784). The names Eshcol and Bera connect in the sense of "consuming fire." Also, Bera may be a play on Beera ("a well"), as in Beer Sheba, which is the well of Thutmose and Abraham (See Chapter 12) Also in Chapters 11 & 12, we shall see that Thumose later "cut down" his royal rivals and "burned up" the Sodomites for failing to fight for him in the war with the "Midianites." Thutmose was also associated with Shechem and Berith. Birsha, King of Gomorrah Birsha ("with wickedness"), probably from rasha (7561) "to be wrong" Birsha is a pseudonym of Abram's ally Aner (Amenhotep I) of Genesis 14. The Hebrew B'ratsah would mean "with favour," from ratsah (7521) An alternate Biblical form of the name Amenhotep is Hanan, meaning "favor." (See Chapter 11) Also compare the Hebrew word rishyown (7558) "to have leave, a permit:-grant," i.e., favor. Shinab, King of Admah Shinab, possibly meaning "a father has turned," is a pseudonym for Terah. Compare the name Jephunneh (3312) based on the verb panah (6437) "to turn:cast out, go away, (re)turn, turn (aside, away, back)" Also compare Job/Jashub, "he shall return, convert." Tao I (Terah/Job) was king of Adam's dominion, but was rejected and turned away. In the troubles of his later years, Tao I also turned back to Baal. However, after the victory of his sons over the Midianites, it seems the heart of the father Job "converted" once again to the faith of his Yahwist son. Compare Admah with Adamah (from the name Adam, "red"). This particular Edom would have to be in or near the "Red Land" of Egypt. Based on the geographical progression of cities, it may have been in the eastern Delta in the vicinity of Bubastis between Avaris and Memphis. Besides the Edom of the Sinai/TransJordan, there was also a region known as Edom-Shamash in NW Mesopotamia (Aram Naharaim). However, the title "King of Admah" may have been purely symbolic of Tao's kingship over all of the realm of Adam.

168 Later in victory, Shinab, "a father has turned (to wickedness)" is instead called Melchizekek ("a king (turned) to righteousness"). Even though Terah was certainly a divine priest-king and even considered to be a living god, he is depicted in Scripture as an idolatrous and fickle father. He refused to reinstate Abram's kingship, but appointed other sons instead. Consistent with this, Melchizekek does not offer Abram the kingly spoils of the victory, but only presents the bread and wine gifts more worthy of a priest. Although slighted, Abram is depicted as unwavering, especially in his devotion to the "true god" Jehovah. The Old Testament passage does not say that Melchizedek was an Eternal Being. However, over the centuries the context of the passage was lost and Melchizedek took on a mysterious, otherworldly aspect. Through archaeology, we can now strip away the mystique and actually appreciate the humor that the Biblical author employed when telling his story. Terah may have ultimately died in Haran, but he remained quite active throughout Canaan and Egypt after he was deposed in Babylon. This city of Haran was a favorite halfway house for royal refugees. The tradition began with the rebellious moon god Sin, who was patron deity of both Ur and Haran. Zecharia Sitchin writes in The 12th Planet (p113-114), "Both Sumerian texts, as well as achaeological evidence, indicate that Sin and his spouse fled to Haran. Though Ur remained for all time a city dedicated to Nanna/Sin, Haran must have been his residence for a very long time, for it was made to resemble Ur - its temples, buildings, and streets almost exactly." Long after the time of Terah and Abram, the last ruler of Assyria, Assur-uballit II, also fled to Haran to escape the combined armies of Babylon and the Medes. The mentioning of Haran in the text of Genesis is a clue to the kingly status of Terah and Abram, and more importantly that they were deposed rulers. Terah, we are told, died in Haran. Certainly, his role as living god over the four quarters of the Middle Eastern "world" died there. However, he lived on for some time in his fallen state. Abram also was not able to recover his lost inheritance, but the grace with which he endured the indignity was not forgotten. See Chapters 1113. The thrust of Mesopotamian kings into India and even China began with Sumaabum, founder of the 1st Dynasty of Babylon. In more eastern climes, Suma-abum was known variously as Gandash, Gungunum and Kun (China). Kun was the "father" of Yu, the first Emperor of China. The kings of 1st Dynasty Babylon left records of the placement of foreign peoples according to their edicts (see Note 1, above). Resettlement/deportation (called "Exile" in the Bible) became a highly effective form of population control, and continued to be employed by imperialists long after the 1st Dynasty of Babylon collapsed. The ruling class of a newly conquered region was relocated to another home within the empire where their talents could be better exploited, and where they would not have a population base with which to revolt against their new masters. It was the common practice of these kings to adopt regional identities in order to be better accepted by the local peoples. They also sometimes exchanged elements of culture between the various regional capitals. Interestingly, Terah, the father of Abram, assumed the very oriental throne name of Tao in Upper Egypt. Terah assumed the Kassite/Sanskrit

169 throne name of Burna-buriash in India. In the Book of Judges, this name is shortened to "Jo-ash." He was also remembered in India as Melik-Sadaksina (Melchizedek). He and Brahma (Abram) are associated with the founding of the Hindu religion in India! The young prince Abram, heir to the throne of this vast empire, would have spent a great deal of time in India, learned eastern philosophy and meditation, and was later remembered as a native of India. From Egypt, Abram also sent some of his sons "to the east," which now appears to have been India. This would have also served to make his memory permanent there. See the very interesting article by Gene Matlock at: www.viewzone.com/abraham.html Note 8: Aner is a form/variant of the Egyptian name Amen/Amun. The "Hidden" God Amun had become the predominant deity of Thebes in Egypt by the 18th Dynasty. In Hebrew Aner signifies a boy, child, youth, indicating that he was very much the junior member of the alliance. The fact that he was quite young indicates his stature is due to his royalty and not his accomplishments as a warrior. The name Aner and related Hebrew words also connote "hidden" or "secret." This is the salient characteristic of the Egyptian god Amun. Therefore, Abram's great ally Aner is likely Amenhotep I ("Amen is satisfied"), by may not yet have been considered a pharaoh at the time of the battle. Amenhotep I is generally considered to be the son of Ahmose. This is confirmed in the Kings narrative where Ahmose is called Nahash, and his son is Hanun. which is a variant of Amen/Aner (See next chapter.) Therefore, Amenhotep would have been a great-grandson of Tao I. That Amenhotep could have been old enough to have a significant role in the events of Genesis 14 is surprising. However, Amenhotep may have been favored as a result of being Tao's first great-grandson. Crown princes began producing heirs of their own upon reaching puberty. Sixteen years or even less between firstborn sons is not unreasonable. Conceivably, Tao became a great-grandfather by his mid-forties. Tao's own father, Ammi-saduqa/Kakrime, was also still very much alive, and would have been in his sixties. If Tao had been appointed successor at the age of 16, then he would have been 47 years old when deposed in Babylon after a reign of 31 years. The battle of "four kings against five" took place after 7 years of oppression according to Judges, and after 14 years according to Genesis. However, it is not clear how these dates are referenced to the coup d'etat that forced Tao out of Babylon. Logically, the coup and the battle of Genesis 14 took place only a short time after Tao attempted to throw off the heavy tribute being placed upon him by his aging father Kakrime. If he was the true son of Ahmose (Nahash/Thahash), then Amenhotep (Aner) would have been exceptionally young at the time of the confrontation, probably less than ten years of age. It should be noted that another prominent prince of the day is named Abner in the Kings narrative. Abner would have been a brother or half-brother of Abraham, Gideon and Abimelech (David). Abner was Saul's army commander, but sided with David after Saul's death. He was later killed by David's nephew and general Joab.

170 Hanun was also killed by Joab, but evidently at a much later date and under different circumstances. However, it is at least possible that the Aner of Genesis 14 and Phurah of Judges 6-8 was not Hanun (Amenhotep I), but the prince Abner. Aner (6063) from naar (5288) lad, boy, child, etc. anan (6049-6051) cloud, covering, hiding Amun associated with the Ram ram = high (as are the concealing clouds and sky) Cf Aner, Aram and Abram ("Exalted Father") Cf Amorite, Amun-ite, and Ammon-ite anah/anab/anav/anvah/anavah/enuwth/oniy/aniy/unniy (6030/1, 6033, 6035, 60376042) collectively having meanings of: misery, afflicted, troubled, humble, meek anayah/anah 6043, 6030-6032 answer amam (6004) hide, overshadow, become dim Anamim (6047) a son of Mizraim ("father of Egypt") Anammelek (6048) Assyrian deity Anunnaki, Mesopotamian equivalent of the Biblical Elohim Aram, "highland," grandson of Nahor (Gen 22:21) Anen/Aanen/Amon, eldest son of Yuya and priest of On amen (543) true, so be it; the ending of Jewish, Christian, and Muslim prayers anem (6046) two fountains Purah/Phurah (6513) "foliage," connoting its hiding property and green-ness (youthfulness) from (6288) purah, "foliage (including the limbs)" from (6286) paar, "to gleam, embellish, boast, beautify, glorify (self), vaunt self" Pharaoh (6547), "Phurah" is a play on words to symbolize Aner's status as (future) Pharaoh Amenhotep I.

171 Note 9: Jeiel and the variant Jeuel mean "carried away by God," and are derived from yaah (3261) "to brush aside:- sweep away." Tao I was swept aside by his father Kakrime (Obed/Zeror). The variant Jehiel means "God will live." Tao I survived being disowned by his father, and an earlier attack by a close relation Mur-shili (Mursilis I). While the genealogies of Terah found in Chronicles are more complete, there is some variation between the Greek and Hebrew Bible versions of this genealogy. In 1 Chronicles 8, some Septuagint manuscripts provide the names Jeiel and Ner. The Hebrew text does not. The climax of the genealogies of 1 Chronicles 8 & 9 is the family history of King Saul. However, the genealogy given for Saul in the Samuel 9:1 does not seem to agree with the ones provided in Chronicles 8 & 9. In both Samuel and Chronicles, Saul is the son of Kish. However, in Chronicles, he is the grandson of Ner, while in Samuel he is the grandson of Abiel. Abiel means "father of the God," and is a generic title for the king or king-elect. This name is not very helpful, and can only be associated with Tao by its relative position in the list. On the other hand, Ner, meaning "lamp" or "fire" is a variant of the name Joash, "fire of Jehovah." Joash is the name given to Tao I is Judges. Therefore, Ner and Abiel are yet more names for Tao I (Terah). Abner son of Ner was a general of Saul, and later of David. However, it is not clear to which son of Jeiel/Abiel/Jesse he corresponds. The genealogy of Jeiel lists half-brothers as though they were full brothers (from the same mother). Abdon (Abram), Zur (Nahor) and Kish (Haran) are full brothers by one royal wife (Maaca #1). The fourth son of Terah/Jeiel in the Chronicles list is Baal, which corresponds to Gideon's given name Tao (II). The fifth son Ner is not found in the Hebrew text. Ner, as noted above, is an alias of Jeiel himself. Ner possibly should have been written as Abner. A prominent grandson of Jeiel (Terah) through Zur (Nahor) was Aner (Egy. Amenhotep I) The sixth son Nadab likely corresponds to David. He is listed as the seventh son of Jesse. The order of sons in any given genealogy depended on the "ranking" of their mothers, and that varied with geographical location. The Biblical Job is said to have had seven sons. The genealogies of 1 Chron 8 and 1 Chron 9 list nine and ten sons, respectively. Jesse had either seven or eight sons, depending upon whether one goes by the narrative of 1 Samuel 16 or the genealogy of Jesse given in 1 Chronicles 2:13-15. If Job, Jeiel, Jesse and Terah

172 are different nicknames of the same king, then three sons in the Chronicles genealogy of Jeiel/Jehiel are either redundant, represent grandsons rather than sons of Terah, or were sired through one or more other royal wives (Maaca's). Possibly, Tao II is listed twice in this genealogy, once as Baal and again as Gedor, who fills the favored seventh position. The name Gedor is a close variant of Gideon. Gedor means "enclosure" and may also be symbolic of the strategy Gideon and Abram used to encircle and incite the Midianites to riot. If so, this name is redundant with Baal. Earlier in the same chapter of Chronicles (8, verses 1-5), we are told that Bela had two sons by the name of Gera! Better to list twice than to risk leaving out a prominent ancestor! A transmission error in the Chronicles genealogy is also evident. The Chronicles passage begins with, "Jeiel the father of Gibeon lived in Gibeon." The original name of Gideon was replaced by Gibeon." The passage probably originally read, "Jeiel the father of Gideon lived in Gibeon."

Living in Truth:

Archaeology and the Patriarchs Chapter 11


"All My Will" (The Rise and Fall of King Saul)
by Charles N. Pope Copyright 1999-2002 by Charles Pope United States Library of Congress All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions

Name Associations Biblical Name(s) Shua, Abiel, Tou/Toi, Maoch Abdon, Eliab Mamre, Baal, Jerub-baal, Agag Zur, Zohar, Caleb II Abimelech, Nadab Hanun Shelah, Nahash Kish, Achish Thutmose I Amenhotep I Ahmose I Chieftain of Cush Egyptian

Senakhtenre, Tao

Djehuty, Teti, Ibrim Sequenenre, Tao

King of Nahrin/Mit

173 Othniel, Saul Ingratitude The Hebron Alliance (Gen. 14:13), which included Amenhotep I (Aner) and Thutmose I (Eshcol), and was led by Tao II (Mamre/Gideon) and the Lord (Abram) claimed credit for the miraculous liberation from Mesopotamia. However, their right to rule Egypt and Canaan was denied by the family "Godfather," Tao I (TerahMelchizedek). Tao I bypassed the sons of both Abram and Nahor, and instead chose a son of their younger brother Haran to be his new successor. This decision was protested and another bloody civil war ensued. Tao II was the first to resist the will of his father Tao I and consequently became the first royal casualty. As it says in Judges 8:34-35 (NIV), they "did not remember the Lord [Abram] their God,a who had rescued them from the hands of all their enemies on every side. They also failed to show gratitude to the family of Jerub-baal (that is, Gideon) [Tao II] for all the good things he had done for them." The "disrespect" of Jerub-baal is recalled in the Egyptian New Kingdom story called the "Quarrel of Apophis and Sequenenre." The tale begins by stating that the land of Egypt was in distress, literally topsy-turvy, upside down. It then explains why. Apophis (Tao I), ruler of the Delta, decided to make Seth his personal god and offer him sacrifices in the same manner as Re. This was a preposterous and backward (although not entirely unprecedented) thing to do in Lower Egypt! Apophis then sent word to his son Sequenenre (Tao II) directing him to do something about the hippopotami of Thebes in Upper Egypt. The hippopotamus was a symbol of chaos and of the god Seth. Effectively, Apophis was honoring Seth in the Delta, but denouncing Seth in Thebes, just the opposite of the traditional practice. Confused and offended, Sequenenre composed an equally ridiculous response and sent it back to Apophis. He chose to conclude on a defiant note, stating that his trust was in no other god but the "King of the Gods, AmenRe." The nickname of Tao II, Jerub-baal ("Contends with Baal"), begins to take on another meaning at this point. The title of the tale ("The Quarrel of Apophis and Sequenenre") itself indicates that it was his own father Baal (Tao I) with whom Gideon (Tao II) was now in dispute. "In every probability, as Sir Gaston Maspero observed,b the story was 'simply the local variant of a theme popular throughout the entire East. The kings of those times were wont to send one another problems to be solved on all sorts of matters, the condition being that they should pay one another a kind of tribute or fine according as they should answer well or ill to the questions put to them.' "c In this case, a father (Apophis I) was testing his son (Apophis II) to see if he was both wise and faithful. Prior to the Egyptian New Kingdom, Apophis was a mythological serpent thought to be both an aspect and nemesis of Re. It had to be defeated and beheaded every night by Seth before the sun could rise. However, by the Late Period in Egypt, Kamose

174 Apophis was more closely associated with Seth, "god of evil and darkness."d Possibly, this change in role was precipitated by the antics of King Apophis I in the early New Kingdom. The choice of Apophis as a throne name in Lower Egypt would have been unusual in itself. However, two pharaohs of the 6th Dynasty were also known by the name Pepi, a variant of Apophis. The 6th Dynasty was also a period of division in the Patriarchal family (as was discussed in Chapter 5). King Apophis of the 15th Dynasty would have been looking to the 6th Dynasty pharaohs for inspiration in dealing with like circumstances. As in that earlier time, the prevailing darkness and chaos required the appeasement of the deity Apophis. "The Quarrel of Apophis and Sequenenre" indicates an acceptance of chaos as a cyclical phenomenon, and that kings were expected to employ drastic and unorthodox measures to restore order. In the Delta, King Apophis was not quelled by the quill of his son, and "after many days" he sent another rider to Sequenenre. This time the envoy was emphatic: "It is King Apophis who sends to thee, saying: 'Have the hippopotamus pool which is in the orient of the City done [away] with! For they do not let sleep come to me by day or by night,' and the noise is (in) the ears of his city."e This hilarious missive was actually a serious mandate from Apophis I (Tao I) to his Egyptian heir Apophis II (Tao II). The elder Apophis was directing his namesake and designated successor (as the "true Horus") to dispose of his "Seth-ite" rivals and secure his kingdom.1 The story relates that upon receiving this second dispatch from Apophis, Tao II and his advisors sat "silent and wept for a long time."f The younger Apophis was certainly familiar with the metaphor used by his father, and its deadly implications. However, we are left to wonder whether he wept because he did not wish to kill his brothers, or for some other reason? The conclusion to the story has been lost. Therefore the fuller meaning must be deduced using the context provided by the Bible. Tao II was actually crying the "tears of Esau" over his own lost birthright. In other words, because of his inaction and flippant reply, Tao II himself was now among those who were to be "done away with" at his father's command. His kingship over Egypt and Canaan was being revoked and given to a rival brother. Sequenenre contritely sent word back to Apophis saying that he was then prepared to all he had willed. Nevertheless, the damage had been done. According to the Book of Judges, Tao I (there called Joash) had earlier defended the disrespectful action of Tao II (Gideon) when he tore down the altar of Baal (Seth). But times had changed and his changeable father with them. Rebel with a Separatist Cause The initial concern of the elder Apophis was not the younger Apophis, but the insubordination of another prince - the newly appointed pharaoh Kamose. It was the loud boasting of this particular "hippo" that caused Apophis the most discomfort. The "Mighty Kamose," as he liked to call himself, was identified in the previous chapter as Iscah, the son of Abram's younger brother Haran. In the Kings/Chronicles history he is instead named as King Saul son of Kish. The

175 equivalence of Kish and Haran was also demonstrated in the previous chapter. Upon his election, Kamose immediately rejected the authority of his elders and began to set his own course. He disagreed with his grandfather's recovery plan. In his mind, it was time to cut ties with Mesopotamia and expel all "Asiatics" along with their eastern "witchcraft." He resented paying taxes from his own dominions in Egypt to finance new wars in Mesopotamia, even those of his grandfather who appointed him. Kamose memorialized his insolence toward Apophis by stating: "Your authority is restricted inasmuch as you, in your capacity as suzerain, have made me a chief."g It is clear from the words of Apophis in the "Quarrel" that unquestioned obedience was expected from all of his sons and grandsons, regardless of the offices they had received. Favor could arbitrarily be extended by the senior king. It could summarily also be removed. It is evident that Kamose, like Tao II, also received one or more provocative messages from Apophis.h While Tao II sulked, Kamose stewed (Note 2). Having been newly appointed by Tao I, Kamose was outraged over being so quickly disinherited. The advisors of the angry Kamose urged him to accept the decision of Tao I and to be content with the territory that he presently controlled. However, Kamose informs us in his inscription at Thebes that he refused counsel and marched on Lower Egypt. According to 1 Samuel 15:4, Saul raised an army of 200,000 men in order to attack the "Amelekites." These were joined by 10,000 men from Judah. In 1 Samuel 11, Saul earlier defeated Nahash of Judah (pharaoh Ahmose, see Note 3 below). Therefore, the 10,000 men of Judah were provided to Kamose (Saul) by Ahmose (Nahash) as tribute. Although it was Kamose who led the forces against Avaris, credit is generally given to his subordinate Ahmose (Nahash) for capturing Avaris and ridding Egypt of the Hyksos. This was called into question by Alan Gardiner in Egypt of the Pharaohs, and revisited by Velikovsky in Ages in Chaos. The inscriptions left by one of the military officers under Ahmose indicate that Ahmose did not fight against Avaris alone. In fact the boasting of the officer betrays the fact that Ahmose played a relatively minor supporting role in the siege of the city. The officer, whose name was Ahmose son of Ibana, proudly describes how he killed two men and captured another. For this he was decorated three times. After Avaris fell, the officer carried off four slaves. This hardly amounts to a conquest of epic proportions. In the inscriptions of Ahmose son of Ibana, the identity of "his majesty" is deliberately made ambiguous. It is not possible to know what king was actually being referred to by any given instance of this phrase. Moreover, the officer does not give his own sovereign, Pharaoh Ahmose, credit for leading the battle. Rather, he states: "One besieged the city of Avaris" and "One captured Avaris."i Egyptologists do not know whom that "One" may have been who besieged and captured Avaris, therefore Ahmose is made the vanquisher of the Hyksos by default. The siege of Ahmose on Avaris is presently thought to have taken place many years after that of Kamose. However, it is now clear that is was a single, combined siege. For his minor contribution to the heroics, Pharaoh Ahmose was later mistakenly dubbed founder of the Egyptian New Kingdom.j

176 The Kings/Chronicles narrative correctly names King Saul (Kamose) and not Nahash (Ahmose) as the one who captured the "city of the Amalekites" and brought its king Agog back to the prophet Samuel alive. The Biblical city of the Amalekites is named in Egyptian sources as Avaris of the "vile Asiatics." In Ages in Chaos, Immanuel Velikovsky deduced that Biblical Agog king of the Amalekites was a corrupted or alternative spelling of Apop (Apophis), and that Agog was none other than King Apophis. As a basis, he notes that in the Mesha stela of this period the early Hebrew the letters g (gimel) and p (pei) both resembled the number 7, and can only be differentiated by the size of the angle formed between the two segments.k By the time Kamose reached Avaris, the elder Apophis had already withdrawn with his army. The city fell to Kamose, little thanks to the assistance of his "ally" Ahmose. Kamose also succeeded in taking the younger Apophis (Tao II) into custody, either at Avaris or elsewhere. Hollow Victory Despite the great victory of Saul, the Bible states: "Then the word of the Lord [Apophis I] came to Samuel: 'I am grieved that I have made Saul [Kamose] king, because he has turned away from me and has not carried out my instructions."l Though not agreeing with "the Lord," Samuel searches for Saul in order to give him the bad news. The charges waged against Saul include a reference to the noisome sound of sheep and oxen bleating in Samuel's ear! This echoes the words of Apophis in the "Quarrel," and confirms that Kamose had received the same instruction as Tao II to eliminate subversive elements in the royal family and within the local populace. Neither had performed as directed. The demands, even if unreasonable and unnecessary, were not fully met and the decision was then made to remove both Tao II and Kamose as junior kings. The Biblical account is simply expressing that same sentiment after the fact, and justifying "the Lord's" decision to anoint a new successor in their places. In the Kings/Chronicles narrative, proud Saul humbles himself before Samuel and seeks to win back the good graces of "the Lord" (whom he had just attacked). Samuel only reinforces the "Lord's" disapproval of him. For the sake of appearances, Samuel agrees to stand beside Saul and offer gestures of worship toward the Lord (Tao I). However, the mind of the Lord was already made up . . . again. Abram had been his first heir. After the flight from Babylon, Mamre/Gideon (Tao II) was elevated in status. Tao II was a "wavering warrior" after his father's own name and nature, but he too was rejected in favor of Saul (Kamose). Finally, the Lord decided Saul also did not have the "right stuff"m and rejected him in favor of a new prince. Saul had spared Agag along with the healthy livestock of Egypt.n Upon hearing this, Samuel demands that Agag be delivered up to him: "Then Samuel said, 'Bring me Agag king of the Amalekites.' Agag came to him confidently, thinking, 'Surely the bitterness of death is past.' "o Nevertheless, "Samuel hewed Agag in pieces before the Lord in Gilgal,"p that is, in the presence of Tao I. The surviving mummy of Tao II (Agog) is a gruesome witness to his own execution. Agag/Gideon

177 (Apophis II) had earlier killed his own grandfather Zalmunneh (Agum II/Kakrime) by this same primitive ritual.q After capturing Zalmunnah, Gideon (Tao II) chose to "strike him down" rather than imposing a treaty with concessions and letting him go. After the capture of Gideon (Agag-Tao II) by Saul (Kamose), Samuel sentenced him to the identical fate. Contradictions and double standards abound in this passage, which the Biblical author does not try to hide. It was Tao II who effectively restored the status of his father Tao I as a living god by defeating and killing the father of Tao I. Tao II is nonetheless condemned to die for having shown no mercy on his faithless grandfather, and for sparing his own faithful brothers. Samuel obviously sympathized with Saul, but had nothing but contempt for Agag (Gideon/Tao II). Although not made explicit, there was also a personal vendetta to settle. The slain grandfather of Agag was also the father of Samuel (see Chart 7). Samuel and Jesse/Joash/Terah had the same father, but different mothers. The mother of Samuel was actually the favored wife, but was "barren" for a long time. In fulfillment of a vow, Samuel was devoted to the temple rather than being earmarked for kingship. Nevertheless, he remained devoted both to his father and served as High Priest of Yahweh-Amun under his elder half-brother who did become king. Instead of ordering his men to "fall upon" his nephew Agag, Samuel performed the killing with his own hands. He first explained to Agag that his execution was just: "Live by the sword, die by the sword." However, Agag was not condemned for killing commoners, or even his royal brothers and political sons. He was being held accountable for the death of a superior, for killing God himself. Samuel was not content to strike a single fatal blow, but hacked the body of Agag again and again. The use of the word "bitter" in connection with the execution of Agag is important, because it is a word play on the name of Mamre, nickname of Tao II (GideonAgag) in the Book of Genesis (see Chapter 10). It is also of note that Tao II is called "king of the Amalekites." Amalek is identified as the first among nations in Num 24:20. Agag was one of its exalted kings, as suggested by Num 24:7. The name Amalek could be interpreted as "The Toiling God-Kings," and probably refers to the pyramid restoring Old Kingdom pharaohs. In the context of the Patriarchal narratives, the Amalekites would represent widely dispersed tribes that descended from Old Kingdom pharaohs, and which remained a formidable threat and resource to Middle Kingdom and even New Kingdom pharaohs. The New Kingdom ruler Agag (Apophis II) is himself being compared specifically with the Old Kingdom (6th Dynasty) pharoah Pepi II. In Chapter 5 it was shown that Pepi II had been the coregent of Pepi I, just as Apophis II later served under Apophis I. Apophis II ruled over Amalekites in Egypt and no doubt used them in the struggle with his brothers. However, Apophis II was not an Amalekite, per se. Biblical Saul (Kamose) could not be seized by the Lord (Tao I) and struck down along with Agag (Tao II). He was protected by his large army and personal bodyguard. However, his strength was not sufficient to induce the Lord to restore favor and kingship. Biblical Saul did not address the Lord directly, but only through Samuel priest. In other words, Kamose did not have a personal audience with Tao

178 I, but communicated only through the intermediary Samuel. The Lord denied Saul (Kamose) grace, but could not prevent him from returning to Thebes where he exulted in the plundering of Avaris. From a distance, Kamose resumed his bombastic tone and reveled in his intimidation of the Lord (Tao I/Apophis I). In his famous stela, he expressed nothing but hatred for Apophis I, and even threatened to "slit open his belly."2 However, the next belly that he was to pierce with a sword would be his own. Kamose underestimated the influence and resolve that the "perpetuated one" Apophis still possessed. Apophis at last succeeded in summoning the chieftain of Cush.r Outnumbered and outmaneuvered, proud Kamose chose suicide over surrender. The Greek legend of "Kadmose the Phoenician"s may be another memory of Pharaoh Kamose. Like Kadmose, Kamose came from Phoenicia and establish a promising new dynasty in Egypt. And like Kadmose, Kamose only lasted about three years in Thebes.t In 1 Samuel 13:1, the Hebrew Bible states that hostilities with the Philistines began in year two of King Saul's reign, at which time he had already been rejected as king. Saul was killed a short time later. The Septuagint inserts a "forty-" and thereby incorrectly ascribes to Saul a reign of forty-two years instead of two years. This is an example of later editing. Therefore, the sudden demise of the newly crowned Kamose is consistent in Biblical, Egyptian and Greek recollections. Dark Horse Wins Run-Off Election With respect to the disinheritance of Saul, we are told that Samuel grieved for a long time. Eventually, he is ordered by the Lord (Tao I) to go and anoint David as king. At this juncture (1 Samuel 15) in the Kings/Chronicles narrative, we know nothing of David or why he was considered worthy to replace the likes of Abram, Agog/Gideon and Saul. It is necessary for the author to go back in time to tell us the story of David and how this "Super Hero" came to be. In order to do so, the Biblical author twists together the anointing of the adult David with an earlier election from David's childhood. In Samuel 16, a much younger David is picked out from among his many elder brothers by "the Lord." At that time, the role of the Lord would not have been played by David's father Jesse (Tao I), but by his grandfather Obed (Ammisaduqa/Kakrime). After he is favored by Obed, the narrative then proceeds to describe the trials and wiles of David up until the time of Saul's disgrace and defeat by King Achish and the Philistines (1 Samuel 31). The first great victory of David (Thutmose) is not mentioned in the Kings/Chronicles narrative. He was one of four "brothers" in Geneses 14 who banded together in order to win independence for the oppressed clan of Terah.u As discussed in the previous chapter, Thutmose (Eshcol) was already in Hebron with Amenhotep (Aner) and Tao II (Mamre) when Abram arrived and began preparations for the defense of Canaan and Egypt. This Hebron was near or within the district of ancient Thebes in Upper Egypt. Archaeology of the Hebron in Palestine indicates that it was not yet in existence at this time. Thutmose was already a regional king at this time, or would be soon after the defeat of the armies of Mesopotamia.

179 However, in what must have been a stunning surprise, Tao subsequently named his grandson Kamose as his new successor. Kamose (Saul) and Thutmose (David) would have first come into close contact when Kamose accepted his appointment and took up residence as pharaoh in Thebes of Upper Egypt. Thutmose first won the confidence of the new pharaoh by killing the giant Goliath, possibly a legendary Ethiopian Troglodyte. In this time period, there were still Philistines along the Nile. According to Genesis 10:13-14, the first Philistines were not of Greek origin, but were the descendants of Mizraim (Egypt) son of Ham. However, the wide-ranging Mizraim is also said to be the father of the Caphtorites (natives of the island of Cyprus in the Mediterranean Sea). Perhaps, these two isolated groups did have more in common than intact prepuces. A young and insecure pharaoh Kamose was drawn to the war-tested Thutmose. Both the son of Saul, Jonathan (Neshi?) and his daughter Michal were smitten with David. He won the heart of Michal, but Saul made him earn her hand by killing 100 Philistines.v He killed 200 instead. Saul eventually became insanely jealous of the spectacular success and popularity of Thutmose, or so we are told in the Biblical account. Hounded by Saul, David made peace with the King of the Philistines and was given refuge by him. Count of Kish and King of Cush In 1 Samuel 27 & 29, we are told that David became an ally of King Achish son of Maoch. The name Maoch means "oppressed," and is a pseudonym for the deposed Terah. Achish is called a Philistine king (as Agag was called an Amalekite), but he too was actually a member of the extended Patriarchal family. Kish (keesh) and Achish (aw-keesh') are both a play on words with Kush/Cush. He was also the "chieftain of Cush" that Apophis I called upon when he was threatened by Kamose. In his appeal to "his son the chieftain of Cush," Apophis makes the case that Kamose had rebelled against the both of them by his unauthorized raids on their respective lands. In exchange for support, Apophis offered to make this chieftain of Cush a king in Lower Egypt as well. The attack of Achish on Saul is another example from this time period of a son being at odds with his own father.w David had been living among the Philistines of Cush for over a year, and was eager to fight on the side of Achish in the battle in which Saul died. However, the commanders of the Philistine group were suspicious of David and demanded that he leave with his men. He was denied the glory of bringing down Saul, so David affirmed his election by attacking the Amalekites. In this way, he was seen as fulfilling the genocidal task assigned to Tao II and Kamose, and could claim to be their better. Saul was put back in his place by his father Kish (Achish) and the Philistine army. Rather than surrender and suffer execution, the wounded Saul killed himself on the battlefield. Those loyal to Kamose established a surviving son of his (Biblical Ish-Bosheth) as king in his place. After two years of conflict, this king was assassinated and David was made "King over all Israel." It was then that Thutmose captured "Jerusalem" (the royal residence in Western Thebes) and assumed the title of pharaoh.

180 In 2 Samuel 5, the next move of David is to obtain permission from "the Lord" for an attack on the "Philistines." David gets the approval he seeks.x This indicates that the former chieftain of Cush (Achish) was dead and Thutmose was given his franchise by Tao I who yet lived.3 This war corresponds to the Nubian campaign of Thutmose in his Year 2. At the third cataract of the Nile, the record left by Thutmose was particularly macabre: "... gore floods their valleys, ... the pieces hacked from them are too much for the birds ..."y Thutmose I was a man who would not flinch in bloodshed. He would fulfill all of the Lord's will for slaughter. The place of David's victory over the Philistines is named Baal Perazim, "the Lord who breaks out." David is quoted as saying, "As waters break out, the Lord has broken out against my enemies before me."z It evokes the turbulence of the waters at this Nile cataract and possibly also the time of year (inundation). Royal Friendship Lasts for a Day Many years after becoming king of the Philistines and all Israel, David/Eshcol (Thutmose) also turned against his former ally Hanun/Aner (Amenhotep). In Samuel 10, David sends delegates to express his condolences to Hanun (Amenhotep) the Ammonite (and Amun-ite).aa Nahash (Ahmose),4 the father of Hanun had just passed away. However, Hanun's advisors warn him that David's men are probably posing as spies. The delegates are thoroughly humiliated and sent back to David. This becomes the casus belli for David to attack Hanun, kill him, and capture his city. The demise of Amenhotep (Aner/Hanun) was ironically at the hands of his former ally Thutmose (Eshcol/David). Blood may be thicker than water, but the quest for kingship was the only enduring loyalty of ancient royalty. The triumph of Thutmose over all of his royal rivals was complete. The 25-year reign of Amenhotep is presently thought to have followed the 21-28 year reign of his father Ahmose. However, the Kings/Chronicles narrative indicates that the death of the younger Amenhotep (Hanun) followed closely after that of Ahmose (Nahash). Therefore, the reign of Amenhotep completely overlapped that of Ahmose, or nearly so.ab The famous campaign of Ahmose was actually a joint campaign with Kamose against Tao II. It is considered, rightfully or not, as a turning point in Egyptian history, and referred to as "The Expulsion of the Hyksos." Although this may have been the first significant action of Ahmose in Egypt, he had been a king for over a decade. The battle was dated to his Year 11. Ahmose (Biblical Nahash/Thahash) was the third son of Nahor, the favored brother of Abraham. The two eldest sons of Nahor were disgraced, which would have made Ahmose the heir apparent in Mitanni (Aram Naharaim). Ahmose and Amenhotep derived their authority from Nahor, who may not have assumed pharaonic titles. Tao II and Kamose were direct descendants of Tao I (Terah) who certainly did. This means that at least five pharaohs were ruling at one time! See Chart 16 for the chronology of the Hyksos Period and early New Kingdom. The Hyksos kings of Babylon granted authority to their own sons as well as to "Asiatic" noblemen as a practical means of absentee rule in Egypt. However, after the Fall of Babylon to a rival line, the princes of the last great Hyksos king Apophis

181 I maneuvered in order to rule Egypt directly rather than through "Asiatic" intermediaries. Asiatic influences were severed and denounced as treasonous. Once a new dynasty had been firmly established, there would have been a tendency for royals to portray themselves as native rulers, and not descending from or associated in any way with foreign oppressors. They were the selfproclaimed saviors of Egypt from the chaotic period that preceded them. A more accurate model of the "War Against the Hyksos" is simply a dynastic feud among closely related royal persons. Each blamed their rivals for the devastation caused by civil war. Each attempted to slander the other by associating them with ignoble elements of the population that were indiscriminately exploited in the fight for dominance. Within this framework, it is possible to better understand the application of confused and conflated terms such as "Hyksos" and "Asiatics" found in archaeological records and "Amalekites" and "Philistines" in Biblical narratives.

Judges 6:36-40 Les contes populaires de l'Egypte ancienne, 4th ed. pp. xxvi-xxvii. T.G.H. James, An Introduction to Ancient Egypt, pp 112-3. Anthony S. Mercatante, Who's Who in Egyptian Mythology, p 13. "The Hyksos in Egypt" in Ancient Near Eastern Texts, J. Pritchard, ed., pp 231-2. f. Sallier Papyrus I, translation: Gunn and Gardiner, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, V (1918), 40-42 g. Donald Redford, Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times, p 119. h. Kamose stela, Line 1, refers to a "miserable answer" sent to him from Apophis. See translation and commentary in Ancient Near Eastern Texts, J. Pritchard, ed., pp 232-3, 554-5. Virtually all we know about Kamose from archaeology is contained in a single reconstructed stela. i. Translation by James Henry Breasted. j. The error was first promulgated by Manetho in the 3rd Century BC. k. Immanuel Velikovsky, Ages of Chaos, p 72. l. 1 Samuel 15: 10-11 (NIV) m. See 1 Samuel 10:22 n. 1 Samuel 15:9 o. 1 Samuel 15:32 (NIV) p. 1 Samuel 15:33 (KJV) q. Judges 8:19-21 r. The site of the battle is presumed to be in Palestine, however this may have been the result of later retelling or toponym transfer. s. The name of Kadmose derived initially from one of the gods, and is probably a Greek name of the Egyptian god Re. t. The Greek root kad(h) means "cover, shelter, care (for)." In Latin kad means "to fall." Saul was the king of Israel who fell from grace, and the one who fell on his sword.

a. b. c. d. e.

182 u. In the epic battle of "four kings against five," Thutmose is named as Eshcol. See Chapter 10 of this book. v. 1 Samuel 18:20 w. See also Robert Graves, The Greek Myths, 159.4. x. In 2 Sam. 8:9-10, Thutmose I (David) is again shown favor by Tao I, who is named there as Toi, "The Wavering One." After being rejected himself by his own father, Tao I then rejected Djehuty (Abram), Tao II (Mamre/Gideon) and Kamose (Saul) before selecting Thutmose I (David). y. Robert Morkot, The Black Pharaohs, p 71. z. 2 Samuel 5:20-21 (NIV). Baal Perazim translated by NIV, footnote d. aa.2 Samuel 10 and 1 Chronicles 19 bb.If the reign of Amenhotep was greater than 25 years in length, then he still would not have been the first prince to become a king before his own father. The precedent was set by Auibre, who became king before his father Inyotef IV.

Note 1: "A scene from the contest of Horus and Seth at Edfu temple. Horus, astride his papyrus boat harpoons the figure of Seth in the form of a tiny hippopotamus (beneath the prow). In effect this is an act of suppression by the legitimate heir to the Egyptian throne (i.e., the pharaoh as Horus) of nature's chaotic forces (epitomized by the lumbering hippo)." - David Rohl, Legend, caption for figure 409, p 351 The reference to the noise of animals causing loss of sleep is also one that is suggestive of killing, however in this case commoners. "The land became wide, the people became numerous, the land bellowed like wild oxen. The god was disturbed by their uproar. [Enlil] heard their clamor (and) said to the great gods; 'Oppressive has become the clamor of mankind. By their uproar they prevent sleep ...' " Enlil then proposed a number of methods by which their numbers can be reduced. "Legend of Atrahasis" in Ancient Near Eastern Texts, J. Pritchard, ed., p 104. Note 2: An inscription of Kamose dated to his Year 3 reads:

183 "I should like to know what serves this strength of mine when a chieftain is in Avaris and another in Kush, and I sit united with an Asiatic and a Nubian, each man in possession of his slice of this Egypt, and I cannot pass by him as far as Memphis. See, he holds Khmun [Hermopolis] and no man has respite from spoilation through servitude to the Setyu. I will grapple with him and slit open his belly. My desire is to deliver Egypt and smite the Asiatics ... I fared downstream in might to overthrow the Asiatics by command of Amun ..." -Alan Gardiner (1961), Egypt of the Pharaohs, p 166. (See also this quote and commentary in Joyce Tyldesley, Hatchepsut, p 23.) The allies and rivals alluded to by Kamose are identified as follows: Apophis I/Tao I (Terah) was the chieftain in Avaris; Apophis II/Tao II (Mamre) is the "Asiatic" and Amenhotep I (Aner) possibly the "Nubian. Amenhotep I was in one instance depicted with a black face. He may have taken his cue from the earlier Amenemhet I, who called himself "the Nubian." Tao II and Amenhotep would have been holding court as pharaohs alongside Kamose in Thebes, however Kamose considered his election to be the greater. Thutmose I (Eshcol) was a chieftain, but not yet a pharaoh. The chieftain in Kush represented another prince, Achish (Haran) king of the "Philistines." Within the ancient royal court, any and every advantage was exploited by competing siblings in order to claim and hold the right to kingly succession. The racial or regional attributes of a prince's mother was a convenient means of discrimination. From a strictly visual inspection of the early 18th Dynasty royal mummies, Caucasian, African and even Oriental features are apparent. Ironically, this suggests that despite their guarded gene pool, these rulers were what we would consider today to be decidedly interracial. Because of sterility, royal marriages were likely arranged between sons and daughters with were as dissimilar as possible. This was no guarantee of fertility, but it did help to preserve racial diversity within the royal line. Note 3: According to Genesis 11:28-32, Terah died in the city of Haran and his son Haran died in Ur prior to the death of Terah. However, we find that both remained living and active long after Terah was deposed in Babylon. We can only speculate that Kish/Haran returned to Mesopotamia and died after an attempt, successful or otherwise, to reclaim kingship in Ur. The Lord Tao (Terah) died within a few years of helping Thutmose become king in Cush. Strangely, we find that Achish is still alive at least 33 years later in the reign of Solomon. We must assume that the reference to Achish in 1 Kings 2:39 is misplaced or mistaken. Note 4:

184 Ahmose, "founder of the Egyptian New Kingdom" is revealed in the Bible as Thahash, Nahor's third son through his "concubine" Reumah. Tahash/Thahash means "a (clean) animal with fur," probably a species of antelope;-badger; prob. of foreign derivation. This nickname reflects the character of Ahmose. Th'ah-ash would represent a play on words with the Babylonian word ash (Child/Born) and the Egyptian name Ah-mose (Child/Born of the Moon). The Egyptian Mose is the equivalent to the Chaldean Ash. Nahash is a further play on words, and has the meaning of "snake." This was not necessarily a pejorative epithet in ancient times.

Living in Truth:

Archaeology and the Patriarchs Chapter 12


"At the Side of My Father" The Birth and Succession of Pharaoh Thutmose III (Covenant of Isaac)
by Charles N. Pope Copyright 1999-2002 by Charles Pope United States Library of Congress All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions

Introduction In the previous essay, the story of "the Lord and Gideon" in Judges 6-8 was shown to mirror the account of Abram and his ally Mamre found in Genesis 14. In Genesis, the next important figure in the Abram narrative after Mamre is Abimelech, King of Gerar. Likewise, in the Book of Judges, the exploits of Gideon are followed immediately by those of King Abimelech. The two accounts of Abimelech, one in Genesis and the other in Judges, are also complementary. This is further indication that the association between Mamre in Genesis and Gideon in Judges is also correct. Genesis 12-16 describes the relationship of Abram with Mamre (Sequenenre Tao II). Together they had saved Canaan from the Kassites and the Hurrian Horde. Nevertheless, Abram, the "Lord of Peace," was disturbed because he did not have a suitable heir. An attempt by Tao II to give him a son by Sarah had failed. The ruse of a plague being inflicted on this pharaoh's harem was introduced into the account as a diversion, and may also reflect an ancient artifice used to lend social acceptability to the liaisons of the royal court. (This smoke screen has proved to be equally effective in concealing the actual meaning of the narrative in modern times!) In exchange for the opportunity to sire a child through Sarah, Tao II provided Abram with a royal princess to produce an heir of his "own bowels." (Gen.

185 15:4) This princess, Hagar, was undoubtedly a daughter or sister of Mamre. Abram would have accepted nothing less. Hagar entered the harem of Abram. However, Abram respected the role of Sarah as "Mistress of the Harem" and would not sleep with Hagar against her wishes. After an unspecified period of time, Sarah relented. Sequenenre Tao II had promised an heir through Abram's own body. In this covenant, Ishmael was the child of promise. The pride of Hagar was for good cause. She was royalty of the highest degree, and her son Ishmael would have been a prince of the highest order. Ishmael would have been a leading candidate for the throne of Egypt. Hagar was mistreated by Sarah due to the standing of her son Ishmael. A word play in the Hebrew of Genesis 16:14 indicates that Hagar returned to Mamre (Sequenenre). The name of the well, "Roi," and the Hebrew word mareh (related to Mamre) are derived from a common root raah. Despite her protests, the Biblical account states that the "Lord" (Sequenenre Tao II) required her to go back to Abram and Sarah. After the brutal death of Mamre (Sequenenre Tao II), his junior ally named in Genesis 14 as Eshcol (Thutmose I) became the dominant prince by appointment of Terah (Tao I). As the senior living Patriarch, and "living god," Tao I mandated the terms of a new covenant between himself, his designated successor Thtumose I, and with Abram. The prior agreement of Tao II and Abram was respected, however the covenant of Tao I required a new heir to be produced through Sarah. Genesis 17-26 is a single narrative with a singular focus - the birth and succession of this heir, Isaac (Thutmose III). Name Associations Biblical Name(s) Terah Abram / Abraham Ishmael Gideon Nahor II Eshcol Aner Thahash Iscah Sarai Pharez Isaac Rebekah Reumah Shua, Abiel, Tou/Toi Abdon, Eliab Mamre, Baal, Jerub-baal, Agag Zur, Zohar, Caleb II Abimelech, Nadab Hanun Shelah, Nahash Othniel, Saul Sarah Perez, Ephron, Jotham Levi (the elder) Egyptian Name(s) Senakhtenre, Tao I, Apophis I Djehuty, Teti, Ibrim Senemioh Sequenenre, Tao II, Apophis II King of Nahrin/Mitanni Thutmose I Amenhotep I Ahmose I Kamose Isis, mother of Thutmose III Thutmose II Thutmose III, Yii, Parsatatar Beketre, Hatshepsut-Meryetre, wife of Thutmose III Queen Ahhotep I

Bathshua

186 Tamar Zerah Tahpenes (TaPerez) Sitnah Jacob Esau Family Reunion There is an explicitly defined thirteen-year gap between the last verse of Genesis 16 and the first verse of Genesis 17. Numerical figures, and especially year numbers and ages given by the Bible cannot always be taken literally. However, in order to maintain consistency with the overall Biblical narrative, the founding of the Egyptian New Kingdom must have taken place entirely within the childbearing years of one woman, Sarah. This could have been no more than about 25 years. Although the current model suggests a much longer period, there are no hard constraints that would preclude the sequence of events outlined here. Egyptologists recognize that compression of the early New Kingdom chronology is appropriate, however there is not enough information from archaeology alone to merit abandonment of the existing model. Chart 16 shows the proper chronology of the Hyksos Period and early New Kingdom. Although not of interest to the Genesis author, there was a great deal of Egyptian history that took place in the silent thirteen years of Ishmael's youth. This volatile and violent interlude is described with great detail in Kings/Chronicles narrative, as discussed in the previous chapter. It was during this period that Tao II was disinherited by Tao I and then executed. This effectively nullified the covenant of Tao II with Abram. Their covenant is first described in Genesis 12. It is reconfirmed in Genesis 15, and fulfilled with the birth of Ishmael in Genesis 16. However, it was followed by thirteen years of bad luck for Ishmael. After the disinheritance and death of Tao II and then Kamose, Tao I named Thutmose I as his next co-regent. At this time, a new covenant is also offered to Abram. In Genesis 17:1, the Lord announces to Abram, "I am God Almighty; walk before me and be blameless. I will confirm my covenant between me and you." The author of the first covenant (Genesis 12) with Abram was now dead. The "Lord" who now appears to him is called "God Almighty," which indicates he is the senior ruling Patriarch. He has come primarily to renew his own relationship with Abram. Abram was the first co-regent of Tao I (Terah). When the throne was lost in Babylon, Abram also lost his inheritance. Although he helped establish a new kingdom in Canaan and Egypt, his birthright was not restored. In recognition, Tao I belatedly extended to his eldest son a consolation prize. That prize was to be named as the legal founder of a new dynasty. An heir born to his wife Sarah would be named as successor to the throne. Maaca (II) Esek, Ahuzzath Queen Mutnofret, Hatnofer Senenmut (Senu) Hatshepsut, daughter of Thutmose I Nefrure (Sityah), dau.of Hatshepsut Amenhotep II Saussatar son of Parsatatar

187 Tao I agreed to honor the previous covenant between Abram and Tao II. He promised to make Ishmael into a great nation with 12 rulers (verse 20), which are enumerated later in Genesis 25:16. However, the covenant of Tao I was to be enacted through an heir produced through Sarah, and not from Abram's own body. Genesis 17-26 describes the birth and succession of the son that Tao I was determined to give Abram and Sarah. This covenant was not to be fulfilled by the later Kings of Judah and Israel, but in Isaac (Thutmose III). There was a much more immediate purpose in mind. The status of Sarah may have been equaled by a few of her sisters, but could not have been surpassed. Her own standing could however be raised through a child by her father. As "God Almighty," her father Terah (Tao I) decided to invoke the custom of the royal court in reverse. Sarah was childless. It was the duty of a close male relative to provide an heir on the behalf of the husband. Like it or not, Terah was determined to produce that heir for Abram. As a "courtesy," the Lord (Tao I) "appears" to Abram and announces his decision. It is an offer Abram cannot refuse. The Lord (Tao I) opens the dialog of Genesis 17 (NIV): As for me, this is my covenant with you. (verse 3) I will bless her [Sarah] and will surely give you a son by her... kings of peoples will come from her. (verses 15-16) Abram responds, "If only Ishmael might live under your blessing." (verse 18) "I will establish my covenant with him [Isaac] as an everlasting covenant for his descendants after him." (verse 19) Ishmael ... I will surely bless ... but my covenant I will establish with [my son] Isaac, whom Sarah will bear this time next year. (verses 20-21) The phrase "my covenant" is found eight times in the narrative of Genesis 17. This clearly demonstrates that it is not to be yet another confirmation of the covenant of Genesis 12-16. In that covenant, Sarah was asked to go along with the plan of Abram to produce an heir through Hagar. In the new covenant, Sarah has the active role. From Abram, it requires only cooperation. Abram did not necessarily still desire an heir through Sarah, however he does not seem to have any choice in the matter. Sarah earlier protested the marriage of Abram to Hagar. Abram now protests to "the Lord" regarding a new dynastic liaison. He argues that he already has an acceptable heir. He pleads with his father for Ishmael to be named as successor. Ishmael receives a blessing, but not the anointing Abram desires for him.

188 In the very next chapter, Genesis 18, a reunion takes place of war veterans from the epic battle of "four kings against five" described in Genesis 14. The appointed place for the meeting is named as the "oaks of Mamre." In preparation for that earlier conflict, Abram had traveled to this same place near Hebron (of Egypt) and formed an alliance with his "brothers" Mamre (Tao II), Eschol (Thutmose I) and Aner (Amenhotep I). Together they fought for the honor of Tao I and defeated the invading army of their Mesopotamian rivals. Considering the tragic nature of Tao II's later death, this could not have been an entirely joyous occasion. The great oaks were still standing, but Mamre was not. However, the memory of him would have still been very much alive in his former haunt. It was Terah (Tao I) who arranged for the gathering, not to reminisce, but as an attempt at reconciliation, and as always, renewed domination. From his humble station, Abram (now called Abraham) must look up to the "three men standing before him." This phrase can also be translated, "three mortals appointed by him," or even "over him." The Genesis author is informing the astute reader that these three men may have held superior offices to Abraham, but they were not his equals in character. They also owed their status to Abraham on account of his cunning heroism in the battle of Genesis 14. The Hebrew word used for "men" is enosh, which connotes "bloodthirsty," and is derived from anosh, meaning "desperately wicked, sick." In the culture of the court, Tao I was "God Almighty" and the crown princes Thutmose I and Amenhotep I were his "angels." However, it is implied in this narrative that they were also natural born killers. Explicitly, there is respect for authority in the narrative. Implicitly, the author of Genesis is deeply cynical of divine kingship, and expresses reproach for murderous men who coveted kingship. In Genesis 14, Thutmose was called King Bera of Sodom. Amenhotep was identified as King Birsha of Gomorrah. We learn in Genesis 19, that these two angels of death (Thutmose & Amenhotep) were on their way back to Sodom and Gomorrah. They had a genocidal score to settle there. Genesis 14:10 tells us that it was actually the kings Bera and Birsha who took flight, and that their men on foot were left trapped between the army of the invaders and the nearby tar pits. In spite of this, the men of Sodom and Gomorrah were accused of cowardice and fleeing in the face of battle. For their lack of manliness they were to be burned up as in a furnace, including all their crops. In Genesis 19 they are "visited" in wrath by the kings who formerly depended upon them in vain. Like the god Thoth, the wise Abraham rushes out to wait on his manic masters. Prior to destroying life at Sodom and Gomorrah, the group stopped to create life among the "oaks of Mamre," and establish a new covenant with Abraham. Sarah is instructed to "knead bread." A meal is prepared and eaten. The Lord then inquires as to the whereabouts of Abraham's wife. Abraham obediently informs him that she is in the tent. There is a partial break in the tension when "the Lord" reasserts his intention to father an heir for Abraham through Sarah. Veiled by the tent, Sarah bellies a strained laugh. She and her own "master" Abraham were old, but "the Lord," he was truly ancient! As Abraham did in the previous chapter, Sarah

189 indirectly calls attention to the old age of her father by mentioning her own maturity. Irrespective, with two "angels" as witnesses, her father determines to follow through on his plan. Sarah is to have a child by the will of a god, even if it is not a divine pleasure. After this "social call," the company departs and Abraham speeds them on their way. Out of earshot of Sarah, the Lord (Tao I) seems to mention the covenant between Abraham and another Lord, evidently that of Tao II. The Lord acknowledges in the company of the other men that he will honor that agreement, which secures the future of Ishmael.a The two angels (Bera and Birsha) took their leave to travel on to Sodom and Gomorrah. As noted in the previous chapter, Thutmose would later attack and kill Amenhotep. While Tao I was alive, the two remained at least on cordial terms. On this day in particular they had a mutual grudge and mission of revenge. Meanwhile, the Lord tarries with Abraham. Abraham intercedes on behalf of the two condemned cities. He is not so much concerned about their survival as he is the well being of his nephew Lot who was still living there. Abraham had already rescued him once, and he succeeds in doing the same again. However, the cities were not to be spared. As in the days of Noah, only one "righteous" man and his family are delivered from destruction. The rest are doomed to die. The lips of great gods had already sealed their fate with silence. Ea had acted to save his favorite son and sent Thoth to assist him. Therefore, Abraham does not plead with the Lord (Senakht-en-Re Tao I) to save the cities on account of a single man. He knows that this is futile, but the eleventh hour rescue of a good soul was in keeping with "tradition." In the next chapter of this book, the Egyptian namesake of Abraham will be shown to be Thoth. It was also the namesake of one of Abraham's leading allies, pharaoahThutmose I (Eshcol/Bera). "Thoth appears in the Horus legends and was depicted in every age as the god who 'loved truth and hated abomination.' "b The violent overthrow of the two cities by Thutmose I by command of Tao I is not condemned, but justified as righteous indignation. Neither does Abraham try to prevent it. Their decadence and sudden destruction is compared to that of earlier peoples who lived in the carefree ease of the fertile Jordan Rift Valley. This was before living conditions were abruptly and permanently altered by the sudden shift of underlying tectonic plates. The siege in Abraham's time of two cities called (figuratively?) Sodom and Gomorrah is depicted in Genesis as a repetition of an earlier destruction by fire. In the Epic of Erra and Ishumc we learn that many terrors befell the people of the ancient world all at once. Multitudes drowned, starved or were killed by beasts, but others were destroyed by fire when the "heavens were shaken" and the Deluge came. The dialog between Abraham and the Lord in Genesis 18 is adapted from the Epic of Erra and Ishum.d Abraham is typecast as the patient counselor Ishum (Thoth)e and the Lord (Terah, father of Abraham) plays the role of the god Erra ("servant of Re"). As in the time of the gods, Abraham succeeds in saving a few from destruction. We may reasonably assume that the earlier cities of Sodom and

190 Gomorrah were wiped out at the time of the Great Flood, or as a collateral effect occurring shortly thereafter. (See discussion in Chapter 1.) In the narrative of Genesis 19, the deliverance of Lot is likened to that of Noah, except that he is not saved from flood but fire. In that earlier time, "fire and brimstone" literally spewed out of the angry earth and consumed them. Although the cause was entirely natural, the event was considered to be part of the plan of the gods to annihilate the people for their wickedness and rebellion. The tar from the earlier disaster still polluted the ground of that place at the beginning of the Egyptian New Kingdom.f These far more ancient cities of Sodom and Gomorrah of the Jordan plain became a metaphor for two contemporary cities. It was not fiery lava, but the flaming arrows of "the Lord's" archers that rained down upon them. The massacre of Abraham's time by "the Lord" is likewise proclaimed fitting judgment because of their "evil imaginations." However, the greater "sin" of the cities destroyed by Thutmose would have been their failure to recognize his authority and sacrifice their lives under his command. Exactly where these more recent cities were located is a subject of debate. Possibly, they were near or under what is now the Dead Sea. In the Kings/Chronicles narrative, it states, "And David [Thutmose I] became famous after he returned from striking down eighteen thousand Edomites in the Valley of Salt."g Father of the King In Genesis 20, Abraham sojourns in Gerar of the "Philistines," and tells the townspeople that Sarah is his sister. This deception allows her to be taken into the harem of Abimelech King of Gerar without arousing suspicion. Sarah's biological clock was not only loudly ticking, but the alarm was sounding. Three months after kneading bread among the big oaks at Mamre, Sarah was not pregnant and needed transport to the next court of conception. It is remarkable the pains to which the Genesis author goes in order to both preserve the actual nature of Isaac's birth and simultaneously conceal it. The name that Sarah chose for herself in Egypt was Isis (see below). In Mesopotamia, the goddess Isis was called Ishtar-Inanna, and was known for her endless pursuit of a child. The aggressive wife of Etana was also called "Ishtar." It was she who initially approached Gilgamesh (Cush). This suggests that the idea to have a child by Thutmose I (the Gilgamesh of his day) was probably Sarah's. Thutmose had already been appointed successor. He had many wives and sons. He did not require one through Sarah. At the age of about 40, Sarah was evidently no longer considered eligible or capable of motherhood. Nevertheless, Tao I supported her ambition, and exercised the prerogative to give her a child himself before deferring to Thutmose. Out of concern for hygiene and sexually transmitted diseases, Sarah may have petitioned "the Lord" Tao to have circumcision reinstated in the Egyptian court. As the "incarnation" of Re, it was the role of her father Tao to require it. This rite appears to have been initiated by Re,h the leading god of Egypt, and does not seem to have been practiced outside of the traditional jurisdiction of Re in Egypt and Nubia. Alternatively, the reintroduction of

191 circumcision may represent the growing power of Thutmose. There is a strong prejudice against "uncircumcised Philistines" in the Kings/Chronicles narrative of David. The naming of Thutmose I as the King of Gerar (Gen. 20:2) was a bit of misdirection and understatement, which helped to disguise his identity to outsiders. Thutmose was an extremely controversial person. Genesis does not say Abimelech was a Philistine, only that he was their king. Gerar was a city of the "Philistines," but their king was not a Philistine. In the previous chapter it was shown that another son of Tao I (Terah) was king of the Philistines before Thutmose. The previous ruler Achish (Haran/Kish) either died or vacated the throne in pursuit of a greater dominion. Thutmose was given permission to attack the Philistines and become king there in his place.i In the Kings/Chronicles King David also "defeated the Philistines and subdued them."j Years earlier, Tao II had tried but failed to produce an heir for Abraham through Sarah. Tao I offered a covenant of his own to Abraham. He would first attempt to give Sarah a son himself. When this was not successful, he deferred to Thutmose I, who was not only co-regent but also the newly crowned king of the Philistines. Through this contract, Thutmose I became the controversial father of the most renowned warrior of the ancient world, a "miracle" son who overcame the odds and his oddities to establish Egypt as the foremost imperial power of the Near East. This symbolic name of Abimelech was chosen to emphasize that Thutmose became the father of Isaac and the administrator of the second covenant with Abraham. This deal further required that the heir would become the adopted son of Thutmose II. Thutmose II was a prominent son of Abraham's brother Nahor.1 Hatshepsut, the daughter of Thutmose I, was the Chief Royal Wife of Thutmose II. They had a female heir Nefrure/Sityah, but were unable to produce the required male heir. Thutmose III (Isaac), the son of Thutmose I by Sarah would be paired with Nefrure. Through adoption by Thutmose II, this son would effectively unify two of the three royal houses within the clan of Tao I (Terah). The third line through Haran had already been eliminated upon the death of Kamose. Another alias of Thutmose III (Isaac) was Levi, which means "attached, united." Thutmose III was "attached" to the line of Nahor by virtue of being adopted as the heir of Thutmose II. God and King The association of the "Sovereign Lord" of Genesis 12 with Tao II, and the "God Almighty" of Genesis 17 with his father Tao I is not to be construed as a statement of theology. The kings of the ancient world presented themselves as incarnations of the gods. It is hard to say exactly how seriously they took themselves in this role, however they actively promoted this perception among the so-called common people. It was taken for granted that they were. The history in the Torah and

192 Kings/Chronicles narrative simply reflects that culture. Emperor worship and ancestor worship were rejected by the Jews of later times, therefore these former practices were handled with subtlety by Biblical authors. The suggestion that "appearances," "visions" and "words of the Lord" are those of mortal men no doubt prick the sensibilities of modern readers, however the divinity of earth's great kings was completely accepted in ancient times. Nevertheless, it must be remembered that these are mere men posing as gods. They had no more power than any leader today to guarantee anything everlasting. Moreover, recognizing that the Patriarchs were considered ancient divinities is critical to unlocking the historical significance of the Bible. It may also be a means of mending and ending the senseless strife caused by religions ordained not by any universal God, but by long deceased kings. Identity Crisis The claim of God's rebuke of Abimelech in a "dream" was the standard ploy used to disguise a delicate situation and to preserve social acceptability. (Gen. 20:3-7) Deliberately misleading statements and actions would have been the modus operandi of the royal court. Their sexual protocol was quite simple in practice, therefore it had to be well disguised. This helped prevent the nave and unprivileged from perceiving the true family relationships. And if popular opinion needed to be adjusted, royals had no reservations with using other forms of influence, including brazen propaganda. Despite the fact that we are told that God had inflicted plagues on Abimelech's household, Abimelech desires that Abraham and Sarah live close to him in the choicest land within his kingdom. This is a further clue that the "sister-act" and "plague story" are not to be taken at face value. The account of Isaac's birth is placed immediately after the tryst of Sarah and Abimelech. A similar pattern was employed to indicate that the birth of Ishmael was to be understood as a fulfillment of the Lord Sequenenre's covenant. Therefore, it is correct to conclude that Abimelech is the father of Isaac, and that Isaac's birth is a fulfillment of his covenant. More specifically, it was fulfillment of the covenant Tao I imposed on both Abraham and Thutmose I. The meaning of the name Abimelech ("father of the king") would also tend to confirm him as father in this paternity suit. Abimelech was not merely the father of a king, but literally "Father of THE king. That king was to be Thutmose III! After the birth of Isaac, Abraham (renamed Abraham) and Thutmose converted their covenant into a formal treaty. Abraham presents seven female lambs (harem girls?) to Thutmose as a witness that the well (i.e., mother and child) are legally his. The treaty is made at Beersheba, which is "well of the seven." Seven is the number of the god Thoth,k and therefore of Thutmose I. As a younger prince, Thutmose is earlier called Eschol in the Genesis narrative. He is called Abimelech in association with the birth of Isaac. Abimelech is also his pseudonym in the Book of Judges. However, in the Kings/Chronicles narrative Thutmose is called David and Abraham is called Eliab.

193 Seven is the number of the Biblical David, who is said to have been the seventh son of Jesse.l Seven is also the number of Abraham, whose Egyptian name was Djehuty (Thoth). The treaty of Beesheba is a treaty between two brothers named Thoth, Thutmose I (Abimelech-David) and Djehuty (Abraham-Eliab). When Abimelech (Thutmose) departs, Abraham (Djehuty) plants a "tamarisk tree" in Beersheba. The Hebrew word translated as "tamarisk tree," or "grove" in English Bibles is "eshel." Eshel is a word play on Esh'kel,2 the Chaldean form of the name Thutmose. The symbolic act of planting an Eshel was meant to indicate that Abraham had helped to bring another Thoth into the world - Thutmose III to be precise. The son sired by Thutmose was of course his own natural son. However, according to custom and prior agreement, the child would be considered the legal son and heir of Abraham. Abraham is assured of this by Thutmose, and after the birth of Isaac, Abraham demands further confirmation from him of this distinction (Genesis 21:22-31). The covenant between Thutmose I and Djehuty/Thoth (Abraham) was not voluntary. It had been forced upon them by their mutual father Tao I. After the birth of Thutmose III (Isaac), the Genesis narrative interjects another "appearance" of "the Lord" to Abraham. This indicates the continued involvement of Tao I in order to bring his plan to pass. Gen. 21:11-13 (NIV) states: "The son of the handmaiden [Hagar] ... is your offspring." "I will make the son of the maidservant into a nation also, because he is your offspring." "Through Isaac your offspring will be reckoned." From the perspective of Archaeology, the identification of Thutmose I as the biological father of Thutmose III also makes infinite sense. Thutmose III refers to Thutmose I as his father in inscriptions as often as he does Thutmose II. Hatshepsut built a tomb for herself and her father Thutmose I in the Valley of the Kings. However, Thutmose III was intensely jealous over Thutmose I. After the death of Hatshepsut, Thutmose III had a new tomb built for his natural father. He then removed his father's mummy from Hatshepsut's tomb and placed it in the new private tomb. Tolerance is Better than Sacrifice The "sacrifice of Isaac" in Genesis 22 represents the acquiescence of Abraham (Djehuty) not only to his father Tao I, but also to his younger brother Thutmose I and nephew Thutmose II. It must indeed have been a grievous test of Abraham's patience to endure his demotion and the condescending treatment he received from former subordinates within the extended royal family. After Isaac is delivered over to the "Lord" (Tao I), Abraham goes home with his servants. His son and Sarah are no longer with him. Isaac has been taken along with Sarah to the royal court in Thebes as heir apparent, and Sarah is made a queen. Earlier in the

194 narrative, the Lord (Tao I) declares, "Sarah shall be a princess." Genesis 22 is the poetic closure. Sarah was a royal princess from birth. However, it must be kept in mind that the Patriarchs are never explicitly revealed as kings in the Book of Genesis. Consistent with this, Sarah is only called a princess. Sarah chose for herself the Egyptian name of Isis, which is highly consistent with her domineering personality and her perseverance to have a royal child and become a great queen. Egyptologists have uncovered little about this Isis other than that she was the mother of Thutmose III, and was considered to be a minor wife of Thutmose II. According to the Genesis account, Sarah was not associated with the royal court of Thutmose II until after the birth of Isaac. Abraham was commanded to sacrifice Isaac to the "Lord." After Isaac's life was "spared," Abraham and his servants returned home. However Isaac and Sarah went to the court of Thutmose II. Sarah as Isis, and mother of Thutmose III, was only in Thebes for a very brief time. She accompanied her young child there, however the Bible indicates that she died shortly thereafter. It is remarkable that there was any record of her in Thebes at all. Upon the death of Sarah, Abraham goes to mourn for her. (Gen. 23:1:2) This is confirmation that she had gone with Isaac and Thutmose II so that she could care for her young son at the royal court in Thebes. The place of her death is given as Hebron of Canaan, and "near Mamre." This is traditionally identified as the Hebron in Israel. However, the Bible provides further clarification of the site's location. It is designated first as Kirjath Arba, meaning the "city/founded of the four." However, Arba is probably the Biblical recollection of an earlier king named Ir-Ba, that is, pharaoh Montuhotep I who helped found a new dynasty in Upper Egypt (see Chapters 5 & 7). The collective description and the historical context presented here indicates that this city was not in Palestine, but in the vicinity of Thebes in Egypt. Misinterpretation of the Bible's own definition of Canaan is primarily responsible for the confusion. The Bible defines the furthest extent of Canaan to be "even unto Lasha," which has the meaning "careless security." (Gen. 10:19) The Canaanites had dispersed "throughout the tents of Shem," i.e., to the furthest extent of the occupations of Shem's own descendants. The Genesis definition was intended to envelope all of Egypt. Therefore, Lasha stands for Thebes in Upper Egypt, or possibly a point even further to the south.3 In Thebes, Abraham found himself among the "Hittites" (literally the "sons of Heth"). Heth means "terror," not Hittite, Canaanite or Egyptian. Abraham is proclaimed a "mighty prince" among them. In fact, Abraham was himself also one of these same "sons of Heth." This was the fearsome extended family of Senakhtenre (Terah), who were themselves of the line of Sargon/Maru-yamina, "the rebellious, terrifying lord of the south." This epithet reveals that the sons of Terah were already patterning themselves after the sons of the stilted prince Sargon. In this time of tragedy, the ever-feuding family supports Abraham. The sons of Heth offer: "None of us will refuse you his tomb." The leader of the "Hethites" resident at the place of Sarah's death is of course Thutmose II, named in the account as Ephron son of Zohar (Nahor).4

195 It is with Thutmose II that Abraham negotiates and purchases the burial ground of Machpelah. Of course, Thutmose II is more than willing to provide Abraham with a fine tomb at no expense in order to bury Sarah. She is the mother of his successor. He says to Abraham, "Bury your dead in the choicest of our tombs." However, Abraham's royalty demands that he purchase the tomb and "field." The plot that Abraham purchased became known as the Valley of the Kings. The Valley of the Kings IS the royal burial ground of Abraham's descendants!!! The mysterious tomb KV39 is likely the chosen resting place of Abraham and Sarah. This study offers the tantalizing possibility that Sarah and Abraham are to be found among the unidentified royal mummies in the Cairo Museum, or an even more intriguing thought - they could still remain in state in the Valley of the Kings (See Chapter 13). At the Side of My Father The birth of Thutmose III was the result of a brilliant accord reached by three of the world's most powerful men. Unfortunately, these men overlooked one small detail. They did not get the full support of one very strong woman - Hatshepsut, the daughter of Thutmose I, and the Royal Wife of Thutmose II. Even before the death of Thutmose II, Hatshepsut had made her own resolution. As Sarah had previously done to Hagar, one can hear Hatshepsut declare, "That woman's son will never share in the inheritance with my daughter Nefrure/Sityah." It was necessary for the great gods to sheepishly arrange an alternative dynastic marriage for Isaac in order to secure his succession. Most significantly, in the tomb of Thutmose III's Royal Wife Hatshepsut-Meryetre was found an inscription reading "king's adornment, Baketre [Rebekah]."m Hatshepsut-Meryetre is attested at the royal court in Thebes early in the reign of Thutmose III.n Rebekah, the daughter of Nahor's youngest son Bethuel, was brought from Aram Naharaim. In the Biblical account of Genesis 24, Rebekah is brought to Isaac. Rebekah was considerably older than Isaac and became both wife and mother to the bereaved child. As the Bible states, after the death of his mother Sarah, "Isaac was comforted." The age of Isaac was changed from four to forty, and the description of Isaac as a mature man meditating "in the field" was added after the original context of the account was forgotten. Very shortly after the marriage of Isaac and Rebekah came the death of pharaoh, Thutmose II (Ephron/Jotham). Thutmose III (Isaac) was anointed king according to the will of Tao I. Egyptologists estimate that Thutmose III was about five years of age upon his succession. Thutmose II had designated Thutmose III successor in the Karnak temple just prior to his passing. Thutmose III later commemorated that moment of destiny in an inscription at Karnak: 'My father Amen-Re-Harakhti granted to me that I might appear upon the Horus Throne of the Living ... I having been appointed before him within [the temple], there having been ordained for me the rulership of the Two Lands, the thrones of

196 Geb and the offices of Khepri at the side of my father, the Good God, the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Aakheperenre [Thutmose II], given life forever.'o Temporary Set-Back Propaganda portraits made during the first few years of Thutmose III's reign depict Hatshepsut submissively in the background. However, it was not long before Hatshepsut would garner the support needed to have Isaac's "blessing" revoked. Her father Thutmose I had eliminated all other contenders to the throne. Isis (Sarah) and Thutmose II were now dead, and Thutmose III was still a child. More importantly, Tao I evidently also had passed away. The family was no longer obligated to honor his decision to make Thutmose III successor. This provided the opportunity for Hatshepsut to regain the throne, this time not as a Queen, but as Pharaoh. The Bible describes a famine in the land, which forebodes a reversal in fortune for Isaac. In a physical sense at least, Isaac had not turned out to be all that his three fathers had hoped for. Something about Isaac's appearance even evoked laughter. As an adult, he was a small man, at least by kingly standards, and possessed the most "prominent" nose of all his clan. The Thutmosid proboscis is but one of many lasting legacies left by them to their descendants the Jews! Hatshepsut either convinced her father that the decision to name Thutmose III as successor was a mistake, dared him to overrule her, or demanded that a more acceptable suitor for her daughter be produced. Thutmose I had many eligible sons besides Thutmose III (Isaac). Yet, they were not acceptable to Hatshepsut (see Chatper 14). As mother of the heiress, she held formidable leverage. In her mind there was only one attractive alternative. The hereditary prince Senenmut was summoned from abroad. The Bible indicates (see Note 1) that Senenmut (Zerah) was the twin brother of her late husband Thutmose II (Perez/Pharez). He would have been in his thirties upon the death of his brother, and undoubtedly felt capable and fully entitled to produce a son through Hatshepsut on behalf of his dead brother. Would this not have been in keeping with custom? Egyptologists assert that Senenmut was a commoner, however Senenmut himself claims the title of "hereditary prince."p Either there is deception in Senenmut's own inscription, or a refusal on the part of Egyptologists to accept a plain attribution of royalty. Senenmut's Hebrew nickname Zerah means "arise, or rise up," and "to appear (as a symptom of leprosy)." His sudden rise to prominence was certainly a blight upon Sarah's son Isaac. It is not clear whether Perez or Zerah actually possessed the birthright. If the boys were born to Nahor in Aram Naharaim, which is the likely scenario, then Zerah was considered the heir and Perez was sent away to Egypt where he was married to Hatshepsut. As the favored twin son of Nahor, Senenmut likely was being groomed for kingship in Aram while his weaker brother was sent to find his fortune abroad. As it turned out, Senenmut did not inherit Nahor's kingdom in Aram, or was ousted by conditions as treacherous as those in Egypt.

197 The mummy of Senenmut's mother Hatnofer was richly embalmed. Hatnofer corresponds to the Biblical Tamar/Maaca. It is also an alternate name of the Egyptian Queen Mutnofret. The name Senenmut has the general meaning, "brother of mother." However, in this context it can be translated as "child of Mut(nofret)." According to the Biblical account, the first two husbands of this Tamar were killed. She was denied marriage to a third husband, and the twins Perez (Thutmose II) and Zerah (Senenumt) were sired by the father of her late husbands instead (see Chapter 15). Tamar evidently did remarry after the birth of the twins. The Egyptian name of her final husband was Ramose. A room had been prepared in the mortuary chapel of Thutmose I for Ramose, therefore he may have been a patron of Thutmose I. He would have only been a step-father of sorts to Senenmut. Within seven years of her own husband's death, Hatshepsut had put on the pharaonic crown. The appointment of Senenmut as her personal "steward" was no doubt also the talk of the town. The election of Thutmose III was probably not annulled, however he was denied marriage to Nefrure the heiress daughter of Hatshepsut. According to Genesis 26, the young Isaac was sent back to Gerar in "Philistia." The account reveals duplicity in Abimelech's actions, and the resulting alienation with Isaac after the death of Sarah. Evidently the brilliant Senenmut had won Thutmose I over as well, at least initially. The sons of Biblical Zerah (through one or more wives other than Hatshepsut) have symbolic names that suggest the creativity and skill that they inherited from their father. Abimelech (Thutmose I) decreed protection for Isaac and Rebekah, and Isaac is offered a minor kingdom. (Gen. 26:3) After Isaac begins to prosper again, Abimelech asks Isaac to move "away," however it is clear that he did not go far. As Isaac grew older he no doubt learned of his canceled coronation. He must have been told about the decision of his grandfather Tao I to make him successor, and began to feel betrayed by his biological father Thutmose I. It can be deduced that Tao I passed away while Thutmose III was still young. Thutmose I had other leading sons (see Chapter 14), and no longer felt obligated to honor the election of the "funny looking" Thutmose III. Given his father's aggressiveness, and that his mother's Biblical name Sarai meant "domineering," Isaac undoubtedly developed a doubly strong personae of his own, and began to resent what was taken from him in Egypt. The friction between Isaac and the men of Gerar echoes the continued frustration of Thutmose III's denied claim to the throne. The wells of Abraham had been "plugged." (Gen. 26:18) The sacrificial efforts of Abraham were all for naught, or so it must have appeared. Isaac reopens the wells, but cannot drink. He is told, "The water is ours." That is, inheritance and kingship were usurped by Hatshepsut and Senenmut, and Thutmose was condoning their actions. The well Esek (verse 20) represents Senenmut, the steward of Hatshepsut. It has long been suspected that he became her consort. The root Ese/Esh is equivalent to Senen/Semen. Esek is also a variant of Eshcol, a pseudonym of Thutmose I. Esek means "bitter." Isaac became understandably bitter over the decision of Hatshepsut and Thutmose I to appoint Senenmut for the express purpose of siring another male heir to replace him.

198 The well of Sitnah (verse 21) represents Hatshepsut and Nefrure. Hatshepsut's patron god was Seth. A block from Karnak shows Hatshepsut "being offered life and dominion by Seth."q It was through support from the Temple of Baal (Seth) in Shechem that her father financed the coup that made her first a Queen and ultimately Pharaoh of all Egypt.5 Another of her inscriptions reads: "All lands are bound up in my grasp ... My power reaches the limits of the Two Lands, I have attained the strength of "Him-with-the-Mighty-Voice" (Seth) ..."r Hatshepsut opposed the succession of Thutmose III (Isaac). As Seth opposed Osiris, Hatshepsut was perceived as opposing Isaac. The Hebrew word Sitnah derives from the same root as Satan (the Hebrew equivalent of the Egyptian god Seth). Hatshepsut's daughter Nefrure also went by the nickname Sityah (Seth-Yahweh). Sitnah is an obvious corruption or play on the name Sityah. Hatshepsut had opposed Isaac in a practical sense by withholding Sityah from him in marriage. There Ought to be a Law The well of Rehoboth (a word play on Rebekah and meaning a "double widening") represents the break that Isaac had been waiting for (verse 22). Hatshepsut and Senenmut had failed to produce a male heir after many years of trying, and Rebekah had delivered not one son, but two, Esau and Jacob! As it is written, "wisdom is justified by her children." Senenmut and Hatshepsut had failed to produce a son or provide a husband for Nefrure, therefore the advantage was now with Thutmose III. A summit meeting was called, and Beersheba ("well of the oath/seven") was again the chosen location to enact a new treaty. Thutmose I (Abimelech) and his general Phicol were accompanied by the "personal advisor Ahuzzath." The name Ahuzzath means "to seize and hold back." With the help of her advisor Senenmut, Hatshepsut seized and held back the throne from Thutmose III. Thutmose I had been chosen by his grandfather, but did not at first gain the favor of his father. He must have realized that this same pattern was playing out among his own sons. The new agreement presumably required Hatshepsut to again share power with Thutmose III. Although Senenmut was present, Hatshepsut evidently boycotted the meeting and resisted the return of Thutmose III to Thebes. When the will of the elder Thutmose was not honored, it became necessary for him to impose it in person. Thutmose I may not have maintained a consistent presence in Thebes. He had "cleared the pool of hippos," which was the traditional means of securing a new dynasty. Nevertheless, it would not have endeared him to the nobility of Thebes. According to the account in Judges 9, the final act of Abimelech (Thutmose I) was an assault on Thebez (Thebes). Abimelech died when he attempted to set fire to a tower filled with Theban citizens and "a woman dropped an upper millstone on his head and cracked his skull!"s Genesis 25:11 states, "After Abraham's death, God blessed his son Isaac." This could refer to the childhood coronation of Thutmose III. However, the Bible states that Abraham had many more children through another wife Kenturah, presumably after the death of Sarah. The Biblical account implies that Abraham lived many

199 years longer, but that he did not live to see Thutmose III become sole ruler of Egypt. Sometime before the birth of Amenemhet and the demise of Hatshepsut, Isaac and Ishmael laid Abraham to rest beside Sarah at Machpelah (Gen. 25:810). In the following essay, the Egyptian name and titles of Abraham and Ishmael will be identified. It will also be confirmed through archaeology that Abraham remained active in the Egyptian administration well into the co-reign of Thutmose III and Hatshepsut. The transition between the end of Hatshepsut's reign and beginning of the sole reign of Thutmose III is discussed more fully in Chapter 14. In Year 22 of Thutmose III (also Year 22 of Hatshepsut), Nefrure finally became his consort and they became parents of a son. His name was Amenemhat. This son would have been conceived immediately after the death of Hatshepsut early in that same year. This provided further affirmation of Thutmose III as "rightful" successor to Thutmose I! The original plan and promise had finally been fulfilled. Nevertheless, it is abundantly clear why Thutmose III spent much of his remaining 32 years of rule away from Thebes with the military. Ahmed Osman made the case for the association between King David and Thutmose III in his title, House of the Messiah. However, it is apparent from this study that the Biblical King David also included events from the life of Thutmose I. This resulted in a history in the genre of King Sesostris, which also originated as a composite of two great pharaohs by the same name, Senusret I and Senusret III of the 12th Dynasty. The legend of Sesostris is also based primarily on Senusret III.

a. Genesis 18:19 b. Margaret Bunson, A Dictionary of Ancient Egypt. c. An on-line translation of the epic can be found at: www.piney.com/Baberraishum.html d. Especially the appeal made by Abraham to the Lord in Genesis 18:23, "Will you destroy the righteous along with the wicked?" Compare with phrases found in Tablet IV of the Epic. See also discussion by Zecharia Sitchin, The Wars of Gods and Men, p 327. e. The Akkadian epithet Ishum is a variant of the Isimud, counselor of Enki in the Sumerian Paradise Epic. Isimud was identified as Thoth in Chapter 2. f. Genesis 14:10 g. 2 Samuel 8:13 h. Sia, god of divine knowledge and protector of the genitals, came into being when the penis of Re was cut (circumcised?). i. Similarly, Tao II was not an Amalekite, however he was remembered in at least one tradition as having been a king of the Amalekites. j. 2 Samuel 8:1 k. This was demonstrated in Chapter 3. l. Chronicles 2:14 m. Nicholas Reeves, Complete Valley of the Kings, p102. n. Joyce Tyldesley, Hatchepsut, p 86.

200 o. Translation in Joyce Tyldesley, Hatchepsut, p 95. p. T. Dorman, The Monuments of Senenmut. q. Donald Redford, Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times, plate 17, p 150. r. Donald Redford, Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times, p 152. s. Judges 9:53 (NIV)

Note 1: For the association of the nickname Sityah (Seth-Yah) with the princess Nefrure, see Tom Dorman, "The Monuments of Senenmut," p 78. This title is a comprehensive and highly readable treatise on the archaeology related to Hatshepsut's Steward Senenmut In the Bible, Thahash has a younger "brother" Maaca. Maaca can be a boy's name or girl's. Therefore, Maaca may have actually been a sister of Thahash (Ahmose I) and not a younger brother as the Bible implies. The Egyptian Mutnofret (Maaca II/Tamar) is then possibly the sister of Ahmose and not his daughter as is commonly believed by Egyptologists. She would have been the half-sister or cousin of Queen Ahmose-Nefertari. Maaca (also corresponding to one of the Biblical Tamar's) had been married to the two eldest sons of Nahor, but had not produced children. Instead of giving her to the third son Thahash/Shelah (corresponding to Ahmose) when he came of age, Nahor slept with her and produced "twin sons" Pharez and Zerah. This act of Nahor (a.k.a. Zur/Tyre, Caleb the elder, and Judah the elder) may have earned him the nickname Zuwr, i.e., "Adulterer." Pharez corresponds to Pharaoh Thutmose II, and Zerah corresponds to Senenmut, who became the "Steward" of Hatshepsut upon the death of Thutmose II. The throne name (praenomen) of Thutmose II was A-kheper-en-re. Perez/Pharez is a contraction/adaptation of the final part of the praenomen, i.e., Per-en-re. Note 2: In Egyptian, Thutmose literally means "man/child/born of Thoth," the god of wisdom and patron of scribes. The word for wisdom in Chaldean is sekel. The Chaldean equivalent of "mose" is "ash/ish/esh." Therefore, Thutmose would equate to Esh-sekel, and would have been abbreviated/contracted as Esh'kel. One of King Saul's sons was referred to as both Eshbaal and Ishbosheth. Their meanings, respectively, are "Man of Baal" and "Man of Shame." Therefore, Esh'kel would have carried the meaning "Man of Wisdom."

201 Other connotations of the root Esh/Ish/Ash would be "out pour" (793), "to flow out" (7640), to "grow out" (7641, 7644), to "branch out from" (7640), "foundation" (787, 803), "sacrifice" (801), step forth/out (838), "split into a forked tongue as a flame" (7632), "seventh" (7637), "black" (Ashur), and "burning, fiery, flaming, hot" (esh) (784). The connotation of "seventh" may be highly significant. Iysh (376) = champion, great, mighty, high, worthy, steward. The Hebrew word eshcol means "a bunch of grapes or other fruit." However, the man Eshcol was no "Mr. Fruit of the Loom" by any means. Possibly we can perceive a fuller or "amplified" picture of Thutmose I's character as a mighty champion, lover of wisdom, dark skinned and liberal, but very hot tempered, even brutal. He was no doubt one of the "great oaks of Mamre," and a divine Lord by ancient standards with whom Abram made an "everlasting covenant." "Eschol" may further connote that he was the seventh of a group of seven sons (of Jesse-Tao I). After the passing of Tao II, he became the primary partner of Abram as a result of their agreement at Beersheba (having the dual meaning of "well of the oath" and "well of the seven"). In Genesis 14 Eschol is named as a "brother of Mamre and Aner," however brother may signify a "male relative." In Judges, he is Abimelech, son of Gideon, but the term "son" may also denote "junior relative." His blood relation within the royal court has yet to be discovered from Egyptology. However, from this study, he was clearly a royal son of Tao I. Of the sons of Jeiel/Jesse (Tao I) listed in 1 Chronicles 8, Nadab is the most senior of them that is so far unspoken. Nadab means "liberal" and "volunteer." This meaning has some correspondence to that of Eshcol (see above). Eschol appears to either be a corruption of Esh'kel, or yet another subtle play on words. The word eshek, from which eshcol derives, means a "stone," and may allude to Thutmose's infamous act of murdering 70 princes on a single stone. It may also refer to the way Thutmose died, i.e., having had a stone dropped on him from the top of a tower in Thebes. (Judges 9:50-53) Note 3: Definition of Canaan, Genesis 10:19: "And the border of the Canaanites reached from Sidon toward Gerar as far as Gaza, and then toward Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah and Zeboiim, as far as Lasha." The locations of Admah, Zeboiim and Lasha are unknown, however it is abundantly evident based on this study that they are to be identified as places in Egypt. Admah could correspond to the "Red Land" of the eastern Nile Delta.

202 Alternatively, it may refer to the desert that lines the fertile "Black Land" beside the Nile, and which extends from the Delta all the way into Nubia. Zeboiim corresponds to the capital of Lower Egypt, Memphis. And Lasha, meaning "careless security" corresponds to Thebes, the capital of Upper Egypt. Thebes was protected from the south by the cataracts of the Nile, and from the North by killing desert. In ancient times, Egypt was referred to as the "Two Lands." This is exactly how it is portrayed in the Bible. Within the extents of the non-political boundaries of Canaan was the traditional Egypt of the Pyramids and Sphinx in Lower Egypt, and the enclave of Thebes in Upper Egypt. The region between and around these two Egypts is referred in the Bible as part of Canaan. Note 4: Zohar is a fuller form of Zur (an epithet of Nahor). Cf (2114) Zohar meaning "whiteness" may indicate a skin disease, or characterize him as light-skinned. Ephron means "fawn-like," as in the dusty, mottled color of a fawn. This nickname may also reflect a skin disease or a mixed complexion. Experts have concluded that the mummy identified as Thutmose II was actually that of another king. Compare Biblical Ephron and Ophrah. Note 5: The author of the Judges account of Abimelech provides a few additional details about the checkered champion Thutmose I. His hometown is Shechem north of Jerusalem. Through the support of the citizens of Shechem, Abimelech eliminated his rivals and was crowned as King (not Judge) of all Israel. (Judges 9:1-6) Subsequently, strife arises between Abimelech and the Shechemites, and Abimelech returns to destroy the city. Recognizing that Abimelech of Judges 9 is one and the same as the Abimelech of Genesis could resolve an apparent anachronism in the Judges narrative. The Shechemites are urged by Gaal son of Ebed to turn against Abimelech. Gaal is quoted in verse 28 as saying: "Serve the men of Hamor, Shechem's father! Why should we serve Abimelech?" The story of Shechem son of Hamor is part of the account of Abram's grandson Jacob. It is at least possible (but not probable) that a younger Hamor could have been a contemporary of Isaac and of the elderly Abram. Likewise, the elderly Hamor could still have been alive as a contemporary of the younger Jacob. In Genesis 26, Abimelech (Thutmose I) is still very much alive after Isaac (Thutmose III) has reached adulthood.

203
Living in Truth:

Archaeology and the Patriarchs Chapter 13


"The Day of Reckoning" Djehuty: Early 18th Dynasty Priest, King, General, Viceroy, Scribe and Treasurer (The Egyptian name and titles of Abraham)
by Charles N. Pope Copyright 1999-2002 by Charles Pope United States Library of Congress All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions

Count Abraham In Egypt Abraham "sojourned" and died. The humble sacrifices of Abraham are plainly attested in the Torah. However, his weighty Egyptian name and lofty titles are disguised. Likewise, the Egyptian name and high office that Abraham bestowed upon his beloved Ishmael are only alluded to in the Scriptures. The fuller knowledge of this most renowned father and his children was buried by the silt of time and eclipsed by an age of religious intolerance. For three thousand years mankind has drifted as the sand on the shore, and shifted with the stars in the sky. Yet, what was once hidden has at last come to light. From Egypt Abraham rises again like a rock in the tide, and returns as the new moon after many a dark night. Through archaeology, we can now reconstruct the historical identities of Abraham, Ishmael and Isaac, along with their real-life achievements. In Chapters 10, 11 & 12, it was demonstrated that the reigns of the early New Kingdom pharaohs Tao II, Kamose, Ahmose, Amenhotep I, Thutmose I and Thutmose II were not sequential, but overlapped substantially. Abraham was shown to be the faithful elder half-brother of both Tao II and Thutmose I. Pharaohs Kamose, Ahmose and Thutmose II were his nosey nephews. Amenhotep I the son of Ahmose, was an understudy of Abraham in astronomy, if not diplomacy. In Genesis 23:6, Abraham is called "a mighty prince among them." Although Abraham may not have assumed the title of pharaoh,a he was considered a king, both in Mesopotamia and in Egypt. Kingship is implicitly denounced in the Torah. However, considering his character and high calling, the Genesis author thought it only right to discretely "reckon unto" Abraham his former kingly status. In Genesis 14, Abraham is given the pseudonym of Shem-eber king of Zeboiim (Memphis). Shemeber is translated as "Illustrious." However, it is also a compound name comprised of Shem (Sabium) and Eber (Hammurabi). These two ancestors were not only kings, but also masters of the sciences, law and philosophy (See Chapter 8). Abraham was placed in their company, not only with respect to wisdom, but also in kingship. Zeboiim, that is Memphis, was the ancient seat of kingship and wisdom in Egypt.

204 Given that almost all of the pharaohs of the Egyptian 18th Dynasty were named either Amenhotep or Thutmose, it could almost be deduced that the de jure founder of the dynasty (at least from the perspective of the Torah) must also have been an Amenhotep or Thutmose. The latter turns out to be the case. In this essay, Abraham will be identified as the strangely prominent and wide-ranging nobleman Thutmose of the early 18th Dynasty. This "mighty prince" is traditionally referred to in the literature by the Egyptian form of his name, Djehuty or Djehutymes, in order to avoid confusion with the pharaohs named Thutmose. The Egyptian Djehutymes and Greek form Thutmose have the meaning, "Child of Thoth" or "Thoth is Born/Reborn." In Gen 15:5-6 (KJV), Abraham is told: " 'Look toward heaven, and number the stars, if you are able to number them.' Then he said to him, 'So shall your descendants be.' And he believed the Lord; and he reckoned it to him as righteousness." "The two versions of the Book of Two Ways, both apparently composed at Middle Egyptian Hermopolis, also included sections referring to an afterlife in which deceased commoners become stars in the sky, along-side the moon god Thoth."b Thoth was: "The ancient Egyptian god of learning and wisdom, associated with the moon. He was called the 'Lord of Heavens,' 'Beautiful of Night' and the 'Silent Being' in various eras."c "Thoth also appears in the Bible. In the Book of Job {38:36}, which dates back to the 6th Century or beyond, one finds the lines: Who put wisdom into thwt? Who gave sekwi understanding? In his authoritative commentary on Job, Professor Marvin Pope writes about this as follows: 'J.G.E Hoffmann was probably right in taking thwt to refer to the god Thoth himself. The consonantal orthography corresponds rather closely to the form of the name that prevailed in the 18th Dynasty (dhwty), when the worship of Thoth was at its peak and spread to Phoenicia...' "d "Thoth was regarded as both the heart and tongue of the great sun god Ra... Thoth was also called Tehuti, 'the measurer'... The Greeks identified Thoth with their god Hermes, and they credited him with inventing astronomy and astrology, the sciences of numbers and mathematics, geometry and land surveying, medicine, and botany. Also, they believed he was the first to organize religion and government, and to establish the rules concerning the worship of the gods... In the Book of the Dead he is called the 'scribe of Maat,' or justice... Variants of his name are Techu, Techuti, Thaut, Thouth, Thouti, Dhouti, Zehuti, and Zhouti. Thoth is the form that the name Djehuti or Zehuti took in Greco-Roman times."e

205 The Biblical narrative alludes to Abraham's love of counting. "Since the moon was regarded as the natural measurer of time, Thoth, a moon god, was the master of chronology and counting."f During the co-reign of Thutmose III (Isaac) and Hatshepsut, the nobleman Djehuty was placed over the treasury. On a tablet, Djehuty wrote of Hatshepsut: "I saw the collection of booty by this mighty ruler from the vile Kush, who are deemed cowards. The female sovereign, given life, prosperity and health forever."g William Murnane writes:h "Djehuty, who served as director of the treasury during the coregency of Thutmose III and Hatshepsut, describes the range of the treasurer's activity in his tomb autobiography. '{I counted up} ivory, ebony, and the many fruits of {this} foreign land (= Nubia) as the tax of each year. I placed my seal on the best {of the products belonging to the inhabitants of} the northern regions Asiatic gold, silver, copper, {and..., as well as} every sweet-smelling {flower}. I reckoned up what the mayors gave, and I received all their dues. His Majesty repeated {the favoring (of me) when he caused that I be sealer of the double treasury, which is filled} with silver, gold, lapis lazuli, turquoise, and every noble gemstone.'i "Djehuty held a number of priest-hoods in his native region of Middle Egypt, and his successor Senemioh functioned as 'guardian of the divine offerings of Amon' and 'scribe who counts the cattle of Amon' before he was elevated to the treasury. Both men went on to high positions, probably sinecures, in the administration of local clergies Djehuty again, as overseer of priests in Middle Egypt, and Senemioh as steward of Montu in Armant."j The connection of Djehuty with Middle Egypt is significant. Three generations later, the city of Akhmin in Middle Egypt (one of three Biblical "Midians") was still recognized as the family seat of Yuya (Joseph II/Reuel II), where he and his son Aye (Ithra II/Jethro II) were priests of the fertility god Min.k Djehuty's natural son and heir was Senemioh. The Egyptian name Sen-em-ioh means "man of the moon (god/goddess)." Another popular Egyptian royal name of the period was Ah-mose, meaning "Child of the Moon." Senemioh is an appropriate name for the son of the luminary Djehuty. Martin Bernal also notes that the Egyptian word for moon, i'o, is associated with both Isis and Hagar, mother of Ishmael.l Isis (Sret) was identified in previous chapters of this book as the assumed Egyptian name of Sarah. In the Bible, the son of Abraham by Hagar is called Ishmael. The Egyptian root Sen ("man") is equivalent to the Chaldean/Hebrew word iysh (376), "a man," which sometimes also indicates a divine man. The variant Yishma'el (3458) means, "God {he} will hear," from the Hebrew word shama (8085) "to hear intelligently."m The name Ishmael would have been an adapted Hebrew nickname derived from his formal Egyptian birth name, or possibly the other way around.n That is, the Egyptian name could have been

206 derived from a Hebrew birth name. The appointment of Senemioh to the stewardship of the war-god Montu is consistent with Ishmael's characterization as a fighting man (Gen. 16:11-12;25:18), and as the son of the highly decorated General Djehuty. The 1st Century A.D. Jewish historian Josephus wrote: "Abram reigned at Damascus, being a foreigner, who came with an army out of the land above Babylon, called the land of the Chaldeans."o In Genesis 14 and Judges 6-7, Abraham took command of the army, and is said to have chased Khedorlaomer and his allies as far as Damascus. It was Mamre/Gideon (Tao II) who continued the pursuit until the invading kings were captured and put to death. Papyrus Harris 500 (from the reign of Thutmose III) recounts the exploits of General Djehuty, including his legendary capture of Joppa by sending them basket-laden mules carrying soldiers rather than gifts.p The capture of Joppa like the defeat of Khedorlaomer was accomplished by Djehuty through an elaborate ruse. Thutmose III recognized the contributions of General Djehuty to the Empire by presenting him with an exquisite gold plate or bowl. This trophy is part of the Egyptian collection of the Louvre and can be viewed on the Internet at: http://www.louvre.fr/anglais/collec/ae/ (Click on item #n0713. Click on files: n0713.htm and txt0713.htm) The accompanying description reads: "The patera (bowl) is made of hammered gold with an embossed and chased pattern. At the centre is a flower, a waterlily, seen from above; around it are stylized fish and papyrus, themes also found on contemporary blue ceramic bowls. An inscription engraved around the edge explains that this magnificent gold piece was offered by the ruler Thutmosis III to general Djehuty for his faithful services abroad." William Murnane comments on the bowl stating: "To the incidence of high 'commissioners' outranking their juniors, add the isolated title of one Djehuty (under Thutmose III), who called himself 'overseer of a part of the northern foreign territory.' "q The National Museum of Antiquities in Leiden, The Netherlands houses a gold bracelet believed to have belonged to General Djehuty. It can be viewed at: http://www.austmus.gov.au/pharaohs/html/lifeitem5.html The accompanying description reads: "Examples of these bracelets, called a'a (the big one), made of wide rectangular bands of gold are rare. The bracelet probably comes from the burial goods of General Djehuty."

207 Thutmose III would have presented the gold bowl (and possibly the bracelet) to the great one (a'a) Djehuty (Abraham) well into his joint rule with Hatshepsut. The inscription from the tomb of Djehuty cited above indicates an acceptance or at least acquiescence of the sovereignty of Hatshepsut. Even more surprising, archaeology suggests a closer association of Djehuty (Abraham) with Senemioh (Ishmael) than with Thutmose III (Isaac). In Chapter 12, it was shown that Ishmael was the natural son of Abraham. On the other hand, Isaac was his legal son through Sarah and Abimelech. After Sarah's death, the Bible states that Abraham took another wife Kenturah. Abraham lived long enough after the death of Sarah to have six more sons by her (Gen. 25:2). Genesis 15:6 states that Abraham sent the sons of his concubines "to the land of the east." However, it is now evident that Hagar was more than a concubine, and Ishmael was not among the sons that were sent away from Isaac. In the previous chapter, it was shown that Abraham insisted that Ishmael be blessed (with Egyptian titles and territories). The "Lord" (first Tao I and then Thutmose I) swore an oath to honor Ishmael. The temple of Montu at Armant (Hermonthis) where Senemioh was Steward was only 9 km to the south of Thebes on the opposite bank of the Nile. "A temple to Montu {at Armant} existed at the site from at least the 11th Dynasty, with continued growth in the Middle and New Kingdom times. It was largely destroyed at some point in the Late Period, however, and only the remains of the pylon of Tuthmosis III survive from this structure ... Building also continued here in the Roman period. Unfortunately, in the 19th century the Pasha Muhammad Ali razed whole temples both here and at Elephantine in order to build sugar refining factories, and hardly anything now remains of the temples of this site."r Ishmael (Senemioh) was Steward of the Temple of Montu at Armant and Isaac (Thutmose III) built there. This suggests that there was no conflict between Isaac and Ishmael during their lifetimes. Ishmael along with Isaac attended to the burial of Abraham,s which is another indication that Ishmael was still living and governing within Egyptian territory. Coincidentally, all three prominent royal men of the early New Kingdom named for the god Thoth (Egyptian Djehuty) played a critical role in the succession of Thutmose III (Biblical Isaac). Pharaoh Thutmose I (Abimelech) was the natural father of Thutmose III (See Chapters 9, 12 & 14). Pharaoh Thutmose II (Perez/Ephron), having no royal son of his own through Hatshepsut, "attached" Thutmose III to his own line. In this essay, it was shown that the story of Abraham is based on the high-ranking nobleman Thutmose (Djehuty). By association, Isis (Sarah), mother of Thutmose III (Isaac), was the legal wife of Djehuty and not a minor wife of Thutmose II as previously thought. Therefore, Djehuty (Abraham) would have been considered to be the legal father of Thutmose III (Issac). This explains the peculiar devotion of Thutmose III to Djehuty. Wandering Aramaean and Djedhi Knight It is now possible to retrace the "wanderings" of Abraham from Egyptian sources.

208 Indeed, Abraham (Djehuty) was active throughout the early New Kingdom period. When hostilities broke out between pharaohs Kamose and Apophis, Djehuty was ensconsed at the city of Nefrusy in the district of Hermopolis. On his way to Avaris in the Delta, Kamose stopped to attack Nefrusy in Middle Egypt. Kamose accused the king of Nefrusy, named by him as "Teti son of Pepi" of making it a "nest of Asiatics." Kamose wrote: "I broke down his walls, I killed his people, and I made his wife come down to the riverbank."t It seems that the king and queen of Nefrusy were spared, but little else. The name Pepi is a form of Apophis. Teti is a form of the Djehuty. The king of Nefrusy that Kamose felt justified in harassing was none other than Abraham (Teti) son of Terah (Apophis I). The Tet was "the symbol of Osiris, frequently found as an amulet, that represented 'stability' or 'durability.'... Variant spellings are the Ded and Djed."u "Originally Thoth was Djeduti or 'he of Djedu', in turn meaning "he of where the Djed is." The Djed was a section of the spinal column of Osiris and was the single most important relic in the records kept by Thoth."v Osiris was also the brother-husband of Isis. Abraham, the Biblical model of stability and durability, was the brother-husband of Sarah, the 18th Dynasty Isis.w Mark Amaru Pinkham writes, "The climax of Osiris' drama was the raising of the Djed column, an event which symbolized the rebirth of the life force as well as the resurrection of a Djedhi initiate.... The name by which they referred to the column/spine, Djed, includes the root Dj, a epithet of the fire serpent which dwells within the spine as its root and innermost essence.... At the conclusion of a Djedhi candidate's three days of entombment, the rising serpent fire would finally arrive at its destination within the head and dissolve into pure Spirit. At that moment the candidate would finally achieve the fruit of all his arduous spiritual practices and become an immortal Djedhi and 'Stable One', i.e., one who had raised the djed, elevated the serpent, and overcome death. From that point onwards the new Djedhi was known as a Kheper or 'Arisen One,' a term derived from Khephri, the 'resurrected' beetle."x Note: The Tet (Djed) was also strongly associated with the city of Mendes in the Delta, whose symbol was the Ram of Mendes. In Biblical tradition, Abraham sacrificed the ram in the place of Isaac. S'mendes, founder of the 21st Dynasty was also known as Nesubanebdjed, "He who belongs to the Ram of Djede/Mendes." The town of Nefrusy was only a short distance from Hermopolis, which had been a center of the Thoth cult from at least the Middle Kingdom. Directly across the Nile from Nefrusy was Tel-el-Amarna, which would later in the dynasty become the refuge of Hermes (Thoth) Trismegistus, i.e., Akhenaten. "Thoth, a deity associated with writing, had, at least in the historical period, a very strong cult following in Hermopolis."y "Tehuti {Djehuty} is the Egyptian patron of learning, knowledge, and wisdom. The Greek rendering of Tehuti is Thoth. He was equated with Hermes by the Greeks, and with Mercury by the Romans."z

209 Abraham was first and foremost a Babylonian. It is not surprising that he would harbor a large contingent of Babylonian advisors and other officials ("a nest of Asiatics"). The 1st Century AD Jewish historian made the following comments about Abraham. " a man righteous and great, and skilful in the celestial science." "He {the pharaoh} also made him {Abraham} a large present in money, and gave him leave to enter into conversation with the most learned among the Egyptians; from which conversation, his virtue and his reputation became more conspicuous than they had been before." "For whereas the Egyptians were formerly addicted to different customs, and despised one another's sacred and accustomed rites, and were very angry one with another on that account, Abraham conferred with each of them, and confuting the reasonings they made used of every one their own practices, demonstrated that such reasonings were vain and void of truth; whereupon he was admired by them in those conferences as a very wise man, and one of great sagacity, when he discoursed on any subject he undertook; and this not only in understanding it, but in persuading other men also to assent to him. He communicated to them arithmetic, and delivered to them the science of astronomy; for, before Abram came into Egypt, they were unacquainted with those parts of learning; for that science came from the Chaldeans into Egypt, and from thence to the Greeks also."aa It was noted above and in Chapter 10 that Abraham (Djehuty) was typecast as a wise man in the tradition of Shem (Sabium/Amenemhet IV) and Eber (Hammurabi/Au-ibre). The name Djehuty itself is an identification with the god-king Thoth, the Patriarch Lamech (See Chapter 3). In Mesopotamia, Thoth was known by various names, including Nabu. Nabu was also known as the "scribe god, the divine scribe of destinies. As such he is also a scribes' god and patron of writing.... Because so much learning was transmitted in writing, he later joined Ea (Enki) and Marduk as a god of wisdom."ab We also saw in Chapter 10 that Abraham was compared to the "evangelist" Nabu who traveled "throughout the lands" garnering support for his exiled father Marduk/Re (Irad), son of Ea/Enki (Enoch). In Genesis 12-15 Abraham is likewise depicted as "criss-crossing" the land of Canaan and Egypt, and calling upon the name of his father, the Lord Se-nakht-en-Re. Djehuty was acting out his role as the "heart and tongue of Re." Zecharia Sitchen writes, "Nabu had the same meaning and came from the same verb by which the Bible called a true prophet: Nabi, one who receives the divine words and signs and in turn expresses them to the people. The divine signs of which Nabu spoke were the changing Heavens..."ac The Heavens were ever changing. However, the splitting of the family empire signaled that it was time for the god Re to decrease and give way to another, namely Yahweh-Amen. This would have been urged by Abraham in order to follow the precedent established in the Egyptian Middle Kingdom. This had also been a time of division. Through

210 allegiance to Amen, the collateral line in Egypt was able to regroup and ultimately recover the lands of Mesopotamia as their "rightful" inheritance. As a philosopher, Abraham was quick to recognize that the circumstances of his clan were not new, but a repetition of earlier events. However, he was remembered not for demanding that his own birthright be honored. Nabu-Thoth was called "he who comes in peace." The Bible calls Abraham "Lord of Peace." He was a survivor. He was willing to compromise and submit himself to lesser men (and women) in order to achieve a higher good. He not only had great knowledge, but the courage to selflessly act upon it. After the death of Kamose, pharaoh Ahmose joined forces with a new bully, Thutmose I. Together they pushed the southern limits of Egyptian rule beyond the Second Cataract. Djehuty was appointed by Ahmose as Viceroy of Nubia (Kush).ad At this time, Qasr Ibrim in Nubia was established, and became a site of considerable activity. The name Ibrim is an obvious variant of the Biblical Abram, "exalted father." However, in the Nubian language Ibrim means "foundation or origin," and is therefore more closely related to the Egyptian name Teti (Ded/Djed). On a statue of Amenhotep I (Hanun/Aner) found at Qasr Ibrim, the name of MeritAmun, wife of Amenhotep I, was erased and replaced with that of AhmoseNefertari.ae Usersatet, Viceroy of Nubia under Amenhotep II (Patriarch Jacob), also built a chapel there. This chapel was rescued by the UNESCO Project from the rising waters behind the Aswan Damn, and is now exhibited at the Nubian Museum in Aswan, Egypt. In his chapel, Usersatet placed himself between Horus of Aniba to his right and the goddess Satet to his left. Satet "was a local form of the goddess Isis. She is sometimes called Isis-Satis or Isis-Sothis."af During his long career, the "mighty prince" Djehuty held the wide-ranging titles of King in Damascus and Nefrusy, Overseer of Priests in Middle Egypt, Viceroy of Nubia, General of the Armies of Egypt, Commissioner ('overseer of a part of the northern foreign territory'), Scribe, and Director of the Treasury. The priestly nature of Djehuty, his international orientation, great wealth and propensity for "reckoning" were certainly the basis for the Biblical characterization of Abraham. Elizabeth Thomas reports the name of an early 18th Dynasty nobleman Djehutynefer from the DB320 mummy Cache.ag Nicholas Reeves notes that the mummy of Amenhotep I was re-interred in a coffin made for the "wab ('pure') priest Djehutymose."ah Djehuty-nefer is not mentioned by Reeves and Djehuty-mose is in turn not mentioned by Thomas, however it seems evident that these are variants of the same name. Possibly, there is a link between this epithet of Djehuty, nepher ("beautiful") and the city where he had once been king, Nefrusy. It could also have been used in identification with Osiris. Djehuty built a tomb at Dra abu el-Naga (Western Thebes), but was later placed in an even more prestigious house of eternity. Genesis 25:9 (NIV) states that: "His sons Isaac and Ishmael buried him in the cave of Machpelah near Mamre, in the field of Ephron son of Zohar the Hittite, the field Abraham had bought from the sons of Heth. There Abraham was buried with his wife Sarah." Substituting the Egyptian identities, this passage would read: "His sons Thutmose III and Senenmioh buried him in the tomb near Tao II, in the

211 Ta-sekhet-aat ('The Great Field') of Thutmose II son of Nahor of the line of Inyotef (Sargon), the field Djehuty had bought from the sons of Terror. There Djehuty was buried with his wife Isis." Excavator John Rose and the rugged entrance to KV 39 are pictured on page 89 of The Complete Valley of the Kings by Nicholas Reeves and Richard Wilkinson. Reeves and Wilkinson write: "Rose's clearance of K39 produced over 1,350 bags of potsherds, calcite fragments, pieces of wooden coffins, textiles, fragments of metal, mud jar sealings, cordage, botanical specimens and human skeletal remains - 'of at least nine persons'. Among the inscribed material is a group of unusual snadstone dockets bearing cartouches in blue of Tuthmosis I, Tuthmoses II(?) and Amenophis II. 'A calcite fragment bearing the title of the tomb owner ... and a gold signet ring bearing the name of a famous pharaoh of the 18th dynasty' were also found." The excavation began in 1989 and continued for several seasons. However, Rose suffered a stroke in 1994 and was unable to analyze all of the material removed from the tomb. With the help of colleagues, an excavation report was sacrificially published in the summer of 2000.ai According to Rose the title of the tomb owner was found on an inscribed fragment of an alabaster jar, which he notes is of the type normally associated with a "funerary context."aj The title itself reads: "The Osiris, Overseer/Steward of the House of Amun." This is a very strange title indeed, however it fits Djehuty (Abraham) perfectly. Moreover, the famous pharaoh who donated a signet ring to the burial was Thutmose III, the legal son of Djehuty. Most of the 1,350 bags are in storage on the West Bank of Luxor. There are still about a dozen boxes in the tomb vestibule that contain additional bags of debris. Why these were not also removed is uncertain. Some have been rifled and contribute to the litter that is now strewn about the tomb opening and entrance corridor. KV39 is oldest tomb in the Valley of the Kings, and is the closest to the pyramidal face of el-Qurn, which rises majestically above the royal burial ground. It is sadly ironic that the tomb of the most venerated man in Egypt lies completely neglected, while millions of visitors a year pass in review only a stone's throw below it.

a. There was a pharaoh of the late 17th Dynasty called Djehuty. This could represent Abraham as a young prince, before the troubles that led to his father being deposed in Babylon. If so, Abraham was the first co-regent of Tao I in Egypt, but later stripped of that status. b. Religion in Ancient Egypt, Leonard Lesko, p 102. c. Margaret Bunson, A Dictionary of Ancient Egypt, p 264. d. Martin Bernal, Black Athena, Vol I, p 144. e. Anthony Mercatante, Who's Who in Egyptian Mythology, p 190. f. Barbara Watterson, Gods of Ancient Egypt, p 184.

212 g. [Urk. IV:438.10f.] Quoted from: http://hsc.csu.edu.au/ancthist/courses/23unit/pers_grp/hatshep/8/pag e6.htm h. W. Murnane, "The Organization of Government under Amenhotep III," in Amenhotep III, D. O'Connor and E. Cline, eds., University of Michigan Press, 1998, pp 187-8. i. K. Sethe Urkunden der 18. Dynastie. 2nd ed., rev Fascs. 1-16. Leipzig: JC Hinrichs (1927-1930) 436:4-16 (= Burkhardt [1984] 71. See also, Ibid., 420-30, 437-39 (= Burkhardt [1984] 63-69, 71-72); W. Helck, Zur Verwaltung des Mittleren und Neuen Reichs. Probleme der Agyptologies 3. Leiden: E.J. Brill (1958) 397-99. j. Ibid. 397-401, 508-9 (2-3). k. For the association of Aye with Akhmin, see: Cyril Aldred, Akhenaten King of Egypt, pp 219-221. l. Martin Bernal, Black Athena, Vol I, p 95. m. Hebrew definitions from Strong's Exhaustive Concordance. n. Cf iysh-em (Sen-em) and Yishma'el with yishma (3457) "desolate," from yasham (3456) "to lie waste:- be desolate." The descendants of Ishmael became desert lords. o. The Complete Works of Josephus, translated by William Whiston, p 32. p. N. Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, p 217. See also: www.britishmuseum.ac.uk/egyptian/EA/GALL/harris.html q. W. Murnane, "Imperial Egypt and the Limits of Power," in Amarna Diplomacy, eds. Cohen & Westbrook, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000, p 250 (note 49) - citing C. Lilyquist, "A Gold Bowl Naming General Djehuty: A Study of Objects and Early Egyptology." Journal of the Metropolitan Museum of Art 23 (1988): 13, 1-68. r. Richard Wilkinson , "The Complete Temples of Ancient Egypt", p 200. s. Genesis 25:9 t. Carnarvon Tablet, Ancient Near Eastern Texts, J. Pritchard, ed., pp 232-233; Kamose Stela, Ibid., 554-555. u. Anthony S. Mercatante, Who's Who in Egyptian Mythology, p 188. v. Quoted from Tom Gilmore, T Byron G Publishing, http://www.tomgilmore.com/tehuti.htm w. Isis was associated with the Thet/Tit symbol. x. The Return of the Serpents of Wisdom, pp 200, 203-204, Adventures Unlimited Press, www.adventuresunlimited.co.nz y. David Silverman, Religion in Ancient Egypt, p 42 z. Moustafa Gadalla, www.egypt-tehuti.com. See also www.egypttehuti.com/articles/tet-pillars.html and www.egyptianmyths.com/thoth.htm aa.The Complete Works of Josephus, translated by William Whiston, pp 32-33. bb.Jeremy Black and Anthony Green, Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia, p 133.

213 cc. For commentary on Marduk and Nabu, see Zecharia Sitchin, When Time Began, p 324. dd.A. Dodson, Monarchs of the Nile, p 75. ee.James E. Harris and Edward F. Wente, An X-Ray Atlas of the Royal Mummies, 1980, University of Chicago Press. ff. Anthony S. Mercatante, Who's Who in Egyptian Mythology, p 136. gg.The Royal Necropoleis at Thebes, Princeton, 1966, p 229. hh.The Complete Valley of the Kings, p 89. ii. John Rose, Tomb KV 39 in the Valley of the Kings, Plymbridge Distributors Limited, England, email: clare@plymbridge.com (Clare Head) fax (0044 1752 202333) or telephone (0044 1752 202331) jj. Ibid, p 150.

Living in Truth:

Archaeology and the Patriarchs Chapter 14


"Brave Among Men" (The Female Pharaoh Hatshepsut)
by Charles N. Pope Copyright 1999-2002 by Charles Pope United States Library of Congress All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions

Absalom, My Daughter, My Daughter! In the previous chapters it was proved that the story of David is a composite of Thutmose I and his son Thutmose III. In general, the early events in the Kings/Chronicles account of David apply to the elder David (Thutmose I), and later events apply to the younger David (Thutmose III). The transition between their two reigns is found in the story of David and Absalom. Seven full chapters are devoted to Absalom, the son of David (2 Samuel 13-19). This is an indication of Absalom's importance. As we shall see, Absalom, the cherished "son" of David is none other than Hatshepsut the legendary daughter of Thutmose I. Apart from his ultimate successor, Thutmose III, only three sons of Thutmose I are known from archaeology. All three are believed to have predeceased their father. They are sparsely attested, and completely pale in comparison with the daughter of Thutmose I, Queen Hatshepsut. Absalom is depicted as a beautiful prince who usurped David's throne. On the other hand, Hatshepsut daughter of Thutmose I was a handsome princess who proclaimed herself king. The Biblical narrative of Absalom is certainly no less unique than the historical person of Hatshepsut herself.a Sometime after Hatshepsut's death, her memory as

214 a pharaoh was attacked. It seems that the reign of a female pharaoh was later deemed unacceptable, therefore she was removed from the official 18th Dynasty king-list. Her statuary was collected and placed in a "mass burial." Her chapel at Karnak, called the Red Chapel or Chapelle Rouge, was also used as fill in other construction.b Two of her obelisks placed in the heart of the Karnak Temple were walled up, which ironically may have led to their preservation. One remains standing to this day. As discussed in Chapter 12, Hatshepsut had assumed the male personae of a pharaoh by Year 7 of Thutmose III. Hatshepsut went so far as to portray herself as a baby boy in her "Divine Birth" mural.c Conversely, many details within the Biblical account indicate that Absalom was a princess who received a masculine makeover. The main points are enumerated below: Emphasis on the beauty of Absalom - "But in all Israel there was none to be so much praised as Absalom for his beauty: from the sole of his foot even to the crown of his head there was no blemish in him." 2 Samuel 14:25 (KJV) - Absalom is said to have had long thick hair that was seldom cut. 2 Samuel 14:26 - Absalom's long hair led to his demise when it became entangled in a tree. 2 Samuel 18:9 Emphasis on the feminine traits of Absalom - Absalom's seduction of the men of Israel 2 Samuel 15:1-6 - Absalom's inclination to listen to all counsel ("talk things over") before acting. 2 Sam 17:14 - Absalom uses indirection to get Joab's attention. 2 Sam 14:29-33 - Absalom questions Hushai's love. 2 Sam 16:17-19 - Absalom relies on "his men" in order to carry out physical acts. 2 Sam 13:28, passim Emphasis on boyish masculinity of Absalom - Absalom called a "young man," i.e., a boy who does not yet have a beard. 2 Sam 14:21; 18:5; 18:33: 19:4 Absalom assuming (or mocking) masculine roles - Absalom "lay with David's concubines" in order to become "a stench in his father's nostrils." 2 Sam 16:21 If Absalom was a man, then the usurping of the

215 harem would have been only expected. If Absalom was a woman, this would have elicited a far more extreme reaction. Judging from the Biblical account of Sodom and Gomorrah and contemporary Egyptian inscriptions, homosexuality was prevalent, but not always tolerated (at least publicly) by Egyptian priests and nobility. Tenderness of David's love for Absalom - Physical affection. 2 Samuel 14:33 - Submission. David backed down to no man, but was unwilling to fight Absalom. Instead, he chose to flee his own city. 2 Samuel 15:13-14 - Compassion. When a battle was unavoidable, David commands his officers to be "gentle" with Absalom. 2 Samuel 18:5 - Grief. David mourns for Absalom even more than for his firstborn son Amnon, who was killed by Absalom's men and at Absalom's command. 2 Samuel 18:19 passim The narrative of 2 Samuel 13-19 is dripping with David's love for Absalom. Archaeology provides evidence of a reciprocated devotion on the part of Hatshepsut for Thutmose I. Hatshepsut erected twin obelisks within the personal court of Thutmose I at the Karnak Temple. She provided a mortuary temple for Thutmose I next to her own at Deir el-Bahri. And most significantly, she constructed a tomb (KV 20) in the Valley of the Kings where they were both to be interred. It is thought that Thutmose I was laid to rest there, but was later reburied in a private tomb built for him by Thutmose III. It is uncertain whether Hatshepsut's body was also buried in KV 20 according to her wishes. According to the Biblical account, she was captured and killed in the wilderness by order of General Joab, and her body was (at least initially) dumped in "a big pit in the forest."d According to Joyce Tyldesley, Hatshepsut emphasizes her relationship to Thutmose I throughout her reign in inscriptions, and "in every possible way."e Tyldesley assumes that Thutmose I was deceased during Hatshepsut's reign, as was her former husband Tuthmosis II. However, it was demonstrated in Chapter 12 that Thutmose I was still living very late into her 22-year tenure. The need for Hatshepsut to connect herself to Thutmose I was even more important considering that he was still living and wielding a larger than life influence over Egypt and Canaan during much of her reign. The Sed-festival that Hatshepsut celebrated in her Year 15 very likely was associated with the Year 30 Jubilee of Thutmose I. The Bible tells us that David reigned for 40 years. The first 7 years were based in Hebron, and the final 33 years in Jerusalem.f If the Jubilee was celebrated with respect to his kingship in Hebron, then Thutmose I survived Hatshepsut by about three years.g If the Jubilee was celebrated with respect to his kingship in Jerusalem, then Thutmose I died in Year 18 of Hatshepsut. This is the more likely scenario. If so, Thutmose I predeceased Hatshepsut by as many as four years,

216 and the David associated with Absalom's death in the Bible would then be Thutmose III. Placing the death of the elder David (Thutmose I) a short time before the death of Absalom (Hatshepsut) resolves the contradictions in the David narrative. Thutmose I was torn between his love for Hatshepsut (Absalom) and Thutmose III (David, Jr.). Upon his death, Hatshepsut moved to eliminate Thutmose III and end the sharing of power. Thutmose III retreated from Thebes (Jerusalem), not so much out of love for Hatshepsut, but because he did not have full support from the nobility in his own claim for kingship. After the death of Thutmose II, Hatshepsut claimed that Thutmose I had designated her as his heir and co-regent. This is a strong indication that Thutmose I retracted or at least qualified his previous election of Thutmose III as heir and successor. Hatshepsut's co-reign in Thebes was by necessity conceded by Thutmose III and his legal father Djehuty, because it was evidently more than merely condoned by Thutmose I. One might speculate that Hatshepsut was a hermaphrodite. However, Hatshepsut did have a daughter, and must be considered to have been a true woman. The dilemma for Hatshepsut was not having a son. We are told in 2 Samuel 18:18 that Absalom erected a pillar in the "Valley of the Kings" because he had "no son to carry on his name." In 2 Samuel 14:27, we are told that Absalom did have the one daughter, but also three sons. These "sons" must have been of the political variety. Hatshepsut had a single royal daughter, Nefrure. Although she tried for many years to produce a son through Senenmut and probably other male relative including her own father, it was to no avail. The Bible literally states that Absalom erected a pillar, that is, an obelisk in the "Valley of the Kings." Today, the term "Valley of the Kings" applies to the burial ground of the 18th and 19th Dynasty pharaohs. This name was coined by Champollion, and was not the original name of the royal burial ground.h The original name was Ta-sekhet-aat, meaning "The Great Field," the very field that the "great one" Abraham (Djehuty) purchased from Ephron (Thutmose II). In ancient times, the Valley of the Kings must have designated the nearby Nile River Valley where the city of Thebes (Waset) and the Temple of Karnak stood. Hatshepsut actually erected four obelisks (two pairs) in two locations at Karnak. Interestingly, only one obelisk survived in tact, and was possibly the only one known to the Biblical author. The top portion of a second obelisk was unearthed in modern times and placed on its side only a few feet from its broken base. In 2 Samuel 13:1, we are told that Absalom had a sister named Tamar.1 2 Samuel 14: 27 then states the daughter of Absalom was called Tamar. The name Tamar was actually an epithet or title, which applied to a virgin princess or heiress.i It is the daughter of Hatshepsut and not her sister that is of primary importance here. Hatshepsut had only one daughter, Nefrure/Sityah. As the virgin heiress, Nefrure ("Tamar") would have been desired by all of the royal princes. The problem for

217 David (Thutmose I) was that Absalom (Hatshepsut) would not consent to the marriage of Nefrure with any of his sons. Nefrure was instead being reserved for a son planned by Hatshepsut through Senenmut. The years rolled by, and the expected heir did not come. For this reason, Thutmose I (David I) gave his eldest son, the Biblical Amnon, at least tacit approval to "rape" Nefrure. While shocking, the Biblical story of Tamar is far tamer than Greek memories of heiress abductions. A son by Nefrure would have guaranteed the succession of Amnon. The Biblical account implies that Amnon did have the approval of David (Thutmose I). And David certainly did nothing to punish Amnon afterward. Although Amnon was eager to become king, Tamar (Nefrure) would have been no less anxious. Her own hopes of becoming queen were diminishing with each passing year. It mattered little which brother gave her a son, only that she have one. She would have been equally frustrated with her mother's decision to deny her all royal suitors. Tamar brought a love dish to the pining prince Amnon. The "dumplings" she offered were not solely for renewed strength, but for passion.j The symbolism of the narrative indicates that Nefrure also was a willing participant. The pressure felt by royal princesses has been unappreciated. A number of ruses are introduced in the Bible to disguise the desperation of the royal heiress to produce the next generation of royal children. It was not only the princes who struggled to the death. The princesses were also engaged in a winnertake-all competition. The lust of these young women was not so much for pleasure, but for the prize of being queen, and the pride of surpassing their sisters. The cries of protest by Tamar were feigned and only served to provide an excuse for the liaison should it not produce a child, which turned out to be the case. Despite the best efforts of Amnon and David (Thutmose I), Tamar (Nefrure) did not become pregnant. The Bible states that after raping Tamar, Amnon hated her more than he had formerly loved (coveted) her. Amnon's hopes for kingship were all but ended. He was powerless to do anything but blame Tamar. Moreover, the "rape" of Tamar (Nefrure) gave Absalom (Hatshepsut) justification to kill Amnon, thus eliminating one rival to a potential son by Senenmut.2 For more than 20 years, Thutmose III (Isaac/David the younger) was also denied marriage to Nefrure. To make matters worse, his childhood bride Baketre (Rebecca) was unable to conceive "for a long time."k It was during this period of frustration that the younger David espied Bathsheba. He coveted Bathsheba not so much for her beauty, but her pure royalty. Bathsheba was the granddaughter of Ahithophel (Senenmut).3 An heir by the granddaughter of Senenmut would have increased the status of Thutmose III relative to his "brothers." It would also have helped him to reclaim his lost inheritance from Hatshepsut. Unfortunately for David Jr., Bathsheba had already been betrothed to Uriah the Hittite. The epithet of Hittite literally means "son of Heth," which identifies Uriah as a high-ranking member of the royal family. The sons of Heth (literally, "sons of Terror") were the terrifying Hyksos rulers descending from Sargon. Yet, Uriah had not been cruel to Bathsheba, but tenderly raised her to maturity in his own home as though she was his very own daughter. She was Uriah's "lamb." David (Thutmose III) like a wolf

218 stole her while the shepherd was away. David later had Uriah killed.l The elder David had committed many atrocities and was not particularly devoted to JehovahAmen. However, the "Bathsheba Affair" was the only sin that the Kings/Chronicles author would lay against the younger David. The story of David and Bathsheba primarily serves to explain the falling out between the younger David (Thutmose III) and Ahithophel (Senenmut).4 Senenmut was not only the sole confidant of Hatshepsut, but also trusted advisor to the elder David I (Thutmose I). According to the Bible, Bathsheba was the granddaughter of Ahithophel. The exercise of kingly prerogative by the younger David to acquire the married Bathsheba was not at all appreciated by her grandfather Ahithophel, a man of consummate integrity. In the Genesis narrative, the elder David is named as Abimelech and the younger David is of course Isaac. Ahithophel is named in that history as Ahuzzath, the "personal advisor" of Abimelech.m Abimelech (Thutmose I) arranged for a covenant between Ahuzzath (Senenmut) and Isaac (Thutmose III). However, from the Kings narrative, we can deduce that after the death of Thutmose I, Senenmut did not honor his "treaty" with Thutmose III, but instead remained loyal only to Hatshepsut. The rejection of Thutmose III by Senenmut is of course related to the Biblical account of David and Bathsheba. The granddaughter of Senenmut had been abducted by Thutmose III and her husband had been murdered by him. Senenmut had been coerced into an alliance with Thutmose III while Thutmose I was still alive. After his treaty with Ahuzzath (Senenmut), Isaac (Thutmose III) names a newfound well Sheba.n This may indicate that the treaty absolved him of guilt over the affair with Bath-Sheba. Upon the death of Thutmose I, Senenmut became free not only to continue his support of Hatshepsut, but also to take his revenge upon Thutmose III. However, Hatshepsut subsequently rejected his counsel on how to best defeat Thutmose III. The proud Senenmut left Thebes in disgrace. Rather than once again sue for peace with Thutmose III, Senenmut "set his house in order" and took his own life.o This was the original basis of the David and Absalom narrative. Centuries later, there was confusion between the tryst of the younger David (Thutmose III) with Bathsheba (granddaughter of Senenmut), and the earlier dynastic liaison of the elder David (Thutmose I) with Sarah. In Genesis, Sarah is also associated with the covenant of Beersheba. Moreover, as a daughter of Terah/Shua, Sarah as well as her two sisters (Ahhotep and Ahmose-Nefertari) would have also been called "Bath-shua."p One Hebrew text names Bathshua as the mother of Solomon in 1 Chronicles 3:5. Other texts of this same verse name Bathsheba as the mother of Solomon. The confusion between Bathshua (Sarah) and Bathsheba (granddaughter of Ahithophel), and the two affairs of David is understandable. It is even confirmed by variants of the Bible itself. The younger David (Thutmose III) was born to the elder David (Thutmose I) and Bathshua/Sarah (Isis). According to the Bible, the union of the younger David (Thutmose III) and Bathsheba (granddaughter of Senenmut)

219 also produced children, however there is no record from archaeology. Certainly a son born from this latter relationship would have been a high-ranking royal prince. Four sons of Bathsheba are listed in 1 Chronicles 3:5. Possibly, one of these princes was the early favorite of Thutmose III and become a king of some kind within the greater empire. The actual succession of Thutmose III will be explored in the next chapter.

a. Based on the accounts of ancient writers, Samuel Sharpe sketched the following profile of Hatshepsut: "She was handsome among women, and brave among men." See commentary in Joyce Tyldesley, Hatchepsut, p 233. b. This small temple has recently been restored. See KMT Journal, Spring 2000 Issue c. Joyce Tyldesley, Hatchepsut, p 105. d. 2 Samuel 18:17 e. Joyce Tyldesley, Hatchepsut, p 117. See also commentary on page 118 of Hatchepsut. f. Both Hebron and Jerusalem would have been part of the Theban complex (Thebaid) in Upper Egypt. According to archaeology, the Hebron of Palestine did not yet exist as a city at this time. g. This assumes that Hatshepsut died in her Year 22, which is the last known record of her. h. Alberto Siliotti, Guide to the Valley of the Kings, pp 8,12. i. Compare the Hebrew words tam (8535) "undefiled", and tamam (8552) "complete, upright." j. Jonathan Kirsch, The Harlot by the Side of the Road, pp 287-289. k. Gen. 25:21 l. 2 Samuel 11:14-17 m. Genesis 26:22-31 n. Genesis 26:32 o. 2 Samuel 17:23 p. Bath is the Hebrew word for "daughter."

Note 1 The sister of Hatshepsut Evidently, Hatshepsut did have a sister. A brief, retrospective reference in 1 Kings 11:15-22 states that the sister of Queen Tahpenes was given in marriage to prince Hadad of the royal line of Edom. Tahpenes is a Hebrew transliteration of the Egyptian name Ta-Per-Re, literally "belonging to/wife of Per-Re." The praenomen of Thutmose II was A-kheper-(en)-re. The praenomen of Thutmose I was A-

220 kheper-ka-re. Hatshepsut (Tahpenes/Absalom) was the Chief Royal Wife of Thutmose II and the beloved daughter of Thutmose I. Note 2 Genealogy of Absalom Absalom is the only "son" of David and "Maaca daughter of Talmai king of Geshur" (a region northwest of the Sea of Galilee, which became important again in the period of the Macabbees). 1 Chron. 3:2 After Absalom orders her men to kill David's eldest son Amnon, Absalom flees to Geshur. Absalom means "father of peace." However, "Ab" is also common in female names. Cf Abijah, Abigail, Abihail. In Egyptian, "Ab" means "heart." Margaret Bunson, A Dictionary of Ancient Egypt, p 105. Note 3 Genealogy of Bathsheba Ahithophel was the father of Ammiel/Eliam, who was the father of Bathsheba. Both names are given as the son of Ahithophel and father of Bathsheba. (2 Samuel 11:3; 2 Samuel 23:34; 1 Chronicles 3:5) Ammiel = "People of God" Eliam = "God of the People" Senenmut is also the Biblical Zerah. Five sons of Zerah listed in 1 Chron 2:6. Ammiel/Eliam should correspond to one of these five sons. Bathsheba, means "daughter of Oath." The name of Zerah's son Heman means "trust, faithfulness." Bathsheba was perhaps the daughter of Heman. Note 4 Emphasis on Absalom's alliance with Ahithophel (corresponding to the league of Hatshepsut and Senenmut)

221 - Ahithophel means "brother of folly." This appears to be a pun on the name Senenmut, which means "brother of mother." 2 Samuel 15:31 (NIV) states, "David prayed, 'O Lord, turn Ahithophel's [wise] counsel into foolishness.' " - Ahithophel and Absalom have a very close relationship. Ahithophel is also named as an esteemed advisor to David prior to the rebellion of Absalom. 2 Samuel 15:12; 15:13; 16:15; 17:23

Living in Truth:

Archaeology and the Patriarchs Chapter 15


"A Shepherd They Withheld" New Kingdom Egypt is Centralized under Amenhotep II and his sons Thutmose IV and Yuya
by Charles N. Pope Copyright 1999-2002 by Charles Pope United States Library of Congress All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions

Introduction After the succession of Isaac (Thutmose III), the emphasis in the Biblical narrative changes from one of covenant and promises to that of birthright and favor. With each new generation, favor is extended to a younger brother over the rights of one or more elder brothers. First Jacob is chosen over Esau, followed by Judah over his three elder brother, then the sons of Joseph over those of Judah, and finally a younger son of Joseph, Ephraim, over an elder one, Manasseh. Birthright and favor held paramount importance. It symbolized kingly succession. Had Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and Joseph been merely migratory herdsmen without an established kingdom, then a birthright would have been of little significance. The protocol of succession in New Kingdom Egypt is not well understood. It was once thought that it passed exclusively through the female line, and that any break from mother to daughter represented the end of a dynasty. Although this view is no longer popular among Egyptologists, an acceptable replacement has not been proffered. The Biblical accounts of the Patriarchs reveal both that the selection process was highly subjective, and that it was a break in paternal line that constituted the nominal end of a dynasty. In the case of Jacob and Esau, there was not agreement between their parents Isaac and Rebekah regarding which son should be chosen. The succession of Jacob over Esau is attributed largely to the influence of Rebekah and the trickery of Jacob.

222 Rebekah's will ultimately prevailed over Isaac's wishes. Esau and his first two wives were said to have been "a source of grief to Isaac and Rebekah all their lives." Despite this, Isaac still loved Esau most. Thutmose III was "a man of war" and spent most of his life in the field. He is credited with as many as 17 military campaigns. Esau (Edom) was in this respect a man after his father's own heart. Conversely, Jacob was portrayed as a quiet man, who preferred to stay close to home. In Jacob's "favor," Thutmose III is said to have had a penchant for hieroglyphic writing and poetry. This indicates that the "Psalms of David" should be primarily attributed to Thutmose III, as opposed to Thutmose I. Thutmose III was ultimately succeeded by his son Amenhotep II, the Biblical Patriarch Jacob. The historical identity of Esau is found in Amenhotep II's main rival, the Mitanni Chief "Saussatar son of Parsatatar." E-sau is patently a play on the name Saussatar. Moreover, Par-sat derives from the final part of the praenomen of Thutmose III, Men-kheper-re ("Lasting is the Manifestation of Re"). A trend has been established linking popular names of kings with adaptations of the final portion of their praenumina. The form -per(x)re is a common ending of 18th Dynasty praenumina. The first part of name Par-sat-atar is equivalent to Per-re. The Mitanni name for the sun god Sat (Saturn) is equivalent to the Egyptian sun god Re, especially in its rising form Khephre,a which forms the middle component of Thutmose III's praenomen. "Atar" and "Ar" are generic suffixes signifying ruler or lord. Saussatar was actually claiming to be the son of "Lord Per-re," i.e., Pharaoh Thutmose III, and therefore the brother of Amenhotep II (Jacob). In Chapter 12, it was shown that Rebekah, the mother of Jacob and Esau, had been brought to Egypt from Padam Aram (Mitanni) in NW Mesopotamia to become the wife of Isaac. Rebekah was the daughter of Bethuel, a son of Abraham's brother Nahor. After the infamous battle of four kings against five, Nahor became a chief among the Mitanni in Padam Aram (a.k.a. Aram Naharaim). It is not clear which side Nahor had taken in the conflict. It is also not clear whether he was the ruler of all the Mitanni or only a portion of these foreign peoples. Regardless, the long Biblical passages devoted to Rebekah (Beketre) wife of Isaac, and then to the wives of Jacob, Leah (Tia) and Rachel (Merit-Amon), reflect the importance of Nahor's branch of the greater royal family of Terah (Senakhtenre Tao I). Rebekah is said to have been a granddaughter of Nahor. Leah and Rachel were his greatgranddaughters by Nahor's grandson Laban. When Esau was rejected in Egypt, he became a chief among Nahor's clan, the clan of his mother Rebekah. Name Associations Biblical Name(s) Terah Abram Nahor Shua Abraham, Abdon Judah, Zur Egyptian Name(s) Senakhtenre, Tao I, Apophis Djehuty, Teti, Ibrim King of Nahrin/Mitanni

223 Gideon Thahash Sarah Pharez Isaac Rebekah Baal, Jerub-baal, Mamre Shelah, Nahash Sarai Perez, Ephron, Jotham "Levi" Sequenenre, Tao II Ahmose I Isis, mother of Thutmose III Thutmose II Thutmose III, Yii, Parsatatar Hatshepsut-Meryetre, Beketre, wife of Thutmose III Queen Ahhotep I Queen Mutnofret, Hatnofer Nefrure, daughter of Hatshepsut Saussatar son of Parsatatar, King of Mitanni Amenhotep II, Yey Tia, wife of Amenhotep II Merit-Amon, wife of Amenhotep II Prince Siamon Thutmose IV, son of Amenhotep II & Tia Vizier Yuya Tuya Amenhotep III

Reumah Tamar I Tamar II Esau Jacob Leah Rachel Simeon Judah Joseph Asenath Solomon

Bathshua Maaca

Edom, Gershon Israel, Kohath

Amram Shiloh

Amenhotep II, a Shepherd The inscriptions of Thutmose III (Isaac) record military campaigns against the "vile Nahrin" and "fallen one of Nahrin." However, the Bible informs us that he sent his younger son Amenhotep (Jacob) to live with one of the grandsons of Nahor in Mitanni (Padam Aram/Naharaim). Evidently, Nahor had produced a "heretic king" of his own, with whom Thutmose was compelled to do battle. Quite possibly, the usurper was responsible for the earlier exodus of Senenmut from Mitanni to Egypt. The "vile" and "fallen" relation that Thutmose III referred to would not have been of the same collateral line from which Rebekah, Rachel and Leah descended. Rebekah's father Bethuel was the eighth son of Nahor, therefore this was likely not the foremost royal line in Naharaim. However, it is a telling commentary on the treachery of this time that Jacob was actually more secure living among relations in the land of the Mitanni than he was in Egypt. Nevertheless, this particular royal family was very typical in that they were warring one year and adoring the next. Despite the death struggle of Esau and Jacob, they would later come to terms and offer their own children to each other in marriage!

224 As sons born to Thutmose III in his youth, Esau and Jacob would have both been grown men with grown children of their own by the end of their father's 54-year reign. Genesis 22 indicates that the twins (Rehoboth, "double widening") were born prior to the demise of Hatshepsut in Thutmose's Year 22. Thutmose I had put an end to the sharing of power among rival princes that was common during Senakhtenre's time. He also rejected the double-dynasty model of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom. In the end there would only be one successor to Thutmose III, and Amenhotep II was to be that one. Thutmose III had restored an empire. It was Amenhotep's role to secure it. One type of leader was required to regain the family honor, another was now needed to establish an effective family run bureaucracy. A different kind of challenge faced the new king. Nurturing skills and restraint were far more important than unsheathed physical aggression. Amenhotep's name means "Amen is Satisfied." A Yiddish interpretation might be "Enough Already!" The borders of Egypt were now adequate to please the family's enormous appetite for power. It was time for a leader with negotiation skills, civil wisdom, patience for administration, and appreciation for science and culture. In short, Amenhotep II was the political animal that now protected the interests of the "animal kingdom" of Egypt the best. The name David means "beloved" in Hebrew, and connects to the founders of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom Inyotef A (Sargon) and Inyotef II (Gudea). Inyotef A was called Dudu (a form of David) in the Sumerian king-list. As Ahmed Osman has evinced, David (dvd) is also a transliteration of the Egyptian Thoth/Thut (twt). The story of King David is a composite account, which assimilates the important traits and accomplishments of the warrior kings Thutmose I and Thutmose III. They are the founders of Egyptian New Kingdom according to the Kings/Chronicles narrative of the Bible. The princes of the late Hyksos Period are referred to in the Bible as the "sons of Heth" or literally translated, the "sons of Terror." They were, as was said of Biblical David (Thutmose I & III) and his cohorts, "mighty men of valor" and "men of bloodshed" in the tradition of Sargon. Conversely, kings of the 18th Dynasty named Amenhotep (I through IV) were in general much more urbane. Amenhotep I was called "Amenhotep of the Town," "Amenhotep, the Darling of Amen," and "Amenhotep of the Forecourt." Amenhotep was also the patron of the astronomer Amenemhe for twenty-one years.b Unlike the archetypal Jacob (Inyotef A/Sargon), Amenhotep II (Jacob of the New Kingdom) did not look for trouble. On the contrary, he did everything possible to avoid it. The Bible portrays Jacob as fearful and quick to pacify a physical threat. Like Inyotef II (Gudea), he overcame his rival with brains not brawn. The Amenhotep's were stereotyped as philosophers and lovers, not fighters. During the reign of Amenhotep II, indeed there was again a nursery bursting with cherished royal children. The painting arts were never as refined as in the time of Amenhotep II. His successor Amenhotep III dedicated himself to rediscovering the wisdom, mysteries and traditions of earlier Egyptian Dynasties. As discussed in Chapter 9, Amenhotep II and his grandson Amenhotep III were composited in the Kings/Chronicles narrative as the legendary King Solomon, the wisest of all ancient rulers.

225 According to the Biblical stylizing, Jacob is tending sheep in Aram when he is called to Palestine by his father Isaac (Thutmose III) to be named successor. Subsequently, he takes his father's place as a living god who ascends and descends the exalted steps of one of the ancient world's most holy sites, the Biblical Beth-el. When his days are done, the family not only lays claim to all the territories of Egypt and Canaan, but boasts of tribute gratefully paid by all of its peoples. Amenhotep II was not only seen as a repetition of the two famous grabbers of the Middle Kingdom (Inyotef A-Sargon and Inyotef II-Gudea), but was also the Egyptian New Kingdom analog of Etana. In the Sumerian king-list, the name of Etana is followed by the epithet: A shepherd; he who ascended to heaven, who consolidated all the lands.' " Amenhotep II was the first Pharaoh of the Egyptian New Kingdom to append the epithet "heqaiunu" to his name in his cartouche.c Egyptologists translate this epithet rather innocuously as "Ruler of Heliopolis." However, the shepherd's crook hieroglyph (heq) could also be translated as "Shepherd King."d Therefore, Amenhotep II parallels Etana in this respect also. Amenhotep III followed his name with the epithet, "heqawaset," which would mean "Shepherd King of Thebes."e Amenhotep II had moved the capital of Egypt from Thebes to Heliopolis (On/Memphis) in Lower Egypt. His grandson and successor Amenhotep III moved it back to Thebes. However, both preferred to be thought of as shepherds of the people. In fact, these pharaohs become as one in the Biblical Solomon. Amenhotep II, as Biblical Jacob, is portrayed as the timid shepherd who ascended to heaven and consolidated the lands of Canaan and Egypt. Etana was able to consolidate the lands through his legal son and heir Bilah, the mighty hunter Nimrod (see Chapter 4). Amenhotep also would select a strong champion from among his sons, and bestow upon him the names of Thutmose and Nimrod. As a Thutmose, he would be expected to uphold the standard set by the warrior pharaohs Thutmose I and Thutmose III, who had preceded him. As the heir of the New Kingdom Etana, it was hoped that this son would be the one to reassert dominance over Mesopotamia. However, Thutmose IV was not able to fulfill this calling. He either died young or was assassinated, and was survived by his father Amenhotep II. Called from His Flocks In ancient times, the ideal king was one who was called from tending his flocks to lead the people. The Bible goes to great lengths to portray Jacob as a man who was a master shepherd. Not only did he care for the animals, but he also knew how to breed them to be strong and numerous. The author of the book of Samuel could also not resist applying this stereotype to the composite figure of King David. The kings understood breeding. They not only actively bred animals, but also considered themselves to be bred for kingship. The practice of royal incest guaranteed that each new generation of rulers could prove that their lineage "from the gods" was pure. However, the obsession with inbreeding was likely about more than the exclusive right to rule. They evidently also believed it would ultimately

226 improve their ability to rule. Inbreeding does not lead immediately to gross abnormalities. However, it does dramatically increase the probability that recessive traits (both advantageous and deleterious) will reoccur in any given generation. The family was prepared to cull and even kill royal offspring with negative or dangerous traits. After many generations of inbreeding, multiple recessive traits in rival royal sons (and daughters) would have made it difficult to judge their relative fitness to rule. Some recessive traits do not manifest themselves until adulthood and could not always be factored into the succession equation. Within a few generations of a new dynasty, sterility would also have become a problem resulting in fewer royal candidates to choose from. Increased sterility between royal couples made it necessary for a brother, uncle or even the father of the king to produce one or more heirs on the king's behalf in almost every new generation. The king and queen were not individually sterile. Kings created veritable nations through countless concubines, yet so often could not have children by their closely related royal wives. Younger brothers, half-brothers, and cousins who had ambitions of their own to rule would just as often be "evil," that is uncooperative in siring children on the behalf of their rival. Intrigue and betrayal must by definition have abounded as a result of this succession protocol. Jacob and Esau were already middle-aged men at the time of Isaac's imminent death. No doubt each had one or more undesirable traits that had plainly surfaced by that time. Examination of the royal mummies of the Egyptian New Kingdom reveals that the pharaohs were not model physical specimen. They were predisposed to skin and other diseases, arthritis, scoliosis and other bone disorders, male and female baldness, dental abscesses and buck teeth/overbites, etc. This does not include mental and nervous system disorders that cannot be discerned by visual inspection or X-rays of the mummies. The genes of these Pharaohs proliferated to the general population as a result of their numerous wives and concubines. The parents of Esau and Jacob deliberated for decades, and still could not decide which was the most fit to rule Egypt. The twin sons would have made ideal candidates for a double co-regency, as had been established between Amenemhet II and Sekemkare in the Middle Kingdom. However, Isaac (Thutmose III) not only rejected the idea of dual co-regency, but also the idea of co-regency itself. It must be suspected that there was some other issue other than the mental and physical stability of Jacob and Esau. Possibly, he had designated his son by Nefrure the daughter of Hatshepsut as his first successor, but there is no evidence that this son Amenemhat held the pharaonic titles of a crown prince. Likewise, the son of Thutmose III (David the younger) by the granddaughter of Senenmut (Bathsheba) is also thus far unattested. It was well into the sixth decade of rule before Amenhotep II was finally appointed. For over twenty years Thutmose III had shared power with Hatshepsut. This experience must have been so traumatic that it made him unwilling to share power with any of his three capable sons. Implementation of

227 the multiple-dynasty model would have to wait until the reign of the shepherd-king Amenhotep II. Egyptologists do not quite know what to think about the boasting of Amenhotep II over his own physical prowess. Barbara Mertz writes: "Thutmose III had driven an arrow nine inches out of the back of a copper target two inches thick; Amenhotep II drove his arrow clean through a target three inches thick. He trained his horses so ably that they did not sweat, even when galloping. He rowed a boat (with a 34-foot oar) four miles without stopping, and then landed it alone; his 200-man crew had collapsed long before. He could outrun anyone in Egypt, and no man could draw his bow."f Betsy M. Bryan writes: "Amenhotep's claims of excellence in equestrianism and boating are most unusual and therefore suggest a degree of historical accuracy - albeit with perhaps some exaggeration.g On the Sphinx stela Amenhotep II boasted of his boating, running, horsemanship, and archery. Decker's studyh of Amenhotep II's Sphinx stela argued that the use of athletic topoi was largely due to the importance of a ritualized youthful virility for a ruler at his coronation."i Cyril Aldred writes: "As a prince, Yey [Jacob ] held the appointment of Commander of the Chariotry (Master of the Horse) as did his father Yii [Isaac ]."j Alan Gardiner writes: "When he [Amenhotep II ] was eighteen years of age he was already an expert in all the art of Mont, the god of War."k If Amenhotep II's mummy has been correctly identified (and that is a big if), then he was the tallest of all the New Kingdom Pharaohs. However, the Bible indicates that he was by no means the most manly. If fact, the Bible reveals that the overdone inscriptions of Amenhotep II made after his much belated election as crown prince were indeed propaganda to overcome his perceived inferiority relative to his elder brother in this succession criterion. Jacob's Ladder Late in his 54-year reign, Thutmose III was finally ready to announce his decision regarding succession. The Bible implies that Jacob and Esau were summoned to appear before their father in Palestine. Jacob's psychological odyssey resumes even before he leaves Aram. Instead of risking a fight with his uncle Laban, the Bible records that Jacob chose to fly by night with his flocks, children and four

228 wives. Jacob is once again in character. Nevertheless, Laban pursues after him and a confrontation is unavoidable. Laban said to Jacob, "The god of your father said to me, Be careful not to say anything good or bad.' " Laban felt that he owned Jacob, but he feared Egypt and more specifically Isaac (Thutmose III). Therefore, he did not harm Jacob. The gods of their respective fathers Abraham and Nahor were invoked to enforce a covenant between them. An oath is further taken in the "name of the Fear of Isaac." This is an indication that Isaac was a very powerful ruler (and still living at the time), and not just a passive well digger. The "Fear of Isaac" is mentioned twice, once in verse 42 and again in verse 53. Speaking of Thutmose III, the Poetic Stela states, "the lands of Mitanni tremble for fear of you."l Jacob no sooner "crossed the River" Euphrates and out of Laban's land when his worried mind turned to appeasing his wrathful brother Esau. He decided to send messengers "ahead" to Esau in the land of Seir, the country of Edom. ShamashEdom was on the north side of the Euphrates, and Seir is also considered to be in NW Mesopotamia. Therefore, the location of the Seir mentioned here may be the Edom ("Red Land") of Lower Egypt. After the "summit meeting" with Thutmose III, Esau went "back" to Seir (Genesis 33). Only after Jacob became Pharaoh did Esau "separate" from him and go to the Seir in Mesopotamia (see Genesis 36). However, it must be said that the Bible's sense of direction in this passage is confusing. Possibly, Jacob and Esau were both biding their time in Aram prior to being summoned to Palestine, and Esau subsequently returned to NW Mesopotamia to take a lesser throne. Amenhotep may have had little or no contact with his father in the twenty years he spent among his royal relatives in Aram. It appears that Thutmose III had genuine doubts that Amenhotep was physically fit to rule at the time the decision was to be made. Even if Jacob as a youth had possessed the physical prowess to match a 6foot frame, he was still dwarfed by the raw aggressiveness of Esau. However, after a long night of intense testing, Amenhotep was declared successor, and given the kingly title of "Israel."m There are many ways to look at the name Israel, and the name likely captured more than one level of meaning. The interpretation that fits this particular passage best is "He Rules as God."n Thutmose III had restored an empire to the line of Senakhtenre (Terah). Amenhotep II would rule it as Divine King, and would honor his father Thutmose III who appointed him as El Elohe Israel (God, the God of Israel). Jacob calls his place of destiny by the name "Peniel/Penuel." Peniel means "face of God," and is symbolic of the tet-a-tet examination he received there from his deified father Isaac. It may have been a pun on the original name of the location, which was not preserved.o It was at Shechem that Abimelech (Thutmose I) was crowned as king of Israel. It is logical that Thutmose III would choose Shechem or a site nearby as the location to formally appoint his own successor. Genesis 33:18 (NIV) states: "After Jacob came from Padan Aram, he arrived safely at Shechem in Canaan and camped within sight of the city. Both Jacob and Esau were called to Shechem, but only one was to be chosen.

229 Prior to the Egyptian 18th Dynasty, there had been seven pharaohs named Inyotef (Ya-chob). There had also been a Yakub-her of the 15th Dynasty and a Yakob-aam of the 16th Dynasty. Therefore, it is not surprising that an 18th Dynasty pharaoh would also assume this name or identity. However, in the Bible, Amenhotep II was not called Yakub/Yachub, meaning "beloved of Ya," but Ya'aqob, "the grabber." If Esau had become pharaoh of Egypt, how would Jacob now be portrayed? Would he not have been vilified as the power "grabbing" Seth who attempted to seize the throne from the eldest son and true Horus, Esau, God's anointed? Amenhotep II had been called from Padam Aram and appointed co-regent. However, it was still not considered wise for him to take up residence in Egypt. Esau had gone "back" to the Edom/Seir in Egypt. As the Bible indicates, Esau possibly would not be required (or not choose) to leave Egypt for Seir in Mesopotamia until the death and burial of Thutmose III. "God," namely Thutmose III in this context, was not prepared to "fly to heaven" quite yet, therefore he commanded Jacob to "go up to Bethel and settle there." Upon Jacob's arrival in Beth-el, the Bible attributes a further confirmation by Thutmose III that Amenhotep II is to be the successor.p A blessing and "prophesy" is pronounced that Jacob will be the progenitor of a line of kings, and a community of nations. Amenhotep II did produce a large number of princes, and is the forefather of the following seven kings of the Egyptian 18th Dynasty. It will be shown in Part II of this book that he is also the great ancestor of the collateral line that became the 19th Dynasty Pharaohs. Over twenty years earlier at Bethel, Jacob "saw a stairway (or ladder) resting on the earth, with its top reaching to heaven, and the angels of God were ascending and descending on it. There above it stood the "Lord."q This was no dream, but a scene of his father Thutmose III officiating atop a stair stepped-temple. Thutmose III, in his divine role, had appeared to Jacob there and "spoke to him." Thutmose III was now directing him to go back to Bethel and build an altar at the site. It was Amenhotep II's (Jacob's) turn to play the divine role. Likewise, Etana (archetypal Shem) had been asked to "build the House' [ziggurat-temple ] that shall be the mountainhead for all the lands." By climbing the steps of this temple, Etana "ascended into heaven."r Gudea (Inyotef II), another role model of Amenhotep II, rebuilt the grand temple in Lagash of Mesopotamias and was a contributor to the rapid growth of the Amun temple at Karnak in Egypt. During the reign of Amenhotep II, plans for a new temple of Amun in Western Thebes (Malkatta) were initiated. This project was completed in the reign of his successor Amenhotep III. "Bethel" literally means the "House of El." There is not enough detail in the Biblical account to establish whether this holy place was at the traditional site of Bethel, in the environs of Shechem, or standing upon Mt. Moriah. In Genesis 33:18, some manuscripts read "Shalem, a city of Shechem in Canaan," rather than simply "Shechem in Canaan." However, it may not be appropriate to speak of Jerusalem as a city proper during the reign of Amenhotep II. Recent scholarship indicates that there was little more than a fortified shrine at the site during that time period.t However, archaeology of the Millo of Jerusalem does date its construction to the

230 Egyptian 18th Dynasty due to pottery finds in the fill. The Bible credits Solomon (Amenhotep III or his predecessor Amenhotep II) for construction of the Millo and the Jerusalem Temple. Nevertheless, as Ahmed Osman points out, the Bible is probably referring to construction in Thebes/Luxor, the Jerusalem of Egypt. After his election, Jacob tries to reconcile with the Canaanite king Hamor. The conflict of a previous generation between Abimelech (Thutmose I) and another (or far younger) Hamor is found in Judges 9:28. Jacob purchases land from Hamor, and agrees to give his daughter Dinah in marriage to Hamor's son Shechem. The always-wary Jacob is concerned about the "Canaanites and Perizites of this land," and once again he pursues a political rather than military solution. Nevertheless, his attempt at peacemaking is frustrated by his own sons Simeon and Levi. The name Simeon means, "hearing intelligently, discerning." It is an adaptation of his Egyptian name Siamun, a known son of Amenhotep II. Siamun means "Son of Amun." However, the Egyptian god of "divine knowledge" was Sia. This same god was also the protector of male genitalia! It was Simeon who demanded that the Shechemites be circumcised. The archaeological record alone indicates that Amenhotep II was a cruel man. In his Year 3 he executed a number of Syrian chiefs. He then paraded and publicly hanged their dead bodies in Egypt. The Bible suggests that Jacob could be severe, as in the discipline of his son Simeon (see below). However, these acts probably were not for sadistic pleasure, but for effect. Barbarism against the Syrian chiefs was used by Amenhotep as a psychological deterrent, and ensured that he would not need to campaign perennially as his father had. Amenhotep II tried to overcome doubts about his physical prowess with planning, perseverance, a liberal dose of propaganda, and the sparing use of capital punishment. Waiting to Exhale Renewed trouble with the Mitanni began early in the reign of Amenhotep II, and possibly even in the last years of Thutmose III's reign. This is a synchronism with Thutmose III's decision to name Amenhotep his successor very late in his long reign. At their awkward encounter in Palestine, Esau and Jacob embrace and "weep together," however Jacob as always remains completely on edge. No covenant is mentioned between the brothers. The Bible makes it explicit that Esau was bent on destruction and revenge after losing the birthright (i.e., the throne of Egypt) to his younger twin brother. Mitanni, rather than Egypt, was quickly becoming the family rump kingdom, and it became the consolation prize for Esau. Consistent with the Biblical report, archaeology indicates that Saussatar led the Mitanni on a rampage during the first nine years of Amenhotep's reign, and possibly beginning late in the reign of Thutmose III.u Syria and Lebanon, and especially the cities of Tyre, Byblos, Damascus and Beth Shemesh (Baalbek) were undoubtedly a very important part of the family heritage. Senakhtenre Tao I was remembered as "Lord of the West" in the Egyptian necropolis. It is not surprising that his sons in Canaan/Egypt would compete for

231 Syria and Lebanon with their "brothers" in Aram Naharaim of NW Mesopotamia. Serious bragging rights were at stake. Thutmose III had gained the upper hand. Amenhotep II fully understood that it was his duty to maintain the advantage. Thutmose III had little need for propaganda. His accomplishments stood for themselves and were for the most part soberly documented. The small man left behind very large sandals to fill. Amenhotep II must have felt intimated by such expectations. A treaty between Amenhotep II (Jacob) and Saussatar (Esau) did not occur until Year 9 or later of Amenhotep II's reign. Prior to this, Amenhotep led one or more campaigns across the Euphrates into a region referred to as "Shamash-Edom." Despite the well-oiled war machine bequeathed to him in Egypt by Thutmose III, Amenhotep was achieving only qualified success as a military leader. Indications are that he was actually losing territory to Saussatar. While encamped during his final campaign, Amenhotep was his ever-apprehensive self. A stela found at Memphis records that the anxious Amenhotep was visited in a dream at night by the god Amun and promised victory.v Saussatar did not have the resources to carry on a fight with Egypt, and also deal with a growing threat from the Hittites who were much closer to home. Donald Redford speculates that Saussatar wisely chose to eliminate one front through diplomacy. Esau chose to make peace with his brother Jacob rather than with a more distant relation ruling over the Hittites. Amenhotep fought against the Mitanni out of duty, and not for the love of warfare. When Saussatar called for a truce and renewed "brotherhood," Amenhotep was quick to accept. Amenhotep's inscription recording the sudden turn of events does not conceal his consummate elation at the cessation of hostilities. Kohath, a pseudonym of Jacob meaning "alliance," reflects Amenhotep's preferred method of progress. Perhaps, in his youth Amenhotep held his own as an athlete, but he certainly did not have the heart of a warrior. Amenhotep had "struggled with God and men," not because he wanted to, but because he was forced to. He had first earned the respect of his father. Now he had the respect of his belligerent brother. Moreover, Amenhotep II boasts that when other great sovereigns of the Near East heard of his treaty with Saussatar, they also sent their emissaries to "beg for the breath of life." Thutmose III had been relentless. When other Near Eastern monarchs learned how easily the new king of Egypt could be placated by entreaty, they were no doubt quick to follow Saussatar's suit. The impoverished rump kingdom of Senakhtenre had become one of the "Big Five" powers in the fractured Patriarchal family, the others being Babylon, Assyria, the Hittites (Hatti), and the Mitanni. Amenhotep's breathing was going to be a good bit easier for a while. The Old Lion and the Young Lion The inscription boasting of Mitanni's proposal for peace is dated to Amenhotep's 9th Year. The presentation of rich gifts to Amenhotep II followed, as well as the marriage of Saussatar's own granddaughter to Amenhotep's son Thutmose IV. This marriage suggests that Thutmose IV had already been designated as heir and probably appointed co-regent by Amenhotep's Year 9. While still a young prince in

232 Memphis, Thutmose IV was out riding in his chariot and stopped to rest beside the Sphinx. In the shadow of the ancient monument, Thutmose had a "vision" of its patron god Re-Herakhty. He was instructed to clear the sand from the base of the Sphinx. By this act he would ensure his succession as the next pharaoh of Egypt, although he was not the eldest son of his father. Thutmose later placed a stela between the cleared paws of the Sphinx to document his moment of destiny. An excerpt reads: "I am your father Horemmakhet-Khepri-Ra-Atum. I shall give to you the kingship [on the land before the living ]. You shall wear its white crown and its red crown on the throne of Geb, the heir."w The Biblical interpretation proposed here is that a "vision" of God was an appearance of the ruling Patriarch or other high-ranking royal person in their appointed role as God's earthly representative. The inscription of Thutmose IV is an example of this tradition from the world of archaeology. Thutmose IV claims that he was promised kingship by no less than his father Re-Herakhty. However, in a practical sense, matters of succession would have been the prerogative of his earthly father Amenhotep II. Egyptologists are perplexed that Merit-Amon (Rachel) was the Chief Royal Wife of Amenhotep II, however his successor Thutmose IV (Judah) was the son of his second wife Tia (Leah). This mystery is resolved by the Biblical narrative! Joseph was the favored son of the favored wife, however a son by the elder wife Leah (Tia) was given priority with regard to succession. According to the Bible, Judah's three elder brothers had already disgraced themselves prior to the death of Isaac and succession of Jacob. This made Judah (Thutmose IV) the new heir apparent. At the Sphinx, Amenhotep II had placed the plaque boasting of his own strength and worthiness of kingship. He chose this location to appoint the strongest of his own sons as his successor. And with it came a formidable challenge - the mighty "Young Lion" was to free the "Old Lion." Through this accomplishment, Thutmose would justify his father's decision to make him co-regent. Jacob's protracted struggle with Esau must have motivated him to name Judah as co-regent early in his reign in order to prevent the recurring royal nightmare from devastating his own house. The event at the Sphinx and the stela that commemorated it no doubt earned Thutmose the nickname of "Lion of Judah." It is also a title that later became assimilated into messianic tradition.x A Tale of Two Brothers Judah was designated as successor. Nevertheless, Joseph, as the eldest son of Jacob's favored wife remained an object of considerable contempt to his brothers.y After an attempt was made on Joseph's life, he was rescued by Judah and brought to the royal court of Judah in Lower Egypt. Rather than buying Joseph, "Ishmaelite traders" would have been paid to transport him. Alternatively, the involvement of Ishmaelites (Babylonians) may represent compositing of material associated with the life of archetypal Joseph (Yousef/Inyotef IV) in the Egyptian Middle Kingdom. In the New Kingdom, Joseph was appointed by the dreaming pharaoh Thutmose IV.

233 In the Middle Kingdom, Joseph was likely rescued by Amenemhet II (MahalalelJudah), but he was appointed Vizier by a later pharaoh, Amenemhet III (see Chapter 9). Amenemhet III is given the name Helem ("a dream") in 1 Chronicles 7:35. Joseph would later say, "God sent me here (to Egypt) to save lives."z However, he was himself rescued in order to produce an heir for his brother. Jacob's final blessing of Joseph states that Joseph was spared "because of the hand of the Mighty One of Jacob, because of the Shepherd, the Rock of Israel." "Divine intervention" rescued Joseph from his murderously jealous brothers and brought him to the house of "Potiphar" in Lower Egypt.aa The Biblical title Potiphar (Pot-i-Phar) is equivalent to that of the earlier Abimelech (Ab-i-Melech), and signifies "Father of the Pharaoh" rather than "Father of the King." The birthright had been transferred to Judah (Thutmose IV) over his three elder brothers. The pleasure of fathering the next king of Egypt was now all his. Often, the heir was not officially appointed as co-regent until they had first produced an heir of their own. This avoided succession problems, at least partly. At the time of Joseph's arrival in the Delta, Thutmose had as yet not produced that heir. At question is whether Thutmose was ready to give up and defer to Joseph at this time. The wife of Judah (Potiphara) was certainly eager for another brother to perform the duty. As noted in Chapter 14, the designated heiress was also under intense pressure to have children. The confusion can be sorted out by recognizing the typecasting of Yuya as Joseph. The first major event in the life of Joseph was his rescued from the well by Judah. As in the story of Etana, this is a clear indication that Judah needed by him to produce an heir. The selfish thing for Joseph to have done was not give his brother an heir for his kindness. The obedience of Joseph was demonstrated in his willingness to yield both to Judah and to his desperate wife. It was also the prudent thing to do considering that princes were sometimes killed for not cooperating with this process. Secondly, we must understand the life story of the archetypal Joseph, Inyotef IV of the Middle Kingdom. The earlier Joseph produced a common heir for both Judah (Amenemhet II) and for Jacob (Senusret II). This heir, Auibre Hor, was later disgraced, which led to troubles for Inyotef IV as well. The imprisonment of Inyotef IV was in a sense a consequence of having been the father of that fallen heir. However, Inyotef was later pardoned by Amenemhet III and made vizier. Yuya, the New Kingdom Joseph, was both obedient and successful in siring an heir on behalf of his brother Judah (Thutmose IV). Nevertheless, it was still necessary for him to endure a symbolic imprisonment before being named vizier. Otherwise, the repetition would not be fulfilled. In the story of the birth of Isaac (Thutmose IV) in Genesis 20, Abimelech (Thutmose I) also was subjected to a mock punishment, even though he was successful in siring an heir for Abraham (Djehuty) through Sarah (Isis). However, in the case of Yuya, his punishment was more specific, and served to complete his identification with the archetypal Joseph. After "arousing" suspicions, Joseph was assigned creative if not procreative work as an "intelligence officer" in the state prison. The imprisonment of the earlier Joseph was likely not feigned. Not even the cupbearer, who was no doubt a close

234 relation, dared to drop his name back at the royal court! The cupbearer was typically a royal person. For example, Parennefer, the cupbearer of Akhenaten was afforded his own tomb. Just prior to the account of Joseph and Potiphera, an earlier example of "divine adultery" is inserted into the narrative. The story of Judah and Tamar provides a tutorial on the protocol of the royal court regarding the production of heirs, and how that protocol was sometimes pre-empted. The wife of this earlier Judah is named as a daughter of Shua, that is Terah. This serves to identify the "Judah" of this Genesis interlude as Nahor son of Terah/Shua. Nahor was more physically aggressive and also more successful in fatherhood than his elder brother Abraham. For these reasons, Nahor was more greatly "praised," i.e., favored, by Terah. However, the three sons of Nahor by his wife Bathshua ("daughter of Shua") were having difficulty in producing heirs of their own. These sons of Nahor (Judah the elder) are listed in 1 Chronicles 2:3 as Er, Onan, and Shelah. In Gen. 22:24, Bathshua is called Reumah, and her sons are given the symbolic names of Tebah ("something slaughtered"), Gaham ("to burn") and Thahash. Note that Milcah is considered the primary wife of Nahor in Genesis, and Reumah is called a "concubine." However, in Chronicles, it is the three sons of Reumah that are featured. Milcah and her eight sons are not even mentioned. However, in each genealogy, the first two sons of Nahor and Bathshua/Reumah were put to death. The "wickedness" of these sons was in their selfish refusal to provide the heiress Tamar with children. Nahor then decided to withhold Tamar from his youngest son Shelah/Thahash (the historical pharaoh Ahmose, see Chapter 12, Notes 5 & 6). Instead, he produced the heirs Perez (Thutmose II) and Zerah (Senenmut) through Tamar (Mutnofret/Hatnofer) himself. Another of Nahor's monikers was Zur,ab which may have led to a play on words with zuwr (2114), connoting "adulterer." It was Nahor's "adultery" with Tamar that is preserved in the Biblical story of Judah and Tamar in Genesis 39. As demonstrated in Chapters 7 & 8, there were earlier prominent Judah figures. In the 11th Dynasty, Rimush, the son and successor of Sargon, was called Judah. In the 12th Dynasty, pharaoh Amenemhet II (Patriarch Mahalalel) plays the role of Judah. The tradition of Tamar and Judah (the "praised") son of Shua/Terah was inserted into the narrative of Judah son of Jacob in Genesis 38 for the sole purpose of interpreting the "temptation of Joseph" that follows in Genesis 39. Difficulty in producing an heir is a recurring theme with the Patriarchs. As we have seen, royal sons were typically married to their half-sisters. Isaac and Jacob were married to cousins from Naharaim, only because sisters were not available. The Royal Wife of Thutmose IV was also either a sister or cousin. Thutmose IV fully understood that if he was not capable of producing male and female heirs, then the right would later, if not sooner, be transferred to one of his brothers, especially Yuya (Joseph). After Joseph had languished for two years in the prison system, Thutmose IV was named co-regent. It is possible that Thutmose was appointed after producing a

235 qualified royal son through a minor wife (other than Potiphera). However, his father Amenhotep II may have chosen to confer the status of co-regent for diplomatic reasons. In about Year 9, Amenhotep II (Jacob) and Saussator (Esau) renewed their brotherhood. The granddaughter of Saussatar was given to Thutmose IV in marriage. It may have been necessary to give Thutmose IV pharaonic titles at this time in order to avoid the risk of incurring Saussatar's indignation once more. With the crowning of Thutmose, Yuya was released from prison duty and summarily appointed by Thutmose IV as his Vizier. Again, in fulfillment of the Joseph typecasting, Yuya administered the vastness of the Egyptian Delta and began preparations for an expected famine. He was also at this time given Asenath (Tuya) to be his wife. Asenath, we are told was the daughter (or junior "sister") of Potiphera, the former temptress of Joseph!ac Paybacks are Hell Joseph learned a lesson in humility and was thereafter exalted at the right hand of his brother the pharaoh. Yet, he could not resist using his newfound authority to settle an old account. He soon came up with a plan to pay back Simeon (Siamun) for his treachery. Three entire chapters of the Bible are devoted to it (Gen. 42-45). Archetypal Joseph, Inyotef IV, would have had opportunity for revenge before the death of his father Senusret II and the exile of his son Au-ibre. However, this Biblical episode has a distinctly New Kingdom flavor and may have been more than a variation on a theme in the life of archetypal Joseph. The grieving of the second Jacob, Amenhotep II, for Yuya was likely not staged. Perhaps Amenhotep II did not know initially that Yuya was not dead, but had been taken to Egypt by Thutmose IV (Judah). However, secrets don't stay secrets long in a large family. At some point Amenhotep II must have been informed of what had really happened far away from the royal court at Dotham, and agreed to go along with Yuya's idea of revenge. Judging from the passion with which Jacob "protagonized," Amenhotep II may have even come up with the idea himself. Reuben and Judah, who first acted to save Joseph from Simeon, volunteered to play leading roles again in the sequel. Possibly, Simeon was the only one who was not in on this practical joke with a bite, and was the sole object of the vendetta. In the narrative, Reuben and Judah do all the talking for the brothers. This is part of the "set up." After his sons had made two trips to the Delta, Jacob was still not satisfied that Simeon had been sufficiently punished. Joseph also seemed committed to making him suffer in prison awhile longer. However emotion finally overwhelmed Joseph and he called an end to the game of revenge. Reduced to Servitude The latter years of Amenhotep II and Thutmose IV were uneventful from an archaeological standpoint. However, they certainly were not from a Biblical and historical perspective. For Amenhotep, there was one more bitter struggle to endure. A devastating famine shifted the emphasis from the niceties of foreign diplomacy to one of death defying resolve. At the end of his life, Jacob is portrayed

236 in the Bible as in poor health and poor spirits. The famine of the time forced noble and ignoble alike to go on the move. According to Egyptian records, Amenhotep II and Thutmose IV deported over 80,000 Canaanites. (Donald Redford, Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times, pp 165, 208.) This interpretation of the Biblical and archaeological record reveals that the mass deportations of Amenhotep II's reign were compelled more by starvation than military campaigning. The people came to Lower Egypt to buy food. When their money and land was gone, they sold themselves into slavery in order to survive. Amenhotep II is known to have maintained several residences in Lower Egypt. However, the famine described in the Bible may have motivated him to shift the primary residence of the royal court from Thebes in Upper Egypt to Memphis and the Delta. In Gen. 46:28, Jacob sends Judah ahead of the convoy to get "directions." However, we now know that Thutmose IV was the last of the brothers who needed directions in Lower Egypt! The Israelites are given the "the best part of the land" of Lower Egypt, the "district of Rameses, as Pharaoh directed." The extended family of Jacob were the nobles of the land, therefore it is only to be expected that they would be apportioned the choicest property. Upon their arrival in the Delta, Jacob blesses Pharaoh, which is also appropriate, because the Pharaoh is his own son and co-regent Thutmose IV. In Genesis 46:3 (NIV), Thutmose IV speaks to his father in the prophetical tense, and in a divine sense: " I am God, the God of your father,' he said. Do not be afraid to go down to Egypt for I will make you into a great nation there. I will surely bring you back again. And Joseph's own hand will close your eyes.' " As a young man, Thutmose IV was blessed with a "vision" from his father at the Sphinx. Thutmose IV now returns the favor. As the "incarnation" of Jacob's own father Thutmose III, and whose name he also shares, he makes reassurances to Amenhotep II. Jacob will be brought back to Thebes and buried with Abraham, Isaac, and Leah in the Valley of the Kings. However, it is Joseph who is to "shut his eyes." This is another indication that Thutmose IV predeceased his father Amenhotep II. Because of Joseph (Yuya) and Judah (Thutmose IV), Amenhotep II is credited with "consolidating the lands" of Egypt. The people were forced to sell not only their fields, but also their souls to Pharaoh. The Bible actually boasts that the people were "reduced to servitude."ad They had been saved only to be enslaved. Little did the Patriarchs realize the price that they would pay for this fast fortune and the totalitarian control that they had so cleverly acquired. All the wealth of Egypt and that of surrounding regions was transferred to the coffers of the crown. When the draught ended, Egypt possessed a prodigious work force and a perennial tax base. This tribute began pouring in at the beginning of the reign of the child king Amenhotep III, and was used to finance his ubiquitous palaces and iniquitous pleasures.

237 The Birthright Belonged to Joseph If Thutmose IV was appointed co-regent between Year 9 and Year 12 of Amenhotep's twenty-six year reign, then the death of Thutmose would have occurred between Year 18 and Year 21 of his father. The birth of Amenhotep III must have coincided very closely with the passing of Thutmose, because Amenhotep III was only a child of about five years of age upon his succession. We do know that Yuya and Tuya were the parents of the heiress Tiye, the Royal Wife of Amenhotep III. At issue is the parentage of Amenhotep III. Genesis 49:10 (KJV) states: "The sceptre shall not pass from Judah (Thutmose IV) until Shiloh (Amenhotep III) comes (reigns)." This seems to indicate that Amenhotep rejected the idea of naming Yuya co-regent upon the death of Thutmose IV. Instead, the decision of Amenhotep II was to declare his grandson Amenhotep III to be his next successor. Egyptologists are not certain which of several princesses was the Chief Royal Wife of Thutmose IV and the designated heiress, however Mutemwiya is the most popular choice. Mutemwiya became the mother of Amenhotep III. It was once thought that she had been of Mitanni origin. If she had also been the granddaughter of Saussatar, this would not have been exceptional. Rebekah (Hatshepsut-Meryetre/Beketre), Rachel (Merit-Amon), and Leah (Tia) had also been brought from Aram Naharaim in previous generations. The granddaughter of Saussatar would have been the daughter of his son Aratama. Aratama was in turn the cousin of Thutmose, and therefore still very closely related to him. However, Egyptologists now believe that Mutemwiya was not the Mitanni bride of Thutmose IV. 1 Chronicles 5:2 (NIV) states: "Though Judah was the strongest of his brothers and a ruler came from him, the rights of the firstborn belonged to Joseph." Jacob's final words regarding Joseph included "blessings of breast and womb."ae It appears that this extended to Mutemwiya, and that Joseph was the biological father of Amenhotep III. Yuya held the Egyptian title of "Father of the God." In other words, the title of Potiphar was transferred from Judah to Joseph. As with Abimelech (Thutmose I), the son that Yuya fathered was not any ordinary pharaoh, but THE pharaoh Amenhotep III. Amenhotep III who was known as "The King of Kings" in ancient times. Therefore, the title of Potiphar would be, in retrospect, more than appropriate for the man who sired him, and reflects the Biblical statement that Joseph was made "father to Pharaoh."af Thutmose IV was considered the legal father of Amenhotep III by virtue of his status as pharaoh and husband of the heiress. In the following chapter, it will be demonstrated that Thutmose IV sired a son named Aye through Asenath (Tuya). While this son and future ruler was the natural son of Thutmose, he was considered the legal son of Yuya. This relationship will be analyzed further in the next chapter. The Acid Test

238 This is one bold Biblical theory that will be scientifically supported! DNA testing will prove that Thutmose I is the father of Thutmose III. Yuya will be identified as the son of Amenhotep II and Merit-Amon, and the half-brother of Thutmose IV. Yuya likely will also be identified as the father of the mummy labeled Amenhotep III. It should be noted that experts believe that this mummy may not be that of Amenhotep III, but could actually be that of Akhenaten or even Amenhotep II. If the mummies of the 18th Dynasty Pharaohs were mislabeled in antiquity, then the associations presented here along with DNA testing will help us to correctly reidentify them. Bones of Contention The Patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and Joseph were all buried in the Valley of the Kings in Egypt. Their identities as Egyptian 18th Dynasty royalty has been demonstrated. With the possible exception of Abraham, we have what remains of their "bones." However, it was discussed in Chapter 8 that the bones of the archetypal Joseph (Yousef/Inyotef IV) could very well have been buried in Shechem of Palestine as the Book of Joshua records. It should now be possible to finally put this issue to rest! Exodus Four generations after Abraham is the time of the second Moses and his Exodus! The birth of Yuya's son Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) marks the fourth generation from the time of Abraham. From the Biblical perspective the five generations are Abraham-Levi-Kohath-Amram-Moses, or alternatively, Abraham-Isaac-JacobJoseph-Moses. From the standpoint of Egyptian history they represent DjehutyThutmose III-Amenhotep II-Yuya-Akhenaten. With Akhenaten, we are entering the madness that was the Amarna Period. A proof linking Akhenaten to Biblical Moses is presented in the following essay. Conclusions To borrow a quote from Thomas Thompson's commentary on the story of Joshua in The Bible in History, "We simply cannot escape the discomfort of this glimpse of the author laughing at us." Yes, the joke is on us as well. And I suspect that if the Patriarchs knew of our suffering, they like Joseph would also cry with us. The authors of the original Biblical narratives achieved their purposes. They preserved extremely intimate and controversial family history for those privileged to know. They disguised this same history as children's stories for those who were not entitled to understand the deeper meaning. However, not in their wildest imaginations could they have anticipated that the nave reading of these accounts would become the foundation of Western culture! We have been terribly fooled, but how can we feel betrayed by the Biblical authors? We have been led astray by our own lust for greatness and immortality. The Bible in its final form was adopted by all manner of persons with manifold purposes. Tragically, without those misplaced interpretive keys, the Bible was reduced to the realm of literary fantasy and cruel

239 theology. And yet, now that it has become academically acceptable to think of the Bible in such terms,ag we learn that the Bible is a highly accurate source of history after all. Perhaps some good has come of all the religious folly of the past centuries. It has been possible for Egyptology to progress somewhat independently of the fanaticism that has engulfed the field of Biblical Archaeology in Israel. Egyptian history has largely not been viewed as Biblical history. We have been searching for the Patriarchs within ancient Egypt, and have not found them. No one suspected that the Biblical line of Adam ruled Mesopotamia and Egypt from time immemorial. And certainly no one could ever have guessed that from the 11th Dynasty, Biblical Israel WAS historical Egypt. So, Egypt has been spared some trampling by tourists and adventurers, which otherwise would have resulted in far greater destruction of artifacts and inscriptions. Moreover, a much more objective synthesis of the archaeological record and Biblical accounts is now possible. The true victims of the Bible's approach to preserving history have been the Jews themselves. Their forebears who carefully encrypted and jealously guarded the family traditions could not have pictured the suffering that would arise when the ability to interpret the symbolism was lost. Whatever sins the Patriarchal family committed have plagued their descendants, as well as Gentile proselytes, beyond a hundred generations. The Jews have carried the burden of being a "chosen people," but denied the knowledge of who it was that chose them and why. And when the Patriarchs finally did return through archaeology, they were unwelcome to reclaim their place as ancestors or spiritual role models. Their monumental facts and mummified faces have been known for over a century. However the Biblical makeover was so sweet and our acceptance of it so complete that they remained unrecognizable. Any comparison to their Biblical representations was found repulsive and repressed anew.

a. Cornelius, The Secret Language of the Stars and Planets, p 57. b. Alan Gardiner, Egypt of the Pharaohs, p 175; Bull. Inst. F. xxvii. 159 ff.; L. Borchardt, Geschichte der Zeitmessung, Berlin, 1920 Pl. 18. c. Peter Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, p 112. d. Ralph Ellis (Jesus, Last of the Pharaohs, pp 105-108. e. Ibid. f. Temples, Tombs and Hieroglyphs, p 202. g. P. der Manuelian, Studies in the Reign of Amenophis II, 1987, pp 191-214, Hildesheimer Agyptologische Beitrage 26, Hildesheim: Gerstenberg. h. W. Decker, "Sportliche Elemente im altagyptischen Kronungsritual Uberlegungen zur Sphinx-Stelle Amenophis II," 1977, Studien zur Altagyptischen Kultur 5:1-20. i. "Amenhotep II: The Athlete and Soldier Makes Peace," in Amenhotep III, Perspectives on His Reign, pp 32-39.

240 j. Akhenaten King of Egypt, p 140. Parentheticals [] mine. Yuya (Joseph) would receive the title in the generation following Yey. k. Egypt of the Pharaohs, p 198. l. Jan Assmann, The Mind of Egypt, p 149. m. Genesis 32:28 n. Osman, House of the Messiah, p 96. o. See also Judges 8:8 p. Genesis 35:11 q. Genesis 28:12-13 r. Z. Sitchin, When Time Began, p 87. s. S.N. Kramer, The Sumerians, p 67. t. Thomas Thompson, The Bible in History, 1999. u. D. Redford, "Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times. v. Alan Gardiner, Egypt of the Pharaohs, p 203. w. Translated by B.M. Bryan, The Reign of Thutmose IV, 1991, Johns Hopkins University Press. x. Revelation 5:5 y. Gen. 37:3-8 z. Genesis 45:7; 50:20 aa.Gen. 39:1 bb.1 Chron. 8:30 cc. Gen 41:45 dd.Genesis 47:21 (KJV) ee.Genesis 49:25 ff. Genesis 45:8 gg.Popularized by "minimalist" researchers such as Phillip Davies and Thomas Thompson.

Living in Truth:

Archaeology and the Patriarchs Chapter 16


"Surest Signs of Piety" (Comparisons between Pharaoh Akhenaten, Biblical Moses and Greek Oedipus)
by Charles N. Pope Copyright 1999-2002 by Charles Pope United States Library of Congress All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions

Introduction In the modern era, Sigmund Freud was the first to explore an association between Akhenaten and Moses. His study was published in 1939 under the title Moses and

241 Monotheism. However, Freud rejected the notion of his protg Karl Abraham that Akhenaten was also Oedipus of the Greek traditions memorialized by Sophocles, Euripides and Aeschylus. The connection between Akhenaten and Oedipus was not seriously pursued again until Immanuel Velikovsky published his Oedipus and Akhenaten in 1960. This work is still extremely valuable, and presents archaeological evidence that is not found elsewhere in the published literature. Unfortunately, Velikovsky rejected the possibility that Akhenaten and Moses could also have been one and the same. In his chronology, Moses and Akhenaten were not even contemporaries. Two steps forward and one step back. Ahmed Osman's 1990 title Moses: Pharaoh of Egypt brought the correspondence between Akhenaten and Moses once again under scholarly and popular consideration. By this time Velikovsky's research had fallen into obscurity along with the largely discredited main corpus of his work. However, beginning in France in 1985, the third generation Freudian Psychoanalyst William Theaux had begun calling for a new synthesis of Oedipus with Moses, and with the archaeology of Akhenaten. In 1994, Dr. Theaux established an English language web site, http://www.akhnaton.com, to encourage greater international interest in the subject. In 1999, he organized a Forum at the United Nations and a public seminar in New York City. This chapter is based on a presentation that I made at the public seminar. It discusses some of the many correlations between the Oedipus Plays, the Biblical account of Moses, and the archaeology of Akhenaten. Trade between Egypt and the Aegean is confirmed from the Egyptian 4th Dynasty onward, although the significance is debated.a In the Egyptian New Kingdom, there was renewed contact. Objects of Amenhotep III and Queen Tiye were found in the Aegean and suggest an interest in Egyptian affairs.b Likewise, the great abundance of Greek pottery found in Egypt during the Amarna Period, and especially at Akhet-aten, attests to a fascination with Greek culture. The dynamics that led to a naturalization of Egyptian history in Greece are not explored here. Only a comparison of textual sources with Egyptian archaeology is attempted. Name Associations Biblical Name(s) Isaac, David Jacob Rachel Joseph, Amram, Reuel Jochebed, Zipporah, Bithia Solomon, Shiloh Jethro, Ithra, Jether Aaron, Hobab Greek Name(s) Lab-dacidae Lab-dakos Polydoros? Laius, Menoikeus Jocaste/Iocaste, Merope, Athene, Eurdice Polybos/Polybus Creon Aegeus, (Kith)Airon Egyptian Name(s) Thutmose III Amenhotep II Merit-Amon Yuya, Imram Tiye, Maat Amenhotep III Aye Aanen, Meryre I

242 Phineas Hur (Chur) Moses, Balak, Shammai Eliezer Gershom, Joshua, Balaam Miriam Zaham Ithamar City of Ramses No On Polyneices, Megareus Choragos Oedipus Eteocles I Eteocles II Euryganeia? Antigone Ismene Theseus Adrastus Argos Thebes Athens Colonus Dorian Delphi Corinth Pa-Nahesy II Haremhab / Horemheb Amenhotep IV/ Akhenaten Smenkhare Tutankhamun Nefertiti Ankhesenamen Mutnodjme Aper-el Ramses I Zarw / Pi-Ramses Thebes Akhet-aten On / Heliopolis from On / Heliopolis Memphis Karnak

Gilead The Family of God

The mother of Moses is named in the Bible as Jochebed. This name means "nobility of Jo/Yah." The mother of Oedipusc in Greek tradition is named as Jocaste, which has an identical meaning, "nobility of Jo/Yah"). From archaeology, the mother of the pharaoh Akhenaten is Queen Tiye. Tiye was the daughter of Prime Minister Ya.1 Ya or Yuya as it was more commonly spelled, was identified in the previous chapter as the Biblical Joseph. Therefore, Tiye, the mother of Akhenaten, also derived her nobility from "Jo/Yah." Could Jochebed of the Bible and Jocaste of the Greek plays both be representations of the historical Queen Tiye? To quote Sophocles, "Judgments formed too quickly are dangerous."d This is a delicate matter and certainly of critical importance to theology and the personal faith of millions of people worldwide. In the second play, Oedipus at Colonus, Oedipus is said to have been of the line of Labdakos and Labdacidae.e These names are not of Greek origin, but transliterations of foreign names. Moreover, they are not simple names but compound. When written as Lab-Dakos and Lab-Dacidae the ancestry of Oedipus becomes easily recognizable. Biblical Moses was the son of Joseph (see Chapter 8). Joseph was in turn the son of Jacob by Rachel, a daughter of Laban. It follows that Lab-Dakos is a corrupted form of Laban-Jacob, which well describes the lineage of Biblical Joseph, and therefore also of Moses. Dacidae is an obvious corruption of the Hebrew name David. David of the Kings/Chronicles narrative corresponds to Isaac father of Jacob in the Genesis narrative (see Chapter 12). A generation before Jacob, Isaac married the sister of Laban. The Greek LabDacidae is then a form of the Hebrew Laban-David.

243 The names given to characters in the Biblical Exodus account are generic. They were deliberately chosen to represent historical persons both in the time of the first Moses (Auibre/Hammurabi of the Late Middle Kingdom) and the time of the second Moses (Akhenaten of the Amarna Period). In previous chapters, it was shown that Yuya father of Akhenaten was only the second Joseph. The archetypal Joseph was Inyotef IV of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom. In Chapter 8, it was also shown that the first Joshua was Abi-eshuuh, the second successor of Hammurabi. The second Joshua was Tutankhamun, who was in turn the second successor of Akhenaten. The first Aaron was revealed as Sabium/Amenemhet IV and the first Phineas as Pa-Nehesy. In this chapter, the Egyptian identities of the second Aaron and second Phineas will be discussed. Unlike the Torah, the Oedipus plays only memorialize the second Moses and his contemporaries. Tiye's father Yuya (Joseph II) is regaled by numerous titles in his tomb. Surprisingly, a large percentage of these titles emphasize personal friendship with the King and God. Included among these formal titles are, "Great Friend," "Sole Friend," "First of Friends," "Confidant of the Good God," "Confidant of the King," and "First Among the King's Companions." The first name given in the Bible for the father-in-law of Moses is Reuel. This name Reuel literally means "Friend of God," and corresponds directly to the titles of Yuya. Reuel is also named explicitly as the father of Zipporah, Moses' wife. Zipporah is not any ordinary wife, but the mother of the heirs of Moses. The implication is that Yuya (Biblical Joseph/Reuel) was the father of Tiye (Zipporah, Jochebed), and that Tiye was the mother and wife of Akhenaten (Moses). Based on these stunning associations alone, the subject proof linking Akhenaten, Moses and Oedipus could reasonably end here. Yet, the correlations are far more extensive. In Exodus 2, Reuel is named as the first father-in-law of Moses. Starting abruptly with Exodus 3, the father-in-law is renamed as Jethro. Although, Jethro is not named as the father of Zipporah, he is commonly presumed to be one and the same as Reuel. But is he? One form of the name Jethro (Heb. Yithrow/Yether) is given in the Hebrew as Ithra. This form is obviously Egyptian in origin, and literally translates as "increase of Ra." In the Oedipus play, the brother of Jocaste and uncle/brother-in-law of Oedipus is named as Creon. This name can be literally translated as "increase of On." Of course, On (Heliopolis in Egypt) was the cult center of the sun god Ra. Jethro and Creon are therefore equivalent names, and correspond to the historical person of Aye, the brother of Tiye. Aye followed in his father Yuya's footsteps and became the leading vizier in Egypt. He later became pharaoh in his own right upon the death of Tutankhamun. The characterization of Creon is very strong in the three Oedipus plays and confirms that he corresponds to Tiye's brother Aye. Incidentally, another son of Reuel is mentioned in the Bible in Numbers 10:29. His name is Hobab, which means "to hide." Hobab is related linguistically to the name of Aanen,f the son of Yuya and Tuya.g Aanen held the highly influential posts of High Priest of On and second priest of the state god Amun in the reign of Amenhotep III. Amun was known as the "Hidden God" in ancient Egypt, and is still

244 today alluded to in Christian, Muslim and Jewish prayers, i.e., "Amen." Sophocles records that Oedipus (Akhenaten) was hidden in the hills of Kith-Airon {Aanen/Aaron } as a child. As a son of Reuel, Hobab (Aanen) would also be the brother of Zipporah (Tiye) and Jethro (Aye). Moreover, the Bible states in Judges 4:11 that Hobab is the brother-in-law of Moses. This further establishes Akhenaten's dynastic marriage to his mother Tiye. In Chapter 8, it was shown that the first Moses, Wa-ibre (Hammurabi) was the son of the first Joseph, Inyotef IV. However, the Bible states that the father of Moses was not Joseph, but Amram. Ahmed Osman points out that Akhenaten also acknowledged "Imram" to be his divine father in his cartouche (see Note 1). Therefore, Imram/Amram was an alias that represented the deified Yuya (Joseph II). The hands of Yuya's mummy were posed in an unusual manner, and indicate that he himself was the intended object of worship. The Bible also states that Joseph ruled Egypt as Pharaoh's "double," was subordinate to Pharaoh only in the throne, and that Egyptian subjects were commanded to "bow the knee" before him.h In the Oedipus plays, Yuya corresponds to the character of Laius, who is said to be a deceased ruler. The name Laius and his characterization can indicate a high "official," i.e., a prime minister, one who ruled in a civilian capacity. Therefore, the textual and archaeological sources are telling us that Akhenaten was not the son of Amenhotep III (and he never claims to have been), but the son of Yuya (Imram/Amram). Jan Assmann also notes on pages 35-36 of "Moses the Egyptian" that in Pompeius Trogus' Historicae Philippicae Moses is identified as the son of Joseph. So there is confirmation of this direct relationship by a historian in ancient times, as well. This also supports the interpretation that the second Joseph (Yuya) was yet living when disrespected by the pharaoh "who knew him not." See additional detail below and in Note 1. There are two leading women in the life of Biblical Moses. One is his wife Zipporah who is the mother of his two sons. The other is his sister Miriam. Miriam corresponds far more closely to Akhenaten's sister-wife Nefertiti. (Meryet/Merit was the generic name in Egypt for the royal heiress.) Nefertiti had initial status, as did Biblical Miriam, but was later disgraced. Biblical Miriam was stricken with leprosy for objecting to Moses' Cushite wife (see discussion below), and according to the Biblical account was not even mourned by the Israelites upon her death.i This was in spite of her inspirational role in leading the Israelites in celebration after their escape through the sea. Nefertiti features prominently in all of Akhenaten's temples, both in Thebes and at Akhet-aten. However, upon the death of Amenhotep III (in Year 12 of Akhenaten's co-regency), Nefertiti is subordinated to Tiye, and so much so that some Egyptologists have concluded that she may have even died at that very same time. Nevertheless, she is identified in a mural depicting the funeral of her daughter Mekataten in Akhenaten's Year 14. In the Bible, Miriam is still very much alive after the Exodus (of Akhenaten's Year 17), and after the departure from Mt. Sinai (in

245 Year 18). (Note: Although Egyptologists believe that Akhenaten died in his Year 17, Ahmed Osman presents evidence in Moses: Pharaoh of Egypt that articles dated as late as Year 21 of Akhenaten have been found in Egypt.) There is some consensus among Egyptologists that Aye was the father of Nefertiti and therefore the father-in-law of Akhenaten by virtue of his marriage to Nefertiti. The Bible would confirm this by naming Jethro as (a second) father-in-law to Moses. The historical Nefertiti corresponds closely to the Biblical Miriam, the "sister" of Moses, and not to Zipporah. Moreover, when we superimpose the textual accounts onto the historical genealogy of Akhenaten, it is clear that Reuel and Jethro are two different persons. Reuel (Yuya) is the father of Zipporah (Tiye), and Jethro (Aye) is the father of Miriam (Nefertiti). Jethro (Aye) is also the brother of Zipporah (Tiye) and Hobab (Aanen). The Bible states that Jochebed bore Miriam, Moses and Aaron for Amram.j According to Israelite custom and the protocol of the royal court, they were not necessarily all sired by Amram. Miriam (Nefertiti), as indicated by archaeology and implied in the Bible, was fathered by Jethro (Aye) on Amram's (Yuya's) behalf. The Biblical requirement for a male relative to produce offspring for a "dead" brother must be understood in order to fully appreciate the subtlety of the Bible's wording. In the royal court, this custom extended to a living relative who was not able to produce both male and female heirs through their sister-wife. These "sterile" or "barren" couples certainly could produce children through other partners, but not always through each other. Tiye was also named as the wife of pharaoh Aye in his own tomb. Egyptologists spell the name of Aye's wife as Tey, and maintain that this was a different woman than Tiye mother of Akhenaten. However, there is no difference in the Egyptian forms of their names. The polyandrous role of Tiye in the royal court of that time has not been the least bit suspected. Therefore, it is the Egyptologists who have been confused by the sterile archaeological data. Without the cultural context, it is not possible to correctly interpret inscriptions that served primarily as propaganda, i.e., to dispel rumors, etc. Egyptologists are prone to take inscriptions at face value, and assume that the family relationships of the 18th Dynasty were conventional. They were far from it. Egyptologists do agree that Akhenaten produced at least one daughter through each of his three eldest daughters. This fact, more than anything, has caused Egyptologists and Biblical scholars to reject the association of Akhenaten and Moses. However, we are told in Exodus 6:20 that Moses himself was the son of a man who had married his own "father's sister." Most Biblical scholars would interpret this Hebrew phrase literally, however they do not call the legitimacy of Moses into question on this basis. Why should Biblical scholars then condemn Akhenaten for attempting to sire a son of his own through his daughters? A double standard has been applied. There has been a strong instinct on the part of Egyptologists to protect the "integrity" of Akhenaten as a heretic, whereas Biblical

246 scholars are equally compelled to defend the "holiness" of Moses. There has been little interest in finding the real man, who was undoubtedly a mixture of both. Our People's Ancient Cursek Family relationships of the ancient Egyptian royals were rarely ever made explicit on public monuments, or even in private inscriptions. In those cases in which they were made public, we should be highly suspicious. For example, Thutmose III is stated in an inscription to have been the son of Thutmose II, however we know that it was necessary for him to be "adopted" at the temple of Amun before gaining kingship (see Chapter 12). The phrase that a prince was a "king's son of his own body" should be taken more seriously. However, the need for such a public statement confirms that a king's designated heir was not necessarily his own natural son, but often that of a close male relative. This is reflected in the Biblical account of Abram (Gen. 15: 4) in which "the Lord," i.e., Tao II promises Abram that "a son coming from your own body will be your heir," as opposed to one sired for Abram by Tao or another brother. By superimposing archaeology, the Bible, and the Greek traditions the following scenario is proposed in which Tiye was provided with as many as five or more consorts, viz., Amenhotep III, Aanen, Aye, Yuya, and Akhenaten. As a child Tiye was married to Amenhotep III upon his coronation as pharaoh at the age of five. When the young couple matured, they were unable to produce a set of heirs of their own. Therefore, the birthright would have passed to her brother Aanen. Aanen and Tiye were evidently also unable to bear children, or did not try due to the fact that they had the same mother and father. At least two high-ranking sons were born to Aanen, namely Thutmose V and Meryre, however Tiye was likely not the mother.l Yuya's other son Aye was not the full-brother of Tiye. He was successful in siring through her a daughter, Nefertiti, and a son, Panehesy. A short time later, Tiye and her father Yuya became the parents of Amenhotep IV (later renamed as Akhenaten). Many years later, Tiye became the vessel of honor used in a daring religious practice undertaken to safeguard Egypt at a time of devastating plague. This was a dynastic liaison between herself and her son Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten). Regardless of how shocking this may sound, the DNA analysis of the royal mummies may prove or at least point to this relationship. Therefore, we are wise to prepare ourselves for that possibility despite the repugnance that it evokes today. The plague of that time is known from archaeology to have ravaged the entire Near East, and it struck Egypt especially hard.m Recovering from its destruction was the main preoccupation of the final four Pharaohs of the 18th Dynasty. Amenhotep III commissioned the sculpting of 700 statues of Sekhmet, the goddess of fire and pestilence. The youthful mother Tiye was compelled to become the consort of her own son. As the plague raged on, they produced two sons, Smenkhare and Tutankhamun, and two daughters. Only one daughter is known from archaeology,

247 Beketaten. However, the epidemic only increased in severity. Yuya, Tiye and particularly Akhenaten were ultimately blamed for bringing on its "judgment" as a result of the very same sacrificial measures they employed to end it. (See additional notes below.) Nefertiti and Akhenaten are known to have had at least three daughters. Miriam is not presented as Moses's wife in the Bible, because she did not bear any male heirs for him. Moreover, she was thoroughly dominated by Zipporah who had. In a historical sense, this was entirely unfair due to the fact that two of Nefertiti's daughters did become the Royal Wives of the three pharaohs who followed Akhenaten. Nevertheless, the Biblical and Egyptian custom was to refer to minor wives and concubines (regardless of their nobility) as maidservants and slave women, and sometimes not as wives at all. Such was the case for Abraham's royal wife Hagar. However, the Miriam of Hammurabi's time may also have been his sister, but not also his wife. Possibly, in order to achieve consistency with both historical periods, the Biblical account does not identify Miriam as being the wife of Moses. It was in Year 12 of his co-regency that Akhenaten's predecessor Amenhotep III died. At this time there is a sudden demotion of Nefertiti and a corresponding elevation of Tiye to the status of Great Wife of Akhenaten. Had Smenkhare and Tutankhamun been Nefertiti's sons, Tiye would have been relegated to the status of Queen Mother upon the death of her husband. Had Amenhotep III been the father, it would not have been necessary for Tiye to be identified as the consort of Akhenaten. Akhenaten clearly desired sons through Nefertiti. After the fateful Year 12 of his co-regency with Amenhotep III, he continued his desperate attempts to produce a son through the daughters of Nefertiti. The death of the second eldest daughter Mekataten in Year 14 is generally considered to have been associated with the delivery of a daughter born to Akhenaten. Sons of a Previous King The Talmud relates that Moses traveled to Ethiopia and came to the assistance of a Queen "Aten-it" whose husband had died. Moses vanquished the Queen's enemies, and reigned along side her. Later, Moses was compelled to abdicate in favor of one of the Queen's sons by the "previous king." Egyptologist Ahmed Osman states that the term "Ethiopia" did not refer exclusively to Africa, but was also used to indicate Upper Egypt, i.e., "the South," which includes Thebes. Moreover, the name Aten-it (Greek Athene) further confirms the time period of Moses to be that of the Aten religious revolution in the 18th Dynasty. Therefore, this account in the Talmud corresponds closely to the return of Akhenaten to Thebes upon the death of his predecessor Amenhotep III in Year 12 of the co-regency. Tiye assured Akhenaten's succession, and he reigned beside her as sole king until his Year 14 when Tiye abandoned the city of Akhet-aten. Akhenaten would ultimately be forced to abdicate in his Year 17 in favor of his son Smenkhare. The Talmud account indicates that upon the abdication of Akhenaten in his Year 17, the

248 throne was then occupied by a son of Tiye and Amenhotep III. However, the phrase "previous king" may be a later interpolation, or simply a subtle way of saying that Akhenaten became the previous king upon his abdication, and the sons were his through Tiye. This also appears to be the source of Miriam's objections to the marriage of Moses and the "Cushite woman" in Numbers 12. Although Akhenaten and Nefertiti had different fathers, they both had the same mother, the dark complexioned Queen Tiye. Bridegroom of Blood The Bible indicates that the successors Smenkhare and Tutankhamun were the sons of Akhenaten and Tiye. The two sons of Moses and Zipporah are called Eliezer and Gershom. There is at least a crude phonic link between Eliezer and Smenkhare. The roots semen (from S'men) and etio (from Elie) are equivalent, with the ending "zer/zar" being a corruption or intentional adaptation of "khare." Gershom, meaning "foreigner" corresponds to Tutankhamun who was born to Akhenaten in exile at the city of Akhet-aten. The two leading (political) sons of Hammurabi were Samsu-iluna (Biblical Elishama) and Abi-eshuuh (Biblical Joshua I). Because Akhenaten named his firstborn Smenkhare, it seems likely that the Egyptian name of Hammurabi's first successor had also been Smenkhare, and was the Smenkhare who appears in the 13th Dynasty king-list. Careful study of the Biblical account reveals that Eliezer is the elder son of Moses, and Gershom is actually the younger. Gershom is born after the exile. This corresponds to the birth of Tutankhamun in Year 9 of Akhenaten. Beginning with his Year 5, Akhenaten lived in exile in Middle Egypt (one of three Biblical "Midians"). His exile is evident by the inscriptions on the boundary markers at Akhet-aten, which establish it as a "city of refuge." In order to guarantee his protection, Akhenaten vowed to never leave the city. Upon Moses' return to Egypt after the death of "the pharaoh that sought to kill him" (corresponding to Akhenaten's return to Thebes after the death of Amenhotep III), the Bible states that Moses and Zipporah have two sons.n The naming of Eliezer (Smenkhare) reflects that he was born before Gershom (Tutankhamun) at the time of Moses' (Akhenaten's) trouble in Egypt (Thebes). Eliezer would have been circumcised according to Egyptian tradition before Moses had killed "an Egyptian" and was forced to seek exile. Like so many Biblical brothers, the younger achieved greater renown than the elder. As with Ephraim and Manasseh, the younger Gershom is always listed before his elder brother Eliezer. This is not difficult to appreciate when one recognizes that Gershom represents the younger son Tutankhamun, and Eliezer is the elder but more fleeting Smenkhare. Interestingly, in the Greek tradition it was Smenkhare's name that was remembered. The role of Eteocles in the Oedipus plays represents a composite of Smenkhare and Tutankhamun. Polyneices (Biblical Phineas) was first banished by Eteocles I (Smenkhare). He returned nine years later to attack Eteocles II (Tut). Considering that Smenkhare and Tut ruled one after the other and that they were full brothers, the confusion is somewhat

249 understandable. Given the nature of their births, they would have been more like twins than brothers (even though separated by nine years in age). On his return to Egypt, Moses was confronted by "the Lord," because he had failed to circumcise his youngest son. Akhenaten returned to Thebes in his Year 12 or 13. His own exile had not lasted a literal forty years, but only seven or eight years. It was four years or less between his return and the birth of Tutankhamun in Year 9. This is far more reasonable in human terms. However, a much longer period of time likely transpired between the exile of Hammurabi from Egypt and his return to liberate his followers. The conflict over the circumcision of Gershom probably applies to the young Tut. In the Oedipus plays, Oedipus claims to have been attacked by Lord Laius while in transit, and to have killed him in self-defense. The response of Moses to "the Lord's" attempt on his life is not included in the Biblical account.o However, Zipporah's reaction is telling. She remarks, "What a bloody husband you are to me!" Her insolence is disturbing, and indicates that more blood may have been shed in this encounter than that associated with circumcision. It also reflects that Tiye held seniority over Akhenaten, and had herself come to resent the dynastic marriage to him. At the very least, Akhenaten had refused or neglected to have Tutankhamun circumcised. It became necessary for Tiye to have it done to comply with Egyptian tradition, and as an attempt to make the marriage more acceptable to her Egyptian subjects. Sons of Beor Besides Gershom and Eliezer, there is only one other person in the Bible who is said to be the son of Zippor(ah). This other son of Zippor(ah) is Balak. The name Balak means "to waste, destroy, consume." The strange encounter of Balaam and Balak is strategically inserted into the account of Moses, not only to discretely preserve the controversial family relationship, but also the unpopular politics of the second Exodus. After Akhenaten abdicated in favor of Smenkhare and fled the country, a covenant was made between them. However, the tablets were broken, indicating that Smenkhare was killed at Mt. Sinai during the negotiations of the failed "First Covenant." In the Exodus account, Moses arrives at Mt. Sinai in the 3rd month after leaving Egypt and remains there until the following year. Archaeology indicates that Smenkhare only survived a short time (far less than a year) upon the end of Akhenaten's reign. According to the Bible, nearly a year elapsed before another covenant was negotiated. It can now be deduced that the main concession made by Akhenaten was to accept responsibility for the plague victims of Lower Egypt. Tutankhamun was allowed to succeed the dead Smenkhare, and his named was changed from the former Tutankh-aten. When Akhenaten (Moses) and the Israelites left Mt. Sinai early in the second year after the Exodus, Akhenaten's son Tutankhamun (Gershom/Balaam) was the reigning Pharaoh. It was to Tutankhamun that Akhenaten appealed for support in

250 discharging his obligation to remove from Egypt all those with contagious diseases. The name Balaam has the identical meaning as Gershom, i.e., "foreigner." The name of Balaam's father is given as Beor. The name Beor carries the identical meaning as Balak. Therefore, the Bible is using a little indirection to encode that Balaam (Gershom) was in fact the son of Balak (Moses), and that both were the sons of Zippor(ah). The name Balak/Beor reflects the destructive plagues that Moses had called down upon Egypt. The pseudonym Shammai found in the Chronicles genealogies also means "destruction," and compares Akhenaten with the Mesopotamian sun god Shamash. Not all of the Israelite elite were diseased or necessarily participated in this round up. This Exodus was not a hurried flight, but a slow march of a "mixed multitude." Those who survived this "concentration camp" and ultimately became Jews represented all castes of Egyptian society. They were descendants of slaves, taskmasters, nobles and princes alike. Disease did not discriminate. The decision was made to remove them all from society, and a leper king was forced to lead them away. These victims of the plague were not exactly sheep being led silently to the slaughter. It was not long before they realized what was to be their inheritance. The life of Akhenaten was in constant peril. Nevertheless, Tut neither helps nor hinders him or the dying Israelites in the final coup de grace. Three times Balak (Moses) solicits Balaam (Tut) to "curse" Israel, and three times Balaam "blesses" them. However, his blessing is as the one denounced in the New Testament, "Be warm, and filled." Without providing physical assistance to either the Israelites or to Akhenaten, the blessing was worthless. Balaam (Tut) had "sold them out," and Balak (Moses/Akhenaten) took the blame for finishing them off. In the Oedipus plays, one of the biggest complaints of Oedipus is that his sons had abandoned him in their own pursuit of glory. A political decision had been made that "none of the Israelites who left Egypt" with Akhenaten/Moses would be allowed to enter the "Promised Land." After a series of "plagues," the remaining adult Israelites are "mercifully" massacred by the Midianites (Aten-ists). Immediately after this final decimation, a census is taken and it is declared that no one of that generation was any longer living. However, Akhenaten made the remaining sires of both princes and paupers into a people, and Tutankhamun (Joshua) agreed to fulfill to the children the false promise made to their parents. He resettled them. It would normally have taken closer to forty years for a generation to pass away, however the infected people died or were put to death in about four years. No doubt, this expedient fulfillment of "prophesy" was later criticized, and perceived as deceitfulness. Rather than attributing an act of duplicity to Akhenaten/Moses and his son Tut, pseudonyms were introduced into the account. However, a key was provided in order for "family" to understand the true identities of Balaam and Balak. Also, it must be remembered that the archetypes for Balaam and Balak are from the time of Hammurabi. During the original Exodus, Balaam and Balak would have represented unique persons. However, their roles are played by Tut and Akhenaten, respectively, in the second Exodus. The Bible states that Balaam had

251 come from and returned to his home near "the river." In the original Exodus, the river referred to the Euphrates. However, in the second Exodus, the intended river is not the Euphrates or even the Jordan, but the Nile. The name of the river is not specified in order to apply to both events. A mural in the tomb of the Egyptian nobleman May depicts Tutankhamun and his "cabinet members." The six men who stand behind Tut in the mural include the four generals who would follow him on the throne. They are his uncle Aye, Haremhab, Ramses and Seti. All four of these generals ultimately turned against Akhenaten. Sophocles makes it clear that it was primarily Creon (Aye) who demanded the abdication of Oedipus (Akhenaten). Choragos (Egyptian minister, general and future pharaoh Haremhab)p also urges Oedipus to "take the fall" for the good of the country. Nevertheless, the Biblical record of Jethro (Aye) visiting Moses in the wilderness indicates that Aye was providing at least nominal support of Akhenaten after the Exodus. A compromise ("covenant") was negotiated between Akhenaten, his sons, and the four generals who were to become pharaohs after them. All of these four men were very closely related not only to each other, but to Akhenaten and his sons. The strife associated with the Exodus, and which ultimately brought down the Egyptian 18th Dynasty was largely an overblown family feud during a time of intense adversity and suffering. Knew Not Joseph The phrase in the Exodus 1:8 that a new king came to power that "knew not Joseph" simply means that this Pharaoh did not revere Joseph (Yuya) or honor his wishes. In the case of the second Joseph, he was disobeyed during his own lifetime. Beginning with Exodus 1:8, we are taken back in time and are told how it happened that the second Joseph, Yuya, came to be disrespected and how he met with his end. This provides the missing biography of Yuya (Joseph II) between the death of his father Amenhotep II (Jacob) and his own death recorded at the end of the book of Genesis. As discussed above, Greek and Biblical sources indicate that the death of Yuya was by the hand or command of his own son Akhenaten. The Exodus of Akhenaten occurred only five years later, which is consistent with the interval between the death of the Middle Kingdom Joseph and the Exodus led by Hammurabi (see Chapter 8). Like his father Yuya, Akhenaten was also disrespected. In fact, the very expression "knew not" was used in this sense during the time of Akhenaten, and was applied directly to him! In Oedipus and Akhenaten, Immanuel Velikovsky cites a hymn that was a popular practice exercise for scribes in training during the reigns of Tutankhamun and Aye. It reads, The sun of him {Akhenaten } that knew thee not hath set, O Amun. But he that knoweth thee, he shineth. The forecourt {eye } of him that assailed thee is in darkness,

252 while the whole earth is in sunlight. Whoso putteth thee in his heart, O Amun, lo, his sun hath risen.q Akhenaten knew Amun all too well. He ordered the very name to be expunged throughout the entire country. What is meant by "know" in this context is "revere, honor, worship or respect." Yuya was disrespected by his son Akhenaten and by other subordinates. Akhenaten was in turn disrespected by his own son Tutankhamun. Mistress of the South and the North The accounts of the Bible were intended to be a "family" or "national" history. The Israelite elite were not ashamed of Akhenaten, or the sexual liaisons of the royal court. Neither did they consider it wise to make explicit certain matters that would be unappreciated or even berated by outsiders. The recording of their heritage was of paramount importance. The traditions were preserved for themselves and their children, and not for a cruel and uncaring world. Unfortunately, over time the ability to interpret the subtle indirection in the Biblical accounts was lost even to the Jews. The events recorded in the Bible were "not done in a corner." At the time of their occurrence, the dynastic marriage of Akhenaten and Tiye was very widely published, and acknowledged even by foreign kings. The parochial names given to the Biblical characters actually represented individuals who were renowned the world over. Many were revered as living gods. The identities of these royals as well as their relationships and other actions can now be recovered, because there are sufficient archaeology findings to reestablish the original historical context. The main points made by Velikovsky are: 1) In one of the Amarna archive letters, the Babylonian (Kassite) King Burnaburiash referred to Tiye as Akhenaten's "mistress." 2) The role of Nefertiti was entirely subverted by Tiye upon the death of Amenhotep III. 3) Evidence from the tomb of Tiye's steward Huya depicts Tiye and Akhenaten in a marriage relationship as follows: a) Tiye is referred to as "Mistress of South and North, the great wife of the king, whom he loves." b) Akhenaten leads Tiye by the hand with a daughter Beketaten trailing.

253 c) Akhenaten is shown dining intimately with two separate families. One is that of Nefertiti and her daughters. The other is Tiye and her daughter. Tiye's daughter is referred to as "the king's daughter of his body, beloved by him, Beketaten." Tiye's insignia are superior to those of Nefertiti. d) Huya's title of "Superintendent of the Harem of the Great Royal Wife, Tiye" is stated as an active and not a former post. Likewise, Tiye is described as "King's Mother and Great Royal Wife." e) Tiye is described as "sweet in her love, who fills the palace with her beauty, the regent, the Mistress of South and North, the great wife of the king who loves him, the Lady of both lands, Tiye." f) Amenhotep III was deceased when the above inscriptions were made, therefore Akhenaten must be the intended husband of Tiye, and father of Beketaten and of the heirs Smenkhare and Tutankhamun. The god Amun himself was described as the "Bull of His Mother," that is the consort of his own mother. As discussed in Chapters 1 & 2, incest between mother and son was practiced among the gods, and later emulated in the dynastic period. Akhenaten and Tiye were certainly not the first, and probably not the last to assume this relationship. Velikovsky documented in Oedipus and Akhenaten that a child born from a son and a mother was considered particularly holy in certain royal courts of the Near East, but may not have been fully acceptable in Egypt. Velikovsky further notes that the historian "Catullus stated that a magus (a Mazda priest) is the fruit of incestuous relations between mother and son (Catullus, xc. 3)." "Observance of it {incest, especially between son and mother } is one of the surest signs of piety in the coming days of evil it expatiates mortal sin and forms the one insuperable barrier to the attacks of Aeshm, the incarnation of Fury (Sayast la Sayast, VIII. 18; XVIII, 3f.)" The liaison between Tiye and Akhenaten was not necessary to ensure kingly succession. The heirs Akhenaten and Nefertiti were still young and capable of carrying on the line. Amenhotep III had set up over 700 statues of Sekhmet the goddess of pestilence in order to ward off a mounting plague. The marriage of Tiye and Akhenaten may have been ordained for that exact same purpose. Both sons would ultimately undertake ministries of restoration and reconciliation in a divided and "plague and pyre" ravaged Egypt. The tragic death of the younger Tutankhamun was later considered to have the power to expatiate the sins of the world. It is difficult if not impossible for us to understand Akhenaten's family life, and the culture of that time. The account of Sophocles states that his marriage to his mother was not for love or pleasure, but was a "service to the state." Right or wrong, royalty reserved for themselves the exclusive right of human breeding for the purpose of establishing their superiority over commoners. We may as well just lose our self-righteous indignation. Who doesn't want some improvement in the genetic department. A far more beautiful bride of genetic manipulation now lies on the bed before mankind. The most blushing attempts of any royal court pale in

254 comparison with what genetic engineering will soon be able to produce through her. It is time to "gird up the loins of our minds" and to "provide things honest in the sight of all men." A "childish" understanding of the Bible is not going to protect us from the evils that lie in wait for us in the near future.

a. Martin Bernal, Black Athena, Vol. 2, Chapters III-XI. b. Eric Cline, "Amenhotep III, the Aegean, and Anatolia, in Amenhotep III: Perspectives on His Reign, O'Conner and Cline, eds., pp 236-250. c. The name Oedipus is defined by Euripides as "Lame Foot." To nonGreek speakers, it has the added connotation of "Eyes of Pus." In Oedipus Rex, Oedipus blinds himself in a fit of grief, rage and guilt. The name "Akhen" can also be interpreted as "wear out the eyes." (Anthony Mercatante, Who's Who in Egyptian Mythology, p 4.) d. Oedipus Rex, Scene II. e. Labdakos is found in Oedipus Rex ("Oedipus the King"), Scene I and Ode I. Labdacidae is found in Oedipus at Colonus, Choral Dialogue I. f. See Chapter 9, note 9, etymology of Aner. g. Archaeology has identified three children of Yuya. They are Tiye, Aanen and Aye. h. Gen. 41:39-43 i. Numbers 20:1 j. Numbers 26:59 k. A phrase from Oedipus at Colonus, Scene II. Compare Antigone, Scene IV, Antistrophe II. l. This association will be revisited in the next chapter, as well as the relationship between Tiye and Aye m. Cyril Aldred, Akhenaten. n. Exodus 4:20 o. Gen. 4:24-26 p. Choragos can be interpreted as "God of Jubilees" and is equivalent to the name Horemheb, "(the god) Horus in Festival." q. A. Erman, The Literature of the Ancient Egyptians (1927), pp 309310. Parentheticals [] identified by Velikovsky. The text seems to confirm that Akhenaten was blinded. Unlike the earlier Moses, the eye of Akhenaten was made "dim" in his old age, or from some form of illness or defect. The name "Akhen" can be interpreted as "wear out the eyes." (Anthony Mercatante, Who's Who in Egyptian Mythology, p 4) The changing of his name from Amenhotep IV to Akhen-aten indicates that he was already suffering from poor eyesight by Year 5 of his co-regency with Amenhotep III.

Note 1:

255 "Ya" is an abbreviated form of Prime Minister Yuya's name, which was inscribed on his coffin in his Valley of the Kings tomb, and points to his patron god, Yahweh/Jehovah. In Ahmed Osman's 1987 book Stranger in the Valley of the Kings, this highest-ranking official in Egypt, Yuya, is strongly associated with the Biblical Joseph. In the Bible, the story of Moses immediately follows that of Joseph. However, it is commonly believed that there was a lengthy time period between Joseph and Moses. Archaeology now proves that there was not a gap between Joseph II and Moses II, and this second Moses was actually the son of the second Joseph. This places the second Moses in the fourth generation from Abraham (i.e., Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Moses), during which the Exodus is said to have taken place. Osman also points out in Moses: Pharaoh of Egypt that Akhenaten acknowledged "Imram" in the cartouche of his god and father the Aten (Heb. Adonai). Biblical Moses is said to be the son of "Amram," the Hebrew equivalent. The fourgeneration sequence of Levi, Kohath, Amram, Moses is identical to that of Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Moses. The Levi of this lineage would then not be the third son of Jacob as commonly presumed, but another pseudonym of Thutmose III. This Levi (meaning "attached") is in fact one and the same as Isaac who was the legal son of Abram, natural son of Thutmose I, and "adopted/attached" son of Thutmose II. Kohath is another pseudonym for Amenhotep II, and Amram is Yuya.

Living in Truth:

Archaeology and the Patriarchs Chapter 17


"Beast of Burden" (The Role of the 22nd Dynasty in New Kingdom Egypt)
by Charles N. Pope Copyright 1999-2003 by Charles Pope United States Library of Congress All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions

Name Associations Torah Names Jacob-Israel Leah (wife of Jacob) Rachel (wife of Jacob) Kings/Chronicles Names Composite Solomon Ahijah, Ginath Atarah Greek Names Dakos Egyptian Names Amenhotep II Sheshonq A Tia Mehtenwesket Merit-Amon

256

By Rachel, two sons 1) Joseph (Amram) Asenath Manasseh (Aaron) Ephraim (Eleasar) Jochebed (Zipporah) Shiloh Moses Eliezer Abishalom ("Father of Solomon") ("Egyptian" wife of Joseph) Jeroboam (the Elder) Amon, "Ruler of the City" Amariah Asa/Shaul Jehoshaphat son of Asa Naamah, Maacah, Abihail Composite Solomon Joacaste, Merope Eurydice Polybos/Polybus (Kith-)Airon Laius, Menoikeus Yuya, Imram Tuya Aanen son of Yuya Amon-appa/ Amarnappa Aye, Sheshonq I Iuput A Tiye, daughter of Yuya Amenhotep III

Asocheus, Creon

Rehoboam Oedipus, Hermaeus Amenhotep IV (son of Naamah & Abishalom) Phaethon Akhenaten Abijah, Abijam Eteocles (A) (son of Rehoboam & Maacah) Smenkhare Tutankhamun Tutu/ Dadua Aakheprure

Gershom/Joshua Attai Eteocles (B) (son of Rehoboam & Maacah) 2) Benjamin By Leah, six sons and one daughter (Dinah) 1) Reuben 2) Simeon 3) Levi 4) Judah 5) Issachar (Hamor) Tola 6) Zebulun Nemuel/Jemuel Izhar, Shilki/Shilhi Amminadab II Baasha son of Issachar Elah son of Baasha Tibni Osokhor Uzziel, Mushi

Webensenu, Neby Siamun Khaemwast Thutmose IV Nimlot A/Nimrat Osorkon A Shilkanni (Assyria) Basa, Milkilu Unattested Nedjem

Lost Son of Israel

257 The seeds of discontent leading to the demise of Akhenaten and fall of the Egyptian 18th Dynasty were sown long before the death of Amenhotep III. In fact, they had already germinated before the death of Amenhotep II. Archaeology has uncovered as many as eleven princes belonging to the reign of Amenhotep II (Jacob). They are Webensenu, Siamun, Khaemwaset, Menkheper/Thutmose,a Amenhotep, Nedjem, Yuya, Aakheprure, Amenemipet, and Princes "A" and "B" from inscriptions at Giza.b In the Book of Genesis, eight sons of Jacob are born to him through his two wives Leah and Rachel. Four additional sons of Jacob are born to him through the "concubines" Bilhah and Zilpah, bringing the total number of princes to twelve. The Egyptian names of Judah, Joseph and Simeon have been identified as Thutmose, Yuya and Siamun, respectively.c Additional confirmation of these and other associations is encoded in the "blessings of Jacob" found in Genesis 49. Jacob describes Reuben as "my first born, my might, and the beginning of my strength." This is a free translation of the Egyptian name Webensenu.d As the eldest son of Amenhotep II, Webensenu (Reuben) was being patterned after the eldest son of the archetypal Jacob-Israel, Sargon the Great (Tudiya/Inyotef). The eldest son of Sargon, namely Manishtushu, had been passed over for succession in favor of a younger son Rimush.e Likewise, the New Kingdom Reuben, Webensenu, was rejected in the greater kingship by Amenhotep II (Jacob). The blessing of Judah1 speaks of the "couching lion," "the lions abode" and "the old lion." These are allusions to the Sphinx, and serve to strengthen the identification of Judah with Thutmose, the fourth son of Leah.f The blessings of Judah and Joseph are intertwined. The Hebrew of Genesis 49:11 reveals that Joseph produced an heir for Judah. Even more surprising, the second but more favored son of Joseph was actually the natural son of Judah! (See Endnote 1.) This explains Josephs anger when Jacob blessed Ephraim (Aye) above his own natural son Manasseh (Aanen). The Hebrew of Josephs blessing (Gen 49:24) mirrors that of Judahs in explaining how Joseph abode (yashab, "married") in Judah, who was the eythan and abbiyr, literally, the "chieftain/co-regent" and "Father of the God/Potiphar." As a result, "the shepherd and stone (lit., "ruler and builder") of Israel" was born. This son Shiloh-Solomon (Amenhotep III) called himself the "Shepherd King of Thebes," and he was of course the ancient worlds greatest builder. In the Middle Kingdom, archetypal Judah (Rimush) was murdered by Levi (Montuhotep II). He probably did not act alone, but in collusion with Simeon (Naram-Sin).g The New Kingdom Judah, that being Thutmose IV, also died young and as the result of an assassination attempt. In Genesis 40, the cupbearer and baker of Pharaoh (Thutmose IV) were both imprisoned. The cupbearer was later exonerated. However, the baker was impaled, which suggests that he was found guilty of trying to kill the king. Thutmose IV did not die immediately, however poisoning is the probable cause of his debilitating illness and premature death. The mummy of Thutmose IV is most notably characterized by its emaciation.

258 We do not know what role Simeon and Levi played in the assassination attempt of Judah. However, they were later disgraced by Jacob for the murder of another prince, Hamor, and for killing the nobility of Shechem. A single blessing is given for both Simeon and Levi. As in the Old Kingdom their fates were intermingled. The Egyptian name of the New Kingdom Simeon ("son of hearing") was Si-amun, meaning "son of Amun," the god who not only hears but answers. Because Siamun is such a direct adaptation of Simeon, the "blessing out" of Simeon and Levi by Jacob emphasizes the Egyptian name of Levi. Almost every key word of the passage contains the phonic "kaw."2 In the reign of Amenhotep II, this most closely corresponds to the name of prince Kha-em-wast ("appearing/crowned in Thebes") In the blessing of Zebulun, sixth son of Jacob and Leah, the word "haven" is deliberately repeated. Zebuluns Egyptian name was Nedjem, which literally means "safety in." The Egyptian name of Benjamin is Aakheprure, meaning "Great is the manifestation (rising) of Re," the sun god. The short blessing of Benjamin emphasizes the sun, both in its rising and setting, and the consuming power of its energy. Key words of Benjamins blessing were possibly also selected in order to emphasize the phonic "aw." In the Book of Genesis, Benjamin is greatly loved by the Patriarch Jacob, and indicates that he was being groomed for kingship, probably in repetition of the Middle Kingdom Benjamin, Gudea son of Sargon. However, it was not to be. The New Kingdom Benjamin was very sickly and died in his youth. Only one of the eight leading royal sons of Jacob is still unaccounted for, that being Issachar, the fifth son of Leah. The name Sekhemkare, the Middle Kingdom Issachar, is not among the list of prince names currently known in the reign of Amenhotep II.3 By process of elimination (and due to his great importance), it is suspected that the Egyptian name of this prince was that of Amenhotep after his father Amenhotep II. Despite this uncertainty, the New Kingdom Issachar is easily recognized by the name he held among the people of his mothers homeland. As discussed in Chapter 15, the father of Leah (Tia/Mehtenweskhet) is called Laban (~Libna/Libya), and he was a chief among the "Libyans" of Mitanni in Aram Naharaim of NW Mesopotamia. The New Kingdom Issachar was better known by the Libyan name Osorkon. This prince Osorkon is generally designated by Egyptologists as Osorkon "A" or as Osokhor, which is the Greek form of the name. The parents of Osorkon are known from archaeology to have been Sheshonq "A" and Mehtenweskhet. By association, Sheshonq A and Mehtenweskhet must be the "Libyan" names of Amenhotep II (Jacob) and Queen Tia (Leah). Their son Osokhor was the uncle and father-in-law of Sheshonq I, who is considered to be founder of the 22nd Dynasty.h Consequently, our New Kingdom Issachar is not lost, but has simply been misplaced in time. As shown in Chart 5, the beginning of the 22nd Dynasty was contemporary with the end of the 18th Dynasty (and not hundreds of years later as in the prevailing academic chronology).

259 The brother of Osokhor and father of pharaoh Sheshonq I was another son of Sheshonq A and Queen Mehtenweskhet named Nimlot A. Aidon Dodson writes: "While yet Chief of the Ma, possibly based at Bubastis in the south-eastern Delta, Shoshenq I had petitioned the god Amun for the establishment of an Abydene cenotaph for his father, Nimlot A, as recorded on a stele from that city [Abydos]."i Egyptologists think that Nimlot and other 22nd Dynasty names belong to some long-lost Libyan tongue, and therefore do not speculate as to their meanings. The name Nimlot may defy accepted linguistic norms, however it can be readily translated as "take by lot," i.e., "seize by oracle."4 The name Nimlot was also sometimes written as Nimrat, which literally means, "take boldly" or "strong seizer." The variant Nimrat points to an earlier Biblical hero by the same name, i.e., Nimrod, the "mighty hunter." Judah is the son who is copiously compared in the blessings of Jacob to the mightiest hunter of the animal kingdom, that of the lion. At the Sphinx, Judah (crown prince Thutmose IV) was chosen by his father (in the guise of the god Re-Harakhty) to become the next pharaoh of Egypt. This would have been a most remarkable and fortuitous "oracle" for any fourth son of a king. Thutmose remembered the magic of that moment by placing his famous Dream Stele between the sand-cleared paws of the Sphinx itself. You Say Shoshenk, I Say Sheshonq The Assyrian form of the name Osokhor/Osorkon was Shilkanni or Shilheni.j In the Biblical record the daughter of Shilki/Shilhi (Osokhor A) was married to King Asa and is named as the mother of the renowned Jehoshaphat. The Bible calls the mother of Iuput by the pejorative (or affectionately teasing?) nickname of Azuba, meaning "traitor." Asa was the perennial enemy of Azubas brother Baasha son of Issachar. Such were the contradictions of ancient court life. Consistent with the archaeological record, Biblical Asa (Sheshonq I) can be identified as the natural son of Judah (Thutmose IV) and as the nephew and son-in-law of Shilki/Issachar (Shilkanni/Osokhor). Further confirmation of this association will be provided in the next chapter, in which it will be shown that Jehoshaphat son of Asa corresponds to the King of Upper Egypt and High Priest of Amun named Iuput son of Sheshonq. The name Asa, like so many king names of Israel and Judah, is not found in any genealogy. This does not mean that these prominent kings are not included in one or more genealogy, only that they are not listed under the pseudonyms used in the Biblical narratives. The stele at Abydos is a strong indication that Asa claimed Judah as his father. However, as is so often the case in the royal court, Asa was considered the legal heir of another son of Jacob. Sheshonq fills the favored seventh position in the list of Simeons sons.5 He appears there under the name Shaul (7586), "asked (for)." The name Shaul/Saul complements the Hebrew word asah (6213), meaning "made, appointed." According to Strongs Concordance, the etymology of the proper name Asa (609) is of uncertain derivation. Also, the Hebrew spellings of Asa and asah are completely different. However, they are homonyms pronounced as aw-saw.

260 In the Middle Kingdom, the crown prince under Naram-Sin (Simeon) was the highly vaunted Shar-kalli-shari, "king of kings." The Hebrew nickname Saul/Shaul appears to have been originally adapted from "Shar." In 1 Chron. 4:24-26 we find that Mishma was a prominent descendant of Simeon through Shaul/Asa. The Meshwesh (or Ma for short) was the dominant Libyan tribe in the time of the second Simeon, Si-amun. In fulfillment (repetition) of the earlier family history, Siamun coveted the rule of peoples descending from his Middle Kingdom namesake. However, in order to gain this kingship Si-amun committed murder and was ultimately cast down even as his namesake had been. The identification of Siamun son of the New Kingdom Jacob (Amenhotep II) with Naram-Sin son of the 11th Dynasty Jacob (Sargon the Great) appears to have been so complete that the genealogy of Simeon provided in 1 Chronicles 4:24-43 is a composite of both. In the genealogy of Simeon, the mother of Shaul (Asa) is said to have been a "Canaanite woman" or "Canaanitish woman." That is, she was a princess born or residing in a royal harem in Canaan. The Middle Kingdom Shaul (Shar-kalli-shari) may have been the "seventh" son of the Middle Kingdom Simeon (Naram-Sin) by a queen or concubine "of Canaan." However, the New Kingdom Asa/Shaul (Sheshonq I) was the natural son of Judah sired by a one-time wife of Simeon. After the early death of his father Judah (Thutmose IV), he was then adopted and raised by Joseph (Yuya). As the biological son of Judah, Asa was not favored by Joseph, but only by his grandfather Jacob. The subtlety of the family relationship is brought out in the Torah where Asa is first called Ephraim and is somewhat resented by his adopted father Joseph. In the Kitchen with Dinah The controversy associated with the birth and appointment of Aye-Sheshonq as a king of Libya (Judah) is fundamental to understanding the dynamics of the late Egyptian 18th Dynasty, and the Amarna Period in particular. The story of AyeSheshonq (Ephraim-Asa), founder of the 22nd Dynasty, begins with the sordid affair of Simeon and the Shechemites found in Genesis 34. At the time of the Shechemite massacre the aged Thutmose III (Isaac) had only recently decided to name Amenhotep II (Jacob) as his successor. While his father Isaac lived, Jacob could not yet officially crown one of his many sons as his own successor, yet there was already an heir apparent. After the disgrace of Rueben, it might be expected that Simeon was next in line. However, Jacob evidently intended to by-pass Simeon, as well as his third son Levi and fourth son Judah, in favor of his fifth son Issachar. In the blessing of Issachar found in Genesis 49:14-15, Issachar is called a "garam chamar," that is, Strong Hamar, "Beast of Burden." This and other word plays in the blessing6 positively identify him as "Hamor prince of Shechem" in Genesis 34. Jacob bought land from the nobility of Shechem and installed his son Issachar as ruler of the region. Shechem of the story would have been the highest-ranking nobleman from among the people of the region, and a political appointee during

261 the reign of Thutmose III (Isaac). Rather than deposing or killing this man of considerable privilege and influence, Jacob appears to have offered him a place in his own administration and subordinated him to his son Hamor/Issachar. This was part of a "peaceful" transfer of power. Jacob preferred mediation to war. Together, Jacob (Amenhotep II) and his grandson Shiloh (Amenhotep III) of the Genesis account represent the peace-loving Solomon in the Kings/Chronicles narrative.) Jacob intended to pacify this royal enclave through diplomacy and intermarriage. In Upper Egypt during the early dynastic period the most important location was Nekhen (Greek Hierakonpolis).k It was here that Hor-Aha/Scorpion (Cush) and Narmer (Nimrod) established their power base in Egypt. The "Main Deposit" of articles belonging to Scorpion (Cush) and Narmer (Nimrod), including the Narmer Palette, was found at Nekhem. This site remained a traditional seat of pharaonic kingship and corresponds to the Biblical city of Shechem. The nobles of Shechem financed the coup that made Thutmose (Abimelech/David) "King of Israel" and ruler in Thebes (Thebez/Jerusalem). And it was in Shechem rather than Jerusalem that King David was first crowned. Rehoboam, the successor of Solomon also went to Shechem in order to be declared king of Israel, however he was summarily rejected. According to 1 Chron. 4:41, we are told that the descendants of Simeon (Naram-Sin) had displaced the original Hamites of Judah. This further indicates that the Shechem being referred to here was not in Central Palestine but was at Nekhen in Upper Egypt. The ruler of Shechem in the time of Jacob (Amenhotep II) was called Shechem, and the prince of the city was named Hamor. The modern (Arabic) name of this city is Kom el-Ahmar, "Red Mound,"l which can now be properly restored as the ancient "City of Ham" and of the later Hamor/Issachar. The name Shechem itself is a Hebraized form of Kha-Sekhem-wy and Hotep-Sekhem-wy, which were Egyptian names of Ham, father of Cush and grandfather of Nimrod, the founder and progenitor of the pharaonic line. In the 17th Dynasty, Sekhem-re was once again the most popular throne name (pre-nomen, "the Re name") in Upper Egypt. It was the throne name of Nahor (Obed/Ebed), the father of Terah, and possibly also the throne name assumed by Nahor (Judah) brother of Terah. Although the line of the younger Nahor ultimately lost out, there may have been a surviving royal descendant of Nahor in the city of Shechem (Nekhem/Nachor) with whom Jacob negotiated more or less as an equal. The election of Hamor/Issachar as prince of Shechem designates him as successor to the greater throne of Israel under his father Jacob-Israel (Amenhotep II). There was nothing more for his elder brothers to do other than to play the spoiler. The premarital dalliance of Shechem with Dinah provided Simeon with an opportunity to salvage some pride if not his lost birthright. The alleged rape of Dinah is suspicious in that Jacob decided to give her to Shechem in marriage anyway. Likely, a daughter of Shechem had already been betrothed to Hamor/Issachar and a bride of equal rank, prospectively Dinah, had been offered to Shechem in exchange. However, Simeon and his brother Levi "took each man

262 his sword, and came upon the city boldly, and slew all the males and spoiled the city, because they had defiled their sister."m The "blessing" of Simeon and Levi confirms that Issachar (showr aqar, "the ox Eker") was the victim. Although cursed by Jacob, the tone of the Biblical narrative actually indicates that many felt that Simeons action was justified, and that he should not have been court-martialed on account of it.7 Nevertheless, his birthright, as well as that of the accomplice Levi, was permanently forfeited. All the men of noble and royal birth, including both Shechem and Hamor/Issachar were killed. However, the women of Shechem were spared by Simeon and Levi. The city of Shechem had a history of supplying queens. Earlier in the 18th Dynasty Gideon/Mamre (Tao II) had been the son of a Shechemite princess. At issue is whether a "Canaanitish woman," which may have initially have been betrothed to Hamor/Issachar, was taken into the harem of Simeon. Upon the disgrace and punishment of Simeon this bride would have then become the wife of another son of Jacob. The only winner in this sad episode was Judah. The heir apparent Issachar was dead, his three elder brothers were disqualified, and one or more high-ranking princesses were unencumbered. It can be deduced that the name of the Shechemite princess (the "Canaanite woman" and future mother of New Kingdom Asa/Shaul) was Tuya. The mummy of Tuya reveals that this princess was markedly different in appearance than other 18th Dynasty royals. She possessed more classical Egyptian traits and represents the uniting of a collateral branch of the royal family. This is the princess who was later given to Yuya (Joseph) upon his appointment as Vizier, and is called Asenath daughter of Potiphera priest of On in Genesis 41:45. The feminine ending of the name Potiphera relates this princess to Thutmose IV (Judah-Potiphar). In fact, Tuya became both the "daughter" and wife of Thutmose IV after the murder of her family at Shechem and being taken into the harem of Thutmose IV. Moreover, in addition to being crown prince, Thutmose IV would have been considered a priest of Re at Heliopolis. The Genesis author creatively morphed New Kingdom identities in order to typecast that history as a repetition of Middle Kingdom persons and events. After the death of Issachar at the hands of Simeon and Levi, it was Judah who was named as crown prince. This office included the traditional privilege of producing an heir of his own through his mother Leah. We do know that Queen Tia (Leah/Ahijah) became the Royal Wife of her son Thutmose IV (Judah), because the two are shown together as such on several monuments. Judah may also have become the "covering" for his full-sister Dinah. The story of Joseph and Potiphars wife (Genesis 39) suggests that at least one prominent consort of Judah was not able to have a child by him and was actively pursuing another partner. When Judah was unable to father a suitable heir due to sickness or infertility, the successor to the throne (Amenhotep III) was eventually sired by Joseph on behalf of Judah.

263 What is not clear is whether Mutemwia mother of Amenhotep III corresponds to Dinah the half-sister of Yuya (Joseph) or to Queen Tia (Leah). It is quite possible that Dinah ultimately became the mother of Amenhotep III, and this is why she is uncharacteristically identified by name in the story of Hamor and Shechem. Linguistically, Dinah ("judgment") is related to Mutemwia, meaning, "the (goddess) Mut in Wia/Via." (Wia/Via ~ "knowledge/judgment") On the other hand, Mutemwia could be an Egyptian or short form of Queen Tias Libyan name Mehtenwesket. In this case, Yuya would have produced Amenhotep III through his aunt Tia (Leah/Ahijah). Two years after the poisoning of Thutmose IV, Yuya was released from prison and the Shechemite princess Tuya was given to him marriage. Tuya and Yuya subsequently had a son Aanen and a daughter Tiye. Aanen (Manasseh) held the highly influential posts of High Priest of On and Second Priest (Prophet) of the state god Amun at Karnak for at least part of the reign of Amenhotep III. In the reign of Ahmose, this office (2nd Prophet) had been promised as a permanent inheritance to the descendants of Queen Ahmose-Nefertari. This suggests that Tuya may have descended from this collateral line, and was therefore entitled to appoint her son as 2nd Prophet of Amun. Tuya also became the mother of another leading prince Aye-Sheshonq. However, it is uncertain whether Aye was born before Tuyas marriage to Yuya (Joseph) or while she was still among the wives of Thutmose IV-Nimlot A (Judah). The Biblical account suggests that Aanen was older, however he may have only been of lower rank, at least in the eyes of Yuya. In Genesis 48, Joseph becomes angry when Ephraim is favored more highly by his father Jacob than Manasseh, a true son of Joseph. Joseph was already the father of Shiloh-Solomon, the successor of Jacob. Jacob (Amenhotep II) tried to bring a balance by granting higher status to Ephraim (Aye) the natural son of Judah (Thutmose IV) than to Manasseh, another son of Joseph (Yuya). After the nobles of Shechem were slaughtered by Siamun (Simeon) and Khaemwaset (Levi), the people of this region evidently "asked for" another king to protect them and look after their interests. Aye-Sheshonq, the son of Thutmose IVNimlot A (Judah) by the "Shechemite princess" Tuya, made an ideal choice as ruler of Shechem and the Libyans of that region. At the beginning of the 18th Dynasty, the people of Israel had asked for a king to protect them against their enemies. "The Lord" of that day, i.e., Tao I (Terah), appointed his grandson Kamose (Iscah), the Biblical Saul. Later in that same dynasty, "the Lord" Amenhotep II-Sheshonq A (Jacob) similarly appointed his own grandson AyeSheshonq I (Ephraim) by Thutmose IV (Judah) as king, and gave him the nickname of Asa/Shaul, "asked for." As a further concession to the people of Upper Egypt, Asa was not merely made a king but a pharaoh. This also served the purpose of perpetuating the line of Judah (Thutmose IV). It was declared that a son (male descendant) of Judah would always sit upon this separate pharaonic throne.

264 Despite authorizing Aye to become pharaoh of Libya (Judah), Amenhotep II (Jacob) excluded both Aye and Yuyas son Aanen as successors to the greater throne. Their mother Tuya was not from the most direct line of kings. A son born to Yuya after Aye and Aanen were born, namely Amenhotep III (Shiloh-Solomon), would instead be named as that successor.n Yuya was evidently directed to produce an heir through Mutemwia, who was nominally considered one of the wives or former wives of Thutmose IV. Logically, this woman (likely either Biblical Dinah or Leah) was from that direct line of kings. The pedigree of Mutemwia was considered superior to that of Tuya. Shortly before his passing, Amenhotep II chose Mutemwias son Amenhotep III by Yuya as his successor to the greater throne of Egypt. Amenhotep III was slightly younger than both Aye and Aanen. This is a strong indication that Yuya (Joseph) did not "sin" with the wife of Thutmose IV (JudahPotiphar). However, he would be officially called upon to become "father to pharaoh" (father of the successor Amenhotep III) through this or another wife of Thutmose IV after his two-year prison duty and marriage to Tuya.o As we have learned, royal princes routinely offered their designated wives to each other, or were commanded to do so. Refusal to cooperate was a serious offence and punishable by death. The official purpose was never pleasure, but always preservation of the royal line. However it must be recognized that we are dealing with highly intelligent, unstable, and willful personalities, both male and female. Royal women did have considerable (and sometimes complete) independence. Dynastic liaisons must have been arranged as often by royal sisters and mothers as by their fathers and brothers. Prerogative of superiors and defiance by subordinates were the true constants of royal courtship and succession. At the time of his death, Issachar/Hamor could not have been more than 25 years of age. He was survived by at least one royal son, who is named as Baasha.p Baasha was at a very young age appointed as king of Israel. This was probably not done out of sympathy for his murdered father, but due to the continued influence of his mother Leah (Queen Tia). Prior to his death, Issachar possessed all of the privileges of the heir, including the opportunity to sire an heir of his own through his mother Leah, who is named as Ahijah in the Kings/Chronicles narrative. Baasha son of Issachar by Queen Ahijah became a great king and lifelong nemesis of Asa son of Judah.q However, the thrones of both Asa and Baasha were subordinate to that of Solomon (Amenhotep III).

a. The prenomen of Thutmose IV was Menkheperure. b. Amenhotep III: Perspectives on His Reign, eds. OConnor and Cline, p 39. c. See Chapters 15 & 16 of this book. d. The Egyptian name Weben-senu means "man/son of shining." Webenu connotes the "first light over the water." (Stephen Quirke,

265 The Cult of Ra: Sun Worship in Ancient Egypt, p 29) However, the roots we/wei ("vital force/might"), ben ("son") and sen ("elder/first") connect to the Biblical blessing of Reuben. A more complete word study of Reuben and his family will be provided in Chapter 28. e. See Chapters 7 & 8 for previous discussion on Sargon and his sons. f. See Chapter 15 for previous discussion of Thutmose IV and the Sphinx. g. See Chapter 5. h. Aidon Dodson, Monarchs of the Nile, pp 159-161. i. Aidon Dodson, Monarchs of the Nile, p 161. j. Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament (ANET), J. Pritchard, ed., Vol II, p 285 (c); Peter James, Centuries of Darkness, pp 255, 304. k. www.hierakonpolis.org l. Peter Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, p 16. m. Gen. 34:25-27 (KJV) n. Genesis 48:5 o. Genesis 45:8 p. See Chapter 19, Note 1 for the genealogy of Issachar. q. The kingly line of Issachar in the New Kingdom is discussed more fully in the next chapter.

Note 1: "Judah, thou art he whom thy brethren shall praise: thy hand shall be in neck of thine enemies: thy father's children shall bow down before thee. Judah is a lion'swhelp: from the prey, my son, thou art gone up: he stooped down, he crouched as a lion, and as an old lion; who shall rouse him up? The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come; and unto him shall the gathering of the people be." - Genesis 49:8-10 (KJV) praise (3034) yadah; lit. to use the hand [as in worship of God or king] hand (3027) yad; a hand (the open one [indicating power, means, direction, etc.] in distinction from kaph, the closed one) neck (6203) oreph; the nape or back of the neck (as declining) enemies (341) oyeb or owyeb; hating; an adversary bow (7812) shachah; to depress, i.e. prostrate (espec. reflex. in homage to royalty or God) lion's (738) ariy or aryeh; a lion from (717) arah; to pluck:- gather, pluck whelp (1482) guwr or gur; a cub (as still abiding in the lair), espec. of the lion. The prince Thutmose IV lying next to the Sphinx and appearing small in relation to its size. perhaps from (1481) guwr, to turn aside from the road (for a lodging or any other purpose), i.e., sojourn (as a guest). Thutmose IV turned aside to rest beside

266 the Sphinx. prey (2964) tereph; something torn:- leaf, meat, prey, spoil from (2963) taraph; to pluck off or pull to pieces old lion (3833) labiy or lebaowth; to roar; a lion:- (great, old, stout) lion. Cf Labayu "Binding his foal unto the vine, and his ass'scolt unto the choice vine; he washed his garments in wine and his clothes in the blood of grapes: His eyes shall be red with wine, and his teethwhite with milk." - Genesis 49:11-12 (KJV) binding (631) acar, aw-sar'; to yoke or hitch; by anal. to fasten in any sense, to join battle:- bind, fast, gird, hold, keep, make ready, order, prepare, prison(er), put in bonds, set in array, tie {The natural son of Judah was "bound/attached" as the legal son of Joseph.} foal (5895) ayir, ah'-yeer; prop. a young ass (as just broken to a load); hence an ass-colt {A play on words referring to Ay/Aye. Ay is associated with the donkey, both in Scripture and in the Amarna Tablets.} vine (1612) gephen, gheh'-fen; to bend; a vine (as twining), esp. the grape:- vine, tree {A reference to Yuya, see the blessing of Joseph, the vine.} ass's (860) athown aw-thone'; a female ass (from its docility) {Referring to Judah's legal wife.} colt (1121) ben, bane; a son (as a builder of the family name), one born, bough, branch, child, kid, calf, colt, breed {Referring to the builder king Shiloh/Solomon, the son of Joseph through the wife of Judah.} choice vine (8321) soreq, so-rake'or soreqah, so-ray-kaw'; redness; a vine stock (prop. one yielding purple grapes, the richest variety):- choice (st, noble) wine {Joseph was the vine, but Judah was the "choicest vine," i.e., the king.} washed (3526) kabac, kaw-bas'; to trample; hence to wash (prop. by stamping with the feet) {Euphemistically referring to sexual intercourse.} garments (3830) lebush, leb-oosh'; a garment (lit. or fig.); by impl. (euphemistically) a wife {Judah's legal wife slept with Joseph for the sake of producing an heir.} wine (3196) yayin, yah'-yin; to effervesce; wine (as fermented); by impl. intoxication {Euphemistically referring to sexual pleasure.} clothes (5497) cuwth, sooth; covering, veiling, i.e. clothing {Repetition for effect, again referring to Judah's wife, i.e., the "veiled."} blood (1818) dam, dawm; blood of man or animal; by anal. the juice of the grape:blood, + innocent {No guilt was associated with this act, the participants were "innocent."} grapes (6025) enab, ay-nawb'; prob. meaning to bear fruit; a grape:- (ripe) grape, wine {Reference to having children/heirs.}

267 eyes (5869) ayin, ah'-yin; an eye (lit. or fig.); by anal. a fountain (as the eye of the landscape):- affliction, outward appearance, [many other connotations] {Play on words, again referring Ay/Aye} red (2447) chakliyl; to be dark; darkly flashing (only of the eyes); in a good sense, brilliant (as stimulated by wine) {A physical characteristic of Thutmose IV and/or Aye?} wine (3196) yayin, yah'-yin; to effervesce; wine (as fermented); by impl. intoxication {Play on words, further emphasizing Ay/Aye, and his many connubials.} teeth (8127) shen; a tooth (as sharp); spec. (for shenhabbiym) ivory [tooth of elephant] {Alluding to the love of Aye (Ahab son of Omri) for ivory.} white (3836) laban; white milk (2461) chalab; milk {Aye (Ephraim) delighted in his many political marriages, and in ivory.} Based on the above word study, it can be deduced that Judah sired a son, Aye, on behalf of Joseph, and Judah's own wife's son and heir, the great builder Shiloh/Solomon, was in turn sired by Joseph. This commingling of wives was done in the guiltless pleasure of bearing royal children. Note 2: The "Blessing" of Simeon and Levi in Genesis 49:5-7 (KJV): "Simeon and Levi are brethren; instruments of cruelty are in their habitations. O my soul, come not thou into their secret; unto their assembly, mine honour, be not thou united: for in their anger they slew a man, and in their selfwill they digged down a wall. Cursed be their anger, for it was fierce; and their wrath, for it was cruel: I will divide them in Jacob, and scatter them in Israel." instruments (3629) keliy (kel-ee') from (3615) kalah (kaw-law') to cease, be finished, destroy utterly cruelty (2555) chamac (khaw-mawce') violence, wrong habitations (4380) mekerah (mek-ay-raw') stabbing; a sword from (3564) kuwr, dig, excavate secret/council (5475) cowd (sode) a session, i.e., company of persons (in close deliberation); by impl. intimacy from (3245) yacad (yaw-sad') to set (lit. or fig.); intens. to found; reflex. to sit down together, i.e., settle consult assembly (6951) qahal (kaw-hawl') assembly, company, congregation, multitude honor (3519) kabod (kaw-bode') weight, glory united (3161) yachad (yaw-chad') to be (or become) one digged down (6131) aqar (aw-kar') to pluck up (espec. by the roots); spec. to hamstring; fig. to exterminate:- dig down, hough, pluck up, root up.

268 wall (7794) showr (shore) a bullock (as a traveler): - bull(-ock), cow, ox, wall [by mistake for 7791, shuwr] The wall uprooted (showr aqar) by Simeon and Levi was the "Beast of Burden" Aqar, i.e., Issachar! ! (See also the Blessing of Issachar analyzed in Note 6.) Kha-em-waset ("Crowned in Thebes"), Egyptian name of Levi Si-amun ("son of Amun"), Egyptian name of Simeon Note 3: Sons of Issachar (1 Chronicles 7:1) (1) Tola, (8439) "worm, maggot" (2) Puah/Pua (6326) "brilliance, glittery", a.k.a. Phuvah (6312) "puff, blow, blast" (3) Jashub (3437) "he shall return, retreat, withdraw," from (7725) (4) Shimron (8110) "guardianship, preserving, protecting," from (8105/8104) The sons of Tola: (1 Chron 7:2) a) Uzzi ("strength") b) Rephaiah c) Jeriel d) Jahmai e) Ibsam f) Shemuel. In Judges 10:1-2, Tola is "a man of Issachar" and a "son of Dodo" (descendant of the "beloved," i.e., King David). King David (composite of Thutmose I and his son III) was the New Kingdom repetition of Sargon and his son Gudea from the Middle Kingdom. Tola is not explicitly designated as a king in the book of Judges, however he is said to have "led" Israel "after the time of King Abimelech [Thutmose I]." Following the death of Thutmose I, Israel was ruled by Thutmose III (Isaac) and Amenhotep II (Jacob). So, there is a lapse of some sixty years in the Judges narrative between the death of Abimelech and the time that Tola (Baasha), son of Issachar and grandson of Amenhotep II (Jacob), "rose" to lead Israel. The genealogy of Issachar in 1 Chron. 7 is a Middle Kingdom genealogy, which applied to Sekhemkare son of Senusret I (Ephraim). In the genealogy of Ephraim, Sekhemkare is called by the variant of Zabad. The New Kingdom Issachar (Osorkon A) son of Jacob (Amenhotep II) was seen as a repetition of the Middle Kingdom archetype. A separate genealogy for the New Kingdom Issachar is not given in the Bible. Osorkon A, the second Issachar, is also named in the New Kingdom genealogy of Levi (Thutmose III), where he is called Izhar son of Kohath (Jacob/Amenhotep II). This second Issachar is also called Amminadab son of Kohath in the Book of Exodus. The equivalence of Amminadab and Izhar is clear from 1 Chronicles 6:2,22 and Exodus 6:18,21. (In the Song of Songs, a lover speaks of her heart being stirred as though she were amidst the chariots of Amminadab.)

269 Izhar, "anointing, as with oil," from tsahar (6671) tsaw-har', to gleam:- make oil Cf tsahar and sakar (7939) saw-kawr', used to form the name Issachar Sons of Izhar (alternate form of Issachar/Osokhor) (Exodus 6:21) (1) Korah, "icy smooth," "bald" (2) Nepheg, "to spring forth, sprout" (3) Zicri/Zichri, "memorable" Zichri features prominently in the Biblical narrative after the death of Elah. The "son of Zuchru" is also a notable figure in the Amarna Tablets, as noted by Immanuel Velikovsky in Ages in Chaos. Sons of Korah: Ex 6:24 a) Assir, "prisoner;" b) Elkanah, "God has obtained;" c) Abiasaph/Ebiasaph, "father of gathering" Son of Amminadab (alternate name of Issachar/Osokhor) Exodus 6:23 (1) Naashon/Nahshon Naashon (5177) "enchanter", observe from (5172) nachash, prognosticate, diligently

Naashon is also known as Baasha, Chidon and Nachon. Baasha, "of the house of Issachar" (1 Kings 15:27) The name Baasha, "to stink" is a pun on the given name Naashon son of Amminadab, and connects to the name Tola son of Issachar. Tola, meaning "worm, maggot" is related to shaniy (8144), "a red worm or insect." The "crimson grub" was a source of red dye. Red was the color of royalty, therefore the nickname would not have been entirely negative. Naashon had also been a name of the earlier Patriarch Peleg/Nun, father of Joshua. This earlier Naashon was a political son of the earlier Amminadab (Moses/Hammurabi). Chidon (3592) Kidon, "prop. something to strike with, i.e., a dart" from (3589) kiyd (keen), "strike; a crushing; fig. calamity" Nachon (5225) "prepared" from (3559) kuhn (koon), "to be erect, set up, establish" cf (5221) nakah, "strike" Cf Jachin (3199) one of the pillars of Solomon, and a son of Simeon from (3559) "to be erect, to set up, establish" The son of Baasha (1 Kings 16:6,8): Elah, ("oak, chief, strength") The son of Baasha, Elah has the same meaning as Uzzi the eldest son of Tola.

270 Baasha is called the "son of Ahijah (Leah/Tia) of the house of Issachar." More specifically, Baasha/Tola was the son of Issachar (Osokhor) and the son/grandson of Queen Ahijah (Tia). See 1 Kings 15:27. In this family, "all things are possible." A short time later in this dynasty, Queen Tiye became both the mother and grandmother of Tutankhamun! The dynastic marriage of Tiye and Akhenaten was by no means the first nor the last time a queen became the consort of her own son. In Judges 10:1, Tola is called the "son of Puah," which indicates that he was the younger brother of Puah, and therefore subordinate to him, at least initially. In this case, Izhar's eldest son Korah ("smooth," i.e., shiny) corresponds to Issachar's "second" son Puah ("brilliance, glittery"). Likewise, Tola/Baasha, the first son of Issachar, probably corresponds to Izhar's second son Nepheg ("to spring forth, sprout"), a typical epithet for a younger son who excelled or at least survived one or more elder brothers, or to his third son Zichri ("memorable"). The inclusion of Korah son of Izhar/Amminadab in the genealogy of Levi may indicate that Puah was the natural son of Levi, and only the legal son of Issachar. The variant Phuvah, meaning to "puff, blow, blast," reflects his musical ability. Eleven of the Psalms have the dedication: "For the sons of Korah." "Korah son of Izhar" is also the leading protagonist in the infamous "Korah's Rebellion," one of many discordant stanzas in the "Moses Aria" (Numbers 16). The compositing of Middle and New Kingdom history (and genealogies) in the Torah makes it difficult to establish whether Korah's Rebellion applied to one or both of these time periods. Baasha's brother Korah in the New Kingdom certainly would have been of very great age by the time of the Exodus of Akhenaten, and in no condition to be paraded about in the wilderness. Korah's last song was a sad one. Judges 10 tells us that Tola a man of Issachar was buried in Shamir. This appears to be the same as the Shemer of the Kings narrative. Shemer is said to have been the name of the man who owned the hill upon which Omri (Yuya/Joseph) built [up] the provincial capital city of Samaria. The Judges 10:1-2 synchronism is another confirmation that the content of Judges is concurrent with the Torah and portions of the Samuel/Kings/ Chronicles narrative. Various passages in Judges occur before, during and after the United Kingdom (and not entirely after the Exodus of Moses/Akhenaten). Note 4: Etymologies of Nimlot and Nimrat (Indo-European roots from The American Heritage Dictionary) lot (3875) a veil: - covering, from (3874) to wrap up: - cast, wrap Lot (3876) nephew of Abraham kleu-. Old English hlot, lot; Frankish *lot, lot, portion; Latin claudere, to close; Greek kleiein, to close

271 nem-2. To assign, allot; also to take." Greek nemein, to allot Old English niman, to take, seize Old English naemel, quick to seize, and numol, quick at learning, seizing: nimble, quick and clever in action or acumen" Nimlot, "quick to take and act on a (favorable) oracle," "take a (favorable) oracle" (from the hidden one Amun) Thutmose IV (Judah) received a favorable oracle from Amenhotep II (Jacob) at the Sphinx, and took the birthright from his elder brothers. Reuben was a "son of seeing," Simeon was a "son of hearing," but Judah was the praised "son of taking." Nimrat, "strong seizer" Same name as Nimrod, the "Mighty Hunter before the Lord" reudh- red, ruddy, hard, strong, robust, ret- rod-cross, rude reu- reud/raud-bellow, roar reug- roar, rut, riot Cf Latin ratus, fixed: rate, ratify Cf nem - sacred grove Cf nome - pasture, spread, law, custom, number See discussion of the Biblical name Nemuel in Note 4. Note 5: Sons of Simeon (1) Nemuel/Jemuel (Nemuel/Jemuel [The "sons" of New Kingdom Simeon may have been sons only in a political sense, i.e., junior brothers, etc. In the New Kingdom, Nemuel/Jemuel represents Judah/Thutmose IV.] (2) Jamin, "stronger side (left or right), the south." [Possibly represents Reuben/Uzziel or Ben-jamin.] (3) Jarib, "contends" [Note: Jarib is listed only in 1 Chronicles 4:24. Cf Jerub-baal (Gideon) and Jeroboam rival of Rehoboam.] (4) Ohad/Ehud, "to be united, unity" [Compare Levi, "attached."] (5) Jachin (3199) one of the pillars of Solomon, from (3559) "to be erect, to set up, establish" [Cf Nachon (5225), son of Issachar. Note: Ohad/Ehud and Jachin are listed only in Genesis 46:10 and Exodus 6:15.] (6) Zerah, "to appear" ["Zerah the Cushite," rival of Asa.] (7) Shaul, "asked for" [King Asa, the son of "a Canaanite woman," i.e., a Shechemite princess.]

272 The genealogy of Simeon is annotated with material (1 Chron. 4:27-43) that clearly belongs to the Egyptian Middle Kingdom. However the genealogy itself (verses 24-26) appears to be a composite of both Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom persons. This is not surprising now that it is realized that the New Kingdom princes deliberately patterned themselves after Middle Kingdom archetypes. This included the naming of their sons. We find that the eldest "son" of Simeon was called Nemuel, possibly meaning or connoting "seizer of God." The New Kingdom person that fits this description is Nimlot/Judah, the younger brother and erstwhile "son" of Siamun.. In the two other genealogies of Simeon (Genesis 46:10 and Exodus 6:15), the eldest son of Simeon is not called Nemuel, but by the variant Jemuel. The name Jemuel fully embodies the meaning of Thutmose IV's praenomen, which is Menkheprure. Men is the Egyptian root for "enduring" or "everlasting." Kheper represents the sun in its daily rising. Jemuel is derived from the Hebrew word yowm, meaning "hot," and connotes "always, continually, daily, (for) ever (-lasting)." The Egyptian god Re would not have been directly preserved in a Biblical pseudonym of Thutmose. The more acceptable "El" was incorporated instead, which also better reflects the Canaanite rendition of Thutmose's chosen prenomen. The Hebrew word nemar means "a leopard," and the place name Beth Nimrah means "House of the Leopard." It is derived from namar, "to spot or stain as from dripping" In Egyptian lore, the blood of the god Sia (protector of the royal "family jewels") dripped from his mutilated penis. Simeon (Siamun) demanded that all the Shechemite men be circumcised, and then mutilated the rest of their bodies. As with the ant, the symbol of the leopard (in subtle distinction to the lion) seems to relate Sheshonq and Iuput to Siamun (Simeon). However, Sheshonq (and later Iuput) likely identified less with the disgraced Siamun, and more with the trauma endured by his mother, the Shechemite heiress and her Shechemite relatives. Cf Nimrah, "clear (filtered/dripped) waters" Cf Lemuel/Lemoel, "a symbolic name of Solomon" according to Strong's Concordance The royals of Shechem are called "Hivites." The name Hivite (Chivviy-2340) derives from chavvah (2332), "life-giver." This designation of Hivite suggests that the natives of Shechem identified with or descended from a great king of the past, such as Inyotef II/Wah-ankh, Salitis (Joshua I) or Apophis/Tao I/Sanakhtenre (Jesse). The desire of Biblical Levi to rule over the city points to the Levi of the Middle Kingdom, pharaoh Montuhotep II, whose prenomen was Sankhare, "Giving Life to the Soul of Re"). Like Shechem, the Hivite city of "Gibeon was an important city, like one of the royal cities." -Joshua 10:2 (New International Version); See also Joshua 9:1-26. In the New Kingdom, the marriage of Simeon to the "Canaanite woman" or "Canaanitish woman," (Gen. 46:12) represents a Shechemite princess. Strictly speaking, she was not a Canaanite, but was a royal (Hamitic) princess with

273 regional ties to Canaan. This marriage represented a reuniting of a collateral royal line. Earlier, Tao II (Gideon/Baal) had also been the son of a Shechemite princess named "Maacah." See Chapter 10. Probably, the Middle Kingdom Simeon (Naram-Sin) had also married a "Canaanite woman." Another "son" of Simeon is called Ohad/Ehud, which means "to be united, unity." This has the same meaning as the name Levi ("attached"). In the Middle Kingdom, Levi was a Hebrew name of Montuhotep II. In the New Kingdom, Levi corresponds to Khaemwast. He was the third son of Jacob (Amenhotep II) and the younger brother and constant companion of Simeon (Siamun). In the rigid pecking order of the royal court, both Levi (Khaemwast) and Judah (Thutmose IV) would have initially been considered the subordinates, i.e., the "sons" of Simeon. Simeon was the second oldest, Levi the third, and Judah the fourth. For this reason, they may have later been remembered as true sons of Simeon, rather than political sons. It also may reinforce in the case of Nemuel/Jemuel that the son of Judah by the "Canaanite woman" legally belonged to Simeon. Sheshonq (Shishak/Shaul/Asa) became a chieftain of the Ma only after the disgrace of Siamun (Simeon). Note 6: Genesis 49:14-15 (KJV) "Issachar is a strongasscouchingdown between two burdens: And he saw that rest was good, and the land that it was pleasant; and bowed his shoulder to bear, and became a servant unto tribute." In the following Hebrew definitions from the "blessing of Issachar" note the word plays involving Hamor (chamar), Shechem (sekem), Zabad (abad/yah'abad), Asa (saw-bal), and the Libyan tribe of the Ma/Meshwesh (mas/mees/mish) strong (1634) gerem/garam; a bone (as the skeleton of the body); hence self, i.e. (fig.) very:- bone, strong, top. ass (2543) chamowr/chamor; a male ass (from its dun red):- (he) ass from (2560) chamar, to boil up, hence to ferment (with scum); to glow (with redness);... foul, red, trouble. couching (7257) rabats; to crouch (on all four legs folded, like a recumbent animal); by impl. to recline, repose, brood, lurk, imbed;- crouch (down), fall down, make a fold, lay down (7812) shachah; to depress, i.e. prostrate (espec. reflex. In homage to royalty or God):- bow (self) down . . . worship. burdens (4942) mishpath; a stall for cattle (only dual):- burden, sheepfold from (8192) shaphah; to abrade, i.e. bare:- high, stick out

274 The traditional territory of Issachar (established in the Middle Kingdom) was Syria and Assyria, between two "sheepfolds" of Egypt and Babylon saw (7200) ra'ah; to see, regard, respect, spy, stare, view, visions rest (4496) menuwchah/menuchah; repose or (adv.) peacefully; fig. consolation (spec. matrimony); hence (concr.) an abode:- comfortable, ease, quiet, rest (-ing place), still. good (2896) towb/tobe; good, a good man:- beautiful, sweet from (2895) towb; cheer land (776) erets; the earth, nations, world pleasant (5276) na'em; agreeable (lit. or fig.):- pass in beauty, be delight, pleasant, sweet. bowed (5186) natah; to stretch or spread out; by impl. to bend away (include. mor. deflection); afternoon, decline, go down, be gone, overstretched, overthrown, turn (aside, away) shoulder (7926) shekem; the neck (between the shoulders) as the place of burdens; fig. the spur of a hill:- back, x consent, portion, shoulder bear (5445) cabal/saw-bal'; to carry, be burdensome; spec. to be gravid:-bear, be a burden, carry, strong, to labour became (1961) hayah; to exist, i.e. be or become servant (5647) abad; to work tribute (4522) mac/mas or mic/mees; prop. A burden (as causing to faint), i.e. a tax in the form of forced labor:- discomfit, levy, task [-master], tribute(-tary). from (4549) macac/maw-sas'; to liquefy; fig. to waste (with disease), to faint, with fatigue, fear or grief):- discourage, faint, be loosed, melt (away), refuse Note 7: The "blessing" of Simeon by Jacob found in Genesis 49:5-7 contains nothing but condemnation. However, the order of genealogies in the book of 1 Chronicles is telling. The family of Judah is listed first, followed by Simeon, and only then comes the eldest son Reuben. This order suggests that Simeon was considered, at least by some, to be the de jure founder of the 22nd Dynasty, which after the 18th Dynasty line of Judah became the most prominent in Upper Egypt (the land of Judah). The 22nd Dynasty also preceded the rise of the 19th Dynasty, which was founded by a grandson of Reuben. (Reuben's line is discussed in Chapter 28.)

275 The declaration of Sheshonq as king coincided closely with the premature death of Thutmose IV. If Sheshonq had been the true son of Simeon, this probably would not have occurred. After the Shechemite incident, Simeon was again censured for his plot to kill Joseph. Simeon may have been forgiven by Joseph, but there is no indication that favor was restored by his father Jacob, or that he was able to establish a lasting kingly line.

Living in Truth:

Archaeology and the Patriarchs Chapter 18


"Wars and Rumors of Wars" (Conflict in the Reign of Amenhotep III)
by Charles N. Pope Copyright 1999-2003 by Charles Pope United States Library of Congress All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions

Name Associations (new associations in bold) Torah Names Jacob-Israel Leah (wife of Jacob) Rachel (wife of Jacob) Kings/Chronicles Names Composite Solomon Ahijah, Ginath Atarah Greek Names Dakos Egyptian Names Amenhotep II Sheshonq A Tia Mehtenwesket Merit-Amon

By Rachel, two sons 1) Joseph (Amram) Asenath Manasseh (Aaron) Ephraim (Eleasar) Abishalom ("Father of Solomon") ("Egyptian" wife of Joseph) Jeroboam (the Elder) Amon, "Ruler of the City" Amariah Asa/Shaul, Shishak Jehoshaphat son of Asa (Kith-)Airon Laius, Menoikeus Yuya, Imram Tuya Aanen son of Yuya Amon-appa/ Amarnappa Aye, Sheshonq I Iuput A

Asocheus, Creon

276 Jochebed (Zipporah) Shiloh Moses Eliezer 2) Benjamin By Leah, six sons and one daughter (Dinah) 1) Reuben 2) Simeon Zerah (son of Simeon) "the Cushite" 3) Levi 4) Judah 5) Issachar (Hamor) Tola 6) Zebulun Nemuel/Jemuel Izhar, Shilki/Shilhi Amminadab II Baasha son of Issachar Elah son of Baasha Tibni Osokhor Uzziel, Mushi Webensenu, Neby Siamun Ikheny of Ta-Zety (of Nubia) Khaemwast Thutmose IV Nimlot A/Nimrat Osorkon A Shilkanni (Assyria) Ba'sa, Milkilu Unattested Nedjem Naamah, Maacah, Abihail Composite Solomon Joacaste, Merope Eurydice Polybos/Polybus Tiye, daughter of Yuya Amenhotep III

Rehoboam Oedipus, Hermaeus Amenhotep IV (son of Naamah & Abishalom) Phaethon Akhenaten Abijah, Abijam Eteocles (A) Eteocles (B) Smenkhare Tutankhamun Aakheprure

Gershom/Joshua Attai

Manetho's Catch 22 Reconciling Egyptology with the Biblical record following Solomon begins with recognizing the logic used by the 3rd Century BC Egyptian priest Manetho when he organized the many kings of New Kingdom Egypt into dynasties. Beginning with the 18th Dynasty, Manetho first listed what he considered the most direct line of kings. This continued with the 19th, 20th and 21st Dynasties. It will be shown here that Manetho then returned to the time of the 18th Dynasty and began listing secondary or collateral kingly lines.a Manetho's grouping method was simple, effective and even necessary. However, it was eventually misunderstood. The Egyptian New Kingdom has been reconstructed today as a protracted and orderly procession of authoritarian pharaohs who were rarely challenged by family rivals. Quite to the contrary, the New Kingdom was actually a period of highly volatile court life. The late 18th Dynasty became a free-for-all as the numerous princes in the reign of Amenhotep II along with their sons and grandsons maneuvered to expand their personal dominions within the greater empire, and

277 ultimately to establish their own lines as pre-eminent. Moreover, the fall of the 18th Dynasty did not bring an end to intrigue in Egypt. After the collapse of the Amarna Period, a fragile balance of power was maintained between the scions of two interrelated royal houses. In Egyptian history, these two lines began with Manetho's 19th and 22nd Dynasties. In the Bible they are called the "Kings of Israel" and the "Kings of Judah." One encounters the same difficulty in explaining the Biblical narrative as confronted the Biblical architect when deciding how to construct that narrative in the first place. This is the problem of describing leaders who were highly dynamic in terms of political ambition and geographic influence, and in their interaction with rivals of widely varying seniority. History involves the description of people and events that are concurrent, but the medium of the historian is inherently sequential. A written narrative can effectively deal with only one person or event at a time. The task of recording the late 18th Dynasty was made even more complex, because the Biblical authors wanted to emphasize certain aspects of the history and downplay others. Although one may not appreciate the particular bias of these authors, the subtlety of the presentation must be admired. Beginning with the death of Solomon, the narrative moves side to side between dueling royal houses, and back and forth in a recursive progression through time. Following the 40-year reign of Solomon (Amenhotep III), the Books of Kings and Chronicles tell us that the United Kingdom degenerated into the interrelated lines of Judah and Israel. Rehoboam is named as the first king of Judah. Like Akhenaten successor of Amenhotep III, Rehoboam is ascribed a reign of exactly 17 years. And like Akhenaten, the trouble began for Rehoboam in his Year 5. From archaeology, the successor of Akhenaten was Smenkhare, whose overlapping three-year reign extended beyond that of Akhenaten by only about three months. The successor of Biblical Rehoboam, named as Abijah, is the eldest of two sons by Queen Maacah,1 his second but more prominent wife. Likewise, Smenkhare was the eldest son of Akhenaten, born to him by his "second" but more powerful wife Tiye.b (Akhenaten had only daughters by Queen Nefertiti.) The three-year reign of Abijah also overlaps with that of Rehoboam. 1 Kings 15:6 (RSV) reads: "Now there was war between Rehoboam and Jeroboam all the days of his [Abijah's] life." After Abijah (Smenkhare) the next king of Judah is named as Asa. We are already well familiar with Asa, who is variously called Ephraim, Ithra (Jethro) and Eleasar in the Torah. In the previous two chapters it was establish through a synthesis of the Kings/Chronicles narrative and the Torah with archaeology that Asa was the natural son of Judah, but became the legal/adopted son of Joseph (Yuya). Although son of the crown prince Judah (Thutmose IV), Asa (Aye) was not named as successor in the throne of Egypt by the still living Jacob (Amenhotep II). Upon the premature death of Judah, a son produced FOR him by his younger halfbrother Joseph received that election instead. This son of Joseph is called Shiloh in the Torah, but is known as Solomon in the Kings/Chronicles narrative. ShilohSolomon (Amenhotep III) was the natural son of Joseph (Yuya), but considered the

278 legal son and heir of Judah (Thutmose IV). As a memorial to Judah, his natural son Asa (Aye) was placed on a new pharaonic throne, that of Libya (Judah). In the Kings/Chronicles narrative Asa is in turn succeeded by Jehoshaphat. Jehoshaphat is the Biblical nickname of Iuput son of Sheshonq I. Asa and Jehoshaphat represent the interleaving of 22nd Dynasty kings with those of the 18th Dynasty main line. Asa was not the literal son of Abijah. In fact, both Asa and his son Jehoshaphat were considerably older than Abijah. However, the death of Abijah provided a convenient point at which to insert the descriptions of Asa and Jehoshaphat. Manetho called Sheshonq by the Greek name of Asocheus, which is perhaps an adaptation of the popular Hebrew name Asa. Manetho also considered Sheshonq to be the founder of the so-called "Libyan" 22nd Dynasty. Even though his father Thutmose IV and grandfather Amenhotep II also bore assumed Libyan king names, Nimlot and Sheshonq,c respectively, Aye-Sheshonq I became the first pharaoh of Libya. For Aye and selected other kings of the 22nd Dynasty who followed him, the Libyan throne was a stepping stone to the greater crown of Egypt, as shown in Chart 18. A Friend Who Sticks Closer Than a Brotherd As the natural son of Nimlot A-Thutmose IV, Sheshonq (Asa) was prominent in Thebes at an early age, and became a lifelong ally of Amenhotep III (Solomon), who was himself the legal heir of Thutmose IV. However, Sheshonq and his son Iuput (Jehoshaphat) were not given sovereignty over Thebes (Jerusalem) until Year 32 of Amenhotep III. This corresponds to the fateful Year 5 of Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten (Rehoboam) in which he was required to leave Thebes (Jerusalem) and build a city of refuge for himself in the Middle (Midian) of Egypt. Akhenaten (Rehoboam) was not permanently disgraced, however he was compelled to act out a mock exile in order to follow the precedent set during the Egyptian Middle Kingdom by Wah-ibre Hor (Eber/Moses I). Akhenaten was placed on an indefinite "probation." During the exile of Akhenaten, Iuput (Jehoshaphat) was made High Priest of Amun and Ruler of Thebes (Jerusalem). Iuput also undoubtedly became a mentor to the young prince Smenkhare (Abijah) who remained in Thebes with his mother Queen Tiye (Maacah). In the Biblical narrative, the placement of Asa (Sheshonq) after Rehoboam (Akhenaten) and Abijah (Smenkhare) was not an arbitrary choice. Out of respect for the greatness of Amenhotep III, and because of the great intricacy of the royal family and its history, the author of the Kings narrative postponed the introduction of Asa (Sheshonq) and Jehoshaphat (Iuput) until after the accounts of Solomon, Rehoboam (Akhenaten) and Abijah (Smenkhare). This choice also allowed the author to hide the fact that Solomon (Amenhotep III) was not the only king of Israel, Judah or even Jerusalem during his lifetime. In the carefully choreographed Biblical sequence of events, it was only necessary to divulge that Solomon had troubling adversaries who threatened the outer reaches of his vast empire, and only at the end of his long reign. However it completely conceals the far more humbling fact that he exercised power only through a fragile network of family

279 alliances and shared sovereignty in Jerusalem (Thebes) itself, first with Rehoboam (Amenhotep IV) and then with Asa (Sheshonq) and Jehoshaphat (Iuput). Although the throne of Asa was considered subordinate to that of Solomon, it can be reconstructed that the 41-year reign of Asa actually began about four years before the 40-year reign of Solomon.e Early in their parallel reigns, the greater king Solomon (Amenhotep III, "King of Kings") helped Asa (Sheshonq) secure his appointed throne by wresting away Libyan tribes who were following an interloper named "Zerah the Cushite." 2 Chronicles 16:8 (KJV) states: "Were not the Ethiopians [Cushites] and Lubims [Libyans] a huge host yet, because thou [Asa] didst rely on the Lord [Solomon], he delivered them into your hand." 2 Chronicles 14:13 (KJV) states: "They were destroyed before the Lord, and before his host," i.e., the army of Solomon (Amenhotep III). Two conflicts in Nubia/Cush are documented in the reign of Amenhotep III. One was led by Merymose Viceroy of Nubia and occurred after Year 30. The larger of the two campaigns took place in Year 5 of Amenhotep III, or about ten "peaceful" years after Sheshonq (Asa) became king. The slightly younger but greater sovereign Amenhotep III claimed to have personally put down a major rebellion in Nubia at that time. The opposition leader was called "boastful" prince Ikheny, the "overthrown one of Kush and Ta-Zety." f As many as thirty thousand prisoners were taken. One of the four subdued regions was named in the inscription as Weresh. This place name corresponds to the Hebrew Mereshah, that being the location in which Biblical Asa prevails over a combined army of Libyans and Cushites with direct help from "the Lord." Ikheny the Kushite of Amenhotep III's inscription logically corresponds to Zerah the Cushite, who was not strictly speaking a Nubian, but son of the disgraced prince Si-amun (Simeon) son of Amenhotep II (Jacob). The sixth son of Simeon is named as Zerah,g and is undoubtedly Zerah "the Cushite" with whom Asa was forced to do battle in yet another of the incessant dynastic duels. The rule of Solomon was not as peaceful as we have been led to believe. The resolve of Solomon was tested by adversaries in Mesopotamia and Syria (See Chapter 20). He also had the unenviable task of maintaining the loyalty of a great many princes from within his own royal family. In an effort to do so, the general policy was to not take sides in petty disputes between subordinate kings. However, instead of achieving parity, it ultimately led to a breakdown of order as individual vassals began to take matters into their own hands rather than waiting for Solomon to act. Speaking of the reign of Asa, 2 Chronicles 15:5 (NIV) states: "In those days it was not safe to travel about, for all the inhabitants of the lands were in great turmoil. One nation was being crushed by another and one city by another, because God was troubling them with every kind of distress." 2 However, Asa was exhorted: "The Lord [Amenhotep III] is with you when you are with him be strong and do not give up, for your work will be rewarded." h The Hebrew word translated as "rewarded" is sakar. This same root is also used to form the name Issachar. The perennial enemy of Asa is said to be Baasha of

280 the house of Issachar.i The Asa narrative implies that the Lord, that is Solomon (Amenhotep III) made a promise to Asa that if he remained loyal, then he would be granted the favor and the forces necessary to triumph over Baasha. More importantly, he would be allowed to assume the identity and holdings traditionally belonging to Issachar in the north, including kingship in Israel. (The memory of Aye as a king of Israel will be discussed beginning with Chapter 20. The memory of Aye in Israel was quite different than that of his younger years in Judah. There is no attempt to combine them in the tapestry that is the Kings/Chronicles narrative.) Encouraged by the prospect of greater political favor with Solomon, Asa launched a campaign of religious imperialism. With moral if not military support from his overlord, he also began doing more than his fair share of the "crushing" of those days. Shishak, Oppressor par Excellence In his 36th year as king, we are told that Asa (Sheshonq) finally prevailed over his lifelong nemesis Baasha (Ba'sa/Milkilu) king of Israel. However, it was not accomplished solely by consent and aid from the Lord Solomon, but through a controversial alliance with the Ben-Hadad king of Damascus. Nevertheless, in that same year of final victory Asa was summoned to Jerusalem, not to be punished but to be rewarded with rule of the city. Year 36 of Asa (Sheshonq) coincided with Year 32 of Solomon (Amenhotep III) and the fateful Year 5 of Rehoboam (Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten). In the fifth year of Rehoboam it was proclaimed in Jerusalem (Thebes), "Thus saith the Lord [Amenhotep III] says, 'Ye [Amenhotep IV] have forsaken me, and therefore have I also left you in the hand of Shishak...' " j On at least one occasion during their nearly parallel 40-year reigns, Solomon had come to the aid of Asa. In Year 5 of Rehoboam (Akhenaten), Asa (Sheshonq/Aye) was obliged to return the favor. With the help of Asa, Rehoboam was banished from Jerusalem (Thebes). Postponing the insertion of Asa until after the reign of Rehoboam was convenient for many reasons, but it also caused an obvious disconnect. Asa could not be named as the king who "came up" in Year 5 of Rehoboam and brought countless Libyan and Cushite troops with him.k Asa had not yet been introduced in the narrative. However, the Kings/Chronicles author effortlessly turns a problem into an opportunity to preserve another of Aye's many epithets. Shishak is an obvious word play on Aye's Libyan throne name Sheshonq. Placing the attack of Shishak (Sheshonq/Asa) in Year 5 of Rehoboam (rather than Year 32 of Solomon) also allowed the author to shift the disgrace from the reign of Solomon onto that of Rehoboam. Akhenaten shared a stormy 12-year co-regency with Amenhotep III. Year 5 of Rehoboam (Akhenaten) would have occurred 7 years before the death of Solomon (Amenhotep III), and not 5 years after. However, the co-regency of Solomon with Rehoboam is deliberately obscured by the Biblical narrative. Attributing the assault of Jerusalem to the reign of Rehoboam and by "Shishak, king of Egypt" not only allowed the author of the narrative to protect the reputation Solomon, but that of "good" king Asa as well. 1 Kings 15:14-15 (RSV) states: "The

281 heart of Asa was wholly true to the Lord [Amun in general, and Amenhotep III specifically] all his days. And he brought into the house of the Lord the votive gifts of his father and his own votive gifts, silver, and gold, and vessels." The NIV and KJV translations of this verse indicate that these items had been previously dedicated, and by implication, had already been broughtl into the temple. If it was necessary for Asa to bring dedicated items back into the temple, then they must have been removed earlier by Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) and used for his own purposes.m The bias of the Kings/Chronicles author toward the temple of Amun is clear. The removal of articles for use in other temples, such as the Aten temples built by Akhenaten in Thebes, was considered an act of "unfaithfulness" and deserving of God's wrath. Asa rid the land of idols and declared: "whosoever would not seek the Lord God of Israel should be put to death." n He even deposed his own (paternal) grandmother Maacah (Queen Tia/Leah) for making an Asherah pole.o Obviously, there would have been those who did not appreciate the extreme measures taken by king Asa, much less consider them good. The Kings/Chronicles narrative admits that toward the end of his reign, Asa put Hanani the Seer (Amenhotep, son of Hapu?) in prison and "brutally oppressed 3 some of the people." p Hanani is said to have rebuked Asa for his treaty with Aram, even though Asa claims that it was merely an extension of a preexisting or former treaty between his "father" and Ben-Hadad's "father." q (Asa and Ben-Hadad served the same political father, Solomon, and may have also had the same biological father, Judah. See Chapter 20.) Asa evidently grew weary of waiting for the promised favor of Solomon, so he formed an independent alliance with Aram. However, rather than being censured by Solomon, his actions were rewarded by the crown. Shishak was a king of Egypt, a place renowned for its idolatry, yet he taught the high and mighty citizens of Jerusalem a lesson regarding religious purity. It should now be clear that Sheshonq strictly speaking was not a foreigner. He was an eminently pedigreed member of the royal house. His treatment of Theban nobility seemed harsh. However, for a Biblical author writing in retrospect, it was but a mild harbinger of atrocities that were to be meted out by descendants of the royal family who brought the armies of Assyria, Babylon, and even Persia against the Jerusalem of Egypt. Judging one Libyan from Another After Akhenaten was banished from Thebes, Sheshonq (Shishak/Asa) appointed his own son Iuput (Jehoshaphat) as High Priest of Amun and governor of Upper Egypt. In addition to naming a new High Priest (1st Prophet), the offices of 3rd and 4th Prophet were also filled or replaced. At least one of these selections was also a son of Sheshonq. This may have been a more serious offence to Hanani the Seer, i.e., a high-ranking priest of Amun and/or Re. The Biblical/Hebrew name Hanani is a form of the name Amen. In the latter part of the reign of Amenhotep III, two 2nd Prophets of Amun are known from archaeology. The first is Aanen son of Yuya, whose name is a variant of Amun/Amen. The second is Si-Mut, whose

282 antecedents are unknown. The tenures of Aanen and Simut are thought to overlap,r and it must be suspected that Si-Mut ("Son of Mut") was an epithet of Aanen. It is known that Si-Mut held the office of 2nd Prophet in Year 34 of Amenhotep III. Another leading prophet of that time named Hanan was Amenhotep son of Hapu, who achieved legendary renown and was even deified in later times. Upon the appointment of Iuput, Smenkhare the son of Queen Tiye and Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) was only five years of age. It would have become the charge of Iuput to mold the young prince into a "prophet of the Lord" and prepare him to become a pharaoh. Iuput evidently excelled in this task, and also continued the religious reforms instituted by his father Sheshonq. Iuput was revered in the Kings narrative as one of the most "righteous" kings of Judah. It states that Jehoshaphat "appointed judges in the land, in each of the fortified cities of Judah." s This initiative earned Iuput the Hebrew nickname of Jehoshaphat, meaning "God (is) Judge." The name Iuput itself may be derived from Amun/Jehovah in that "Iu" probably was the "Libyan" form of the Hebrew/Akkadian "Jeho/Iah/Iau." In the Bible, Put or Phut is associated with Libya, and the 22nd Dynasty of Sheshonq and Iuput is known today as the "Libyan Dynasty." As the name Libya or Libu implies, these people were fair-skinned, although probably not conforming closely to any modern Caucasian type. However, Iuput and other members of the royal family were not Libyan, but inter-racial, as explained in Chapter 4 of this book. They could reasonably claim to be "all things to all people." Among Nubians, they were African, among Hebrews they were Semitic, and among Libyans they were Caucasoid. In Iuput's time, tribes of "white people" were widely distributed. One such group was the Tehenu of the Western Delta. Another was the Mitanni or Hurrianst of Aram Naharaim (NW Mesopotamia). The Mitanni was a subdued tribe and had been resettled in Mesopotamia from some other unknown locale during the 1st Dynasty of Babylon.u Primarily based on their language, the Mitanni people have been broadly classified as a "white" or "Indo-European" race. After the collapse of the 1st Dynasty of Babylon, the rule of Mitanni (also called Hanigalbat) was fiercely contested by princes in Assyria and Hatti. Shalmaneser I, nominally of Assyria, was the first victor in that struggle. According to Amir Harrak, "Both nations sought the hegemony over Hanigalbat, for this land was not only a breadbasket but also a buffer zone for the two antagonistic parties. Thus, the land of Hanigalbat was a central political issue which Assyria managed to defend at all costs." v However, the line of Shalmaneser would not hold it for long. The goal of the 18th Dynasty pharaohs was to supplant their family rivals in Mesopotamia even as their Middle Kingdom ancestors had done before them. In pursuit of this objective, it was considered necessary to emulate the pattern and plan of attack used in the Middle Kingdom.w In capturing Mitanni, Thutmose I (and Thutmose III after him) not only gained a strategic foothold north of the Euphrates, but also deprived Assyria of a critical resource. "The fertile Khabur area [in Hanigalbat] must have satisfied most of Assyria's need for grain." x

283 Equivalence of Judah and Libya In Greek tradition, a daughter of Apophis (Terah) was named Libya. Therefore, this was an epithet of Queen Isis (Sarah) or one of her sisters. Apophis himself appears to have been called Shattuara (or Shuttatarra) among the Mitanni. Note the phonic semblance of tuara/tarra and the Hebraized name Terah. Shattuara and his successor Wasashatta (Abram?) suffered a defeat by Adad-narari I of Assyria, after which the king of Assyria boasted that Shattuara "paid tribute year by year as long as he lived until he died." y Although often down, Shattuara (as with Biblical Terah) was never knocked out. Adad-narari corresponds to Nahor the "brother" of Abram. Nahor became chief in Aram Naharaim, the Biblical name of Mitanni. Although the Book of Genesis makes Nahor a "son" of Terah, he evidently was the true son of one of Terah's rivals. Adad-nirari claimed that Arikden-ili (Arioch), the enemy of Terah and Abram in Genesis 14, was his father. In addition to the territory of the Mitanni in Aram Naharaim, Nahor also established a strong presence in Upper Egypt, where he likely corresponds to the late 17th Dynasty pharaoh Sekhemre.z He was father of the Egyptian pharaohs Ahmose (Biblical Thahash/Nahash) and Thutmose II (Biblical Ephron/Perez son of Zohar). Ahmose, Thutmose II or another son or grandson of Sekhemre became his successor in Assyria and Mitanni under the Assyrian name of Shalmaneser I. Zohar, one of several Biblical pseudonyms for Nahor, means "whiteness." A prominent grandson of Nahor was called Laban. Rebecca the sister of Laban was given in marriage to Sarah's son Isaac. Laban later became a chief of the Mitanni and the father-in-law of Isaac's son Jacob (pharaoh Amenhotep II). Libna and Laban are close variants, and both names denote "whiteness." Esau the brother of Jacob was made king in Mitanni and took the name of Saussator son of Parsatatar (Thutmose III).aa He, in turn, called his son Libni. During the reign of Amenhotep III, the Libyans under Egyptian control collectively became such an important population group that the prince appointed to rule over them was entitled to pharaonic status. It has been assumed that the Biblical Libna was a city or region in South-Central Palestine, near the towns of the Philistines. As was demonstrated in Chapter 11, the original "Land of the Philistines was in Upper (Southern) Egypt and Nubia, not in Palestine. Likewise, the original site of Libna was also in Upper Egypt. It later became associated with Palestine through "toponym transfer." The place names of Palestine, as well as even more remote lands such as Greece, became almost mirror images of Egypt. This led to more ancient places in Egypt being confused with more recent ones by the same or similar names elsewhere. It is somewhat analogous to the process by which Plymouth Massachusetts of the Pilgrims in America was named after the Plymouth of their former homeland in England from which they departed.ab Libya ultimately came to be associated with the entire African continent. In the 26th Dynasty, Pharaoh Necho II commissioned a sailing expedition to determine the limits of Libya. The voyage departed from the Red Sea and sailed down the east coast of Africa. It took three years for the ship to finally return to Egypt through the Mediterranean!ac

284 The appearance of "Libyans" (Libu) in Lower Egypt is first attested in the Egyptian New Kingdom. The dominant Libyan tribe was variously known as the Me/Ma or Meshwesh. This name is possibly related to that of Wash-shukkanni, the royal residence of the Mitanni king in Mesopotamia. At least one portion of the Meshwesh tribe was resettled around a new "Libyan" capital city of the Delta called Tanis, where they readily assimilated with the native Tehenu who were of a similar racial type.ad The uniting of tribal groups would normally have been discouraged by the ruling family, but in this case an exception was evidently made. It seems likely that this new Libyan group of the Delta had been brought from either the Libya of Mesopotamia (Mitanni) or from the Libna of Upper Egypt. The great ancestor of the Libyan tribe of Ma/Meshwesh is named as Mishma in the Bible, and is the most prominent descendant of the Middle Kingdom Simeon (NaramSin/Inyotef I).ae By the late 18th Dynasty, Libyans had become a significant population group living in their own cities, and ruled by royal family members under assumed Libyan names. Interestingly, the mountains that form the dramatic backdrop to the temple of Hatshepsut in Western Thebes (Deir-el-Bahari) are called the "Libyan Mountains." af Prior to flooding caused by the Aswan Dam, Grafton Elliot Smith removed thousands of skeletons from burial grounds in Nubia. Among the dead were found skulls with aquiline noses and other traits more consistent with what was at that time considered to be an Armenian or Caucasian race.ag

a. See Chart 5 for a graphical representation of Manetho's ordering. b. See Chapter 16 of this book for the marriage of Akhenaten and Tiye. c. This Sheshonq and Nimlot are designated as Sheshonq A and Nimlot A to distinguish them from later Libyan pharaohs by the same names. d. Proverbs 18:24 e. See the timeline in Chapter 19. f. David O'Conner, "Amenhotep III and Nubia," in Amenhotep III, p 261270. g. See Chapter 17, Endnote 4. h. 2 Chron 15:2,7 (NIV-New International Version) i. 1 Kings 15:27 j. 2 Chron. 12:5 (KJV) k. 2 Chronicles 12:3 l. The Hebrew word used for "brought" (Strong's no. 935) is often associated with conquest, e.g., bringing prisoners, spoil, etc. back from war. m. 1 Kings 14:25-28 mentions the temple treasures taken away from Rehoboam (Akhenaten) by Shishak/Asa (Sheshonq). n. 2 Chronicles 15:13 (KJV) o. 2 Chronicles 15:16 p. 2 Chronicles 16:10-11 (NIV) q. 1 Kings 15:18-19

285 r. Amenhotep III: Perspectives on His Reign, eds. O'Connor and Cline, p 209-210. s. 2 Chron. 19:5 t. In Hebrew, Hur (Chur) means "white." u. See Chapter 10, Note 2. v. Amir Harrak, Assyria and Hanigalbat, p 284. w. See Chapters 7 & 8 of this book. x. Amir Harrak, Assyria and Hanigalbat, p 272. y. Amir Harrak, Assyria and Hanigalbat, p 116-117. z. See analysis of Chapter 17. In Upper Egypt, Nahor was called Judah, "praised, favored." He is the third of four Biblical princes referred to by this name/title. The others are Rimush (Judah I), first successor of Sargon, Amenemhet II (Judah II) of the Middle Kingdom, and Thutmose IV (Judah IV) of the 18th Dynasty. aa.See Chapter 15. bb.www.zephryus.demon.co/education/geog/swengland/pilg.html cc. Pierre Montet, Eternal Egypt, p 227. dd.Pierre Montet, Eternal Egypt, p 127. For the characterization of Egyptian Libyans, see also the books of Alessandra Nibbi. ee.1 Chronicles 4:24-43. The New Kingdom Simeon will be discussed in the following chapters. ff. Pierre Montet, Eternal Egypt, Plate 1. gg.Grafton Elliot Smith, The Royal Mummies, Cairo, 1912.

Note 1: Rehoboam's second wife "Maacah" is given more importance. Maacah is the mother of the heir Abijah (Smenkhare). The Hebrew queenly name/title Maacah is a Hebraized form of the Egyptian name Maat-ka-re, with the name of the god "Re" naturally omitted. Ma'at was an alternate name of Isis. Ma'atkare had been the chosen praenomen of Hatshepsut. This became an increasingly popular name or title for influential royal women who followed Hatshepsut, especially in the late 18th Dynasty and throughout the 22nd Dynasty. Often queens bearing the designation of "Ma'atkare" also held the title of "God's Wife." Possibly, the two titles were, or became, synonymous. Ma'atkare and the Hebrew Maacah would have been equivalent to the Greek queenly title of Athena. It corresponds to the Libyan queenly name of Karamat and seems to also have taken the form of Summu-ramat (Semiramis) in Assyria. "Maacah" is named as both the grandmother of Asa (Sheshonq) and mother of Abijah (Smenkhare). In the case of Asa, Maacah would likely refer to his paternal grandmother, Leah (Queen Tia). Abijah's mother Maacah is said to have been the daughter of Abishalom in 1 Kings 15:2 and the daughter of Uriel in 2 Chron. 13:2. The names Abishalom or Absalom ("father of Solomon") refer to Joseph (Yuya) who was the father of Amenhotep III (Solomon). Therefore, this queen ("Maacah") is Tiye, daughter of Yuya. In 2

286 Chronicles 13:2 Maacah mother of Abijah is alternatively called the daughter of Uriel of Gibeah, which must be yet another alias of Yuya. Uriel and Abishalom are two names relating to a single person, namely Yuya. On the other hand, Maacah is one name applied to multiple women. Sheshonq and Smenkhare did not have the same mother. However, both mothers were considered queens. Maacah is more of a title than a name. From at least the time of the Amarna Period, it seems to have applied to the ruling queen in general, i.e., to the Chief Royal Wife of a pharaoh. It is only through the judicious superimposing of archaeology that ambiguities and distortions in the Biblical and Greek histories may be confidently resolved. Rehoboam and Maacah have two sons and two daughters. The second son is named Attai ("timely, fit," a.ka., Tutankhamun). The two daughters are named Ziza ("prominence") and Shelomith ("peaceableness"). Euripides confirms that Oedipus and his mother first had two sons and then two daughters. However, only one daughter, Beketaten, is known from archaeology. The second daughter must have been born very late in Akhenaten's reign, or perhaps did not survive infancy. Rehoboam's first wife Mahalath ("sick, afflicted," i.e., Miriam/Nefertiti) bore him three sons, viz., Jeush, Shemariah and Zaham. 2 Chronicles 11:18-21 As we know, Nefertiti and Akhenaten did not have three sons, but three daughters, Meritaten, Mekataten and Ankhesenpa-aten(amun). The name given for the mother of Mahalath is Abihail (Tiye) daughter of Eliab (Yuya). Abi(c)hail ("father of strength/wealth") and Jochebed ("nobility of Ya") are very similar names. Chail is derived from a word connoting "pierced," as are the queenly names of Maacah (Ma'atkare) and Athaliah. Jerimoth (Aye) was a natural son of David (Thutmose IV). Jeush 1st dau of Rehoboam by Mahalath Meritaten, dau of Nefertiti & Akhenaten Mekataten, dau of Nefertiti & Akhenaten

Shemariah 2nd dau of Rehoboam by Mahalath Zaham Ziza

3rd dau of Rehoboam Antigone Ankhesenamun by Mahalath Nefertiti & Akhenaten 4th dau of Rehobaom by Maacah Beketaten, dau of Tiye & Akhenaten Unattested

Shelomith 5th dau of Rehoboam by Maacah Note 2:

2 Chron 15:5 (quoted above) was adapted for use in the New Testament. Math 24:6-8; Mark 13:7; Luke 21:9 (KJV)

287 "And ye shall hear of wars and rumours of wars: see that ye be not troubled: for all these things must come to pass, but the end is not yet. For nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom: and there shall be famines, and pestilences, and earthquakes, in divers places. All these are the beginning of sorrows." This passage reflects the circumstances late in the reign of Solomon (Amenhotep III). The war between Asa and Baasha was only the beginning of the end for the Egyptian 18th Dynasty. The traumas of the Amarna Period still lay ahead. Note 3: The Hebrew word translated as "brutally oppressed" by the NIV is ratsats (7533), "to break or crush." Compare ratsach (7523), "put to death" and retsach (7524), "murder, slaughter." In his role as "the crusher," Asa is given the pseudonym Shishak. This nickname Shishak connects to Sheshonq/Asa on many levels. The Hebrew word asawk/ashowk means "oppressor, tyrant" and may be related to the Greek form of Sheshonq's name, Asoch-eus. The Hebrew Asawk-iah(ias) would be translated as "oppressor of God." David Rohl notes, "Shishak may be derived from the Hebrew name Shashak, meaning 'assaulter' or 'the one who crushes [under foot or under wheel].' " Moreover, the name Shisha is synonymous with Libna (Libya). It will be shown that the penname of Sheshonq in the Amarna Tablets is Labayu. Both Libna and Shisha have the meaning of "white." Adding the "k" phonic to the end of Shisha lends the suitable connotation of "Libyan oppressor." Adding the "sh" phonic to the Hebrew asah produces the Hebrew word sh'asah, meaning "destroyer."

Living in Truth:

Archaeology and the Patriarchs Chapter 19


"I Now Abandon You to Shishak" (The Campaign Mural of Sheshonq at Karnak)
by Charles N. Pope Copyright 1999-2003 by Charles Pope United States Library of Congress All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions

Name Associations Torah Names Jacob-Israel Kings/Chronicles Names Composite Solomon Greek Names Dakos Egyptian Names Amenhotep II

288 Sheshonq A Leah (wife of Jacob) Rachel (wife of Jacob) Ahijah, Ginath Atarah Tia Mehtenwesket Merit-Amon

By Rachel, two sons 1) Joseph (Amram) Asenath Manasseh (Aaron) Abishalom ("Father of Solomon") ("Egyptian" wife of Joseph) Jeroboam (the Elder) (Kith-)Airon Amon, "Ruler of the City" Amariah Asa/Shaul, Shishak Jehoshaphat son of Asa Jochebed (Zipporah) Shiloh Moses Laius, Menoikeus Yuya, Imram Tuya Aanen son of Yuya Amon-appa/ Amarnappa

Ephraim (Eleasar)

Asocheus, Creon Aye, Sheshonq I Lab'ayu Iuput A

Naamah, Maacah, Abihail Joacaste, Merope Tiye, Eurydice daughter of Yuya Composite Solomon Rehoboam (son of Naamah & Abishalom) Abijah, Abijam Polybos/Polybus Oedipus, Hermaeus Phaethon Eteocles (A) Eteocles (B) Amenhotep III Amenhotep IV Akhenaten Smenkhare Tutankhamun Aakheprure

Eliezer 2) Benjamin

Gershom/Joshua Attai

By Leah, six sons and one daughter (Dinah) 1) Reuben 2) Simeon Zerah (son of Simeon) "the Cushite" 3) Levi 4) Judah Nemuel/Jemuel Uzziel, Mushi Webensenu, Neby Siamun Ikheny of Ta-Zety (of Nubia) Khaemwast Thutmose IV

289 Nimlot A/Nimrat 5) Issachar (Hamor) Tola 6) Zebulun Izhar, Shilki/Shilhi Amminadab II Baasha son of Issachar Elah son of Baasha Tibni Osokhor Osorkon A Shilkanni (Assyria) Ba'sa, Milkilu Unattested Nedjem

Sheshonq's Palestine Campaign The campaign of Aye/Sheshonq that was so grandly commemorated on the South Wall of the Karnak Temple can now be associated with the Biblical struggle between Asa and Baasha son of Issachar (Osokhor). The Bible emphasizes that there was war between Asa and Baasha "throughout their reigns." We are told that in his Year 36, territory belonging to Asa was effectively blockaded by Baasha. In response, Asa turned to Ben-Hadad, who attacked the northern holdings of Baasha. Ben-Hadad "smote Ijon, Dan, Abel-beth-maacah, and all Cinneroth, with all the land of Naphtali." a Strangely, the Bible provides details of Ben-Hadad's campaign against Baasha, but not that of Asa. For Asa's campaign, we must rely on the mural of Sheshonq at Karnak. The mural is sufficiently preserved to reveal that the campaigns of Ben-Hadad and Sheshonq were complementary. Lake Kinnereth (Galilee) was the southern terminus of Ben-Hadad's activities and the northern terminus of Sheshonq's campaign. As a result, Baasha "castled" from Ramah (of Ephraim)b to his stronghold at Tirzah. The Bible places the campaign in Year 36 Asa. However, we have previously been told that Baasha became a king in Year 3 of Asa and reigned for 24 years. This would mean that his reign should have ended in Year 27 of Asa. Baasha did reign for 24 years before the appointment of his son Elah as his successor. Elah was assassinated less than two years later. The death of his son and co-regent effectively ended Baasha's dynasty, but not his kingship. In 1 Kings 16:6, the death of Baasha death is fixed in Year 27 of Asa. However, 2 Chron 16:1 tells us that Baasha is still alive and kicking in Year 36 of Asa. [A good general editor was hard to find, even in ancient times!] The identification of Sheshonq as Labayu ("Lion Man") of the Amarna letters, makes it possible not only to resolve the apparent discrepancy in the Biblical record, but an uncertainty in Amarna letter dating. Labayu had been accused of taking the lands of Amenhotep III. However, in three letters to the pharaoh, Labayu reaffirms his loyalty and justifies his actions. He claims that Milkilu, who is evidently also his accuser, had initiated the aggression. By association, Milkilu, meaning "The King," is the Amarna Letter identity of Baasha/Naashon son of Issachar. The Bible also makes Baasha the instigator of the conflict. 2 Chron. 16:1 (KJV) states: "Baasha king of Israel came up against Judah, and built Ramah, to the intent that he might let none go out or come in to Asa king of Judah." However, Asa did not

290 appeal to the "the Lord" (Amenhotep III) for relief, but to Ben-Hadad, king of Aram. This expedient alliance produced the desired effect for Asa, but inspired unwanted intrusions into Palestine by Aram in the future. For this Asa was rebuked by Hanani the prophet. Amenhotep III also required an explanation for Sheshonq's activities, which was provided by Asa (Labayu) in the Amarna Tablet correspondence. In EA 252 written to pharaoh Amenhotep III (Solomon), Labayu (Asa) responds to charges of aggression against his rival Milkilu (Baasha): "I am slandered before the king, my lord. Moreover, when an ant is struck, does it not fight back and bite the hand of the man that struck it?" c Another letter from Labayu to Amenhotep III, designated as EA 253, reads: "As I am a servant of the king like my father and my grandfather, a servant of the king from long ago, I am not a rebel and I am not delinquent in duty. Here is my act of rebellion and here is my delinquency: when I entered Gazru, I spoke as follows: The king treats us kindly.' Now there is no other purpose (for me) except the service of the king, and whatever the king orders, I obey." A third dispatch sent to Amenhotep III from Labaya, EA 254, emphatically proclaims: "I know the actions of Milkilu against me!" Labayu's claim that his father (Thutmose IV) and grandfather had been loyal to the crown may have been a subtle way of reminding Amenhotep III of his proud but tragic heritage. His father Thutmose IV and paternal grandfather Amenhotep II were by definition loyal servants of the crown. His maternal grandfather (father of Tuya) no doubt considered himself an obedient subject, but was killed by Siamun. Reference, even indirectly, to that fact probably gave Sheshonq considerable diplomatic immunity. A Living Ant is Better than a Dead Lion Labayu of Shechem likens himself to the ant. His defense is not only clever, but encodes inside information of a very personal nature. The Hebrew word for ant is nemalah, "an ant (probably from its almost bisected form)." Nemalah is derived from namal, "to become circumcised," or "to be cut down/off." Through identification with the nemalah, Labayu alludes both to his father Nimlot who was "cut down" in the prime of his life, and with the men of Shechem who had "become circumcised" only to be brutally "cut off" by Simeon. Simeon (Si-Amun) had slaughtered the ruler of the Libyan people of Upper Egypt. Sheshonq (Labayu) was made king in his place. The metaphor used by Labayu was a subtle way of reminding Amenhotep III that consideration for the Libyan and Shechemite people was still in order, and for himself as the true son of Nimlot.

291 The campaign of Sheshonq is thought to have included Gezer.d In EA 253, Labayu admits to having "entered" the royal city Gazru (Gezer). However, the entry in the conquered city list that logically corresponds to Gezer (city ring #11) is damaged. Only the first glyph is preserved. Therefore, it could have read as G[ezer], but has been reconstructed by others as G[aza].e (Note: The west bank of Thebes was called Ta-Geser, "the Sacred Land." f This is likely the same Gezer mentioned in the books of Joshua and Judges, if not also that of Labayu-Sheshonq.) At the close of the 18th Dynasty, there was precious little in Judea to be concerned with. Moreover, Sheshonq-Labayu may have already been in control of this region. Accordingly, Judea is bypassed in Sheshonq's campaign. Jerusalem in Palestine was a town of only 5,000 people. Early Jerusalem was involved in the olive oil industry, and was dominated in this regard by nearby Lachish. Jerusalem would not achieve any measure of prominence until after the destruction of Lachish in the Assyrian period.g The Jerusalem of importance during Sheshonq's time was unquestionably Thebes. As will be proved in the chapters to follow, when Sennacherib of Assyria and Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon spoke of their victories over Jerusalem, they were referring to Thebes, and not to a place of minor importance during this time period in Palestine. Dating Shoshenk's Redemption Moran notes that the "hieratic docket" on EA 254, written by Labayu, can be read as either Year 12 (of Akhenaten) or Year 32 (of Amenhotep III). A date of Year 32 of Amenhotep III for this letter "would put the earliest level of the southern [Palestine] correspondence with comparable levels of the northern [Syrian] and international correspondences, late in this Pharaoh's reign." h Therefore, Year 32 of Amenhotep III is the likely context for the letter within the Amarna tablet corpus. Furthermore, Year 32 of Amenhotep III corresponds to Year 36 of Asa, which was the year of his war with Baasha. The Bible credits Solomon with an even 40-year reign. The highest regnal date for Amenhotep III is Year 38, however it is likely that he lingered into his 39th year.i It seems to have been customary for a king to be credited with the balance of his final regnal year, which in the case of Amenhotep III would have given him a 40year reign for the "record books." If Amenhotep III died in his 39th year, then Year 32 of Amenhotep III would correspond to late in Year 4 of Akhenaten or sometime in his Year 5. Year 5 of Rehoboam is the year of Shishak's "attack." There is another way to check the math. Elah son of Baasha became a king in Year 27 of Asa, and was assassinated about Year 29 of Asa. We are told in 1 Kings 16:23 that Omri was recognized as king in Year 31 of Asa, and reigned for 12 years. This would place the death of Yuya about 2 years after the end of Asa's reign, and probably within a year of Amenhotep III's death, which is consistent with archaeology. As discussed above, it was decided by the Biblical author to follow the Solomon (Amenhotep III) narrative with that of Rehoboam (Amenhotep IV) and his short-

292 lived successor Abijah (Smenkhare). With that as a convenient breakpoint, the Biblical narrative returns in time to the reign of King Asa (Sheshonq I) and his rival King Baasha (Milkilu). In 1 Kings 15:18-20, Asa is said to have made an alliance late in his reign with "Ben-Hadad, son of Tabrimmon, the son of Hezion, the king of Syria." It will be shown in the following chapters that the reign of Ben-Hadad ended late in the 17-year reign of Rehoboam (Amarna Period), and that he was succeeded by the "usurper" Haza'el. This was originally deduced by Velikovsky, and it turns out to be correct. If Asa's reign had not begun until after the reigns of Rehoboam and Abijah, then the king of Aram/Syria with whom Asa made an alliance would have been named as Haza'el, or even a successor of Haza'el. On the contrary, the end of Asa's reign actually overlaps with the beginning of Rehoboam's reign. Therefore, King Asa's alliance with Ben-Hadad precedes Year 5 of Rehoboam (Akhenaten). It was in the Amarna Period that Ben-Hadad and then Haza'el became the scourges of Israel. These two kings were also correctly identified by Velikovsky as Abdi-Ashirta and Aziru of the Amarna Tablet correspondence. Sheshonq and Jerusalem Although the letters of Labayu to Amenhotep are defensive and unrepentant, they are not openly defiant or threatening. In fact, in EA 254, Labayu writes that he is voluntarily sending his own son "Ia" (Iuput) to the pharaoh. This is the same son who only a short time later was named High Priest of Amun and Commander of the Armies of Upper Egypt. Amenhotep III was willing to overlook any infractions of Sheshonq and his sons. He had much more pressing concerns, primarily maintaining his own sovereignty over Thebes and Upper Egypt. 2 Chron. 12:1-2 (KJV) states: "When Rehoboam had established the kingdom, and had strengthened himself, he forsook the law of the Lord, and all Israel with him. And it came to pass, that in the fifth year of king Rehoboam Shishak king of Egypt came up against Jerusalem because they had transgressed against the Lord." Rehoboam (Akhenaten) had become too strong, and the position of Amenhotep III was being threatened. The prophet Shemaiah spoke: "This is what the Lord [Amenhotep III] says, You have abandoned me; therefore, I now abandon you to Shishak.' " j Moral offenses are cited as the cause of Shishak's invasion. However, the charge of infidelity is used only as a pretext for the intervention. Solomon himself had dedicated a high place in Moab to Chemosh-Baal.k The primary motivation was as usual political. 1 Kings 14:22-24 (KJV) states that Rehoboam and Jerusalem were humbled by Shishak because "Judah did evil in the sight of the Lord they also built them high places, and images, and groves, on every high hill, and under every green tree." We are later told that Asa "removed all the idols that his fathers had made. And also Maachah his mother, even she he removed from being queen, because she had made an idol in a grove; and Asa destroyed her idol, and burnt it by the brook Kidron. But the high places were not removed: nevertheless Asa's heart was perfect with the Lord all his days. And he brought in the things which his father had

293 dedicated, and the things which himself had dedicated, into the house of the Lord, silver, and gold, and vessels." l The Chronicles version of the story qualifies the Kings account by saying that Asa removed the high places of Judah, "but the high places were not taken away out of Israel." m We shall see later that Asa-Shishak was quite the Baal-worshipper in Israel. 2 Chron. 12:9 (KJV) states: "Shishak king of Egypt came up against Jerusalem, and took away the treasures of the house of the Lord, and the treasures of the king's house: he took all: he carried away the shields of gold which Solomon had made." In the Asa narrative, we find out what Shishak did with those treasures. Rehoboam evidently had taken precious articles from the temple of Amun, and was using them in his own temples (of the Aten). We are told that Sheshonq (in the guise of Shishak) "carried them off." Sheshonq (in the guise of Asa) returned them to their original place in the temple of the Lord, i.e., the temple of Amun. It seems that the temple treasury was especially in need of replenishing, because less than a year earlier Asa/Shishak himself "brought out silver and gold out of the treasures of the house of the Lord and of the king's house, and sent to Ben-Hadad king of Syria." n The Bible claims that "Asa's heart was perfect with the Lord all his days." o It is clear that Asa had been attacking unofficial cult activity well before his assault in Year 5 of Rehoboam. This belies the assertion that Shishak's invasion was brought on solely due to spiritual infidelity. We find that Shishak was acting to protect the interests of the Lord (Amenhotep III), and naturally his own interests as well. Earlier, when Asa was in jeopardy of being overwhelmed by his family rival Zerah, he called upon "the Lord" (Amenhotep III) and Zerah was defeated. When the Lord Solomon (Amenhotep III) found himself being bullied by members of his own immediate family (such as Yuya, Tiye and Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten), he in turn relied on Sheshonq for support. Solomon and Shishak jointly assumed the role of the "pharaoh who sought to kill him," that is Rehoboam/Moses II. Perhaps Rehoboam (Akhenaten) endured long enough to replace the gold shields of Solomon taken away from him by Shishak (Aye/Sheshonq I) with bronze ones. However, his own replacement with Iuput and forced exile to Akhet-aten also occurred in that same Year 5. The invasion of Year 5 is the last event in the Biblical narrative of Rehoboam's reign. With Akhenaten's expulsion, Sheshonq installed his own son Iuput (Jehoshaphat) as High Priest of Amun and Commander of the Armies of Upper Egypt. Iuput would also become Governor (Ruler) of all Upper Egypt although he evidently did not claim pharaonic titles. 2 Chron 12:12-13 (KJV) states: "And when he [Rehoboam] humbled himself, the wrath of the Lord [eventually] turned from him, that he would not destroy him altogether So king Rehoboam strengthened himself [again] in Jerusalem, and reigned." It would be 7 years before Akhenaten was allowed to break his exile and set foot in Thebes once again. Akhenaten was able to continue as king in Jerusalem (Thebes) only after the death of Amenhotep III and with the

294 considerable influence of Tiye. In his Year 12, Akhenaten returned to Thebes long enough to preside at Amenhotep III's "opening of the mouth" ceremony. However, his coronation took place back at Akhet-aten in his Year 13. The Bible gives Rehoboam credit for reigning 17 years in Jerusalem, however there was a conspicuous 7-year interruption in the middle that is glossed over in the Kings/Chronicles narrative. From the perspective of an Amunite priest and Theban historian, there was little else worthy of reporting about Akhenaten after his Year 5. Sheshonq at Karnak In 2 Chronicles 12:7-8 (KJV), the prophet Shemaiah proclaims: "My wrath shall not be poured out upon Jerusalem by the hand of Shishak: Nevertheless they shall be his servants; that they may know my service, and the service of the kingdoms of the countries." Jerusalem was not structurally damaged by Shishak, but it did become subject to him. Sheshonq (Asa) installed his son Iuput (Jehoshaphat) as High Priest of Amun and Ruler of Upper Egypt. Sheshonq and Iuput were at liberty to build (or tear down) in all the sacred precincts of Thebes, including Karnak. Sheshonq did not commemorate his victory over Thebes as a foreign king would have done. Rather, for Sheshonq, Thebes was the chosen place where triumphant Egyptian princes won the right to boast of their achievements on behalf of the family empire. With respect to Sheshonq's mural at the Karnak Temple, Donald Redford writes, "The triumphal scene refers to the Asiatics who had taken to attacking thy (the king's) frontiers.' " These Asiatics included "battalions of the army of Mitanni." p "How unhistorical his [Sheshonq's] large claims were is clear from a statement to the pharaoh by the god Amon: I have subjugated [for] thee the Asiatics of the armies of Mitanni.' Mitanni as a nation had ceased to exist at least four centuries earlier," q i.e., at the end of the 18th Dynasty. Therefore, Egyptologists must postulate that Sheshonq I was merely initiating a revival of New Kingdom forms and language. Sheshonq's mural includes the obligatory Asiatic "head smiting" scene, as well as mention of a stele erected in the vanquished land. These mural features, as well as the conquered city list, are of quintessential New Kingdom style. According to Aidon Dodson, "New Kingdom-style military ambition [is] displayed by Shoshenq's Palestinian campaign." r However, in the conventional chronology, Sheshonq lives and rules over 300 years later than the New Kingdom pharaoh Ramses II whose mural is found adjacent to his own. Donald Redford concluded that the form of Sheshonq's campaign, and the mural describing it (city lists) are both in the genre of the 18th Dynasty. However, in the present chronology, Sheshonq's mural did not exist in the time of Ramses II. Egyptologists must postulate that the section of wall on which the mural was inscribed also did not exist. If it had, Ramses certainly would have used it. Ramses instead built a perpendicular extension to the south wall in order to create enough space to complete his own elaborate campaign murals. But why did Ramses not extend the south wall in order to completely cover the 2nd Pylon? The Ramesside portion of the wall encloses less than half of the 2nd Pylon. Moreover, the western

295 end of the south wall would have been exposed where it adjoins the 2nd Pylon. Yet, this end of the wall was not only unfinished, but contained blocks with spoiled faces. The present model of how the architecture evolved does not make any sense. The more reasonable explanation is that Sheshonq's mural was already inscribed on the southern wall of the temple prior to the time of Ramses II.1 Therefore, Ramses was prevented from using the area of the south wall already inscribed by Sheshonq. In order to create additional wall space for his own murals, Ramses had no other choice but to build an extension. Moreover, Ramses placed or replaced a divider (torus/roll moulding) between his new murals and those of Sheshonq.2 The addition/modification of this architectural element required that blocks on the Ramses side of the divider also be replaced or reworked. Faces that were spoiled or had been used for practice were turned toward the Sheshonq portion of the wall. Even with the spoiled faces hidden, the quality of the murals was inferior to those produced two generations earlier by Sheshonq. The Epigraphic Survey compares the mural of Sheshonq to the "similar though less ambitious triumphal reliefs of Ramses II" that are found immediately beside it.s Are we to believe that Sheshonq of the impoverished 3rd Intermediate Period was able to excel Ramses in his own imperial art forms!? On the contrary, it was Ramses who produced a "poor imitation" of Sheshonq's murals. Sheshonq left a second record of his campaign on a stele placed near the annals of Thutmose III in the Iput-isut section of the Karnak temple.t The annals of Thutmose III are 500 years before those of Sheshonq I according to the conventional dating. Therefore, Egyptologists must conclude that Sheshonq was again only conforming to the style of the adjacent inscriptions, in this case those of Thutmose III. However, as the great-grandson of Thutmose III, it was theoretically possible for Sheshonq to have been taken on a campaign late in Thutmose's 54year reign. Certainly, he would have been old enough to join his grandfather Amenhotep II on his campaigns in Syria and Aram Naharaim (Mitanni). His father Thutmose IV would have policed Egyptian claims in Syria and Aram, although there is no archaeological record of this. One other architectural feature at Karnak must also be reconciled, that being the Bubastite Portal. This opening in the Great Court is a prominent feature of the south wall, and is located just to the west of Sheshonq's campaign mural. This portion of the wall would have been constructed by Sheshonq. However upon close examination it becomes clear that the Portal itself was created at a much later date. Sheshonq originally placed matching doorways on the south and north sides of the Great Court. The doorway on the north side is still intact. However, the doorway across from it on the south side was eliminated when Ramses III chose that location to adjoin a small chapel onto the Great Court. Sometime after the reign of Ramses III it was decided to cut a new entrance into the south wall of the Great Court.

296 The Bubastite Portal is a bastardized piece of architecture, even by Karnak standards. On the interior side of the Portal, two niches were formed by a set columns lined with pilasters (panels). The east pilaster is joined to the 2nd Pylon and actually occludes the inscriptions of Ramses II. The west pilaster is joined to the east wall of Ramses III's temple, and occludes his inscriptions. This would seem to be incontrovertible proof that Sheshonq must be later than Ramses III. However, the pilasters were obviously moved from their original location. The Epigraphic Survey states: "The three scenes on each of the pilasters are largely notable for showing the great prominence of Sheshonq I's son, the High Priest of Amun and Commander-in-Chief of the Army, Iuput, who appears behind his father in every one of the scenes. In the bottom scene on each pilaster the space was so small that he [Iuput] had to be literally crowded in." High up on one pilaster, an ankh symbol is truncated. Mid-way up the other pilaster, a cartouche is also "crowded" onto the edge of the panel. Not only are the reliefs of the pilasters truncated, there are also large and irregular gaps between the blocks comprising the pilasters. Iuput would not have allowed his image to be wedged into the murals.u He himself supervised the construction of these murals. This effect and other damage was incurred when the blocks were pried apart, transported, trimmed and reassembled in their present location. The reliefs were carved by Iuput before the time of Ramses II and Ramses III. However, they were moved sometime after these kings. The panels are too wide to have been taken from the south wall where the Bubastite Portal was cut. However, they certainly could have flanked the original doorway on the south wall that was dismantled by Ramses III. Small blocks inscribed with the names of Amenirdis and Nitocris (daughter of 26th Dynasty founder Psamtik I) were used to form a "screen" between the pilasters and columns.v Between the time of Amenirdis and Nitocris, pharaoh Taharqa built a kiosk at the center of the Great Court. Taharqa is the earliest pharaoh who could have constructed the Portal, with the block screening possibly added by Queen Nitocris. However, the Portal could conceivably be the work of a much later time. The important conclusion is that there is nothing inherent to the architecture of the Bubastite Portal or elsewhere that would preclude Sheshonq from having been a contemporary of Amenhotep III.

a. 1 Kings 15:20 (KJV); also 2 Chron. 16:2-4 b. There was also a Rama of Central Palestine near Gibeon (city no. 17 in Sheshonqs itinerary), and there may be some confusion in the Biblical narrative between this Rama and the Ramah of Ephraim to the north. Regardless, Tirzah is the last city of importance in Sheshonqs itinerary. c. Excerpts of EA 252-254 quoted from W. Moran, The Amarna Letters. d. See, The Harper Collins Concise Atlas of the Bible, ed. J. Pritchard, pp 62-63.

297 e. See, D. Rohl, Pharaohs and Kings, p 126. f. Alberto Siliotti, Guide to the Valley of the Kings, p 8. g. See, Thomas Thompson, The Bible in History. h. W. Moran, The Amarna Letters, p xxxvii. i. Aidon Dodson, Monarchs of the Nile, p 95. j. 2 Chron. 12:5 (NIV) k. 1 Kings 11:7 l. 1 Kings 15:12-15 (KJV) m. 2 Chron. 15:17 (KJV), 2 Chron. 14:2-5 n. 2 Chron 16:2 (KJV) o. 1 Kings 15:14 (KJV) p. Donald Redford, Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times, p 314. q. Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament (ANET), J. Pritchard. ed., pp 263-4. r. Aidon Dodson, Monarchs of the Nile, pp 164-5. s. Preface, p. IX. t. Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, p 322. u. In each of his six murals on the pilasters of the Bubastite Portal at Karnak, Iuput proudly sports a shawl made from the pelt of a lion cub. v. The Epigraphic Survey, p. IX.

Note 1: An inscription at the Silsilah Quarry dates either to Year 21 of Sheshonq or Year 21 of his overlord Amenhotep III (which would correspond to Year 25 of Sheshonq). It reads: "It was his majesty who gave directions to build a very great pylon , to illuminate Thebes by erecting its double door of millions of cubits, to make a festival court for the house of his father Amun-Re, king of the gods, and to surround it with statues and a colonnade." [1] James Breasted and Georges Legrain proposed that the intended pylon was the 1st Pylon. [1] This remains the most suitable candidate. However, the relation between the 1st Pylon and its Court (the 1st Court or Great Court) with adjoining Great Hypostyle Hall must now be reconsidered. The Great Court and Hypostyle Hall are separated by the 2nd Pylon, which is generally attributed to Horemheb. A single wall surrounds both the Great Court, the Hypostyle Hall and the 2nd Pylon separating the two sections of the temple. Sheshonq is given credit for the outer enclosure, and the mural of Sheshonq is actually on the portion of the south wall that spans the Great Court and Hypostyle Hall. The 2nd Pylon of Horemheb lies directly behind his mural. A younger Horemheb was certainly a powerful figure in Egypt during the final years of Sheshonq and Amenhotep III. However, his tenure as pharaoh concluded at least 30 years after that of Sheshonq, and at least 15 years after the death of Iuput, who is thought to have completed the murals of

298 Sheshonq on the south wall. Immediately adjacent to Sheshonq's mural on the south wall are the murals of Ramses II, which cover the remaining portion of the 2nd Pylon and extend even further east to enclose the southern side of the Hypostyle Hall. The sole reign of Ramses II did not begin until at least 15 years after Horemheb. Many pharaohs contributed to the construction of the Great Court and Hypostyle Hall at the same time, or nearly the same time. This makes it very difficult to reconstruct the exact evolution of the architecture. There is at least some indication that it was Amenhotep III who initiated work on the Hypostyle Hall. Sheshonq, as an ally of Amenhotep III, began construction of the Great Court, either in his Year 21 (Year 17 of Amenhotep III) or Year 25 (Year 21 of Amenhotep III), only about half-way into the reign of Amenhotep III. The reference to "his Majesty" in the Silsilah Quarry, if referring to Amenhotep III, is further indication that Amenhotep III commissioned the entire complex. The Great Court was completed by Sheshonq. The Hypostyle Hall was later finished by Seti I and Ramses II. Therefore, the Hypostyle Hall, although possibly started before the Great Court, was actually completed some time after the mural of Sheshonq was in place on the south wall. Likewise the 2nd Pylon could have been completed by Horemheb after the outer wall was already in place. Note 2: There is a physical break in the south wall between the mural of Sheshonq and the murals of Ramses II that were later placed beside it. The separation is almost negligible in width, and is sloped from the base of the wall to the top in the direction of the Hypostyle Hall. This architectural feature was originally accentuated with a decorative false column known as a "torus." Viewed from the outside, it leads the eye from east to west, or from the Hypostyle Hall toward the 1st Court. The portion of the Sheshonq mural adjacent to the torus is badly damaged, and only a small piece of the torus remains in tact, exposing the gap over most of its length. Possibly the break was cut by Seti I or Ramses II. More likely it served as an agreed upon interface between the contributions of Sheshonq and Amenhotep III or their immediate successors. Sheshonq and Iuput continued their inscriptions right up to the divider. This served to prevent encroachment by their rivals. Ramses II reworked the interface to suit his purposes, but would not have substantially disturbed the preexisting mural of Sheshonq. Ramses II may have been the dominant pharaoh of Egypt, but during his time Thebes was itself ruled directly by his 23rd Dynasty contemporaries. (This will be addressed beginning with Chapters 28 of this book) The uppermost rows of blocks on Sheshonq's side of the south wall were toppled in some later period. This has exposed the upper inside corner of the Ramesside portion of the south wall. A few of these inside blocks were inscribed, and a cartouche of Ramses II can be clearly seen. However, the inscriptions are very rough, and do not form a coherent scene. These faces may have been rejects or used for practice. When these blocks were mounted, the used

299 faces were turned to the side. Certainly, there was no intention for the "scratching" on the inside edge of the Ramesside portion of the wall to be exposed.

Living in Truth:

Archaeology and the Patriarchs Chapter 20


"Evil More Than All Before" (Israel During the Amarna Period)
by Charles N. Pope Copyright 1999-2003 by Charles Pope United States Library of Congress All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions

Name Associations (new associations in bold) Torah Names Jacob-Israel Leah (wife of Jacob) Rachel (wife of Jacob) Kings/Chronicles Names Composite Solomon Ahijah, Ginath Atarah Greek Names Dakos Egyptian Names Amenhotep II Sheshonq A Tia Mehtenwesket Merit-Amon

By Rachel, two sons 1) Joseph Abishalom, Uriel (Reuel, Amram) Omri Asenath Manasseh (Aaron) ("Egyptian" wife of Joseph) Jeroboam (the Elder) Amon, "Ruler of the City" Amariah Asa/Shaul, Shishak, Ahab Jerimoth, Nebat Jehoshaphat son of (Kith-)Airon Laius, Menoikeus Yuya, Irhuleni Tuya Aanen son of Yuya Amon-appa/ Amarnappa

Ephraim (Ithra/Jethro) (Eleasar)

Asocheus, Creon Aye, Sheshonq I Lab'ayu, Ayyab Addaya, Rib-Addi Iuput A, Ia

300 Asa Jochebed (Zipporah) Shiloh Moses Naamah, Maacah, Abihail Composite Solomon Rehoboam, Nimshi (son of Naamah & Abishalom) Abijah, Abijam Joacaste, Merope Tiye, Eurydice daughter of Yuya Polybos/Polybus Amenhotep III Oedipus, Hermaeus Phaethon Eteocles (A) Eteocles (B) Amenhotep IV Akhenaten Smenkhare Tutankhamun Aakheprure

Eliezer 2) Benjamin

Gershom/Joshua Attai

By Leah, six sons and one daughter (Dinah) 1) Reuben 2) Simeon 3) Levi 4) Judah 5) Issachar (Hamor) Tola Nemuel/Jemuel Izhar, Shilki/Shilhi Amminadab II Baasha son of Issachar Elah son of Baasha 6) Zebulun Reuben Hanoch Tibni (1st son of Leah) Uzziel, Ram (1st son of Uzziel) Elzaphan?, Hanani Jehu son of Hanani Osokhor Uzziel, Mushi Webensenu, Neby Siamun Khaemwast Thutmose IV Nimlot A/Nimrat Osorkon A Shilkanni (Assyria) Ba'sa, Milkilu Unattested Nedjem Webensenu Neby, Heby Vizier Amenhotep Huy, Haya Vizier Ipy (son of Amenhotep) Haip, Hatip, Haapi, Api, Appiha Thutmose IV Nimlot A/Nimrat Aye, Sheshonq I

Judah (4th son of Leah) (El-Yada/Eliada) Ephraim Asa (natural son of Judah)

301 (adopted son of Joseph) Rezon Ben-Hadad Hadadezer/ Hadad-idri Abdi-Ashirta

Ephraim (Ithra/Jethro) (Eleasar) Miriam Phinehas II

Asa, Shishak, Ahab Asocheus, Creon Aye, Sheshonq I Jerimoth, Nebat Lab'ayu, Ayyab (natural son of Judah) Addaya,Rib-Addi Mahalath dau. of Jerimoth Jeroboam son of Nebat Jehoshaphat (son of Asa and Azubah) Ahaziah son of Ahab Joram/Yachas son of Ahab Euryganeia? Polyneices Nefertiti Panehesy Iuput A, Ia (son of Sheshonq I) Takelot I, Tagi Osorkon I, Mut-Baal Matinu-bal'u

House of Omri Upon the death of Jacob (Amenhotep II) he was succeeded directly, not by a son of Judah, but by Shiloh-Solomon (Amenhotep III) the natural son Joseph (Yuya), for it was written that "the sceptre shall not depart from Judah until Shiloh come."a After the death of Judah (Thutmose IV), the "birthright was Joseph's."b Although he did not himself assume the title of Pharaoh, Joseph nevertheless became "the Lord" who blessed his young son Solomon for choosing wisdom over riches. c The "House of Joseph" was the ruling house of the empire and Solomon was nominally the "king of kings," including in Israel. During the reign of Solomon, traditional Israel can be seen as a semi-autonomous province within the Egyptian empire. Tribal identity established during the Middle Kingdom and Hyksos Period was still strong. Although Joseph and Solomon had nominal sovereignty over all Israel and many other regions, in practice they ruled through a network of alliances. The direct rule of Israel belonged to another prince. Prior to his death, Jacob (Amenhotep II) had appointed Baasha (Milkilu) son of the murdered Issachar (Osorkon A) as king of Israel. Baasha in turn appointed his own son named as Elah ("strong") to be his successor. However, in the Kings narrative, after Elah son of Baasha is attacked and killed by Zimri, a new character named as "Omri, commander of the army" quickly moves in to reconsolidate his franchise. Rather than surrender to Omri, the assassin Zimri (a.k.a. Carmi, son of Reuben) sets the palace at Tirzah on fire and perishes in the flames. After the death of another rival Tibni (Zebulun, sixth son of Jacob and Leah/Ginath), Omri is declared

302 "King of Israel."d The parentage of Omri is not given. Although he is distinguished as "the captain of the host," Omri is a man who needs no introduction. In Chapter 15, it was shown that in the Torah the latter years of Joseph are accounted for under the pseudonym of Reuel. Similarly, in the books of Kings and Chronicles, the aged Joseph is accounted for in the story of Omri, whose name means "Heaping," and "Grain Gatherer." The right of Omri-Joseph and his house to rule directly over Israel was not fully recognized until the dynasty established by his father in that region was brought to an end. After all six of his elder half-brothers had either died or been disgraced, Omri-Joseph is said to have ruled Israel for 12 years. These 12 years correspond to the final 12 years of the reign of Solomon (Amenhotep III) and the first 12 years of Rehoboam (Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten). These 12 years of direct influence by Joseph over Israel are looked upon with extreme disfavor by the author of the Kings narrative. "Omri did evil in the eyes of the Lord and sinned more than all those before him."e Perhaps this is the reason why the latter years of Joseph are not explicitly mentioned in the Torah. We are told in the book of Genesis that Joseph was hated by his brothers. However, we are led to believe that all was forgiven and that Joseph enjoyed a universally celebrated adulthood. Elsewhere in the Torah, Joseph is only mentioned in passing as Reuel, the "friend of God," and father-in-law of Moses. So it comes as some surprise that he continued to be held in contempt, not only by the children of his brothers, but at end of his days, even in the eyes of his own sons. Evil Aye With the assassination of his heir Elah in about Year 27 of Shiloh-Solomon, the dynasty of Baasha was effectively terminated. Nevertheless, Baasha clung to the title "king of Israel" for five or more years. Although he would not voluntarily relinquish his dominions, they would later be taken from him by force. Shortly after the death of Elah, Omri (Joseph) named his adopted son Asa (Ephraim) as coregent to the throne of Israel. He would have functioned in this capacity for most if not all of the following 12 years. As appointed successor of Joseph in Israel, it became the duty of Asa to crush the remaining resistance of Baasha, f which he did in Year 32 of Shiloh-Solomon. Baasha was not killed but all of his territory was taken away, with the possible exception of the city Tirzah. (Yuya had appointed Amenhotep IV, the future Akhenaten and his son by Queen Tiye, as co-regent and successor to Amenhotep III in Egypt. The secondary throne of Israel was a consolation prize for Aye.) In Upper Egypt (Libya/Judah), Ephraim was the dedicated patron of Yahweh-Amun and was remembered fondly as the good king Asa. With the appointment of Rehoboam, the presence of Asa in Jerusalem (Thebes) was no longer required, at least for the next five years. At the same time, his influence in Israel rapidly grew. However, in Israel, Aye venerated the leading god of that region and was known by a different popular name, that of Ahab son of Omri. From a Theban perspective Ephraim was not at all the same "doubly fruitful" man that he was in Upper Egypt,

303 but an "evil" worshipper of Baal. Likewise, his adoptive father was not the Godfearing Joseph-Reuel of the Torah. Rather he was Omri and libeled as having been more wicked than any king of Israel before him! Adversaries of Solomon Solomon not only had the unenviable task of keeping the peace within the "House of Omri," but he also faced challenges from collateral royal lines. When discussing the enemies of Solomon, the Kings narrative first takes us back almost to the beginning of the 18th Dynasty. g We are told that King David campaigned in Edom and put the men of that region to death. However, a young prince named Hadad(ezer) and his officials fled to Egypt. Hadad-ezer is likely the former "son" and servant of Abraham, who is named in the Torah as Eli-ezer. He was not only given refuge by "pharaoh" but was given the sister of Queen Tahpenes to be his royal wife. In Part I, it was shown that Tah-panes was an epithet of Hatshepsut. Hatshepsut was wife of Thutmose II (Ephron-Perez/Panes). Thutmose I (Abimelech-David the Elder) was the son of Nahor's "brother," Tao I (Terah-Jesse). On the other hand, Thutmose II was a son of Sekhemre (Nahor-Judah). Although natural rivals, the two kings named Thutmose remained more-or-less on friendly terms by virtue of the marriage of Hatshepsut daughter of Thutmose I to Thutmose II. After the death of King David, h Hadad was allowed to leave the Egyptian court and return to "Edom." It is now evident that the Edom to which Hadad returned was not in the Trans-Jordan, but was instead the Edom of Mesopotamia. The return of Hadad represented the revival of Nahor's line, and he was crowned as king by those who rejected the rule of the "House of Terah." Under an Assyrian king name, probably that of Adad-shuma-user, Hadad would have become the nemesis of the Elder Solomon (Amenhotep II). However, it would be his son Shalmaneser III, the next great king of Assyria, who would cause trouble in the reign of the Younger Solomon (Amenhotep III). This son of Hadad is given the symbolic name of Genubath, meaning "Theft."i The other "troublemaker" coming from outside the House of Omri is named as Rezon ("Prince") son of Eliada (Heb. El-Yada/Judah), who managed to become king of Aram. He is said to have been a problem for Solomon and especially for Israel throughout the reign of Solomon. It has already been demonstrated that the reign of Asa was entirely parallel with that of Solomon. In the Asa narrative, this same king of Aram is named as Ben-Hadad son of Tabrimmon son of Hezion. BenHadad and Rezon are logically different epithets of the same king of Aram. Tabrimmon ("Good Horus/Osiris") then corresponds to El-Yada/Judah (the murdered Horus-king Thutmose IV). The "father" of Tabrimmon is named as Hezion, which could be an epithet of Jacob (Amenhotep II) or of Issachar (Osorkon A), the original appointee of Jacob as ruler of Aram. In the Middle Kingdom, the variant Hezron was an epithet of Sekhemkare (archetypal Issachar).

304 "Adversaries of Solomon" Torah Names 1) Eli-ezer Kings/Chronicles Names Hadad/Hadad-ezer I Genubath son of Hadad Egyptian Names Adad-shuma-user Shalmaneser III/ Shulmanu-ashared III Shalmaiati (EA 155) Sulum-Marduk (EA 256) "King of Hatti" (EA 157, EA 164-167) Hadad-ezer II/Hadad-idri Abdi-Ashirta

2) Rezon son of El-Yada

Ben-Hadad son of TabRimmon son of Hezion

The Thievery of Shalmaneser In Year 30 of Amenhotep III (Shiloh-Solomon), about three years after the election of Amenhotep IV (Rehoboam) as co-regent, Shalmaneser (Genubath) went on the offensive against a king named Irhuleni of Hamath in Syria. In the "Monolith Inscription" dated to his Year 6, Shalmaneser wrote: "I departed from Aleppo and approached the two towns of Irhuleni from Hamath (Amat). I captured the towns of Adennu, Barga (and) Argana his royal residence I set his palaces afire He brought along to help him 1,200 chariots, 1,200 cavalrymen, 20,000 foot soldiers of Adad-idri (i.e. Hadadezer) of Damascus (Imerisu), 700 chariots, 700 cavalrymen, 10,000 foot soldiers of Irhuleni from Hamath, 2,000 chariots, 10,000 foot soldiers of Ahab, the Israelite (A-ha-ab-bu mat Sir-'i-la-a-a), 500 soldiers from Que, 1,000 soldiers from Musri, 10 chariots, 10,000 soldiers from Irqanata, 200 soldiers of Matinu-bal'u from Arvad, 200 soldiers from Usanata, 30 chariots, 1[0?],000 soldiers of Adunu-ba'lu from Shian, 1,000 camel(rider)s of Gindibu', from Arabia, [],000 soldiers of Ba'sa, son of Ruhubi, from Ammon (all together) these were twelve kings. They rose against me [for a] decisive battle I did inflict a defeat upon them "j Irhuleni (variously spelled Irhulena and Irhulina) is the name Shalmaneser (Genubath) gave to Yuya (Joseph/Omri) in this Year 6 inscription. Irhuleni is not a Semitic name, but a regional identity of Yuya in the traditional "Hatti-land" of Hamath. This name of Yuya is also the likely source of one his more obscure Biblical epithets, that being Uriel. In 2 Chron. 13:1-2, King Abijah (Smenkhare) is called the son of Queen Maacah (Tiye) daughter of Uriel (Yuya). We do not have a reference by Shalmaneser to the Semitic name Omri until his Year 18. By then Yuya had been dead for three years and Aye (Ahab) was ruling in Israel. However, in his Year 18 Shalmaneser records tribute received not from Ahab but from one "Jehu son of Omri" (Ia-u-a mar Hu-um-ri-i), k a new claimant to the throne of Israel. Shortly before this Year 18 inscription of Shalmaneser, Akhenaten (Rehoboam) then in his own Year 15 attempted to suppress Aye and place his own minister Ipy (Jehu) on the throne of Israel. The events leading to the attack on Aye and the

305 subsequent overthrow of Akhenaten by a coalition led by Aye are described below and in the following chapters. The battle in Year 6 of Shalmaneser III is commonly known as the Battle of Qarqar, from the site of the conflict. After suffering the loss of Hamath and of Qarqar, Irhuleni (Joseph/Omri) was able to counterattack near the town of Qarqar with an impressive array of allies. Although Shalmaneser claims to have won the day, it appears that the match ended more or less in a draw. The advance of Shalmaneser was halted at Qarqar. However, he would return four more times during his reign to face many of the same leaders of Syrian, Palestinian and Arabian states, who he claims in each case "rose" against him. These later battles are dated to his regnal years 10, 11, 14 and 18 (corresponding to Years 7, 8, 11 and 15 of Akhenaten). Shalmaneser claims to have been victorious on all occasions, yet only in his Year 18 did he claim to have annexed new territory in Aram. Wayne Pitard writes in Ancient Damascus: "The famous Monolith Inscription, which describes Shalmaneser's battle with the Syrian coalition at Qarqar in his sixth year, lists Hadad-idri of Damascus, Irhulena of Hamath, and Ahab of Israel as the three major allies who opposed him in the battle. Ahab, according to the monolith supplied the allied army with 2,000 chariots, by far the largest contingent of this type, and 10,000 foot soldiers. This indicates that Ahab was very powerful and on an equal footing with the major powers of the day." Shalmaneser considered Ahab to be the wealthiest king among the enemy alliance. It has been argued that Ahab could not have contributed such a large and costly chariot force, and that Shalmaneser must have been motivated to exaggerate the size of the opposing forces. However, it is not unreasonable that a king with the stature of Aye in the late 18th Dynasty Egypt could have commanded this level of military might. In the inscription of his Year 6, Shalmaneser gives Ahab the epithet of Sir-'i-la-a-a, which is translated as "Israelite." If correct, this is good indication that as of Year 3 of Akhenaten (Year 30 of Amenhotep III), Aye had already assumed the office of crown prince in Israel under Yuya. As we have seen, Aye began his kingly career as pharaoh in Egypt over Libyan tribes. Aye was not strictly speaking a Libyan or an Israelite, but was the appointed ruler over those regions and peoples. The ultimate goal of any high-ranking prince was to become king of every region and people - to rule as God over the whole earth. The Nine Lives of Aye Baasha son of Issachar is named as Ba'sa (Baasha) son of Ruhubi l in the inscription of Shalmaneser, and is the last of the twelve enemy kings listed by him. After returning from Qarqar, a dispute arose between Ahab (Asa) and Ba'sa (Baasha). In the previous chapters it was demonstrated that Baasha and Asa were also known as Milkilu ("King") and Labayu ("Lion Man/Libyan Aye") in the Amarna

306 Tablet correspondence. Milkilu provoked Labayu by blocking access to his territory. With the cooperation of the king of Aram, Labayu (Asa/Ahab) then struck back and acquired most of the dominions of Milkilu (Baasha). His actions were condoned by Amenhotep III, if not directly commissioned. After routing his life-long nemesis Ba'sa/Milkilu, Aye was then summoned to Thebes by Amenhotep III to force the exile of Akhenaten. Succeeding also in this, Aye was authorized to install his own son Iuput as High Priest of Amun and Governor of Upper Egypt. This occurred in Year 5 of Akhenaten (Rehoboam) and Year 32 of Amenhotep III. At this time, Aye clearly became an extremely powerful king, second only to Amenhotep III within the "House of Omri." In the campaign mural of Sheshonq at Karnak over 50 cities are listed as having been captured. The war of Sheshonq/Aye/Asa against Milkilu must have made him extremely unpopular, even hated, especially among the many nobles that he dispossessed. One of the leading cities taken by Sheshonq was that of Megiddo. In this case, we have three letters that the ousted mayor Biridiya sent to Amenhotep III in protest. From this correspondence we learn that Labayu was first hindered from taking Megiddo by the intervention of Satatna/Surata ruler of Akka (Akko). However, Labayu was not handed over to his accuser, the commissioner Suta. Instead, he was allowed not only to pay his own ransom, but also to resume his attacks on Megiddo. Biridiya, the besieged mayor of Megiddo complains vehemently to Amenhotep III about the situation. He urges Amenhotep III to have Labayu arrested and called into account for his actions. m In a final appeal for pity, Biridiya pretends to not understand why his "brothers" are being honored over him or why Amenhotep III has authorized the seizure of his city. A short time later a victorious Labayu wrote to Amenhotep III in order to combat the many accusations that were being leveled against him by Biridiya and other mayors. n Although still very much in favor with Amenhotep III, Aye in the guise of Lab'ayu gained for himself the reputation of being a rebel to the crown. Labayu asserts his innocence and also claims to have no knowledge of another allegation made against one of his sons. This was the accusation of making league with rebels known as "Apiru." The identity of this group and their leader will be demonstrated in Chapter 25. Labayu agrees to send his son Ia (Iuput)o to Egypt as requested. He adds that he could not withhold his own wife if desired by pharaoh! The humor of this line should not be missed in that Queen Tiye was the Chief Wife of both Amenhotep III and Aye. As a show of good faith, Aye tells Amenhotep III that he is placing his son "Ia" (Iuput) in the care of one Addaya. The name Add'ayu is quite intriguing in that it is of an uncertain language. The root add means to "increase." After vanquishing Milkilu and taking his cities, the rank of Aye was increased even further by Amenhotep III. He was summoned to Thebes in order to supervise the exile of Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten). In doing so he fulfilled the earlier Middle Kingdom role of Jethro (Heb. Ith-ra) as the father-in-law of Moses in the wilderness. The roots add and ith are equivalent. Meanwhile, his former identity as Labayu was abandoned. At this moment, the serpent-king Aye shed the skin of Lab'aya and

307 became Add'aya. p Through his sons the rumor was apparently spread that Labayu had been killed. q Strange as it may seem, this would not be the last time that the still living lion was written off as a dead dog, either in the Amarna Tablets or in the Bible. The man we know today as Pharaoh Aye is thought to have ruled as king for only four years. However, it can now be said that he held the status of pharaoh and king for over 60 of his roughly 70-year lifespan. During this extraordinary career he faced death and destitution many times. Miraculously he recovered even as the afflicted and despised Job (Heb. Ayyab). Over the course of seven decades of volatile court life he assumed many names and identities. r The major ones are listed below: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Aye/Lab'ayu. Asa/Shaul. Sheshonq/Shishak. Ephraim, blessed to be "doubly fruitful" in kingship, marriage and fatherhood. Ahab (Ayyab/Rib-addi). s Je-rimoth ("Joseph of Aramathea") father of Mahalath (Nefertiti). Jethro/Ithra (Add-ayu). Eleasar the priest, father of the New Kingdom Phinehas (Panehesy). Nebat, the "highly decorated" father and protector of the dissident Jeroboam.

As a young boy, Aye son of Thutmose IV (Judah) was crowned king over Libyan tribes and assumed the Libyan name of Sheshonq. As such, he began to be called more colloquially in some parts as Lab-ayu, that is "Libyan Aye" and the reigning "Lion (of Judah)." In the Jerusalem of Egypt (Thebes), this son of Judah was called Asa king of Judah. In the Amarna Tablets the word "asu, to go/come forth,' as said of troops, always refers in EA [El-Amarna Letters] to leaving Egypt."t Another one of Aye's epithets, that being "Jerimoth son of David," also emphasizes his natural lineage through the New Kingdom Judah, Thutmose IV ("David IV"). Although the biological son of Thutmose IV (Judah), Aye was perhaps better known as the political and legal son of Yuya (Joseph). Consequently, other pseudonyms of Aye identify him as a faithful son within the "House of Joseph/Omri." As identified by Ahmed Osman in Moses: Pharaoh of Egypt, Aye represents the second son of Joseph who is named as Ephraim in Genesis. Through a daughter of Osokhor (Issachar), the "doubly fruitful" Aye became the father of Iuput (Jehoshaphat). After Queen Tiye was unable to produce children through Amenhotep III, she and Aye became the parents of Nefertiti (Miriam/Mahalath), Panehesy (Phinehas/Jeroboam) and the Libyan heirs Osorkon I (Joram) and Takelot I (Ahaziah). Aye had myriad other children through his many other wives. He evidently rivaled Amenhotep III (Solomon) himself in number of

308 marriages. However, it was his relationship with Queen Tiye that ensured his kingly survival and ultimate triumph over all his rivals. In the book of Exodus, Aye is called Jethro/Ithra. His adoptive father Yuya (Joseph) reappears there under the pseudonym of Reuel (See Chapter 16). In the books of Kings and Chronicles, Yuya is instead named as Omri, "Grain Gatherer." He is first commander of the army and then king of Israel for 12 years. As the son of Omri, Aye is called Ahab. When Omri dies he is succeeded by Ahab, who in turn rules for 22 years. However, Ahab ruled alongside Omri for most if not all of Omri's own 12 years. The 22 years of Ahab (Aye) as king of Israel extended for roughly another 10 years after the death of Omri (Yuya) at which time he began preparation for his next and final promotion to It-nejter, "Holy Father" of the entire family empire. u The mistakenly placed death of Ahab in the Biblical Kings narrative is discussed below. The equivalence of Aye, Sheshonq, Labayu and Ahab becomes more obvious when a comparison is made between the names of their respective sons. After the death of Omri, Ahab became sole king in Israel and named his son Ahaziah as his co-regent. The Hebrew name Ahaz, "to seize," corresponds to the Libyan name Takelot. The Indo-European root tak also means, "to seize," literally, "to take."1 Another son of Ahab named Joram (Heb. Jehoram) also becomes a king of Israel. The link between the Hebrew name Joram/Jehoram and the Libyan name Osorkon is not as direct, but can still be made. 2 In the Amarna letters, "the two sons of Labayu" are called Mut-Baal and Tagi. Tagi ("Beautiful") is an obvious adaptation of Take(-lot), the younger but more favored son of Sheshonq. Mut-Baal ("Man of Baal") is the assumed Canaanite name of Osorkon. In the Year 6 Monolith Inscription of Shalmaneser, Mut-Baal is called by the variant of Matinu-bal'u. Iuput, the son of Sheshonq by a different wife, is named in the Amarna Tablets as PutiHeba (variously translated as Abdi-Heba), and is on one occasion (EA 280) called "another (son of) Labayu." Aye (as Asa) may have died as stated in the Bible from a "disease of the feet,"v however this did not occur after 41 years of kingship, but over twenty years later. Aye was a master of disguise. He was the ultimate survivor of the 18th Dynasty. With the help of his sons and direction of Amenhotep III, the identity of Aye as Lab'ayu was exchanged for another one that was more worthy of his "increased" status within the royal family. Aye cleverly replaced an old dusty skin with a shiny new one. In his more than 60 years of kingship the "Lion-Man" lived out "nine lives" and possessed at least that many aliases. His nemesis Milkilu/Ba'sa, although defeated did not die at this time either. In fact, he would be restored to favor by Akhenaten and resume his struggle with Aye as part of the plan of Akhenaten to destroy Aye. When Akhenaten was deposed by Aye, Milkilu was likely forced to march with him in Exodus. Upon his first triumph over Milkilu (Baasha), Labayu/Aye (Asa/Ahab) ruled alongside his adoptive father Yuya (Joseph/Omri) as king of Israel. In order to become a king in Israel, Aye laid aside his Libyan identity, but did not relinquish control over the throne of Libya/Judah itself. He did however largely delegate its

309 rule to his two leading sons. Upon the death of Yuya, Aye then appointed these two sons as his co-regents in Israel. There was only one greater throne left for Aye to pursue. After surviving the perils of subordinate kingship for 59 beleaguered years, he ascended as "king of kings" of the royal family. He undoubtedly considered this to be a fulfillment of earlier tradition and at least some compensation for all his troubles. (After the defeat of Naram-Sin in the Middle Kingdom, archetypal Shaul, Shar-kali-shari, continued to rule for a short time.) Yet, considering his grievous health problems and continued political strife, it is doubtful whether his four years as pharaoh of Egypt were satisfying as anything other than a "moral victory." Timeline (Kingship of Aye) +0 +3 +4 +29 +32 +32 +37 +37 +44 +44 +46 +46 +48 +49 +49 +50 +50 +59 Death of Thutmose IV, Sheshonq I (Aye) becomes king in Shechem. Milkilu (Baasha) declared king of Israel in Tirzah. Death of Amenhotep II. Succession of Amenhotep III in Egypt. Assassination of Elah son of Baasha. Omri (Yuya) declared king of Israel. Amenhotep IV (Rehoboam) named co-regent of Amenhotep III (Solomon). Sheshonq I forces the submission of Thebes (Jerusalem). Amenhotep IV leaves Thebes. Changes name to Akhenaten. Deaths of Amenhotep III (Solomon) and Yuya (Omri). Akhenaten (Rehoboam) regains sovereignty of Thebes. Smenkhare (Abijah) named co-regent of Akhenaten. Akhenaten suppresses the cult of Amun. Smenkhare reopens the Temple of Amun. Akhenaten (Moses/Rehoboam) abdicates. Smenkhare killed approximately three months after Akhenaten's abdication Succession of Tutankhamun. Treaty (Covenant) requires Akhenaten to remove the diseased from the Delta, and the change of Tutankhamun's name from Tutankhaten. Death of Tut and succession of Aye.

Sunset of Solomon Despite the fall of Baasha to Ahab, the Omride coalition was defeated a second time in Year 10 of Shalmaneser and again in his Years 11 and 14. These battles corresponded to Years 7, 8 and 11 of Akhenaten, and Years 34, 35 and 38 of Amenhotep III. It was very late in the reign of Amenhotep III (Solomon) and Aye (Ahab) was still acting as the co-regent of the elderly Yuya (Omri/Irhulena) in Israel. As the vitality of both Yuya and Amenhotep III began to fade, Ben-Hadad began taking the cities of Ahab in Israel as a preemptive move for greater sovereignty. Internal strife among Egyptian princes also allowed Ben-Hadad and Shalmaneser of Assyria to annex cities in northern Syria prior to the death of

310 Amenhotep III. This is reflected by the diminishing of the "United Kingdom" at the end of Solomon's reign as recorded in the Biblical Kings narrative. The breaking of oaths and withholding of tribute was the customary practice of vassals in conjunction with the approaching death and succession of a great king such Amenhotep III. He was not yet dead, however it was probably no secret that his end was drawing near. Akhenaten was still in exile and was no threat to rebellious vassals. His very succession would have been seriously in doubt. The resolve of the ailing Solomon and that of his aging father Omri-Joseph was tested. Shortly before the passing of Amenhotep, the raids of Ben-Hadad of Aram against Israel intensified. The intent of Ben-Hadad seems to have been to unseat Aye and take the throne of Israel for himself. However, with the help of Yuya (Omri), Aye was able to defeat Ben-Hadad king of Aram on two occasions. In the second battle, Ben-Hadad was actually captured by Aye. In exchange for sparing his life, Ben-Hadad offered Aye (Ahab) liberal concessions in Aram and a new and more favorable treaty. (The previous treaty was made in Year 4 of Akhenaten/Year 32 of Amenhotep III, as discussed in Chapters 17-19.) In Year 38 of Amenhotep III (Year 11 of Akhenaten), the "12 kings" of the Egyptian Empire failed for the fourth time to defeat the renegade Shalmaneser of Assyria, who was then in his own Year 14. It is probably significant that Shalmaneser describes his opposition as a collection of independent kings under Irhulena (Omri) and Ben-idri (Ben-Hadad) w and not as a unified force. It is also not surprising that the Israel-Aram "alliance" was ineffective against the Assyrian king. Many of the kings of the so-called alliance were more concerned about attacks from each other than with engaging Shalmaneser. Renewed hostilities and the capture of BenHadad by Ahab would have taken place shortly after the battle in Year 14 of Shalmaneser and shortly before the deaths of Amenhotep III and Yuya. The Uncle they Loved to Hate After the death of Amenhotep III and succession of Akhenaten, by far the greatest number of Amarna letters are from a certain Rib-Addi of Samaria. Velikovsky wrote, "The name Rib-Addi, written in ideograms, means the elder [brother among sons] of the father, the first part of the name signifying the elder' brother or the elder' son, and the second part father.' " It is construed like the Hebrew name Ahab, the first part of which means brother' (ah), the second part father' (ab)."x The pen name Rib-Addi is clever. It indicates both subordination and seniority with respect to Akhenaten. Velikovsky proposed that the pen name Rib-Addi ("Elder Father") was more of a title and corresponds to the Egyptian office of Senior Vizier. He further deduced that this minister must have been none other than Ahab, King of Israel. This turns out to be the case. Moreover, it can now be said with all confidence that Ahab is also one and the same as "Senior Vizier" Aye. In his correspondence, Rib-Addi observes the protocol of the court, however the tone of his letters is far from

311 submissive. This condescending attitude of "Rib-Addi" is a further clue to the author's true identity. It had been Aye who earlier evicted Akhenaten from Thebes and not only forced but enforced his exile at the city of Akhet-aten. For the last seven years of Amenhotep III's reign, Aye was second in power. Aye acquiesced to the will of Yuya and of Queen Tiye in regard to the succession of Akhenaten, however, there was little love lost between Akhenaten and Aye. Aye would have insisted on retaining his senior status and would have taken precautions in order to protect his various titles and those of his leading sons. Concessions were likely demanded and granted to Aye by Yuya and Queen Tiye in order to secure his support for Akhenaten. Aye did not write to Akhenaten using his former pen name of Labayu, but that of Rib-Addi, "Elder (of) Father." In spite of this, Akhenaten and other ministers often do not refer to Aye as Rib-Addi, but by the less flattering epithet of Ayyab, connoting the "Hated" or "Where is the Father?" Aye, like the earlier New Kingdom figure of Apophis/Tao, was typecast as a forlorn Job (Heb. Ayyab) figure. He eluded what seemed to be certain death on more than one occasion, from intrigue, war and also disease. Ahab is particularly characterized in the Kings narrative as brooding. However, the name Ahab itself does not mean "Hated" but "Brother (of) Father," that is, "Uncle," and is very close in form to the Amarna Letter pen name of Rib-Addi as noted by Velikovsky. The vizier Aye was also quite literally an uncle, not only to Akhenaten but also to Smenkhare and Tutankhamun. Upon the death of Tut, Aye succeeded to the highest office in the Two Lands and assumed the epithet of It-Netjer, "Father-God" or "Divine/Holy Father." Aye was many years the senior of Akhenaten, and of greater de facto power. Without Aye's approval, Akhenaten would have remained in exile and not have succeeded to the greater throne upon Amenhotep III's death. In the Amarna Letters, Rib-Addi ("Elder Father") lectures his nephew Akhenaten on Egyptian history, rebukes him on occasion and even proceeds to give orders to the younger pharaoh. y Unlike his days as Labayu, z Rib-Addi never refers to the authority of any commissioner, with the possible exception of Aman-appa (Aanen).aa The submission by Rib-Addi (Ephraim/Aye) to Aman-appa (Manasseh/Aanen) is largely feigned, because he wants Aman-appa to give him aid. Rib-Addi reminds Akhenaten that he had formerly written to his father (Yuya) and received military support. As a consequence, Abdi-Ashirta (Ben-Hadad) had been captured. ab This is a reference in the Amarna Tablets to the capture of Ben-Hadad by Ahab as told in the Kings narrative. After the death of Yuya, Aye appealed to Aanen to maintain the policy of his father. Velikovsky also associated Aman-appa, a high official of Samaria mentioned in the Amarna letters, with the Biblical Amon (a variant of the name Aanen), ruler/mayor of the city of Samaria in the reign of King Ahab. ac While Aanen may have been mayor of the city of Samaria/Sumer, Aye (Ahab) was the ruler of the entire region. The identification of Biblical Ahab as the Egyptian regent "Rib-Addi" of the Amarna

312 Tablets and future pharaoh Aye also has a profound impact on our understanding of ancient chronology. Due to his mention in the inscriptions of the Assyrian king Shalmaneser III, Ahab is the first Biblical person that can be dated with a high degree of certainty. This in turn allows the close of the Egyptian 18th Dynasty to be dated with equal (and actually greater) precision. Jousting Jehoshaphat After the death of Yuya (Omri), Aye (Ahab) succeeded him as king of Israel and named his son Takelot (Ahaziah) as his co-regent. Egyptologists presently think that Takelot I was the son and successor of Osorkon I. However, it is now clear that Takelot was not the true son of Osorkon, but a younger brother and therefore only a political "son" with respect to the Libyan throne. In other words, both Osorkon I and Takelot I were the natural sons of Sheshonq I. In the Amarna Tablets they are called Mut-baal (Osorkon I) and Tagi (Takelot I), the "two sons of Labayu." The Middle Kingdom Ephraim, Senusret II, had set up a double co-regency with his two sons Amenemhet II and Sekhemkare. Sekhemkare (Middle Kingdom Issachar) was the eldest son. Amenemhet II (Middle Kingdom Judah) was younger but more favored. Likewise, the New Kingdom Ephraim, Aye/Sheshonq, established a double co-regency under himself. Prior to the appointment of Iuput as High Priest of Amun in Year 32 of Amenhotep III, his half-brothers Osorkon and Takelot had already been named as pharaohs of the Libyan throne by Sheshonq. ad As a "fulfillment" or "repetition" of the earlier period, both Takelot and Osorkon would be ambushed and killed. At the same time that Takelot became co-regent in Israel, Osorkon I was allowed to begin grooming one of his sons, Sheshonq II, as his own successor to the Libyan throne. Shortly after the deaths of Amehotep III and Yuya, Osorkon I named Sheshonq II as High Priest of Amun in Thebes. Iuput, the former High Priest, retained the rule of Upper Egypt and Thebes during the first three years of Akhenaten's reign and wrote to Akhenaten from Thebes (Jerusalem) using the pen name of Puti-Heba (variously translated as Abdi-Heba). 3 However, by Year 15 of Akhenaten, Sheshonq II had produced a suitable heir named Harsiese, "Horus son of Isis" (Biblical Joash), and was duly declared as pharaoh in Upper Egypt. This effectively displaced Iuput, the half-brother of Osorkon I. Iuput no doubt protested to Sheshonq his father, who had previously appointed him to both of these posts. According to the Bible, there was a three-year cease-fire upon the release of BenHadad under the terms of a new treaty. As noted above, the Amarna Tablets confirm that Rib-Addi (Aye/Ahab) had captured Abdi-Ashirta (Ben-Hadad) very late in the reign of Amenhotep III, and while Akhenaten's father (Yuya) was still alive. However, only a short time after another weak effort against Shalmaneser, war broke out once again between members of the Egyptian alliance. The peace among Egyptian princes ended after Aye (Ahab) and Iuput (Jehoshaphat) invaded Ramoth-Gilead. As the famine continued in Palestine and Syria, Aye became more

313 and more desperate. His repeated requests to Akhenaten for grain from Egypt were ignored. Finally, he decided to take matters into his own hands and seized the farmland of Ramoth-Gilead in the Trans-Jordan belonging to Ben Hadad. Velikovsky identified Ramoth-Gilead as the highly coveted (Ya-)Rimuta of the Amarna Tablets. It is perhaps the modern day site of the Golan Heights. ae Joseph of Aramathea The complementary narratives of 1 Kings 22 and 2 Chronicles 18 describe the death of Ahab. Critical analysis of the text has led to the conclusion that the demise of the hated king Ahab was inserted quite prematurely into the narrative. First, we are told that Ahab proposes to Jehoshaphat that they attack Ramoth Gilead. Later in the narrative, the prophet Micaiah son of Imlah (Joseph?) asks, "Who will lure Ahab king of Israel into attacking Ramoth Gilead and going to his death there?" However, if Ahab was the king who initiated the action, why should he need further inducement? This makes absolutely no sense. Moreover, following the scripted death of Ahab in 1 Kings 22:29-40, the Kings narrative af provides a set of interlocking regnal years for the Kings of Israel and Judah that are clearly selfcontradictory regardless of whether one postulates co-regencies among Biblical kings or not. Wayne Pitard writes, "Another reason to suspect the account of Ahab's violent death is found in 1 Kgs 22:40, a passage from the Deuteronomistic framework for Kings. Here the account of Ahab's reign is concluded with the formula, And Ahab slept with his fathers,' a formula which elsewhere in Kings is used only of kings who died a natural death. This suggests that the original author of Kings did not include the account of Ahab's death at Ramoth-Gilead in his work and in fact had no knowledge of a violent death for Ahab."ag Placed in proper historical context, it is now possible to resolve the anomaly of the Biblical passage. There are actually three kings involved in the plot of this narrative, not two. There is Ahab (Sheshonq/Aye), there is Jehoshaphat (Iuput), and there is also an unnamed king of Israel. It was not only Ahab, but also another "king of Israel" who was baited into joining the campaign. This unnamed king, who was killed, turns out to be Sheshonq II, the newly appointed pharaoh of Upper Egypt and recipient of former domains of Iuput. Sheshonq had just been elevated from the post of High Priest of Amun to that of pharaoh of Upper Egypt. This greatly diminished the power of Osorkon's brother Iuput (Jehoshaphat). However, when a campaign to take Ramoth Gilead was proposed by Aye, Iuput saw an opportunity to reclaim his lost inheritance. A means of "luring" Sheshonq II into participating was divined, and lo and behold, the "king of Israel" (Sheshonq II) was struck between his armor by a "stray" arrow and died! Pathetically, it seems that Sheshonq II did not realize that he had been betrayed. Although the "king of Israel" was badly wounded he steadfastly remains erect in his chariot until evening. If the mummy identified as Sheshonq II is any indication, he was finished off with a blow to the head. In a time of famine, Aye wanted to harvest

314 the productive farmland of Ramoth-Gilead. On the other hand, Iuput just wanted to cut down the soul of Sheshonq II. Aye reclaimed valuable territory from Ben-Hadad of Aram. It was perhaps the fixation of Aye on this prize that earned him the epithet of Jerimoth, a variant of Ya-Rimuta. At the same time, Iuput conspired to win the prize of Thebes. Both Aye and Iuput accomplished what they set out to do, but there would be hell to pay!

Gen. 49:10 (KJV) 1 Chron. 5:2 (KJV) 1 Kings 3:1-15 1 Kings 16:22-24 1 Kings 16:25 (NIV) This conflict was discussed in Chapter 19. 1 Kings 11:14-25. Cf 1 Kings 8:3-14. Possibly referring to the death of Thutmose III (younger David) rather than Thutmose I. i. Genubath (1592) theft, from ganab (1589) thieve (lit. or fig.); by impl. to deceive;- carry away x indeed, secretly bring, steal (away), get by stealth. j. Ancient Near Eastern Texts, J. Pritchard, ed., pp 278-9. k. Ancient Near Eastern Texts, J. Pritchard, ed., pp 280. l. Baasha was left fatherless at a very young age when Issachar (Hamar) was murdered. Ruhubi would correspond to an adoptive or political father of Baasha, and possibly is a form of Reuben elder brother of Issachar. Similarly, Yuya had become the adoptive father of Aye upon the premature death of Thutmose IV. m. EA 244, 245 & 246 n. EA 254 o. The expression translated as "my son" is DUMU.MU-ia. This construction has confused translators. DUMU.MU is Sumerian for "my son", however the ia suffix seems to be incompatible. See Moran, Amarna Letters, EA 254, note 4. Aye uses the phrase twice, evidently as a cryptic way of referring to his son Iuput (Ia-Put). p. Addaya the commissioner is referred to in EA 254, 285, 287 & 289. q. EA 250, 255. r. According to Jewish lore, king Hezekiah also bore nine names. These names of Hezekiah will be explored in a later chapter. s. Ayyab can be written as Aya-ab ("Father Aye"). See, David Rohl, Pharaohs and Kings, p 223. t. W. Moran, The Amarna Letters, p 293 (EA 234, note 2). u. As early as Year 3 of Tutankhamun, the decision had already been made for Aye to succeed the ailing Tut as pharaoh of the greater family empire. At that time, Aye would have relegated the lesser thrones of Israel and Judah/Libya to subordinate princes. v. 2 Chron. 16:12, figuratively speaking of venereal disease.

a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h.

315 w. Velikovsky proposed in Ages of Chaos (pp 237, 310, 312, 313, 315, 323, 334) that Adad-idri king of Imerisu in Shalmaneser's inscription was not one and the same as Ben-Hadad king of Aram/Damascus. He argued that Adad-idri was instead the Bir-idri/Biridia of the Amarna Letters, who was based in city of Megi