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“To reduce crime and the fear of crime, tackle youth

crime and violent, sexual and drug-related crime,


anti-social behaviour and disorder, increasing safety in
the home and public spaces.”
Home Office Aim 1

This statement confirms our joint commitment to reduce crime and disorder. The Digest,
w h i ch is published quart e r ly, aims to support crime re d u c t i o n / c o m munity safety practi-
tion ers wit hin police and local author i t i e s , working in st at u t o ry partnerships by
facilitating info rm ation exchange. The Digest is a forum for your initiatives and experiences.
Its success depends on you, the practitioners, c o n t ri buting your articles. Deadline for copy is
given below.
In order that eve ryone can benefit from your work and experi e n c e, we would ask
c o n t ri butors to consider both what wo r ked and what didn’t work within their pro j e c t s.
P rojects may be well conceived and still not ach i eve all their aims; this does not mean they
h ave fa i l e d . Please be brave enough to discuss what aspects did not ach i eve the expected
outcomes. Include as much info rm ation as you can, covering the analysis of the problem and
how it was identified, the response devised and how it was implemented, and an assessment
of the final outcomes.

Note:
The inclusion of mat e rial in the Digest or re fe rence to any pro d u c t s / s e rvices does not
signify that they have been tested or eva l u at e d . Nor should inclusion be thought to confer
‘official’ approval.
This publication may not be copied, photocopied, re p roduced, or conve rted to any
electronic form unless for police or local authority use only.
October 2002
College Staff The next Digest will be
with you in January
Director 2003.
Steve Trimmins Administration Unit Training Resource Solutions
Mark Ledder Simon Jones
All contributions
Support Services Ruth Whitaker
be submitted by
Ann Keen Jane Carpenter
December 6th 2002.
Information Service Michael Hawtin
Richard Cox Gill Archibald Richard Wales
Adrienne Jowitt-Thrall Stuart Charman Contributions to:
Jane Jones Editor Jane Jones
Training Team Kathleen Noble Jane Jones Information Team
David Fernley Abby Hickman Design/Production Tel: 01347 825065
Michael Hawtin Fax: 01347 825097
June Armstrong
Martin Fenlon Home Office
Amanda Scargill Crime Reduction College
For Training or General Enquiries:
Pat Varley The Hawkhills, Easingwold,
Tel: 01347 825060 York YO61 3EG
Tel: 01347 825060
Fax: 01347 825099
E-mail: crc@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk

October 2002 1
College News 4
Communicating Crime Reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Crime Reduction Website . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Crime Reduction Website Learning Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Associate Trainer Programme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Crime Reduction College gets Community Justice National
Training Organisation endorsement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Staff News . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
College Publications - Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Active Communities 7
A Review of the Home Office Older Volunteers Initiative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
“Me and You” - An Intergenerational Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
South Tyneside Community Safety Partnership Roadshow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Community Cohesion Unit - Building Communities based on Trust and Respect . . . . .10
Anti-Social Behaviour 10
Tackling anti-social behaviour: information and case studies about local
authority work - Research Briefing Paper 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Arson 11
The Burning Issue: Research and Strategies for Reducing Arson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Burglary 11
Domestic Property Surveys - Training Programme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Peace of Mind - Access Control Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Temporary Intruder Alarms for New Tenants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Business Crime 13
Making Arrests - A Guide for Retailers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Robbery Awareness for Forecourts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Partners against crime: the role of the corporate sector in tackling crime . . . . . . . . .14
CCTV 15
Crime Prevention effects of closed circuit television: a systematic review . . . . . . . . .15
To CCTV or not to CCTV? A review of current research into the
effectiveness of CCTV systems in reducing crime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
Designing Out Crime 17
Effects of improved street lighting on crime: a systematic review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
The Recessed Pest: Reducing Crime Opportunity in Recessed Doorways - . . . . . . . .18
Domestic Violence 18
Domestic Violence Coaster Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
Drugs and Alcohol 19
Arrest Referral: emerging findings from the national monitoring and
evaluation programme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Drug Stop Initiative: Stamping out drugs in North Lanarkshire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Proceeds of Crime Act - Code of Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
A rock and a hard place: drug markets in deprived neighbourhoods . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
‘It’s Your Choice’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
Drug Awareness Training Pack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22

2 Contents October 2002


Fraud 23
Cards Today: The Big Picture on Payment Cards - August 2002 - Edition 2 . . . . . . . . .23

G e n e ra l 23
Community Safety Partnerships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
Crime Control and Community: The new politics of public safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
Improving Partnership Working . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
Crime in England and Wales 2001/2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
Improving public attitudes to the criminal justice system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
Investigating and Prosecuting Transnational Crime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
Focus Areas Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
RaceActionNet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
Policing and Watch Schemes: Guidance on Information Sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
Use of two-way radios in the community . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Property Crime 29
Glossary of Security Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Rural Crime 30
Tackling crime in rural communities conference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Sexual Offences 30
Rape and sexual assault of women: findings from the British Crime Survey . . . . . . .30
Town/Shopping Centre Crime 31
Funding for retailers in deprived areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
Vehicle Crime 32
“Transport Alert Forum” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
Crime Bill is down on Britain’s Service Stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Each Article in the Digest
is highlighted with an
Violent Crime and Street Crime 33 icon which will define
Street Crime Initiative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 the product described in
Violent Crime: reconfiguring the debate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 that article. They are:
Robbery - Get a Proper Life! for Citizenship Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
Working with Offenders 35 Campaign/
Patterns of offending behaviour: a new approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Initiative
Youth Crime 36
Publication
“On The Streets” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
Splash Tap (Targeted Activities Programme) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
Summer Splash Schemes 2000: Findings from six case studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
MORI 2002 Youth Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Video
Crime Prevention Initiative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39

Website/
Electronic
Information

General/
Exchange
of Ideas/
Conferences

October 2002 Contents 3


Communicating Crime Reduction
The Cr ime Reduction College is wo r k i n g C o m mu n i c ating Cr ime Reduction will
with the Home Office Commu n i c at i o n s be written specifi c a l ly for Cr ime and
D i re c t o r ate to produce a guidance pack on Disorder Pa rt nerships and will contain
C o m mu n i c ating Crime Reduction. i n fo rm ation on:
The project is an outcome of the • developing a communication strategy
Home Office commu n i c ations strat e g y • working with the news media
‘Com municating to Delive r’ . W h i l s t • making the most of broadcast interviews
re s e a r ching the strat e g y, it became clear that • paid publicity
t h e re was a n eed t o help im prove the • public events
c apacity of Crime and Disorder Pa rt n e r s h i p s • news media
to com mu n i c ate with their local • evaluating communication activity
c o m munities and explain their activities • the role of communication in
more effectively. cutting crime
To disseminate the guidance pack • communication and fear of crime
q u i ck ly and allow the info rm ation to be • connecting with business
u p d ated more easily, it will be published in • connecting with children and
the new Lear ning Zone on the Cr i m e young people
Reduction Web s i t e. The Learning Zone will • connecting with ethnic communities
be launched towards the end of September • connecting with people with disabilities.
2002.
The first section of Commu n i c at i n g For further information contact Steve Park, Home
C rime Reduction to be published will be Office Communications Directorate, Tel: 020 7273
‘ D eveloping a Commu n i c ations Strat e g y ’ . 4268 or via E-mail:
This will be available as soon as the Learning steve.park@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk
Zone is launch e d . F u rther sections will be or Simon Jones at the Crime Reduction College
published by the end of this year. The project Tel: 01347 825081 or via E-mail:
team plan to produce the pack in a pri n t e d simon.jones@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk.
fo rm at during the early part of 2003.

Crime Reduction Website


The Crime Reduction Website (w w w. c r i m e re d u c t i o n . g ov. u k) had a facelift this summer.
Over 1000 pages on the site were given a fresh new look and some new facilities were added
to the site:
• A new Partnerships Mini-site listing Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnerships (CDRPs)
contact details and Audit & Strategy documents
(http://www.crimereduction.gov.uk/partnerships)
• A Street Crime Mini-site bringing together info rm ation from a range of sources and
Government departments under a single heading
(http://www.crimereduction.gov.uk/streetcrime)
• Easier navigation to related pages and the main sections of the site
The Discussion Forum was also revamped and remains an active
a rea for the exc hange of ideas and experience for over 2,300
practitioners, both within the UK and overseas. Recent topics under
d eb ate include fi rewo r k s , u n i versities and cr ime and wo r k i n g
alongside the business commu n i t y. The Fo r um is ava i l able to all
crime reduction practitioners and you can register by following the
Discussion Fo rum link at : h t t p : / / w w w. c r i m e re d u c t i o n . g ov. u k
and completing the simple fo rm .

4 College News October 2002


Crime Reduction Website Learning Zone
The Learning Zone is a major new area of t he Cr ime Reduction Website dedicated to
p roviding info rm ation on crime reduction training and learning opportunities for eve ryo n e
involved or interested in crime reduction and community safety.
It will be launched soon and will give “one stop” access to:
• A Training needs analysis designed to help identify personal crime reduction
training and development needs by analysing the type of workcarried
out and any background knowledge that would be useful. Pa rt i c u l a r ly
crime and disorder problems dealt with.
• A Course finder to help find relevant training courses available across
the UK.
• A Diary of events giving info rm ation about forthcoming conferences
and seminars.
• On-line learning providing access to open and distance learning mat e ri a l s.
• A Bulletin board, which went live in July giving practitioners the opportunity to
exchange ideas, views and experiences of crime reduction training and learning. For more information, contact
• Links to other websites. Jane Carpenter,
The Learning Zone will also include a ‘ Vi rtual library ’ of useful publ i c ations and a Learning Zone Project Manager,
Glossary of terms to explain the language and jargon used in training and learning. Crime Reduction College
We are alre a dy planning the future development of the Learning Zone and want to hear Tel: 01347 825095
about what you would find most useful . Please contact us via the bulletin board or via E-mail:
(h t t p : / / w w w. c r i m e re d u c t i o n . g ov. u k / l e a r n i n g zo n e . h t m) or you can email us direct at : jane.carpenter@homeoffice.
trs@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk. gsi.gov.uk

Associate Trainer Pro g ra m m e


The col lege has run two “Training for 60 enquiries about the sch e m e, and details
S u c c e s s” courses and 33 people from ten h ave been sent to interested people, a s k i n g
regions are now currently working towards them to register their interest with their
their Crime Reduction College A s s o c i at e Regional Crime Reduction Teams (CRTs).
Trainer Awa r d . This will enable them to Another course is scheduled fo r
d e l i ver the one-day course entitled “A n November this year and Regional CRTs will
I n t roduction to Crime & Disord e r be asked to nom inate potent ial trainers
Re d u c t i o n” to a range of practitioners and f rom their region in October. The A s s o c i at e
community groups across the country. Trainer Award will be developed over time
A s s o c i ate Trainers have alre a dy notifi e d to complem ent a wider training and
the college of 13 courses due to be a c c re d i t ation strat e g y, with the aim of
d e l i ve red later in the ye a r, to up to 20 p roviding community safety practitioners
p a rticipants at a time. The aim is for each and vo l u n t a ry groups with the know l e d g e
region to have a local re s o u r c e, s u p p o rt e d and skills they need.
by the Crime Reduction College, so that a
g re ater range of people can be trained. For further information contact Martin Fenlon,
A s s o c i ate Trai ners will com plete a Training Team, Crime Reduction College,
personal development jour nal as well as Tel: 01347 825076
attending “ re c a l l ” d ay s , w h e re they will or via E-mail: crtraining@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk
re c e i ve up-to-date training mat e rials and
s h a re best practice. The fe e d b a ck re c e i ve d
so far has been extre m e ly positive and the
Regional Crime Reduction Teams and the
College will work in partnership to ensure
a quality learning programme is available.
Following the article in the July edition
of the Digest, the College has re c e i ved ove r

October 2002 Digest Items 5


Crime Reduction College gets Community
Justice National Training Organisation
endorsement
The Home Office Review of Crime Reduction Training recommends that: “External providers
should only be commissioned where they are endorsed by the Community Justice Nat i o n a l
Training Organisation (CJNTO)”. The Crime Reduction College is pleased to announce that it
has re c e n t ly been endorsed by t he CJNTO as providing learning to support the use of
Community Justice Occupational Standards for Levels 3 & 4 Community Justice Awards.

Staff News
Adrienne Jow i t t - T h ra l l s t a rted at the College in July as a member of the Course Support
Te a m , p roviding administrat i ve support to the Training Te a . Ade joined the College from the
B ritish Library where she was invo l ved in marke t i n g, p u bl i c ation sales and training and
development.

You have been sending your articles for the Digest to Jane Hopper. In September Ja n e
m a rried Simon Jones so all contri butions should now be sent to Jane Jones at the addre s s
on page 1. Our congratulations and best wishes for the future go to them both.

College Publications - Update


Home Security - an introduction to The Passport to Evaluation -
domestic surveying an introduction to evaluating crime
This interactive training pack age has now reduction initiatives and projects
been sent out to more than 2,000 people The Passport to Evaluation was published in
including the police, p a rtnership gro u p s , June of this ye a r. The eva l u ation we ’re
local authori t i e s , housing associations and getting back about this publication has been
members of the public. From our evaluation e x t re m e ly positive. It is also being used by
about this product we estimate that the Roehampton University of Surrey as part of
ave r age number of users for each pack ag e their Evaluation Course and will be used on
sent out is ten people. We have dispat ch e d thier Safer Schools Pa rtnerships course
nearly 200,000 copies of the booklet which d e l i ve red in partnership with the DfES,
n ow comes with the Home Secur i t y Centrx and the Metropolitan Police.
c o m p u t e r-based training package. It acts as At t he time of going to print 1,033
an aide-memoire and supports the package. complete copies have been dow n l o a d e d
f rom the website and more than 220
printed books have been dispatched.

6 College News October 2002


A Review of the Home Office Older
Volunteers Initiative
Home Office Research Study 248

D u ring 1999 - 2003, the Home Office • Older people from black and minority
Older Volunteers Initiative ( H O OVI) has ethnic communities with little or no
p rovided £1,476 million funding for 26 tradition of formal volunteering are
p rojects aimed at improving opport u n i t i e s more likely to volunteer within their
for people aged 50 and over to vo l u n t e e r own communities than in
and become more i nvo l ved in t he ‘mainstream’ organisations.
c o m mu n i t y. Sixteen of these pro j e c t s • The contribution of older people is
re l ated dire c t ly to re c ruiting vo l u n t e e r s l i ke ly to be especially valuable in
f rom a va r iety of bac k g rounds to take working with frail and isolated older
responsibility in various different roles and people, intergenerational activities
settings. with school-age children and in
R e s e a r ch has shown that older people helping other people with long-term
can be attracted to vo l u n t e e ring if effo rt s health problems to manage
are made to recruit them. They can also play their condition.
their part in a wider range of activities than
would be expected of them. The H O OV I i n i t i at i ve also identifi e d
Research suggests that: and disseminated good practice an d
• Organisations whose mission or g e n e r a l ly promoted the idea of vo l u n-
purpose is to promote the well being t e e r ing by older people. Guidance ab o u t
of older people have a considerable good practice was developed in:
advantage in involving older people as • identifying and overcoming barriers to
volunteers. volunteering by older people
• The extent to which volunteering is a • supporting volunteering by older and
recognised and central feature of an retired employees of local authorities
organisation’s work is an important • encouraging volunteering by black and
factor in its ability to involve older minority ethnic older people
volunteers quickly and effectively. • m e n t o ri n g.

Copies of this research study, published in


June 2002, are available free from Research,
Development and Statistics Directorate,
Communications Development Unit, Room
201, 50 Queen Anne’s Gate, London SW1H
9AT Tel: 020 7273 2084
E-mail:
publications.rds@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk
and can also be viewed and downloaded
from the Home Office Website at:
http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/
rds/pdfs2/hors248.pdf

October 2002 Active Communities 7


“Me and You” - An Intergenerational
Project
Norwich City Council

The “Me and Yo u” p roject took place in L a s t ly, the ch i l d ren we re asked to think of
the Lakenham area of Norwich in spri n g questions that they would like to put to the
2001 and invo l ved pupil s from a local residents. These questions were re p ro d u c e d
s ch o o l , together with residents fro m as a work sheet to enable the young people
C o rton House, a nearby residential home. to carry out interv i ew s , as well as acting as
The project fo rme d part of a Single a prompt for them to tell residents more
R e g e n e r ation Budget (SRB) pro j e c t , about t hemselves during their conve r s a-
focussing on community education and tions.
s a fety issues, and was managed by the SRB Pupils we re divided into two gro u p s
Community Project Officer together with 2 for their visits, w h i ch took place over two
Reminiscence wo r kers from the Council c o n s e c u t i ve weeks and began with a tour.
Adult Education Department and a local T h ey then paired up to conduct their
writer and care workers. i n t e rv i ew s , w h i ch produced ve ry positive
20 pupils aged 11 to 12 years of ag e results from both part i e s. B a r riers we re
took part in the 7-week project and we re b ro ken down and the project has left the
chosen for their sui tabil ity by the h ead way open for other interg e n e r at i o n a l
t e a ch e r. Reside nts from Corton House p roje ct s between the school an d the
vo l u n t e e red to take part in sessions, with a residential home (an interg e n e r at i o n a l
c o re group of 10 invo l ved in all 7 sessions s c u l p t u re proje ct has since taken place
and a further 10 involved in some. between the two groups).
The aims of the project were to: Fo l l owing their visit, the ch i l d ren took
• encourage understanding and p a rt in a further writing session to re c o r d
communication between their impressions of their visit and to write
the generations thank you letters to the residents. A booklet
• build respect and understanding of has been produced containing a selection
each others’ lives and lifestyles of the writings produced, an analysis of the
• raise awareness of situations where d ata cap t u red during the inter v i ews and
both pupils and residents had needed photographs of the two groups together.
and had experienced courage In terms of re g e n e r ational wo r k , i t
• build confidence and an opportunity to seems like ly that increased knowledge of
learn from each other. and respect for older people will re d u c e
Resident s of Corton House we re incidence s of anti-social behaviour by
invited to attend five reminiscence sessions young people against older people, a n d
and the majority enjoyed these discussions. s i m i l a r ly, older people may not be as afraid
Pupils also attended sessions organised by a of young people as t hey become more
local writer, who encouraged them to write familiar with them.
about their first memori e s , as well as their
fe a r s , times when they had been
courageous and what they hoped their lives
would be like by the time they re a ched 30.
They were also asked to think about what it
must have been like during wa rtime and
p roduce pieces of work to illustrate this.

“ ...part of a Single Regeneration Budget


(SRB) project, focussing on community

8 Active Communities
education and safety issues...
” October 2002
South Tyneside Community Safety
Partnership Roadshow
South Tyneside Metropolitan Borough Council

The community safety section of the South Tyneside Metropolitan Borough Council (MBC)
has organised a series of ro a d s h ows to help tackle issues of cri m e, health and quality of life
in the area.
The aims of the ro a d s h ows are to reduce the numbers of domestic bu rg l a ri e s , fear of
c ri m e, accidents and domestic fi re s , p a rt i c u l a r ly focusing on the over 50s age gro u p. T h e
ro a d s h ows use a mu l t i - agency ap p ro a ch to deliver key safety messages on crime preve n t i o n
and fi re safe t y, as well as providing free home security and smoke alarm s , personal alarm s
and access to the ‘Home Security Loan Sch e m e ’ , w h i ch allows people to borrow cri m e
p revention equipment for a set period of time. This can include shed and window alarm s ,
light controllers and a bogus caller alert box.
The ro a d s h ows also aim to build effe c t i ve
i n t e rg e n e r ational links betwee n older and
younge r people in the commun ity and
assistance is ava i l able from local sc h o o l
ch i l d re n , who help participant s fil l in their
re g i s t r ation fo rms and answer questions ab o u t
the scheme.
Since the start of the ro a d s h ows in A p ri l
2 0 0 2 , over 250 pro p e rties have benefited fro m
additional securi t y, with over 300 part i c i p a n t s
receiving personal alarms and crime preve n t i o n
i n fo rm at i o n . Over 150 people have accessed the
home security loan scheme and it is expected that by the end of the pro j e c t , up to 500
s e c u rity pack ages will have been provided and over 600 residents part i c i p ated in the
roadshows.
Evaluation of the scheme is ongoing and will be monitored by:
• Financial reports providing info rm ation on the cost of the project and the number of
properties secured.
• Roadshow registration and evaluation fo rm s , which will provide an indication of fear of
crime levels before and after the project.
• Analysis of crime statistics to be able to identify the impact of the project on levels of
crime in the area.
The project will be completed in
October 2002 and a final eva l u at i o n
carried out.

October 2002 Active Communities 9


Community Cohesion Unit - Building
Communities based on Trust and Respect
Home Office Community Cohesion Unit

The Home Office Community Cohesion Unit (CCU) was set up fo l l owing disturbances in
c e rtain nort h e rn towns last summer. C o m munity cohesion invo l ves a common vision and a
sense of belonging, as well as ap p re c i ating people’s diversity and ensuring that those fro m
d i f fe rent backgrounds have similar life opportunities. Cohesive communities are ones where
s t rong and positive re l ationships are being developed between people. This affects and
i nvo l ves eve ry part of our society, not only gove rn m e n t , but also pri vat e, vo l u n t a ry and
community sectors and the wider community.
The aim of the CCU is to build community cohesion across England and Wales by
working pro a c t i ve ly with stakeholders to integrate community cohesion both within
national policy and local service delivery. The unit is working closely with Bradford, Oldham
and Burn l ey and visiting other areas where community cohesion is a particular concern . A
s i g n i ficant part of working with local areas is about promoting best practice, together with
an understanding of how to pro g ress a baseline assessment and the development of
performance indicators on issues underpinning community cohesion.
E s t ablishing the CCU is just one element of the Gove rn m e n t ’s strategy for ensuring that
building and maintaining community cohesion is at the heart of its wo r k .T h e re is also an
expanded Ministerial Group, which meets on a regular basis to review national policy from a
c o m munity cohesion perspective. Practitioner groups have been established to support this
work and to advise on the impact of policies on the gro u n d . A significant step was the
p roduction of draft guidance on community cohesion, w h i c h was co-signe d by the
Commission for Racial Equality, The Local Gove rnment A s s o c i at i o n , Home Office and Offi c e
of the Deputy Prime Minister. The revised guidance will be launched later this year and will
give people a practical toolkit that they can use to build community cohesion locally.
Other work this year has invo l ved joint funding of an extended programme of summer
activities, including additional activities in areas with high levels of street crime.

Tackling anti-social behaviour: information


and case studies about local authority
work - Research Briefing Paper 16
Local Government Association

This re p o rt brings together info rm at i o n The final section of the re p o rt fo c u s e s


f rom the Home Office and Local on specific project s developed by local
G ove rnment A s s o c i ation(LGA) surveys on a u t h o ri t i e s , w h i ch l ook at preve n t i o n ,
h ow local author it ies are tackling ant i- e d u c ation and int erve ntion for dealing
social behaviour. with anti-social behaviour.
The re p o rt details several case studies
on how various authorities are dealing with Copies of this report, published in July 2002, are
anti-social behav i o u r. These show that , available to download only, via the Local
although anti-social behaviour orders are Government Association Website at:
one method of dealing with this type of http://www.lga.gov.uk/Documents/
b e h av i o u r, t h e re are a number of comple- Publication/antisocialbehaviour.pdf
m e n t a ry methods that may be used, s u ch
as injunctions, A c c e p t able Behav i o u r
A g re e m e n t s / C o n t r a c t s , Pa rental Contro l
A g re e m e n t s , m e d i ation and dive r s i o n a ry
activities.

10 Active Communities/Anti-Social Behaviour October 2002


The Burning Issue: Research and
Strategies for Reducing Arson
Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (ODPM)

This re p o rt details the statistics re l ating to • Criminality - for financial gain or to


arson and makes the case for a mu l t i - conceal crimes.
agency ap p ro a ch to pinpoint the causes and The re p o rt also attem pts to quantify
devise strategies to combat arson. t he pro p o rt ion of fi res that can be Copies of this
The number of mal icious fi res has at t ri buted to deliberate mot ivations (eg report, published
d o u bled over the past 10 years to become 45% of vehicles bu rnt out, stem s f ro m in August 2002,
the largest single cause of major fi res in other cri m e s , s u ch as destroying ev i d e n c e are available free from the
this country. M o re than 100,000 incidents or insurance fraud). The cost of arson fi re s Office of the Deputy Prime
we re re p o rted in the l ast ye a r, w i t h in England & Wales was estimated at £2.1 Minister, Free Literature,
j oy riding and insurance fi res accounting billion in 1999 and in the past ten ye a r s , PO Box 236, Wetherby, West
for more than half of all burned out vehicle t h e re have been 1. 8 million arson fi re s , Yorkshire, LS23 7NB,
fi re s. resul ting i n 22,000 injur ies and 1,100 Tel: 0870 1226 236
This re s e a r ch reveals four main fa c t o r s deaths. Fax: 0870 1226 237 or E-mail:
that motivate people who start fi re s : In an average week arson results in: odpm@twoten.press.net
• Youth disorder - children playing with • 3,600 deliberately started fi re s The full document can also be
fire, vandalism • 60 injuries downloaded from the ODPM
• Maliciousness - revenge at t a ck s , • 2 deaths Website at:
hate crime • a cost to society of £40 million. http://www.safety.odpm.
• Emotional expression - mental illness, gov.uk/fire/rds/research
personality disorders and depression /arson/pdf/strategy.pdf

Domestic Property Surveys - Training


Pro g ra m m e
Gloucestershire Constabulary

The Crime Reduction Officer (CRO) for the Cotswolds and Stroud Division of
G l o u c e s t e r s h i re Constabu l a ry, Mark Godsland, has devised a training pack age on the skills
and abilities required to undertake a domestic property survey.
The training, which commenced in May 2002, is available to officers who will carry out
s e c u rity surveys and aims to equip them with the necessary info rm ation and tech n i q u e s
re q u i red when conducting a pre - e m p t i ve domestic pro p e rty survey. When trained, o f fi c e r s
will be able to pass on their experience and skills to others, as well as supporting the fi g h t
against domestic burglary.
Training sessions l ast for 90 minutes and
consi st of an initial br i e fing to offi c e r s , w h i ch
c overs legislation and liab i l i t y. E a ch person re c e i ve s
a copy of the Cr ime Reduction College’s ‘ H o m e
S e c u rity - an introduction to domestic survey i n g ’
CD Rom and are then asked to perfo rm a survey,
which is followed by a question and answer session.

October 2002 Arson/Burglary 11


Peace of Mind - Access Control Systems
Devon and Cornwall Constabulary

Peace of Mind is a re g i s t e red ch a rity set d i s abled people on income support or a


up seven years ago by North Devon Cri m e basic re t i rement pension. D o n ations are
P revention Officer John Know l e s , i n sought fo rm other recipients in order that
partnership with the local Health Au t h o ri t y. Peace of Mi nd can continue to suppor t
The objectives of the ch a rity are to elderly and vulnerable people in this way.
ensure a good quality of life for elderly and To dat e, over 1000 homes have been
v u l n e r able victims of crime and to preve n t visited with 740 receiving some assistance
re p e at victimisat i o n . This is done by targ e t t owards the fitting of an access contro l
hardening pri vat e, residential accommo- s y s t e m . O ver £70,000 has been raised and
d ation t hrough the fitting of an up to May 2002, t h e re had been only one
audio-visual access control device to ke e p re p e at victim fo l l owing a Peace of Mind
u n d e s i r able callers away. The device incor- visit.
p o r ates a CCTV and audible system,
as well as a remote electronic locking
system for doors, w h i ch can be
activated via a control panel. It allows
the householder to see and talk to a
c a l l e r, e n abl ing them to decide
whether or not to let them in, so is
p a rt i c u l a r ly useful as a pro t e c t i o n
against distraction burglary.
The systems are supplied and
fitted free of ch a rge t o seve re ly

Te m p o ra ry Intruder Alarms for New


Tenants
Staffordshire Police

The Police and the Council Housing Management Unit of the local authority fo rmed a
p a rtnership in Ja nu a ry this ye a r, with the aim of reducing the numbers of new tenants who
are burgled in the Stoke-on-Trent area of Staffordshire.
Using council housing and police analysis, the police identified that 19% of new council
tenancies suffe red a bu rg l a ry within their first twe l ve months of occupat i o n . This in turn
a f fected the fear of crime by residents in the are a , as well as influencing people’s desire to
live there.
A pilot project was fo rmu l at e d , i nvolving the local council who purchased 30 passive,
infra red sensors, w h i ch could be plugged dire c t ly into the electricity supply. At the time of
fitting the sensors, tenants we re also offe red general security advice by their local Cri m e
Prevention Officer together with a security pack for them to keep.
After 3 months, the scheme was eva l u at e d . 107 new tenants took up residence and of
those 30 re c e i ved alarm s. E va l u ation fo rms we re distri buted to those tenants and 24 fo rm s
we re re t u rn e d . The results during the period of the pilot scheme showed that only one
burglary had been reported for the tenants receiving an alarm. Of the remaining 77 residents
that had not had alarms fitted, 6 reported bu rg l a ri e s. The majority of residents surveyed said
they felt safer in their homes when they had an alarm fitted. Funding is now being sought to
extend the scheme.

12 Burglary October 2002


Making Arrests - A Guide for Retailers
Home Office

The Hom e Office has produced a good • When and who can make an arrest
practice guide for those dealing with shop for theft?
t h e f t , w h i ch outlines the law on theft and • What should you be certain of?
will help retailers to make an arrest safe ly • How should the arrest be made
and legally if they have to. and what should the police deal with?
The guide suggests that making an • What evidence should be provided to
a rrest should be a last re s o rt . It advises that the police?
making an arrest will take a lot of time and • Which cases should and should not
does carr y ri s k s , w h i ch can leave the be re fe rred to the police?
retailer feeling dissatisfied with the process • Working together to tackle crime
and the outcome. H oweve r, reducing the in your area.
risk of crime can help to protect profits and
ensure the safety of staff and customers. The guide also provides details of useful
The guide provides info rm ation on: contacts and websites and is available only, via
• What is theft? the Crime Reduction Website at:
• What is an arrest? http://www.crimereduction.gov.uk/
• What are your powers of arrest business24.htm
for theft?

Robbery Awareness for Fo re c o u rt s


Tayside Police

Tayside Police have produced a booklet, i n t h at vigilance and CCTV systems can make
c o n s u l t ation with the British Oil Se c u r i t y to reduce the thre at from criminals and
Sy n d i c a t e (BOSS) for managers and staff g i ves guidance on what action to take in
of pet rol s tation fo re c o u rt s , aimed at the event of an at t a ck .
raising their awareness of incidents that can It is hoped that by taking the adv i c e
occur and providing guidance on what to and suggestions contained within the
do if faced with crimes on their premises. d o c u m e n t , m a n agers will be able to take
The booklet provides info rm ation on ap p ro p ri ate action to ensure that they are
h ow to deal with potential incidents, w h at able to deal with crime on their pre m i s e s
staff should do and what the police will effectively.
need to know, as well as offe ring advice on
personal safety and security.
It begins by inviting managers to assess
the thre at to their business and points out
the measures that can be taken to re d u c e
this thre at . It also explains the contri bu t i o n

“ ...they are able to


deal with crime on
their premises

October 2002
effectively.
” Business Crime 13
Partners against crime: the role of the
corporate sector in tackling crime
Institute for Public Policy Research (IPPR)

Companies are often the best placed to reduce opportunities for crime against their ow n
p roducts and serv i c e s. This re p o rt discusses the need for a new partnership between the
government and the corporate sector in the fight against crime.
R e s e a r ch indicates that 49% of crimes committed against businesses are not re p o rt e d
because of the lack of confidence in police response. Crimes against businesses should not be
disregarded on the grounds that the offence is ‘victimless’ or that businesses are rich enough
to look after themselves.
T h e re are many examples of good practice of companies who design out crime in their
p roducts and services and these successes have been larg e ly ach i eved without a clear publ i c
policy framework or specific government strategy.
This paper sets out to examine these questions:
• What are the limits of a company’s responsibility to prevent the criminal misuse of its
products and services?
• Where does its responsibility end and that of the state begin?
• How much should it be expected to invest and at what cost in its competitive position in
the market place, to prevent crime which may be of no direct detriment to itself?
• What public policy framework should government set in place to encourage and
persuade companies to mainstream crime prevention thinking at the design stage of
their products and services and redesign them if the potential for crime emerges after
the product or service is already on sale?
The paper argues that, companies’ responsibilities for tackling crime is a corporate social
responsibility issue that, sometimes but not always, fits with the business case. The case for a
c o m p a ny to act is strongest when the gre ater the role their product or service has to play in
causing crime, and the greater the contribution that the company could play in reducing the
opportunity for crime, compared to the contribution of other players.
The paper concludes that companies’ c o n t ri bution to cri me prevention is ve ry
s i g n i fi c a n t , but that there has been little recognition of this in the past. Some of the re c o m-
mendations it makes include:
• Where it is possible for a company to
make a material difference to crime and
they can do so practically, t e ch n i c a l ly and
financially, the company will make
ap p ro p ri ate changes to the design of the
product or service. In re t u rn , the state
will deal more effectively with crimes
against business.
• Consumer groups should help to
identify opportunities for companies
to design crime out of particular
products and services.
• Companies should include details
of their contribution to crime
prevention in their annual re p o rt s.
Copies of this report, published • The Association of British
in April 2002 and priced £10, Insurers should include failure to
are available from IPPR, 30-32 prevent crime among the
Southampton Street, London, environmental and ethical
WC2E 7RA, Tel: 0845 4589911 matters on which companies
or E-mail: info@ippr.org.uk. should make disclosure.
Visit their website at: • Business in the community should consider launching a
http://www.ippr.org.uk Business Action on Crime campaign to help drive this agenda.

14 Business Crime October 2002


Crime Prevention effects of closed circuit
television: a systematic review
Home Office Research Study 252

CCTV has proved a popular method used to fear that they will be shamed by being
reduce crime over recent ye a r s , h oweve r shown on CCTV.
t he effe c t i veness of CCTV has yet t o be • Appeal to the cautious - cautious
p rove n . R e p o rts of its ef fe c t i ve (or people migrate to the areas with CCTV
otherwise) implementation are fre q u e n t ly to shop, leave their cars, and so on.
based on anecdotal evidence. Their caution and security-mindedness
This re s e a r ch re p o rt examines the reduce the risk.
results of previous eva l u ation studies to • Reporting changes - people report
fo rm a clearer picture of the cri m e (and/or police record) fewer of the
p revent ion effe c t i veness of CCTV. crimes that occur, either because they
Conclusions suggest that CCTV does have a wish to show the [desirable] effects of
s i g n i ficant desirable effect on cr i m e, bu t CCTV or out of a belief that “the
that the overall reduction is only 4%. council is doing its best” and nothing
CCTV has been im plemente d should be done to discourage it.
e x t e n s i ve ly across the UK in the past 10 Bu t there has been little ev i d e n c e
years and there are nu m e rous justifi c at i o n s p roduced to demonstrate the effe c t i ve n e s s
for its installation: of CCTV. This study has attempted to rectify
• Caught in the act - perpetrators will this situation by examining 22 CCTV
be detected, and possibly removed schemes that fitted the following cri t e ri a :
or deterred. • CCTV was the focus of the
• You’ve been framed - CCTV deters intervention.
potential offenders who perceive an • There was an outcome measure
elevated risk of apprehension. of crime.
• Nosy parker - CCTV may lead more • The evaluation design was of high
people to feel able to frequent the methodological quality, with the
places under surveillance. This will minimum design involving befo re -
increase the extent of natural and-after measures of crime in experi
surveillance by newcomers, which may mental and control areas.
deter potential offenders. • There was at least one experimental
• Effective deployment - CCTV directs area and one comparable area.
security personnel to ambiguous • The total number of crimes in each
situations, which may head off their area before the intervention was
translation into crime. at least 20.
• Publicity - CCTV could symbolise Copies of this research study,
e f fo rts to take crime seriously, and the Of the 22 eva l u at i o n s , e l even re s u l t e d published in August 2002, are
perception of those efforts may both in a desirable effect on crime and fi ve an available free from Research,
energise law-abiding citizens and/or u n d e s i r able effe c t . F i ve schem es had no Development and Statistics
deter crime. s i g n i ficant effe c t , and the effect of the one Directorate, Communications
• Time for crime - CCTV may be remaining scheme was unclear. The effe c t Development Unit, Room 201,
perceived as reducing the time of CCTV in most settings (city centre, 50 Queen Anne’s Gate,
available to commit crime, preventing public house, public transport) was mixed, London, SW1H 9AT,
those crimes that require extended however there was a clear decrease in crime Tel: 020 7273 2084
time and effo rt . in car parks where CCTV had been or E-mail:
• Memory jogging - the presence of installed. publications.rds@homeoffice.
CCTV may induce people to take gsi.gov.uk
elementary security precautions, such and can be viewed and
as locking their car, by jogging downloaded from the Home
their memory. Office Website at:
• Anticipated shaming - the presence http://www.homeoffice.
of CCTV may induce people to take gov.uk/rds/pdfs2/
elementary security precautions, for hors252.pdf

October 2002 CCTV 15


To CCTV or not to CCTV? A review of
current research into the effectiveness of
CCTV systems in reducing crime
NACRO

This re p o rt by NAC RO, has been written to in town centres have little impact on serious
inform community safety practitioners about or violent crime.
recent re s e a r ch into the effe c t i veness of Evidence has also shown that , w i t h o u t
Closed Circuit Television (CCTV). the constant publicity of CCTV schemes, they
Funding opportunities for Crime and can quick ly lose their effe c t i ve n e s s. I n d e e d
Disorder Partnerships (CDRPs) to introduce the biggest falls in crime linked to CCTV
CCTV as a crime prevention measure have installations has been shown to occur before
increased over the last decade and so too has cameras are actually operational, coinciding
the belief that CCTV is a ‘cure all’. with the per iod when publicity of the
R e s e a r ch has shown that the extent to scheme is at its greatest.
w h i ch CCTV can act as an effe c t i ve cri m e Although there are few official fi g u re s
For copies of this report, p revention deterre n t , is ve ry mu ch that show the extent in which CCTV is used,
published in May 2002 and dependent upon the context in which it is the following estimates highlight its growth:
priced £5.00 each, (£4.00 for ap p l i e d . This re p o rt wa rns against ove r- • 1990:Three town centre schemes with
orders of 10 copies or more), investment into very hi-tech CCTV systems at approximately 100 cameras.
contact NACRO, Crime and the expense of more effective measures such • 1994: 16 town centre schemes with
Social Policy Section, as better street lighting. approximately 400 cameras.
237 Queenstown Road, The re p o rt identifies the high pro fi l e • 1997: 167 schemes with
London, SW8 3NP, cases of the abduction and murder of James approximately 5,238 cameras.
Tel: 020 7501 0555, Bulger and the arrest of Brixton nail bomber • Based upon funding provided over the
Fax: 020 7501 0556. D avid Copeland, w h i ch has given CCTV an last five years, it is estimated that by the
The report is also available to almost common sense ap p e a l . The re p o rt end of 2002, there will be
download via their website at: argues that whilst CCTV schemes in car parks approximately 500 systems
http://www.nacro.org.uk can be effective in reducing crime, cameras with 40,000 cameras.
/templates/
publications/
briefingItem.cfm/
2002062800-csps.htm

16 CCTV October 2002


Effects of improved street lighting on
crime: a systematic review
Home Office Research Study 251

This rev i ew summarises the findings of previous studies carried out in the USA and Bri t a i n
on the effects of improved street lighting on crime. Systematic reviews use specific methods
for locat i n g, appraising and producing evidence from previous eva l u ation studies, and have
clear objectives and cri t e ria together with extensive searches to locate possible re l eva n t
studies.
There are two main theories as to why improved street lighting may cause a reduction in
c ri m e. The first suggests that improved lighting leads to increased surveillance of potential
o f fenders (by improving visibility and increasing the number of people on the street) and
subsequently the deterrence of offenders. The other theory maintains that improved lighting
indicates improved community investment in the area, leading to an increase in community
pride and cohesiveness.
The studies included in this review had to meet specific cri t e ri a :
• improved street lighting was the main intervention
• there was an outcome measure of crime
• there was at least one experimental area and one control area
• there were before and after measures of crime
• the total number of crimes in each area before the intervention was at least 20.
Sixteen potential case studies we re obtained and screened but we re excluded from the
re p o rt du e to a lack of comparable control condi tions, the absence of an outcome
m e a s u rement of crime and too small nu m b e r s. Most of these studies found that improve d
street lighting was followed by a decrease in crime.
Eight American and five British evaluation studies met the cri t e ri a . Four of the A m e ri c a n
studies found that improved street lighting was effe c t i ve in reducing cri m e, while the other
four had no effect. Combining together the results of all eight studies showed that improved
s t reet lighting led to a near- s i g n i ficant 7% decrease in cri m e. Results of the British studies
s h owed that improved street lighting led to a 30% decrease in cri m e. Two studies made
financial savings from reduced crimes, which exceeded the costs of the improved lighting.
All 13 studies showed that improved lighting led to reductions in crime, with an overall
20% reduction in crime in experimental areas compared with control areas.
The conclusions showed that improved lighting should be included as one element of a
s i t u ational crime reduction pro g r a m m e. It is an inclusive intervention benefiting the whole
of a neighbourhood and leads to an increase in perceived public safe t y. I m p roved stre e t
lighting is associated with gre ater use of public space and neighbourhood streets by the
community.

Copies of this research study, published in August 2002, are available free from Research, Development
and Statistics Directorate, Communications Development Unit, Room 201, 50 Queen Anne’s Gate,
London, SW1H 9AT, Tel: 020 7273 2084 or E-mail: publications.rds@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk and can also
be viewed and downloaded from the Home Office Website at:
http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs2/hors251.pdf

“ ...improved lighting led to reductions in


c ri m e, with an overall 20% reduction
in crime...

October 2002 Designing Out Crime 17
The Recessed Pest: Reducing Crime
Opportunity in Recessed Doorways -
A Guide for Residents, Building Managers and
Crime Prevention Practitioners
Metropolitan Police

This guide has been prepared in partnership with the Metropolitan Police, Camden Council and the
London Fire Brigade, to help crime prevention practitioners, building managers and the public, in
identifying the problems associated with recessed doors. It suggests ideas that can be used to either
remove the recess or make alterations in order to eliminate the problems associated with it.
Most recessed doors that suffer problems such as drug abuse, litter, burglary and prostitution,
tend to be located in inner cities close to pubs and clubs,and in areas where there is illicit drug use
or a generally high level of crime. Additionally, recessed doors in shops, factories and warehouses
often become a point of access for burglars because of the cover they provide.
Designers of new buildings should be aware of the problems associated with recessed doors
and consider the local crime pro blems in order to reduce the need for them. Designers are
encouraged to contact their local Crime Prevention Design Adviser or Architectural Liaison Officer
where a new building is to be located.
The information contained within this guide is based upon current Building Regulation and
Legislation for England and Wales.The interpretation of this may differ within local authority areas.
As alterations to emergency exit doors are ‘ m at e rial alterat i o n s ’ (in respect of Building
Regulations), authority must be sought from the local Building Control Officer before carrying out
any work.

Domestic Violence Coaster Project


Arun District Council

A run District Council, in partnership with i nvo l ved the design of a coaster, c o m p l i a n t
West Sussex County Council, Sussex Po l i c e wit h the national domestic violence
an d the vo l u n t a ry organised Dom esti c s t r at e g y, w h i ch describes the definition of
Violence Fo ru m , h ave introduced an domestic violence, as well as prov i d i n g
i n i t i at i ve in t he fight against domesti c useful contact num bers for local and
v i o l e n c e. The Coaster Project has been set national domestic violence organisations.
up fo l l owing consultation wit h the Coasters have been delive red to health
Dom estic Violence Working Gro u p p ro fessionals across the distri c t , t o g e t h e r
( DV W G ) , who recognised that victims of with additional info rm ation including a
this t ype of viol ence we re incre a s i n g ly domestic violence questionnaire and
hesi tant at re p o rting incidents to the eva l u ation fo rm and fact sheet. T h e
p o l i c e. O f t e n , victims of domestic violence q u e s t i o n n a i re eva l u ates the effe c t i veness of
b e l i eve that somehow they have re s p o n s i- the coasters, as well as assessing the extent
bility for the violence or they do not wa n t of info rm ation cur re n t ly ava i l able to
to upset the status quo, p a rt i c u l a r ly where victims.
ch i l d ren are invo l ve d .T h e re may also be a Results so far have been encourag i n g,
fear of fur ther re t a l i at o ry violence with packs distr i buted to ove r 500
following police action against an offender. recipients in the area and an 8.3% response
The working group realised that , t h o s e to the questionnaire s. F u rther requests fo r
dealing with victims of domestic abu s e i n fo rm ation and pre s e n t ations continue to
often did not know where to obtain further be re c e i ved and victims of domestic
help and advice. violence now have a gre ater chance of
To address this situation and raise obt aining help, a dvice and info rm at i o n
awa reness of domestic violence in general, from the relevant support groups.
the coaster project was implemented. T h i s

18 Designing Out Crime/Domestic Violence October 2002


Arrest Referral: emerging findings from
the national monitoring and evaluation
p ro g ra m m e
Drugs Prevention Advisory Service Paper 18

These fi n d i n g s , p u blished on 16 July 2002, s h ow that arrest re fe rral schemes effe c t i ve ly


t a rget pro l i fic pro blem dr ug-using offenders and signifi c a n t ly reduce their leve l of
re - o f fe n d i n g. Evidence suggests that two thirds of heroin and crack cocaine users we re
a rrested less often in the six months after seeing an arrest re fe rral wo r ker than in the six
months befo re. It summarises early eva l u ation evidence from arrest re fe rral sch e m e s , w h i ch
use the point of arrest as an early opportunity to offer access to treatment for offenders. Most
arrest referral schemes started in April 2000 and evaluations will finish in spring 2003.
Arrest referral workers screened about 49,000 individuals in England and Wales between
October 2000 and September 2001. M o re than half of them we re vo l u n t a ri ly re fe rred to a
specialist drug treatment service, of those referred, a quarter entered tre at m e n t .
The re s e a r ch identifies significant reductions in offending and in the pro p o rtions of
o f fenders using heroin and/or crack cocaine. T h e re we re also significant improvements in
p hysical and psychological health. H owever the re s e a r ch does suggest that pro blem dru g -
using offenders who were referred by an arrest referral scheme, were more likely to drop out
of treatment compared to self or GP re fe rred drug users.
The re s e a r ch also iden tified key groups who did not fully engage with tre at m e n t
s e rv i c e s , including bl a ck and Asian pro blem drug-using offe n d e r s , older heroin and crack
users, young, male crack-using street robbers and female crack-using sex wo r ke r s.
Two other re s e a r ch re p o rt s , p u blished by the Home Offi c e, highlight ways in which
m o re women and minority ethnic drug users may be encouraged to access
d rug serv i c e s. These are ; ‘D e l i vering Drug Se rvices to Black and Minority
Ethnic Communities’ and ‘Wom en Drug Users and Drugs Se rv i c e


Prov i s i o n’ . These re p o rts identify barriers faced by women and minori t y
ethnic drug users seeking tre at m e n t .T h ey also highlight innovat i ve practice
...research
a round the country, and make a series of re c o m m e n d ations for future policy
and practice. As well as examining numbers using drugs and ente ri n g
suggests that
t re at m e n t , the re p o rts outline reasons why women and minority ethnic dru g
users do not access drug treatment services. These reasons include:
women’s
• fears about being stigmatised as a drug addict by one’s local community or
as a drug-using mother
access to drug
• concerns about childcare and child protection issues
• an emphasis by treatment services on injecting heroin users to the
services could
detriment of other forms of drug misuse found among some users from
minority ethnic communities seeking help, including the smoking of
be improved
heroin and stimulant use.
through
The re s e a r ch suggests that wo m e n ’s access t o drug services could be
i m p roved through gre ater outre a ch work to engage groups such as pro s t i t u t e s
g re at e r
and mothers unable to attend services. Women drug users tend to have multiple
p ro blems and the re s e a r ch highlights the need for better joi nt wo r k i n g
o u t re a ch
work...

b e t ween agencies and the cre ation of new local serv i c e s. It also recommends a
m o re ‘ c u l t u r a l ly competent’ ap p ro a ch by drug services towards m inor i t y
ethnic commu n i t i e s. In addition to appointing minority ethnic staff and
m a n ag e r s , this includes providing services that go beyond medical tre at m e n t s ,
which break away from a heavy focus on opiate injectors.

These findings are available to download via the DPAS Website at:
http://www.drugs.gov.uk/ReportsandPublications/Communities/ArrestReferral/
A4888.pdf or contact Prolog for a free copy, Tel: 0870 241 4680

October 2002 Drugs and Alcohol 19


Drug Stop Initiative: Stamping out drugs in
North Lanarkshire
Strathclyde Police

S t r at h c lyde Police in part n e r s h i p w h e re the info rm a tion is processed and


with North Lan arkshire Council, used as evidence for warrants for pro-active
local Housing A s s o c i ations and drugs operations.
C r ime Prevention Panels have Leaflets are distri buted via the police,
l a u n ched a three year initiat i ve to local Crime Prevention Panels and Housing
e n c o u r age local com munities to A s s o c i at i o n s , or can be posted to specifi c
a n o ny m o u s ly info rm the police of p ro blem locations. The pilot scheme, which
il legal drug activit ies and ran on 4 A p ril 2002 for six weeks re s u l t e d
associated crime in their area. in 747 l eaflets delive red to 10 areas of
The freepost “Drug Stop” suspected dr ug dealing, with 20 leaflets
leafl ets ask for info rm ation on returned and 5 Crimestopper calls received.
k n own drug dealers such as their S u b s e q u e n t ly, 5 wa rrants we re issued and
n a m e, a d d re s s , busiest dealing s u c c e s s f u l ly exe c u t e d , with f urt h e r
tim es and types of dr ugs or i n fo rm ation received regarding dealing and
c r ime they are invo l ved in. crime in target areas.
T h e re is also space on the
l eaflet for any additional For more information and copies of the leaflet,
c rime info rm ation that may be for which there may be a charge, contact Sgt
k n own and details of the Scott McEwen, Community Safety Department,
N ational Drugs Help Line and Strathclyde Police, ‘ND’Sub-division,
C rime Stoppers numbers are 5 Thorn Road, Bellshill, ML4 1PB,
i n c l u d e d . Once com pleted, Tel: 01698 747474 Ext: 361
leaflets can be re t u rned free of ch a rge to
t he local Div isional Intelligence Offi c e,

Proceeds of Crime Act - Code of Practice


Home Office

The Proceeds of Crime Act gives police and Full details of the Proceeds of Cri m e
customs officers the power to seize assets Act and the draft Code of Practice are
t h at t hey re a s o n ably suspect to be the ava i l able only, via the Home Office Web s i t e
p roceeds of crime or intended for use in at: http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/
c ri m e. It expands upon the present powe r s proceeds/index.htm
t h at allow for the seizure of dr u g - re l at e d
cash at national boundari e s. B e fo re these This code relates to England, Wales & Northern
p owers can be fully intro d u c e d , a Code of Ireland. There is a separate Code relating to
Practice must be publ i s h e d . A draft Code police officers exercising the search power in
has been made ava i l able by the Home Scotland. This Code is issued by Scottish
O f fi c e, an d commen ts are invited by 15 Ministers and is also going out for consultation.
November 2002. Visit: http://www.scotland.gov. u k /
Recovering criminal assets and tackling consultations/justice/
m o n ey launder ing are at the heart of the cashcodeconsultation.pdf
G ove rn m e n t ’s pledge to disrupt org a n i s e d
c rime and double assets re c ove red fro m
d rug traffi ckers and other major cri m i n a l s
by 2004.
The final version of the cash re c ove ry
Code of Practice will be subj ect to
Parliamentary approval.

20 Drugs and Alcohol October 2002


A rock and a hard place: drug markets in
deprived neighbourhoods
Home Office Research Study 240

This re p o rt presents the findings of a study of retail drug markets and the local action take n
against them in eight depri ved residential neighbourhoods of va rying type in six diffe re n t
regions of England. The work was carried out in late 2000/early 2001 and mainly focused on
markets for heroin and crack cocaine. The report concludes that neighbourhood regeneration
will not be easy unless drug markets are tackled at the same time.
The aims of the study were:
• To identify the extent of drug market activity in such neighbourhoods and to describe its
nature and scale.
• To draw out any associations between types of area and types of drug market.
• To understand how drug market activity affects disadvantaged neighbourhoods.
• To find out how local agencies and local communities, singly and
jointly, are tackling drug markets and with what effect.

“ ...suggests
The report aims to look at neighbourhood drugs markets in the context
of the new policy agenda for neighbourhood re n ewa l , includin g the
Neighbourhood Renewal Strategy, Neighbourhood Renewal Fund, New Deal
for Communities and neighbourhood management arrangements.
that there are
I n t e rv i ews we re car ried out with front-line staff and residents who
we re know l e d g e able about the detail of the drug marke t , its impact on the
particular
area (if any) or the broader problems of the area and responses being taken.
B e t ween six and nine drug users we re also interv i ewed in each area and
resource
supporting documents and statistics were collected with the focus on heroin
and crack cocaine markets.
p ro bl e m s ,
which hinder
The re p o rt suggests that there are particular resource pro bl e m s , w h i ch
hinder the delivery of effective local action to combat drug markets, p a rt i c-
u l a r ly concerning law enfo r c e m e n t . H oweve r, the level of resources needed
cannot be determ i n e d , and nor is it clear what re t u rn could be expected
the delivery
f rom higher levels of investment at local leve l , this would need furt h e r
e x p l o r at i o n . Suggestions include the use of pilot sites to develop neigh-
of effective
bourhood drugs strategies (possibly under the New Deal for Commu n i t i e s
Initiative). Resources should be made available to these areas in response to
local action to
local need as identified by mu l t i - agency partnerships and ap p ro p ri at e
government departments. The report suggests that the cost and effectiveness
combat drug
markets...

of strategies should be fully eva l u ated in comparison with control are a s
with similar drug markets.
F i n a l ly, the re p o rt goes on to ack n owledge that effe c t i ve action ag a i n s t
h e roin and crack will not be re s o l ved by interventions only at local level and re q u i re s
resourcing at national and international level. The report reveals a complex, growing problem
that requires a concerted and co-ordinated response at all levels.

Copies of this research study and Research Findings 167 - ‘Drug Markets in Deprive d
Neighbourhoods’ , published in June 2002, are available free from the Research, Development and
Statistics Directorate, Communications Development Unit, Room 201, 50 Queen Anne’s Gate, London
SW1H 9AT, Tel: 020 7273 2084 or E-mail: publications.rds@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk
They can also be viewed and downloaded from the Home Office Website at:
http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs2/hors240.pdf (study) and
http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs2/r167.pdf (findings)

October 2002 Drugs and Alcohol 21


‘It’s Your Choice’
Bedfordshire Police

A strategic framework for drugs and alcohol educat i o n , ‘I t ’s Your Choice’ was launched on
the 12th July 2002 at the Rufus Centre, Flitwick in Bedfordshire. This is a multi-agency drug
p revention initiat i ve involving life education centre s , t he pol ice, t h e at re groups and
c o m munity alcohol services and is financed by Communities Against Drugs and the ch a ri t y,
C ri m eb e at . The framework was introduced due to attempts at co-ordinating part i c i p at i o n
f rom va rious agencies into school education and is ap p roved by the local Drug Action Te a m
(DAT).
The strategy invo l ves a drug and alcohol education input to local sch o o l s , b e g i n n i n g
with nu r s e ry pupils through to year 13. S chools are committed to supporting these lessons,
p rovided by the va rious outside ag e n c i e s , both befo re and fo l l owing their sessions, and an
education pack is supplied for staff to use in conjunction with each part of the framework.
The success of the strategy will be measured through links cre ated to other lessons
within the school curri c u l u m , together with the increased sharing of info rm ation betwe e n
schools and the police.

Drug Awareness Training Pack


Arun District Council

The Dr ug Awa reness Training Pa ck is the • Attitudes and opinions


result of a partnership between West Sussex • Drugs and their effects
County Council Drug Action Te a m , S u s s e x • How drugs are used
Po l i c e, West Sussex Health Au t h o rity and • Dealing with drug users at work.
A run District Council. The training pack ,
which includes a video, workbook, p a re n t ’s The video has been pilot ed and
a dvice book and graphic cards, ai ms to eva l u ated by a wide range of ag e n c i e s
p rovide basic drug awa reness training to including police, health wo r ke r s , v i c t i m
those working with the public and s u p p o rt and a local commu n i t y - p a re n t i n g
community groups. g ro u p, who all felt that it was a va l u abl e
The Substance Misuse Working Gro u p training re s o u r c e. The Drug Action Te a m
recognised the need for a drug awa re n e s s assesses completed workbooks and subject
p a ck after identifying a training need fo r to ap p rova l , users are issue d with a
f rontline staff and agencies dealing with C e rt i fi c ate of Drug Awa reness - Level One.
people and drug-related difficulties. This cert i fi c ate allows users to be accepted
The training pack enables users to on to other levels of training t hro u g h
a dvance at their own pace, and although va rious agencies and the workbook is
not a pri m a ry source in t acklin g dru g - a c c redited through the Open College
related crime, it will assist agencies such as Network.
the police, youth offending teams, v i c t i m A p p rox i m at e ly 60 people attended the
s u p p o rt and sch o o l s , in identifying dr u g l a u n ch of the project in June this year and
users and re fe rring them in their re h ab i l i- feedback has been very encouraging. Whilst
tation. it is too early t o eva l u ate its success, t h e
The video provides info rm ation on the p a ck could potentially be rolled out acro s s
most commonly used dru g s , h ow they are West Sussex as part of a wider dr u g s
u s e d , ( re c re at i o n a l , at wo r k / h o m e, training initiative later in the year.
trauma/stress related or peer pressure), and
challenges the stereotypical perceptions
t h at some people have of dr ug users. T h e
p a c k also addresses attitudes to alcohol
u s age and dealing with drug users at wo r k .
The video and workbooks are split into
four sections, which include:

22 Drugs and Alcohol October 2002


Cards Today: The Big Picture on Payment
Cards - August 2002 - Edition 2
Association for Payment Clearing Services (APACS)

C a rds To d a y is a bi-annual new s l e t t e r feiting and will also target ch e q u e, AT M ,


p roduced by A PACS for people wi th an identity theft and card-not-present fraud,
i n t e rest in the payment card industry. I t where organised crime is involved.
fe at u res the lat est deve lopm ents in t he A PACS is the body re s p o n s i ble fo r
p ayment card industry such as plastic card overseeing money transmissi on and
s t at i s t i c s , s e c u ri t y, t e c hnology deve l o p- p ayment clear ing activities in the UK.
ments at ATMs and initiatives to tackle card Members of A PACS include maj or banks
fraud. and building societies.
This issue of Cards To d ay fe at u re s
i n fo rm ation on the early success of t he Copies of this newsletter can be downloaded
D e d i c ated Cheque and Plastic Crime Unit from the APACS Website at:
( D C P C U ) , fo rmed in A p ril this year by http://www.cardwatch.org.uk/pdf_files
A PACS and the Home Office as a two - ye a r /cardstoday2.pdf
pilot to fight organised crime syndicat e s.
The unit, w h i c h is headed by DCI To ny
Drain of the City of London Po l i c e, fo c u s e s
p ri m a ri ly on criminals involved in counter-

Community Safety Pa rt n e r s h i p s
Audit Commission

This re p o rt is part of the Audit Commission Knowledge - Learning from Au d i t , I n s p e c t i o n


and Research Series and is intended pri m a ri ly for Local Authority Chief Executives and Police
C o m m a n d e r s. The purpose of the re p o rt is to rev i ew the perfo rmance of local ag e n c i e s
e n g aged in delive ri ng communit y safety since 1999. It explores the key issues
facing community safety partnerships as they develop and implement strategies for the
period 2002 - 2005.
Between November 2001 and May 2002, the Commission reviewed the implementation
of community safety by local part n e r s h i p s , using evidence from audits, inspections and
re s e a r ch . This report is based upon data from:
• community safety value-for-money audits in 1999 and 2000 covering most councils in
England and Wales
• Audit Commission inspections of community safety in 23 English and Welsh councils
• HM Inspectorate of Constabulary inspections of 16 police basic command units
• ten community safety beacon council applications to the Department for Transport, Local
Government and the Regions (now covered by the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister)
• Audit Commission fieldwork in 19 local partnership areas, selected on the basis of Audit
Commission Inspection score, crime rates between 2000 - 2001 and entry to the beacon
council scheme.

The research also identified a number of challenges for Government including:


Copies of the full report,
• supporting performance and encouraging learning about ‘what works’
published in July 2002 and
• providing incentives that develop community safety both nationally and locally
priced £18, are available from
• providing leadership and a corporate approach across central gove rn m e n t .
Audit Commission
Publications, PO Box 99
A separate bri e fing paper has also been pro d u c e d , w h i ch summarises the main points
Wetherby, LS23 7JA,
f rom this re p o rt and highlights the key issues for councillors and senior managers of local
Tel: 0800 502030.
c o m munity safet y part n e r s h i p s , toget her with stakeholders in the wider worl d of
Quote stock code reference:
government and related bodies.
LL12785

October 2002 Fraud/General 23


Crime Control and Community: The new
politics of public safety
Edited by Gordon Hughes and Adam Edwards

This book, p u blished by Willan Publ i s h i n g, b r ings together


findings from case studies of community-based crime prevention in
B ritain by examin ing this ap p ro a ch and its re l at ionship with
c r iminal justice and social policies. It also looks at assessing the
lessons intern at i o n a l ly that can be drawn from this in the theory,
practice, research and politics of crime control.
The book highlights a new framework for understanding
c o m munity-based crime prevention and focuses on understanding the
d i versity of com munity crime prevention strat e g i e s. It looks at
particular localised conditions in which strategies are conducted and the
c hoices open t o aut hor it ies concerned with implementing them,
whilst at the same time exploring the political and ethical dilemmas
that arise.
This publ i c ation will be essential reading for any b o dy with a
p ro fessional or academic interest in crime control and the broader social
and criminological issues arising from it.

Copies of this book, published in June 2002 and priced £25.00 Hb, are available from
Willan Publishing, Culmcott House, Mill Street, Uffculme, Cullompton, Devon, EX15
3AT, Tel: 01884 840337, Fax: 01884 840251, E-mail: info@willanpublishing.co.uk
or visit their website at: http://www.willanpublishing.co.uk

Improving Partnership Working


Home Office, Department of Health, Local Government Association, NHS,
Health Development Agency

A ch i eving healthy and safe neighbourhoods • the involvement of heath agencies in


requires partnership working at a local level CDRPs, and proposals to make Primary
with local commu n i t i e s. P ri m a ry Care Care Trusts responsible authorities
Trusts have the lead role in improving the • useful websites.
health of the population in their area as
well as contributing to the quality of life in The booklet is a good introduction on
their commu n i t i e s. T h ey have a central ro l e health and health authorities and how they
in helping Crime and Disorder Reduction can help reduce crime.
Pa r tnerships (CDRPs) and Dr ug A c t i o n
Teams (DATs) meet their objectives. Copies of the booklet, published in May 2002,
This short booklet outlines: are available to download via the Crime
• the impact of crime on health Reduction Website at:
• the costs to the NHS of crime, http://www.crimereduction.gov.uk/
financially and in terms of beds used, p a rt n e r s h i p s 4 2
staff morale, staff safety and liabilities or can be obtained free from Angelica Rodrigues,
• how and why health organisations Home Office Crime Reduction Programmes and
c o n t ri bute to crime reduction Partnerships Unit, Tel: 020 7271 8806

24 General October 2002


Crime in England and Wales 2001/2002
Home Office Statistical Bulletin 07/02

The Government has published the Recorded fi g u re includes dramatic falls in


Crime Figures and the British Crime Survey domestic bu rg l a ry (down 23 per cent),
for 2001/02 in a new annual publ i c at i o n , vehicle thefts (down 14 per cent) and
which will give a complete figure of crime in common assaults (down 28 per cent).
the UK for the first time. The British Cri m e • Comparing individual offence categories
S u rvey is based on a sample of 36,000 between 1999 and 2001/02, statistically
people - the largest sample eve r. It shows a significant falls were observed for theft
reduction in crime of around 2%, a l t h o u g h f rom vehicles (16 per cent) and
this drop is not large enough to be stat i s t i- attempted thefts of and from ve h i c l e s
c a l ly signifi c a n t . Police statistics provide a (14 per cent). D e c reases for bu rg l a ry
good measure of trends in we l l - re p o rt e d with entry (26 per cent), burglary with
c rimes and can be used for local cri m e loss (26 per cent), attempted bu rg l a ry
pattern analysis. (19 per cent), attempts with no loss (21
The overall trend shows that the level of per cent) and other household theft (21
crime has been fairly stable over the past 12 per cent), we re also stat i s t i c a l ly
m o n t h s , with neither a significant rise nor significant.
fa l l . The 7% r ise in recorded crime is • Since 1995, the BCS has reported a fall
c o n s i d e red to be mainly due to changes in in crime at each survey. T h e re was a 22
police reporting practices over the past year. per cent fall in crime measured by the
The key findings for last year include: BCS over the last 5 years from 1997 to
• Overall, crime appears to have been 2001/02.
stable over the last year, following a • The risk of becoming a victim of crime
period of consistent decline, which has s h ows little va ri at i o n , suggesting that
seen crime fall by 22 per cent since c rime risks have stayed stable over the Copies of this report, published
1997. last year at around 28 per cent overall. in July 2002, are available free
• The BCS estimate for crimes against • In 2001/02, it is estimated that the from the Research,
adults living in private households, impact of recording changes was to Development and Statistics
based on interviews taking place in a rt i fi c i a l ly inflate the recorded cri m e Directorate (RDS),
2001/02, is just over 13 million. This numbers by at least 5 percentage points Communications Development
represents a decrease of 2 per cent ove r a l l . A detailed commentary on this Unit, Room 201, 50 Queen
compared with the estimate for 2000. a n a lysis is being published within the Anne’s Gate, London,
• The total number of crimes recorded new volume. SW1H 9AT,
by the police in 2001/02 was 5.5 • For violence against the person, it is Tel: 020 7273 2084 or E-mail:
m i l l i o n , an increase of 7 per cent e s t i m ated that , if the impact of publications.rds@homeoffice.
c o m p a red to 2000/01. Changes in recording changes is taken into account, gsi.gov.uk.
police recording practice means that the the 8 per cent increase in re c o r d e d It can also be viewed and
underlying increase is estimated to be 2 crimes becomes a 5 per cent fall. downloaded from the Home
per cent. • These impacts are likely to be consid Office Website at:
• Between 1999 and 2001/02, all BCS erably larger in 2002/03, as the new http://www.homeoffice.
c rime fell by 14 per cent, w h i ch is a NCRS is fully implemented by all police gov.uk/rds/pdfs2/
s t at i s t i c a l ly significant re d u c t i o n .T h i s forces in England and Wales. hosb702.pdf

Also published at the same time we re a number of re l ated statistical analy s e s , w h i ch are also For further information about
ava i l able from RDS as ab ove, or can be viewed and downloaded via their Website at : crime statistics you can e-mail
http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/index.htm. the Patterns of Crime Group in
• Home Office Statistical Bulletin 5/02 - International comparisons of criminal justice the Research, Development
statistics 2000 and Statistics Directorate of the
• Family Origins: Developing groups of Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnerships and Home Office at: crimestats.rds
Police Basic Command Units for comparative purposes @homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk
• Maintaining Basic Command Unit and Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnership Families or write to them at: Patterns of
for Comparative Purposes. Crime Group, Room 840, Home
Office, 50 Queen Anne’s Gate,
London, SW1H 9AT

October 2002 General 25


Improving public attitudes to the criminal
justice system
Home Office Research Study 245

This re s e a r ch surveyed a nat i o n a l ly re p re s e n t at i ve sample of 1022 people to assess levels of


k n owledge about cri m e, sentencing and the criminal justice system (CJS); attitudes to
sentencing; and confidence in the CJS. Of these, 220 people participated in an experiment to
test the impact of providing info rm at i o n . E a ch of these 220 was either shown a video
combining fo o t age of one of the seminars with other visual mat e ri a l , g i ven a 24-pag e
booklet designed to be visually at t r a c t i ve and easy to understand, or attended a seminar
i nvolving pre s e n t ations by experts and question and answer sessions. These 220 we re then
i n t e rv i ewed again to assess the impact of the info rm ation provided and how it had affe c t e d
their knowledge and attitudes to the CJS.

Knowledge of crime and the criminal justice system


• Overall knowledge about crime and the criminal justice system amongst the general
public is re l at i ve ly poor, particularly with reference to crime and current
sentencing trends.
• Most people believed crime was going up and the use of custody in sentencing
was considerably underestimated.
• There was little systematic va ri ation in knowledge across the population, although men
and people of working age tended to be slightly more knowledgeable.
• After receiving info rm at i o n , participants increased the number of questions they
answered correctly and all three fo rm ats significantly improved knowledge scores.

Sentencing
• Crime reduction was frequently mentioned as the ‘most important’ aim of sentencing
and opinions of the main aims of sentencing changed little after receiving info rm at i o n .
• There was a slight shift away from thinking of punishment as the main aim of
sentencing and widespread belief in the effectiveness of prison at reducing crime.

Fear of Crime
• A reduction in the fear of victimisation was found for all info rm ation fo rm at s. Those
who were originally ‘very worried’ were more likely to report a lower level of worry
after receiving info rm at i o n , as were those with educational qualifications.
• Providing info rm ation also had an effect on opinions about sentencing, with people
being less likely to think that sentencing was too lenient after receiving the info rm at i o n .
• People with little belief in the CJS were likely to improve in confidence in the system
after receiving the info rm at i o n . Those who had initially expressed an interest in law and
order issues changed less than others.

Conclusions
• Providing simple, factual info rm ation about crime and sentencing also had an impact on
attitudes to, and confidence in, the criminal justice system.
• All three info rm ation fo rm ats tested improved knowledge and had some influence
on attitudes.
• The booklet was the most cost-effective fo rm at tested and reached the widest cross-
section of people. It has subsequently been redesigned and updated, taking into account
the comments from the participants in this re s e a r ch .

Copies of this research study, published in July 2002, are available free from Research, Development and
Statistics Directorate, Communications Development Unit, Room 201, 50 Queen Anne’s Gate,
London, SW1H 9AT, Tel: 020 7273 2084
or E-mail: publications.rds@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk and can also be viewed and downloaded from the
Home Office Website at: http://www.homeoffice.gov. u k / rd s / p d f s 2 / h o r s 2 4 5 . p d f

26 General October 2002


Investigating and Prosecuting
Transnational Crime
Kent Criminal Justice Centre

Kent Criminal Justice Centre, in association L aw Sch o o l , who provided a thoro u g h


with the Kent Crown Prosecution Ser v i c e rev i ew of the issues encountered by the
( C P S ) , o rganised a one-day confe rence on English court s when conf ronted with
the pro bl ems of i nve s t i g at ing and evidence gat h e red in other juri s d i c t i o n s.
prosecuting international crime. P re s e n t ations we re given on the intern a-
O ver 100 delegates attended the t ional legal ag reement s cove ri n g
c o n fe re n c e, w h i ch took place on 10th July c o - o p e r ation in criminal justice and the
2002 at t he Universit y of Ke n t . T h ey role of Euro j u s t , w h i ch was set up to help
included re p re s e n t at i ves from the police c o - o r d i n ate the inve s t i g ation and
and CPS, as well as the Home Office and prosecution of serious cross-border crime.
other gove rnment ag e n c i e s. D e l e g ates also The highlight of the day was a
attended from the European Commission in p owerful talk given by HM Customs and
B ru s s e l s , together with twenty Fre n c h Excise on the tools ava i l able to the law ye r
Judges and re p re s e n t at i ves from the French in building cases against transnat i o n a l
Embassy. c ri m i n a l s , and the day ended with a
The day began with an ove rv i ew of the discussion on inter n ational fraud by the
p ro blems faced by the police, followed by a Serious Fraud Office.
re p re s e n t at i ve from Wa r w i ck Unive r s i t y

Focus Areas Manual


Kent County Constabulary

Kent County Constabu l a ry has produced a manual on partnership working to help mu l t i -


agency partnerships develop ways of working together in specific focus areas suffe ri n g
significantly from the effects of crime and disorder.
The manual details a five-phase ap p ro a ch , which includes:
• Audit
• A n a ly s e
• Plan
• Implement and Review
• E va l u at e

The audit phase concentrates upon the determ i n ation of a focus are a , e n s u ring that it
wa rrants the dedication from the va rious partner ag e n c i e s. This also distinguishes betwe e n
focus area and ‘ h o t s p o t ’ , as well as va l i d ating the locat i o n . R e p e ating themes along with
critical features are provided to assist with the data collection and later targeting of resources.
The success of this stage of the process depends on the effe c t i ve sharing of data betwe e n
ag e n c i e s. A revised ‘ I n fo rm ation Exchange Protocol has been signed by all of the Crime and
Disorder Reduction Partnerships in the county, and training is also provided.
The next stage is to analyse the info rm ation and make re c o m m e n d at i o n s , taking ri s k
factors into consideration and ensuring partners know what is expected of them. The third
s t age is to fo rmu l ate a plan and then implement the pro j e c t , fo l l owed by a rev i ew of the
whole pro c e s s. The last stage determines ‘ w h at wo r k s ’ and lessons learn t , with results of
projects implemented included in the Focus Areas Manual.

October 2002 General 27


RaceActionNet
Lemos & Crane

RaceAct ionNet is an action network produced independently by social re s e a r ch e r s


L e m o s & C r a n e, t h at brings together expertise and experience in tackling racial harassment
and racist attacks in the home and neighbourhood.
The project was launched in March 2001 with funding from the Home Office, N at i o n a l
Assembly for Wales, Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (ODPM), Housing Corporation and
the Scottish Executive. RaceActionNet has over 1400 members from local authorities, police,
social landlords, c riminal justice agencies and community gro u p s , and membership is fre e
for all these organisations.
RaceActionNet’s website - www.raceactionnet.co.uk - features searchable directories of
action being taken by va rious org a n i s ations against racial harassment across the country. I t
includes local case examples, legal guidance, p e r fo rmance standards and toolkits, as well as
an active Discussion Fo ru m .
Members of RaceActionNet also take part in re s e a r ch projects looking for solutions to
p ro blems identified by the network itself such as:
Reports, frameworks and • Challenging and changing racially motivated anti-social behaviour by young people. This
toolkits developed from these project is funded by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation and will evaluate the effectiveness
projects will be published on of approaches such as restorative justice, diversion and education from the perspectives
the RaceActionNet Website. of young people. It will also develop a framework, setting out the different ap p ro a ches
To become a member of being taken and how they are used by practitioners.
RaceActionNet, visit • Looking at alternatives for social landlords to eviction in dealing with perpetrators of
www.raceactionnet.co.uk racial harassment. Funding from the ODPM and Housing Corporation allows members to
or E-mail admin@ develop new and innovative ways of dealing with perpetrators, where eviction or other
lemosandcrane.co.uk legal remedies are not always ap p ro p ri ate or effective in the long term.

Policing and Watch Schemes: Guidance on


Information Sharing
ACPO Crime and Disorder Reduction and Partnership Sub-Committee

In the summer of 2000, a survey of how p rovides a re fe rence point for staff seeking
police forces share info rm ation with watch to share info rm ation and for Force Dat a
s c hemes was car ried out, w h i c h showe d Protection Officers.
t h at a va riety of diffe rent practices we re The guidance has been developed in
o p e r ating across t he country. The main c o - o p e r ation with the Office of the
finding of the sur vey suggested that I n fo rm ation Commissioner, the Home
i n fo rm ation was being widely share d , bu t O f fi c e, the National Neighbourhood Wat ch
d i f fe rent police forces experienced va ri o u s A s s o c i ati on and ACPO and whilst it is
p ro blems when doing this. The conclusions hoped that it will answer fre q u e n t ly aske d
of the survey suggested that difficulties in q u e s t i o n s , it is expected to continue to
sharing info rm ation are often not universal evo l ve over time. The original document
and related to legal issues, but are localised has subsequently been amended to re f l e c t
and linked to working practices. the provisions of the Data Protection A c t
The aim of this guidance is to addre s s 1998 and the Human Rights Act 1998.
these localised issues and provide clear
outline advice and good practice nat i o n -
w i d e. It deals with concerns surro u n d i n g
the disclosure of info rm ation t o wat c h
s chemes and the disclosure of wat c h
s che mes details to third part i e s. It also

28 Hate Crime/Neighbourhood Wardens & Watch October 2002


Use of two-way radios in the community
National Neighbourhood Watch Association

The National Neighbourhood Wat c h e nv i s aged that this will increase dramat i-
Association (NNWA) two-way radio project c a l ly, once the benefits of t he sch e m e
is cur re n t ly in its second ye a r, a n d become apparent.
members are seeing th e benefits of t he A “Tw o - Way Radio Scheme To o l k i t”
A s s o c i at i o n s ’ p a rtnership with Motoro l a , has been produced by the NNWA to help
the official telecommu n i c ations sponsor c o m munity safety practitioners set up
and radio partner. s chemes in their are a . Copies are ava i l abl e
A mu l t i - agency ap p ro a ch betwe e n by contacting NNWA Tel: 0800 389 3632.
Tu n b r idge & Malling Borough Cou ncil ,
Kent Police and Neighbourhood Wat c h
members has successfully used two - way
radios in cr ime ‘hot spots’ as part of a
p ro - a c t i ve crime reduction pack ag e. T h i s
has enabled the community and the police
to work together to tackle vehicle cri m e,
d aytime bu rg l a ry and the ft fro m
o u t bu i l d i n g s. I n fo rm ation gat h e red has led
to high pro file arrests and up to a 40%
reduction in cri m e. Wa r w i ck s h i re Po l i c e
h ave also issued two - way radios as a re s u l t
of crime trends.
Two - way radio is proving to be a
useful tool in the fight against cri m e,
a l l owing instant commu n i c ation betwe e n
Neighbourhood Wat ch members. Out of
ap p rox i m at e ly 155,000 Neighbourhood
Wat ch sc hemes cur re n t ly in operat i o n
a c ross the UK, t h e re is still only a small
p e r c e n t age using two - way radios. It is

Glossary of Security Terminology


Sold Secure

Sold Secure have published the second edition of their “G l o s s a r y of Se c u r i t y


Te r m i n o l o g y”, which has been extended and now covers over 700 security definitions. It is
an essential re fe rence to those invo l ved in crime reduction and contains info rm ation on
vehicle security, alarm systems, domestic security and British and European Standards.

Copies can be downloaded free from the Sold Secure Website at: h t t p : / / w w w. s o l d s e c u re . c o m or
contact them via E-mail at: admin@soldsecure.com

October 2002 Neighbourhood Wardens & Watch/Property Crime 29


Tackling crime in rural communities
conference
Crime Concern

C rime Concern are hosting a learning day Issues that will be taken into account
on 21st Ja nu a ry 2003 in Wa r w i ck s h i re, include:
w h i ch will look at crime reduction and • How can measures for tackling crime
p reve n t i ve ap p ro a ches to tackling crime in and anti-social behaviour be tailored
rural communities. within a rural setting?
The day wi ll have an open, c re at i ve • What is currently working?
agenda based on themed discussions, c a s e • What are proving to be the biggest
studies and practical sessions. The focus of obstacles to community safety and how
the event will be on sharing info rm at i o n can they be overcome?
and views on what is and isn’t working in • What is the current and potential role
tackling problems in rural locations. of local residents and how can crime
T h e re are no guest speakers for t his reduction become an integral
event as the day is given entire ly to active part of the rural community
p a rt i c i p ation from del egat e s , with help development process?
f rom trained fa c i l i t ators to keep the The cost of the eve n t , w h i ch includes
discussion focused and flowing. l u n ch , refreshments and a range of learning
resources, including practical manuals is:
Statutory organisations - £130.00 plus VAT
Voluntary organisations - £90.00 plus VAT
Community activists/tenants and residents
- £45.00 plus VAT

Rape and sexual assault of women:


findings from the British Crime Survey
Home Office Research Findings Paper 159

The 1998 and 2000 British Crime Surveys included computerised self-completion question-
naires designed to provide the most accurate ever estimates of the extent and nature of sexual
v i c t i m i s ation in England and Wa l e s. Questions we re asked of both men and women aged 16
to 59, however these findings reflect the victimisation of women only.
Estimates from the self-completion modules suggest sexual victimisation is a widespread
p ro blem in England and Wa l e s. Young women under the age of 25 reflect higher risks than
older wo m e n , and results also suggest that the traditional perception of rape as perp e t r at e d
Copies of these findings, by strangers in public places is a false one. This has important implications for policy and
published in July 2002, are practice.
available free from Research, These findings suggest that a large proportion of rape and sexual victimisation occurs in
Development and Statistics domestic settings. It is also ap p a rent that sexual at t a cks by partners are more like ly to re s u l t
Directorate, Communications in physical injury and repeated at t a ck s , than attacks by any other perp e t r at o r.
Development Unit, Room 201, Some of the key points include:
50 Queen Anne’s Gate, London, • 0.9% of women said they had been subject to some form of sexual victimisation
SW1H 9AT (including rape) in this period.
Tel: 020 7273 2084 or E-mail: • 18% of incidents of sexual victimisation reported to the survey came to the attention of
publications.rds@homeoffice. the police. 32% of women who reported rape were ‘very satisfied’ with the way the
gsi.gov.uk. They can also be police handled the matter, 22% were ‘very dissatisfied’.
viewed and downloaded from • Less than two-thirds (60%) of female rape victims were prepared to self-classify their
the Home Office Website at: experience as ‘rape’ and less than three-quarters (70%) of women who self-classified
http://www.homeoffice.gov. themselves as having been the victim of ‘attempted rape’, also self-classified this incident
uk/rds/pdfs2/r159.pdf as a crime.

30 Rural Crime/Sexual Offences October 2002


Funding for retailers in deprived areas
Home Office

O ver 4,500 shops in some of the most depr i ved areas in England and Wales re c e n t ly
d i s c ove red that they will benefit from increased security measures funded by the Home
Office as part of an allocation of £15 million over three years from the Capital Modernisation
Fund.
Va r ious retail schemes will benefit from nearly £6 million this ye a r, to help small
s h o p keepers tackle crime and va n d a l i s m . I m p rovements include the installation of CCTV,
bu rglar alarm s , s e c u rity lighting, l o ck s , toughened glass, s i g n ag e, i n t e rnal mirro r s , s h u t t e r s
and environmental landscaping for rundown shopping areas.
Benefits of the programme are already having an effect:
• Nearly 3,000 shops were installed with £3 million worth of security measures from
the first year funding.
• Improvements in security of up to 200 highly victimised shops in St Leonards
near Hastings have been carried out including door and window locks, burglar alarms,
toughened glass and security lighting.
• Manchester used more than £70,000 to improve a neighbourhood shopping centre in a
local area with a history of derelict properties, vandalism and youth nuisance.

Va rious businesses around the country will benefit from the second year funding and
whilst a number of schemes focus dire c t ly on improving security of shops, m o re dive r-
sionary measures include:
• building a seating/meeting area for young people in the Isle of Wight
• developing a personal safety training programme in Reading
• creating youth shelters in Milton Keynes
• co-ordinating a family area in Solihull
• building a mobile skateboard unit in Sedgefield.

Regional funding breakdowns and more information can be accessed via the Crime Reduction Website
at: h t t p : / / w w w. c r i m e re d u c t i o n . g ov. u k / b u s i n e s s 2 5 . h t m or contact your local Government
Office for the Regions, details can be found at:
http://www.crimereduction.gov.uk/regions.htm


Over 4,500 shops...will benefit from
increased security measures funded by the
Home Office, as part of an allocation of £15
million over three years...

www.crimereduction.gov.uk/
regions.htm
October 2002 Town/Shopping Centre Crime 31
“Transport Alert Forum”
Northumbria Police

A n a lysis of crime re l ating to public serv i c e • Understanding law


vehicles in the Wallsend area indicated a • Personal safety issues/handling
d i s p ro p o rt i o n ate amount of thefts fro m difficult situations
these vehicles and assaults on dri ve r s. As a • Criminal damage
result and in an effo rt to addre s s • Racial and sexual harassment.
these issues, t he “Tra n s p o rt
Al e rt Fo r u m” was cre at e d . A l l Posters have also been pri nted and
bus company re p re s e n t at i ve s placed on all public ser vice vehicles and
with a vested interest in the area bus st ops in the Wallsend are a , f u n d e d
we re invit ed to att end fo ru m t h rough contr i butions made by bu s
meetings to allow a free flow of companies themselves and pr inted by
i n fo rm at i o n , share their concerns Nexus.
and ag ree a joint ap p ro a ch to Fo rum meetings are ongoing and the
tackling these problems. i n i t i at i ve has extended to New c a s t l e,
It was suggested during one G ateshead and South Shields with intere s t
of these meetings that many of the also expressed from other areas.
issues raised could be addre s s e d To assist in the monitoring and
utilising va rious crime preve n t i o n eva l u ation of the pro j e c t , q u e s t i o n n a i re s
m e a s u re s , including advice to have been issued to all bus drivers for their
d ri vers on personal safety as well as a v i ews on t he init iat i ve and bu s - re l at e d
basic knowledge of the law outlining crime in the area has also reduced since the
the re q u i rements by police to obtain a start of the campaign.
successful prosecution at court.
A booklet has been produced and
issued to all public service vehicle dri ve r s
with guidance on:

Crime Bill is down on Britain’s Se rv i c e


Stations
British Oil Security Syndicate (BOSS)

N ew fi g u res released by the British Oil Security Sy n d i c a t e (BOSS) reveal a signifi c a n t


reduction in the cost of forecourt crime.
BOSS tackles crime at Bri t a i n ’s service stations and estimates that fo re c o u rt cri m e,
excluding credit card fraud, cost the oil industry £19 million last ye a r, c o m p a red to £28
million in 2000 and £35 million in 1998.
Figures show an overall reduction in cost, together with all the main crime categories of
service station crime including drive-offs, burglary and ro bb e ry. Areas that show only a slight
increase, are criminal damage and shoplifting.
BOSS collated these fi g u res using a system developed by the University of Leicester’s
S c a rman Centre, who carried out the 2000 Fo re c o u rt Cr ime Sur vey. T h ey have re c e n t ly
published an occasional paper entitled ‘The Nature and Extent of Crime Committed Against
Petrol Service Stations in the UK’, which provides an insight into this type of crime.

For a copy of ‘The Nature and Extent of Crime Committed Against Petrol Service Stations in the UK’
Occasional Paper Series No. 18, published in May 2002 by the University of Leicester Scarman
Centre, contact them at 154 Upper New Walk, Leicester, LE1 7QA
Tel: 0116 252 3946, Fax: 0116 252 5788 E-mail: scarman.centre@le.ac.uk or visit their website at:
http://www.le.ac.uk/scarman/.

32 Vehicle Crime October 2002


Street Crime Initiative
June A rm s t ro n g, a member of the College to examine systems curre n t ly in place and
Training Te a m , re c e n t ly attended a seminar identify if, and how, t h ey could be
on the Street Crime Initiative, introduced by improved.
the Director of the Street Crime Action Team Work alre a dy com pleted on the
( S C AT) and including guest speakers fro m i n i t i at i ve includes changes in funding and
other ag e n c i e s. Minister John Denham wa s l e g i s l at i o n , with work continuing on
the keynote speaker and he spoke of the fall i m p rovements in tre atment for those with
in overall crime fi g u res and the ch a n g i n g d rug pro blems and enhanced commu n i t y
nature of street crime: involvement.
• 2 in 5 victims and offenders were The street crime initiat i ve considers
under the age of 21 years.This increase four key ideas:
in younger age involvement was not Fo c u s - finding the solution and imple-
seen in any other crime type. menting, not giving up at the early signs of
• Victims were targeted in different ways success or when things are running into
- most robberies occur in the late difficulties.
evening and at night with over half of C l a r i t y - understanding the pro bl e m .W h at
the school age range of involvement in a re the br utal facts? A re we making
offending taking place during the compromises and adjusting all the time; e.g.
late afternoon. giving bail be cause there are no pri s o n
• Male victims suffered more physical places available?
assault during ro bb e ri e s. Weapons were U rg e n c y - people are impatient for ch a n g e
used in approximately one third of - eve ry pro fession wants to see other
robberies - the knife being the p ro fessions change quick ly, but need more
most common. time for their own change.
• 2 in 5 personal robberies result in I r re ve r s i b i l i t y - not giving up until the
injury and 2 in 5 robberies are mobile problems are solved - evidence-based policy
phones - one quarter of robberies works.
occur while the victim is using or Various agencies gave their own presen-
displaying the mobile phone. tations, which were followed by workshops
Other aspects of the initiat i ve we re and question and answer sessions.
d i s c u s s e d , including video identifi c at i o n
p a r a d e s , fast tracking through the cri m i n a l For more information contact June Armstrong
justice system and improved drug treatment at The Crime Reduction College,
s e rv i c e s , with a need to extend good Tel: 01347 825071 or E-mail:
practice into education, truancy sweeps and june.armstrong@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk
d rugs re h ab i l i t at i o n . D e l e g ates we re aske d

October 2002 Violent Crime and Street Crime 33


Violent Crime: reconfiguring the debate
NACRO

This re p o rt is mainly concer ned with re l at i ve ly affluent young males are more
viole nt cr i m e, as it most comm only l i ke ly to comm it violent offen ces th an
understood - including abu s e, h a r a s s m e n t , s o c i a l ly excluded middle-aged females or
assault, and wounding and street ro bb e ry. It older men.
focuses on violent offences as distinct from The re p o rt makes a number of re c o m-
sexual offences and concentrates on t he mendations for policy development such as
most comm on, r ather than t he most t a rgeting crime reduction initiat i ves and
extreme, forms of violence. the principles that should gove rn decisions
The re p o rt sugge sts that effe c t i ve on how resources are allocat ed betwe e n
s t r ategies to reduce violent crime mu s t competing crime reduction pri o ri t i e s.
include general policies, w h i ch address the P ri m a ri ly, this re p o rt suggests that
wider social , econom ic and cultural policies to tackle violent crimes should aim
contexts within which violent offences are to ensure that all members of society are
c o m m i t t e d . It also urges for part i c u l a r e q u a l ly protected against violence. It stat e s
m e a s u res t o be developed t o addre s s t h at the cr iminal justice system has a
specific forms of violent offending. central role to play in the reduction of
C l e a r ly there are links betwe e n violent offending other than being simply a
d e p ri vation and violent offending and this ‘law and order’ issue.
re p o rt attempts to explain this link. It also
looks at other factors re l ating to violent Copies of this report, published in June 2002, are
c ri m e, which have previously received little available priced £12.50 plus P& Pfrom Nacro
attention. The report argues that gender and Publications, 169 Clapham Road, London, SW9
age are better predict ors of violen t 0PU, Tel: 020 7840 6427 Fax: 020 7840 6444
o f fending than, for example, c l a s s , in that or E-mail: publications@nacro.org.u.

Robbery - Get a Proper Life! for Citizenship


Education
West Midlands Police

Fo l l owing on from the video ‘S c a r red for life: The effects of street ro b b e ry on
the community’ , w h i c h explored the issue of re p e at victimisation and stre e t
ro bb e ry carried out by youths on the elderly, West Midlands Police have launched a
second video entitled: ‘Robbery - Get a Proper Life!’
The video has been produced as an educational resource and can be incorpo-
r ated into Citizenship Education and P. S . H . E . It has been distri buted to eve ry
school in the region and is intended to be interactive and engage young people
in discussion on how they can stay safe and avoid becoming a victim of crime.
The video explores issues such as what attracts street ro bb e r s , p e e r
p re s s u re, personal safety and life in pri s o n . It runs for 25 minutes and is the
l atest initiat i ve under ‘O p e ration Safer Streets II’ , w h i ch has led to the
a rrest of almost 1400 people and a we e k ly reduction in offences since the
start of April 2002.

34 Violent Crime and Street Crime October 2002


Patterns of offending behaviour: a new
a p p ro a c h
Home Office Research Study 171

This study focuses on developing a typology of criminal activity and describes this in fi ve -
year age groups rather than the usual ap p ro a ch of summarising a lifetime of cri m e. It also
t ries to identify criminal ‘ p at h way s ’ or how offenders in one age group might pro g ress to a
d i f fe rent type of crime, as they become older.

Key Points
• Using criminal conviction data, criminal activity within fi ve - year age bands (or ‘strips’)
was examined so that types (or clusters) of offending behaviour can be identified.
• Patterns of offending behaviour for a set of offenders born in 1953 vary markedly
between males and females. Male offending (with nine identified types) shows greater
diversity than female offending (with three identified types). There is evidence of greater
diversity for offenders born in 1958, for both males and females.
• For the males, each type of offending had a distinct age pro fi l e. For example, clusters of
offending, which were termed ‘non-violent pro p e rt y ’ and ‘shoplifting’, were most
prevalent in the 10-15 age group. The types of offending for females showed much less
va ri ation with age.
• Changes in criminal activity as offenders grow older can be assessed using this
methodology and there is evidence of increasing specialisation in older age groups.
• One type of male offending, identified as ‘aggressive property offending and wide-
ranging car crime’, has a particularly strong likelihood of recurrence in every age group.
• This research provides the basis for a tool with which practitioners can assess recent
offending behaviour, the chances of reconviction and shifts in crime pat t e rn s.

A summary of the intensity of offending for males, f rom the age of criminal re s p o n s i-
bility to around the age of 30, has shown that there are similarities in the pat t e rns of
o f fending amongst young males in diffe rent cities (D’Unger et al, A m e rican Jo u rnal of
Sociology Volume 103, N o. 6 , M ay 1998). H oweve r, t h at study concentrated on the amount
of offending and does not consider its nat u re. It provides a summary of offe n d e r s ’ m o s t
active years but does not provide guidance on the earlier chapters of an offender’s life.
Instead of considering rates of offending over an active life - s p a n , this study has taken a
d i f fe rent ap p ro a ch by finding ‘clusters’ of criminal activity within fixed fi ve - year periods of
the offender’s criminal history. If an offender is criminally active in more than one fi ve - ye a r
p e ri o d , they can change from one form of offending activity to another, which will influence
the type of cluster of offending that will be ap p ro p ri ate for each five-year period.
This methodology aims to provide scope for understanding a more circumscribed period
of an offe n d e r ’s life, s u ch as the previous fi ve years and guidance as to what is like ly to
happen in the next five years.

Copies of the research study, published in 2002, are only available to download from the Home Office
Website at: http://www.homeoffice.gov. u k / rd s / p d f s 2 / p a t t e r n s re v i s e d r 17 1 . p d f
The research findings with the same title, published in 2002, are available free from the
Research, Development and Statistics Directorate, Communications Development Unit, Room 201,
50 Queen Anne’s Gate, London, SW1H 9AT Tel: 020 7273 2084
or E-mail: publications.rds@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk and can also be viewed and downloaded from the
Home Office Website at: http://www.homeoffice.gov. u k / rd s / p d f s 2 / r 17 1 . p d f

October 2002 Working with Offenders 35


“On The Streets”
Manchester Neighbourhood Warden Service

“On The Stre e t s” is a dive r s i o n a ry yo u t h t h e m . Nuisance behaviour is ch a l l e n g e d


p roject set up by the Neighbourhood i m m e d i at e ly and altern at i ve solutions are
Warden Service in Gort o n , M a n ch e s t e r. T h e s u g g e s t e d , s u ch as the use of indoor
aim of the project is to reduce yo u t h fa c i l i t i e s. This provides a safe place for the
nuisance and anti-social behaviour in the young people to meet and discuss their
a re a , by providing info rm ation to yo u n g p ro bl e m s , as well as showing them how
people about the sch e m e, w h at is expected their behaviour affects them, other residents
f rom them and what they can expect in and the community as a whole.
return. Training is also made ava i l able to the
Objectives of the scheme include: young people on dru g s , a l c o h o l , s e x u a l
• fo s t e r ing and fa c i l i t ating cap a c i t y health, first aid and anti-bullying strategies.
building in the community As an added incentive, re f reshments are
• e m p owe ring the community to deal s u p p l i e d , together with external leisure
with youths in their own area and facilities for each gro u p, w h i ch can be
e n c o u r aging young people to behave in an u n d e rt a ken on a reward basis and bu i l d s
acceptable manner upon active youth interaction in the
• linking young people to central community.
s e rv i c e s , including drugs/alcohol serv i c e s , To date, the scheme has seen the distri-
m e n t o ring and the young people’s bution of over 3,000 leaflets to yo u n g
information shop people throughout the area, with 200 young
• building on young people’s awa re n e s s people targeted in ap p rox i m at e ly 8 gro u p s ,
of the consequences of anti-social behaviour working consistently over the period of the
and the misuse of drugs and alcohol. s ch e m e. Regular meetings have been held
b e t ween the young people and re s i d e n t s ,
Staff invo l ved in the scheme targ e t including negotiation and joint pro bl e m
g roups of young people on the stre e t s s o l v i n g. 12 clean up campaigns have been
b e t ween 6pm and 10pm who are, o r carried out in hot spot areas and as a reward
p e r c e i ved to be, causing a nu i s a n c e. for their enthusiasm and commitment, t h e
Vo l u n t e e r s , who can spare a few hours per young people are taken on external leisure
we e k , n e t work with the young people on a c t i v i t i e s , s u ch as trips to the local ice ri n k
their estates and build on relationships with or go-karting.

Splash Tap (Targeted Activities


Programme)
Wiltshire Police

In addition to this year’s mainstream Splash summer scheme, Wiltshire Police will be involved
in a new programme called Splash Tap (Targeted Activities Programme), which is being run by
Splash on behalf of Wi l t s h i re County Council. The Tap Programme is funded by the New
Opportunities Fund and will benefit nearly 400 vulnerable young people this summer.
The programme is designed to appeal to young people aged 9 - 16 years of age who are at
risk of being excluded from sch o o l , a re in care, h ave fa m i ly pro blems or who are at risk of
o f fe n d i n g. Activities run for a minimum of 20 hours during the summer holidays and are
intended to improve personal skills, self esteem, motivation, confidence and a willingness to
l e a rn . The young people taking part in the scheme are encouraged to keep a record of their
a ch i evements to show what they have learnt.

36 Youth Crime October 2002


Summer Splash Schemes 2000: Findings
from six case studies
Home Office Crime Reduction Research Series Paper 12

In the summer of 2000, 105 ‘Splash’ schemes were funded and run in disadvantaged estates
in England and Wales, targeting youths aged 13 to 17 years of age. The schemes were admin-
i s t e red by the Youth Justice Board and offe red a programme of events and activities duri n g
the school summer holidays with the aim of reducing incidents of crime and disorder.
This paper re p o rts on the findings from six of these sch e m e s , examining the pro c e s s e s
i nvo l ved in implementing and running them, together with identifying the impact of such
schemes on crime and disorder in the areas in which they were carried out.
S chemes we re selected to provide a broad geographical spread and va rying levels of
experience in running youth programmes. Applicants had three weeks to submit their project
p roposals and develop a programme of activities when planning for the sch e m e s. Some of
the main problems included:
• lack of consultation with young people (concerning their preferred activities)
• lack of experienced youth workers
• lack of available venues for external trips.

The schemes generally managed to include a fa i r ly high pro p o rtion of youths in the
p roject are a , ave r aging 24% across the six sch e m e s. The schemes we re less successful at
targeting ‘at risk’ youths, with only 16% of Splash attendees already known to the local Youth
Offending Team (YOT).
Some of the main findings include:
• Of the six schemes examined, detailed crime and disorder incident info rm ation was
available for only three. Reported incidents of crime and disorder were higher in August
1999 (before the introduction of Splash) than at most other times of year in two of the
three schemes. The extent of the difference was slight, suggesting that the impact of
young people having more leisure time during the summer holidays and therefore more
l i ke ly to get involved in criminal activity, is minimal.
• Only one of the three schemes showed a decline in incidents reported to the police in
August 2000. This scheme differed from the other two in that it was the only one with
little existing summer youth provision and a re l at i ve ly high rate of incidents.
• ‘Splash’ schemes are more likely to have an impact on levels of crime and disorder if they
are based on ‘ g re e n fi e l d ’ sites where there has been little previous provision for young
people, adopt an effective targeting strategy and are situated in high crime areas.

The re p o rt also makes some good practice re c o m m e n d ations aimed at practitioners to


ensure that the most is made of any future funding for this type of activity including:
• targeting high crime areas
• targeting ‘greenfield’ sites
• targeting the right young people
• allowing time for planning
• marketing ‘Splash’ locally
• selecting ap p ro p ri ate locations for ‘Splash’
• running ‘Splash’ at the optimum times
• ensuring resources are available on demand
• tailoring activities to meet the interests of young people.

Copies of this research paper and briefing note, published in July 2002, are available free from the
Research, Development and Statistics Directorate, Communications Development Unit, Room 201,
50 Queen Anne’s Gate, London, SW1H 9AT Tel: 020 7273 2084
or E-mail: publications.rds@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk. They can also be viewed and downloaded from the
Home Office Website at: http://www.homeoffice.gov. u k / rd s / p d f s 2 / c r r s 12 . p d f (research
paper) and http://www.homeoffice.gov. u k / rd s / p d f s 2 / c r r s 12 b n . p d f (briefing note)

October 2002 Youth Crime 37


MORI 2002 Youth Survey
Youth Justice Board

This report analyses the main findings from Som e of the m ain findings from the
the 2002 survey of secondary school pupils report are:
together with a similar survey carried out • There is no change in the prevalence
among pupils excluded from mainstre a m of reported offending among
s e c o n d a ry school educat i o n . Both survey s mainstream pupils since last year
we re carr ied out by Market and Opinion (26%). However, offending levels
Research International (MORI) on behalf of among excluded pupils, which are
the Youth Justice Board among yo u n g already much higher than mainstream
people aged 11 - 16 years. pupils, have risen slightly by
All questionnaires we re completed in 4% to 64%.
i n t e rv i ewe r- s u p e rv i s e d , s e l f - c o m p l e t i o n • The profile of offenders remains
sessions. 5,167 pupils completed question- consistent with previous years, still
n a i res in 215 schools and pupils curre n t ly tending to be males aged 15 - 16 years
excluded f rom mainstre am sch ools and of age.
attending a special project completed • The most common offences carried out
q u e s t i o n n a i res in 82 projects betwe e n by both mainstream and excluded
January and March 2002. offenders are fare dodging, graffiti,
The aims of the research we re : criminal damage and shoplifting. More
• To explore the prevalence of offending serious offences are the exception for
among young people in England and the mainstream offenders, as in
Wales, their offending behaviour and previous years, but are more prevalent
the consequences of their offending amongst excluded offenders,
within the Youth Justice System. particularly stealing a car, being a
• To gauge any links between truancy passenger in a stolen car and carrying a
and offending and to also look at levels knife or gun.
of truancy and exclusion. • Boredom, peer pressure and being
• To investigate young people’s alcohol drunk are the reasons most likely for
and drug-taking behaviour. offending behaviour by both groups,
• To assess young people’s ethics and in particular young people aged
and fears. 15 - 16 years.
• To measure the proportion of young
people who have been victims of Copies of the full report and a summary, both
c ri m e, particularly crimes committed published in July 2002, are available to
by other young people. download via the Youth Justice Board Website
at: h t t p : / / w w w. yo u t h - j u s t i c e - b o a rd.
gov.uk/policy/
youth_survey_2002.pdf
or contact them on Tel: 020 7271 3033 for free,
hard copies.

http://www.youth-justice-board.gov.uk/policy/youth_survey_2002.pdf

38 Youth Crime October 2002


Crime Prevention Initiative
Project Name:

Description Summary:
(the aims and objectives of the project and how it works)

Geographic Location:
National: Project Area:
County: Coverage:
e.g. specific estate, town centre

Lead Organisation:

Partners:

Contact Details:
Name(s):

Organisation:
Address:

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Tel: Fax:

Project Status: Planning/Ongoing/Completed/Abandoned (delete as appropriate)

Start Date: End Date:


Materials: Is there any material to support this initiative?
(e.g. Leaflets, video, report, handbook etc.)
Please detail and attach if possible.

Evaluation: If there is to be a later evaluation,


(Is there anything please note here so that we can follow up at a later date.
documented which gives an
indication of the success or
otherwise of the project ?
Please detail key findings and
where they came from.)

Funding:
(Funding Sources if applicable e.g. SRB, Local Authority, Business, Panel...
Cash or Kind e.g. secondment/office space)

Total Cost: £
(if known)

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