“To reduce crime and the fear of crime, tackle youth crime and violent, sexual and drug

-related crime, anti-social behaviour and disorder, increasing safety in the home and public spaces.”
Home Office Aim 1

This statement confirms our joint commitment to reduce crime and disorder. The Digest, w h i ch is published quart e r ly, aims to support crime re d u c t i o n / c o m munity safety practition ers wit hin police and local author i t i e s , working in st at u t o ry partnerships by facilitating info rm ation exchange. The Digest is a forum for your initiatives and experiences. Its success depends on you, the practitioners, c o n t ri buting your articles. Deadline for copy is given below. In order that eve ryone can benefit from your work and experi e n c e, we would ask c o n t ri butors to consider both what wo r ked and what didn’t work within their pro j e c t s. P rojects may be well conceived and still not ach i eve all their aims; this does not mean they h ave fa i l e d . Please be brave enough to discuss what aspects did not ach i eve the expected outcomes. Include as much info rm ation as you can, covering the analysis of the problem and how it was identified, the response devised and how it was implemented, and an assessment of the final outcomes.
Note:

The inclusion of mat e rial in the Digest or re fe rence to any pro d u c t s / s e rvices does not signify that they have been tested or eva l u at e d . Nor should inclusion be thought to confer ‘official’ approval.
This publication may not be copied, photocopied, re p roduced, or conve rted to any electronic form unless for police or local authority use only.

October 2002
The next Digest will be with you in January 2003.

College Staff
Director Steve Trimmins Support Services Ann Keen Richard Cox Adrienne Jowitt-Thrall Training Team David Fernley June Armstrong Martin Fenlon Amanda Scargill Pat Varley Administration Unit Mark Ledder Ruth Whitaker Information Service Gill Archibald Stuart Charman Jane Jones Kathleen Noble Abby Hickman Training Resource Solutions Simon Jones Jane Carpenter Michael Hawtin Richard Wales Editor Jane Jones Design/Production Michael Hawtin

All contributions be submitted by December 6th 2002.
Contributions to: Jane Jones
Information Team

Tel: 01347 825065 Fax: 01347 825097
Home Office Crime Reduction College The Hawkhills, Easingwold, York YO61 3EG Tel: 01347 825060 Fax: 01347 825099 E-mail: crc@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk

For Training or General Enquiries: Tel: 01347 825060

October 2002

1

College News

4

Communicating Crime Reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Crime Reduction Website . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Crime Reduction Website Learning Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Associate Trainer Programme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Crime Reduction College gets Community Justice National Training Organisation endorsement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Staff News . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 College Publications - Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6

Active Communities

7

A Review of the Home Office Older Volunteers Initiative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 “Me and You” - An Intergenerational Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 South Tyneside Community Safety Partnership Roadshow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Community Cohesion Unit - Building Communities based on Trust and Respect . . . . .10

Anti-Social Behaviour Arson
The Burning Issue: Research and Strategies for Reducing Arson

10 11
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11

Tackling anti-social behaviour: information and case studies about local authority work - Research Briefing Paper 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10

Burglary

11

Domestic Property Surveys - Training Programme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Peace of Mind - Access Control Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Temporary Intruder Alarms for New Tenants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12

Business Crime

13

Making Arrests - A Guide for Retailers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Robbery Awareness for Forecourts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Partners against crime: the role of the corporate sector in tackling crime . . . . . . . . .14

CCTV

15

Crime Prevention effects of closed circuit television: a systematic review . . . . . . . . .15 To CCTV or not to CCTV? A review of current research into the effectiveness of CCTV systems in reducing crime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16

Designing Out Crime Domestic Violence Drugs and Alcohol

17 18 19

Effects of improved street lighting on crime: a systematic review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 The Recessed Pest: Reducing Crime Opportunity in Recessed Doorways - . . . . . . . .18 Domestic Violence Coaster Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Arrest Referral: emerging findings from the national monitoring and evaluation programme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Drug Stop Initiative: Stamping out drugs in North Lanarkshire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Proceeds of Crime Act - Code of Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 A rock and a hard place: drug markets in deprived neighbourhoods . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 ‘It’s Your Choice’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Drug Awareness Training Pack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22

2

Contents

October 2002

Fraud G e n e ra l

23 23

Cards Today: The Big Picture on Payment Cards - August 2002 - Edition 2 . . . . . . . . .23

Community Safety Partnerships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Crime Control and Community: The new politics of public safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Improving Partnership Working . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Crime in England and Wales 2001/2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Improving public attitudes to the criminal justice system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Investigating and Prosecuting Transnational Crime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Focus Areas Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 RaceActionNet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Policing and Watch Schemes: Guidance on Information Sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Use of two-way radios in the community . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29

Property Crime Rural Crime Sexual Offences
Rape and sexual assault of women: findings from the British Crime Survey

29 30 30
. . . . . . .30

Glossary of Security Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Tackling crime in rural communities conference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30

Town/Shopping Centre Crime Vehicle Crime Violent Crime and Street Crime

31 32 33
Each Article in the Digest is highlighted with an icon which will define the product described in that article. They are: Campaign/ Initiative Publication

Funding for retailers in deprived areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 “Transport Alert Forum” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Crime Bill is down on Britain’s Service Stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Street Crime Initiative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Violent Crime: reconfiguring the debate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Robbery - Get a Proper Life! for Citizenship Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34

Working with Offenders Youth Crime

35 36

Patterns of offending behaviour: a new approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 “On The Streets” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Splash Tap (Targeted Activities Programme) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Summer Splash Schemes 2000: Findings from six case studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 MORI 2002 Youth Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Crime Prevention Initiative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39

Video

Website/ Electronic Information General/ Exchange of Ideas/ Conferences

October 2002

Contents

3

Communicating Crime Reduction
The Cr ime Reduction College is wo r k i n g with the Home Office Commu n i c at i o n s D i re c t o r ate to produce a guidance pack on C o m mu n i c ating Crime Reduction. The project is an outcome of the Home Office commu n i c ations strat e g y ‘Com municating to Delive r’ . W h i l s t re s e a r ching the strat e g y, it became clear that t h e re was a n eed t o help im prove the c apacity of Crime and Disorder Pa rt n e r s h i p s to com mu n i c ate with their local c o m munities and explain their activities more effectively. To disseminate the guidance pack q u i ck ly and allow the info rm ation to be u p d ated more easily, it will be published in the new Lear ning Zone on the Cr i m e Reduction Web s i t e. The Learning Zone will be launched towards the end of September 2002. The first section of Commu n i c at i n g C rime Reduction to be published will be ‘ D eveloping a Commu n i c ations Strat e g y ’ . This will be available as soon as the Learning Zone is launch e d . F u rther sections will be published by the end of this year. The project team plan to produce the pack in a pri n t e d fo rm at during the early part of 2003. C o m mu n i c ating Cr ime Reduction will be written specifi c a l ly for Cr ime and Disorder Pa rt nerships and will contain i n fo rm ation on: • developing a communication strategy • working with the news media • making the most of broadcast interviews • paid publicity • public events • news media • evaluating communication activity • the role of communication in cutting crime • communication and fear of crime • connecting with business • connecting with children and young people • connecting with ethnic communities • connecting with people with disabilities.
For further information contact Steve Park, Home Office Communications Directorate, Tel: 020 7273 4268 or via E-mail: steve.park@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk or Simon Jones at the Crime Reduction College Tel: 01347 825081 or via E-mail: simon.jones@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk.

Crime Reduction Website
The Crime Reduction Website (w w w. c r i m e re d u c t i o n . g ov. u k) had a facelift this summer. Over 1000 pages on the site were given a fresh new look and some new facilities were added to the site: • A new Partnerships Mini-site listing Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnerships (CDRPs) contact details and Audit & Strategy documents (http://www.crimereduction.gov.uk/partnerships) • A Street Crime Mini-site bringing together info rm ation from a range of sources and Government departments under a single heading (http://www.crimereduction.gov.uk/streetcrime) • Easier navigation to related pages and the main sections of the site The Discussion Forum was also revamped and remains an active a rea for the exc hange of ideas and experience for over 2,300 practitioners, both within the UK and overseas. Recent topics under d eb ate include fi rewo r k s , u n i versities and cr ime and wo r k i n g alongside the business commu n i t y. The Fo r um is ava i l able to all crime reduction practitioners and you can register by following the Discussion Fo rum link at : h t t p : / / w w w. c r i m e re d u c t i o n . g ov. u k and completing the simple fo rm .

4

College News

October 2002

Crime Reduction Website Learning Zone
The Learning Zone is a major new area of t he Cr ime Reduction Website dedicated to p roviding info rm ation on crime reduction training and learning opportunities for eve ryo n e involved or interested in crime reduction and community safety. It will be launched soon and will give “one stop” access to: • A Training needs analysis designed to help identify personal crime reduction training and development needs by analysing the type of workcarried out and any background knowledge that would be useful. Pa rt i c u l a r ly crime and disorder problems dealt with. • A Course finder to help find relevant training courses available across the UK. • A Diary of events giving info rm ation about forthcoming conferences and seminars. • On-line learning providing access to open and distance learning mat e ri a l s. • A Bulletin board, which went live in July giving practitioners the opportunity to exchange ideas, views and experiences of crime reduction training and learning. • Links to other websites. The Learning Zone will also include a ‘ Vi rtual library ’ of useful publ i c ations and a Glossary of terms to explain the language and jargon used in training and learning. We are alre a dy planning the future development of the Learning Zone and want to hear about what you would find most useful . Please contact us via the bulletin board (h t t p : / / w w w. c r i m e re d u c t i o n . g ov. u k / l e a r n i n g zo n e . h t m) or you can email us direct at : trs@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk.

For more information, contact Jane Carpenter, Learning Zone Project Manager, Crime Reduction College Tel: 01347 825095 or via E-mail: jane.carpenter@homeoffice. gsi.gov.uk

Associate Trainer Pro g ra m m e
The col lege has run two “Training for S u c c e s s” courses and 33 people from ten regions are now currently working towards their Crime Reduction College A s s o c i at e Trainer Awa r d . This will enable them to d e l i ver the one-day course entitled “A n I n t roduction to Crime & Disord e r Re d u c t i o n” to a range of practitioners and community groups across the country. A s s o c i ate Trainers have alre a dy notifi e d the college of 13 courses due to be d e l i ve red later in the ye a r, to up to 20 p a rticipants at a time. The aim is for each region to have a local re s o u r c e, s u p p o rt e d by the Crime Reduction College, so that a g re ater range of people can be trained. A s s o c i ate Trai ners will com plete a personal development jour nal as well as attending “ re c a l l ” d ay s , w h e re they will re c e i ve up-to-date training mat e rials and s h a re best practice. The fe e d b a ck re c e i ve d so far has been extre m e ly positive and the Regional Crime Reduction Teams and the College will work in partnership to ensure a quality learning programme is available. Following the article in the July edition of the Digest, the College has re c e i ved ove r 60 enquiries about the sch e m e, and details h ave been sent to interested people, a s k i n g them to register their interest with their Regional Crime Reduction Teams (CRTs). Another course is scheduled fo r November this year and Regional CRTs will be asked to nom inate potent ial trainers f rom their region in October. The A s s o c i at e Trainer Award will be developed over time to complem ent a wider training and a c c re d i t ation strat e g y, with the aim of p roviding community safety practitioners and vo l u n t a ry groups with the know l e d g e and skills they need.
For further information contact Martin Fenlon, Training Team, Crime Reduction College, Tel: 01347 825076 or via E-mail: crtraining@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk

October 2002

Digest Items

5

Crime Reduction College gets Community Justice National Training Organisation endorsement
The Home Office Review of Crime Reduction Training recommends that: “External providers should only be commissioned where they are endorsed by the Community Justice Nat i o n a l Training Organisation (CJNTO)”. The Crime Reduction College is pleased to announce that it has re c e n t ly been endorsed by t he CJNTO as providing learning to support the use of Community Justice Occupational Standards for Levels 3 & 4 Community Justice Awards.

Staff News
Adrienne Jow i t t - T h ra l l s t a rted at the College in July as a member of the Course Support Te a m , p roviding administrat i ve support to the Training Te a . Ade joined the College from the B ritish Library where she was invo l ved in marke t i n g, p u bl i c ation sales and training and development. You have been sending your articles for the Digest to Jane Hopper. In September Ja n e m a rried Simon Jones so all contri butions should now be sent to Jane Jones at the addre s s on page 1. Our congratulations and best wishes for the future go to them both.

College Publications - Update
Home Security - an introduction to domestic surveying This interactive training pack age has now been sent out to more than 2,000 people including the police, p a rtnership gro u p s , local authori t i e s , housing associations and members of the public. From our evaluation about this product we estimate that the ave r age number of users for each pack ag e sent out is ten people. We have dispat ch e d nearly 200,000 copies of the booklet which n ow comes with the Home Secur i t y c o m p u t e r-based training package. It acts as an aide-memoire and supports the package. The Passport to Evaluation an introduction to evaluating crime reduction initiatives and projects The Passport to Evaluation was published in June of this ye a r. The eva l u ation we ’re getting back about this publication has been e x t re m e ly positive. It is also being used by Roehampton University of Surrey as part of their Evaluation Course and will be used on thier Safer Schools Pa rtnerships course d e l i ve red in partnership with the DfES, Centrx and the Metropolitan Police. At t he time of going to print 1,033 complete copies have been dow n l o a d e d f rom the website and more than 220 printed books have been dispatched.

6

College News

October 2002

A Review of the Home Office Older Volunteers Initiative
Home Office Research Study 248 D u ring 1999 - 2003, the Home Office Older Volunteers Initiative ( H O OVI) has p rovided £1,476 million funding for 26 p rojects aimed at improving opport u n i t i e s for people aged 50 and over to vo l u n t e e r and become more i nvo l ved in t he c o m mu n i t y. Sixteen of these pro j e c t s re l ated dire c t ly to re c ruiting vo l u n t e e r s f rom a va r iety of bac k g rounds to take responsibility in various different roles and settings. R e s e a r ch has shown that older people can be attracted to vo l u n t e e ring if effo rt s are made to recruit them. They can also play their part in a wider range of activities than would be expected of them. Research suggests that: • Organisations whose mission or purpose is to promote the well being of older people have a considerable advantage in involving older people as volunteers. • The extent to which volunteering is a recognised and central feature of an organisation’s work is an important factor in its ability to involve older volunteers quickly and effectively. • Older people from black and minority ethnic communities with little or no tradition of formal volunteering are more likely to volunteer within their own communities than in ‘mainstream’ organisations. The contribution of older people is l i ke ly to be especially valuable in working with frail and isolated older people, intergenerational activities with school-age children and in helping other people with long-term health problems to manage their condition.

The H O OV I i n i t i at i ve also identifi e d and disseminated good practice an d g e n e r a l ly promoted the idea of vo l u nt e e r ing by older people. Guidance ab o u t good practice was developed in: • identifying and overcoming barriers to volunteering by older people • supporting volunteering by older and retired employees of local authorities • encouraging volunteering by black and minority ethnic older people • m e n t o ri n g.
Copies of this research study, published in June 2002, are available free from Research, Development and Statistics Directorate, Communications Development Unit, Room 201, 50 Queen Anne’s Gate, London SW1H 9AT Tel: 020 7273 2084 E-mail: publications.rds@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk and can also be viewed and downloaded from the Home Office Website at:

http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/ rds/pdfs2/hors248.pdf

October 2002

Active Communities

7

“Me and You” - An Intergenerational Project
Norwich City Council

The “Me and Yo u” p roject took place in the Lakenham area of Norwich in spri n g 2001 and invo l ved pupil s from a local s ch o o l , together with residents fro m C o rton House, a nearby residential home. The project fo rme d part of a Single R e g e n e r ation Budget (SRB) pro j e c t , focussing on community education and s a fety issues, and was managed by the SRB Community Project Officer together with 2 Reminiscence wo r kers from the Council Adult Education Department and a local writer and care workers. 20 pupils aged 11 to 12 years of ag e took part in the 7-week project and we re chosen for their sui tabil ity by the h ead t e a ch e r. Reside nts from Corton House vo l u n t e e red to take part in sessions, with a c o re group of 10 invo l ved in all 7 sessions and a further 10 involved in some. The aims of the project were to: • encourage understanding and communication between the generations • build respect and understanding of each others’ lives and lifestyles • raise awareness of situations where both pupils and residents had needed and had experienced courage • build confidence and an opportunity to learn from each other. Resident s of Corton House we re invited to attend five reminiscence sessions and the majority enjoyed these discussions. Pupils also attended sessions organised by a local writer, who encouraged them to write about their first memori e s , as well as their fe a r s , times when they had been courageous and what they hoped their lives would be like by the time they re a ched 30. They were also asked to think about what it must have been like during wa rtime and p roduce pieces of work to illustrate this.

L a s t ly, the ch i l d ren we re asked to think of questions that they would like to put to the residents. These questions were re p ro d u c e d as a work sheet to enable the young people to carry out interv i ew s , as well as acting as a prompt for them to tell residents more about t hemselves during their conve r s ations. Pupils we re divided into two gro u p s for their visits, w h i ch took place over two c o n s e c u t i ve weeks and began with a tour. T h ey then paired up to conduct their i n t e rv i ew s , w h i ch produced ve ry positive results from both part i e s. B a r riers we re b ro ken down and the project has left the way open for other interg e n e r at i o n a l p roje ct s between the school an d the residential home (an interg e n e r at i o n a l s c u l p t u re proje ct has since taken place between the two groups). Fo l l owing their visit, the ch i l d ren took p a rt in a further writing session to re c o r d their impressions of their visit and to write thank you letters to the residents. A booklet has been produced containing a selection of the writings produced, an analysis of the d ata cap t u red during the inter v i ews and photographs of the two groups together. In terms of re g e n e r ational wo r k , i t seems like ly that increased knowledge of and respect for older people will re d u c e incidence s of anti-social behaviour by young people against older people, a n d s i m i l a r ly, older people may not be as afraid of young people as t hey become more familiar with them.


8 Active Communities

...part of a Single Regeneration Budget (SRB) project, focussing on community education and safety issues...

October 2002

South Tyneside Community Safety Partnership Roadshow
South Tyneside Metropolitan Borough Council

The community safety section of the South Tyneside Metropolitan Borough Council (MBC) has organised a series of ro a d s h ows to help tackle issues of cri m e, health and quality of life in the area. The aims of the ro a d s h ows are to reduce the numbers of domestic bu rg l a ri e s , fear of c ri m e, accidents and domestic fi re s , p a rt i c u l a r ly focusing on the over 50s age gro u p. T h e ro a d s h ows use a mu l t i - agency ap p ro a ch to deliver key safety messages on crime preve n t i o n and fi re safe t y, as well as providing free home security and smoke alarm s , personal alarm s and access to the ‘Home Security Loan Sch e m e ’ , w h i ch allows people to borrow cri m e p revention equipment for a set period of time. This can include shed and window alarm s , light controllers and a bogus caller alert box. The ro a d s h ows also aim to build effe c t i ve i n t e rg e n e r ational links betwee n older and younge r people in the commun ity and assistance is ava i l able from local sc h o o l ch i l d re n , who help participant s fil l in their re g i s t r ation fo rms and answer questions ab o u t the scheme. Since the start of the ro a d s h ows in A p ri l 2 0 0 2 , over 250 pro p e rties have benefited fro m additional securi t y, with over 300 part i c i p a n t s receiving personal alarms and crime preve n t i o n i n fo rm at i o n . Over 150 people have accessed the home security loan scheme and it is expected that by the end of the pro j e c t , up to 500 s e c u rity pack ages will have been provided and over 600 residents part i c i p ated in the roadshows. Evaluation of the scheme is ongoing and will be monitored by: • Financial reports providing info rm ation on the cost of the project and the number of properties secured. • Roadshow registration and evaluation fo rm s , which will provide an indication of fear of crime levels before and after the project. • Analysis of crime statistics to be able to identify the impact of the project on levels of crime in the area. The project will be completed in October 2002 and a final eva l u at i o n carried out.

October 2002

Active Communities

9

Community Cohesion Unit - Building Communities based on Trust and Respect
Home Office Community Cohesion Unit

The Home Office Community Cohesion Unit (CCU) was set up fo l l owing disturbances in c e rtain nort h e rn towns last summer. C o m munity cohesion invo l ves a common vision and a sense of belonging, as well as ap p re c i ating people’s diversity and ensuring that those fro m d i f fe rent backgrounds have similar life opportunities. Cohesive communities are ones where s t rong and positive re l ationships are being developed between people. This affects and i nvo l ves eve ry part of our society, not only gove rn m e n t , but also pri vat e, vo l u n t a ry and community sectors and the wider community. The aim of the CCU is to build community cohesion across England and Wales by working pro a c t i ve ly with stakeholders to integrate community cohesion both within national policy and local service delivery. The unit is working closely with Bradford, Oldham and Burn l ey and visiting other areas where community cohesion is a particular concern . A s i g n i ficant part of working with local areas is about promoting best practice, together with an understanding of how to pro g ress a baseline assessment and the development of performance indicators on issues underpinning community cohesion. E s t ablishing the CCU is just one element of the Gove rn m e n t ’s strategy for ensuring that building and maintaining community cohesion is at the heart of its wo r k .T h e re is also an expanded Ministerial Group, which meets on a regular basis to review national policy from a c o m munity cohesion perspective. Practitioner groups have been established to support this work and to advise on the impact of policies on the gro u n d . A significant step was the p roduction of draft guidance on community cohesion, w h i c h was co-signe d by the Commission for Racial Equality, The Local Gove rnment A s s o c i at i o n , Home Office and Offi c e of the Deputy Prime Minister. The revised guidance will be launched later this year and will give people a practical toolkit that they can use to build community cohesion locally. Other work this year has invo l ved joint funding of an extended programme of summer activities, including additional activities in areas with high levels of street crime.

Tackling anti-social behaviour: information and case studies about local authority work - Research Briefing Paper 16
Local Government Association

This re p o rt brings together info rm at i o n f rom the Home Office and Local G ove rnment A s s o c i ation(LGA) surveys on h ow local author it ies are tackling ant isocial behaviour. The re p o rt details several case studies on how various authorities are dealing with anti-social behav i o u r. These show that , although anti-social behaviour orders are one method of dealing with this type of b e h av i o u r, t h e re are a number of complem e n t a ry methods that may be used, s u ch as injunctions, A c c e p t able Behav i o u r A g re e m e n t s / C o n t r a c t s , Pa rental Contro l A g re e m e n t s , m e d i ation and dive r s i o n a ry activities.

The final section of the re p o rt fo c u s e s on specific project s developed by local a u t h o ri t i e s , w h i ch l ook at preve n t i o n , e d u c ation and int erve ntion for dealing with anti-social behaviour.
Copies of this report, published in July 2002, are available to download only, via the Local Government Association Website at:

http://www.lga.gov.uk/Documents/ Publication/antisocialbehaviour.pdf

10

Active Communities/Anti-Social Behaviour

October 2002

The Burning Issue: Research and Strategies for Reducing Arson
Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (ODPM)

This re p o rt details the statistics re l ating to arson and makes the case for a mu l t i agency ap p ro a ch to pinpoint the causes and devise strategies to combat arson. The number of mal icious fi res has d o u bled over the past 10 years to become the largest single cause of major fi res in this country. M o re than 100,000 incidents we re re p o rted in the l ast ye a r, w i t h j oy riding and insurance fi res accounting for more than half of all burned out vehicle fi re s. This re s e a r ch reveals four main fa c t o r s that motivate people who start fi re s : • Youth disorder - children playing with fire, vandalism • Maliciousness - revenge at t a ck s , hate crime • Emotional expression - mental illness, personality disorders and depression

Criminality - for financial gain or to conceal crimes. The re p o rt also attem pts to quantify t he pro p o rt ion of fi res that can be at t ri buted to deliberate mot ivations (eg 45% of vehicles bu rnt out, stem s f ro m other cri m e s , s u ch as destroying ev i d e n c e or insurance fraud). The cost of arson fi re s in England & Wales was estimated at £2.1 billion in 1999 and in the past ten ye a r s , t h e re have been 1. 8 million arson fi re s , resul ting i n 22,000 injur ies and 1,100 deaths. In an average week arson results in: • 3,600 deliberately started fi re s • 60 injuries • 2 deaths • a cost to society of £40 million.

Copies of this report, published in August 2002, are available free from the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, Free Literature, PO Box 236, Wetherby, West Yorkshire, LS23 7NB, Tel: 0870 1226 236 Fax: 0870 1226 237 or E-mail: odpm@twoten.press.net The full document can also be downloaded from the ODPM Website at:

http://www.safety.odpm. gov.uk/fire/rds/research /arson/pdf/strategy.pdf

Domestic Property Surveys - Training Pro g ra m m e
Gloucestershire Constabulary

The Crime Reduction Officer (CRO) for the Cotswolds and Stroud Division of G l o u c e s t e r s h i re Constabu l a ry, Mark Godsland, has devised a training pack age on the skills and abilities required to undertake a domestic property survey. The training, which commenced in May 2002, is available to officers who will carry out s e c u rity surveys and aims to equip them with the necessary info rm ation and tech n i q u e s re q u i red when conducting a pre - e m p t i ve domestic pro p e rty survey. When trained, o f fi c e r s will be able to pass on their experience and skills to others, as well as supporting the fi g h t against domestic burglary. Training sessions l ast for 90 minutes and consi st of an initial br i e fing to offi c e r s , w h i ch c overs legislation and liab i l i t y. E a ch person re c e i ve s a copy of the Cr ime Reduction College’s ‘ H o m e S e c u rity - an introduction to domestic survey i n g ’ CD Rom and are then asked to perfo rm a survey, which is followed by a question and answer session.

October 2002

Arson/Burglary

11

Peace of Mind - Access Control Systems
Devon and Cornwall Constabulary

Peace of Mind is a re g i s t e red ch a rity set up seven years ago by North Devon Cri m e P revention Officer John Know l e s , i n partnership with the local Health Au t h o ri t y. The objectives of the ch a rity are to ensure a good quality of life for elderly and v u l n e r able victims of crime and to preve n t re p e at victimisat i o n . This is done by targ e t hardening pri vat e, residential accommod ation t hrough the fitting of an audio-visual access control device to ke e p u n d e s i r able callers away. The device incorp o r ates a CCTV and audible system, as well as a remote electronic locking system for doors, w h i ch can be activated via a control panel. It allows the householder to see and talk to a c a l l e r, e n abl ing them to decide whether or not to let them in, so is p a rt i c u l a r ly useful as a pro t e c t i o n against distraction burglary. The systems are supplied and fitted free of ch a rge t o seve re ly

d i s abled people on income support or a basic re t i rement pension. D o n ations are sought fo rm other recipients in order that Peace of Mi nd can continue to suppor t elderly and vulnerable people in this way. To dat e, over 1000 homes have been visited with 740 receiving some assistance t owards the fitting of an access contro l s y s t e m . O ver £70,000 has been raised and up to May 2002, t h e re had been only one re p e at victim fo l l owing a Peace of Mind visit.

Te m p o ra ry Intruder Alarms for New Tenants
Staffordshire Police

The Police and the Council Housing Management Unit of the local authority fo rmed a p a rtnership in Ja nu a ry this ye a r, with the aim of reducing the numbers of new tenants who are burgled in the Stoke-on-Trent area of Staffordshire. Using council housing and police analysis, the police identified that 19% of new council tenancies suffe red a bu rg l a ry within their first twe l ve months of occupat i o n . This in turn a f fected the fear of crime by residents in the are a , as well as influencing people’s desire to live there. A pilot project was fo rmu l at e d , i nvolving the local council who purchased 30 passive, infra red sensors, w h i ch could be plugged dire c t ly into the electricity supply. At the time of fitting the sensors, tenants we re also offe red general security advice by their local Cri m e Prevention Officer together with a security pack for them to keep. After 3 months, the scheme was eva l u at e d . 107 new tenants took up residence and of those 30 re c e i ved alarm s. E va l u ation fo rms we re distri buted to those tenants and 24 fo rm s we re re t u rn e d . The results during the period of the pilot scheme showed that only one burglary had been reported for the tenants receiving an alarm. Of the remaining 77 residents that had not had alarms fitted, 6 reported bu rg l a ri e s. The majority of residents surveyed said they felt safer in their homes when they had an alarm fitted. Funding is now being sought to extend the scheme.

12

Burglary

October 2002

Making Arrests - A Guide for Retailers
Home Office

The Hom e Office has produced a good practice guide for those dealing with shop t h e f t , w h i ch outlines the law on theft and will help retailers to make an arrest safe ly and legally if they have to. The guide suggests that making an a rrest should be a last re s o rt . It advises that making an arrest will take a lot of time and does carr y ri s k s , w h i ch can leave the retailer feeling dissatisfied with the process and the outcome. H oweve r, reducing the risk of crime can help to protect profits and ensure the safety of staff and customers. The guide provides info rm ation on: • What is theft? • What is an arrest? • What are your powers of arrest for theft?

• • • • • •

When and who can make an arrest for theft? What should you be certain of? How should the arrest be made and what should the police deal with? What evidence should be provided to the police? Which cases should and should not be re fe rred to the police? Working together to tackle crime in your area.

The guide also provides details of useful contacts and websites and is available only, via the Crime Reduction Website at:

http://www.crimereduction.gov.uk/ business24.htm

Robbery Awareness for Fo re c o u rt s
Tayside Police Tayside Police have produced a booklet, i n c o n s u l t ation with the British Oil Se c u r i t y Sy n d i c a t e (BOSS) for managers and staff of pet rol s tation fo re c o u rt s , aimed at raising their awareness of incidents that can occur and providing guidance on what to do if faced with crimes on their premises. The booklet provides info rm ation on h ow to deal with potential incidents, w h at staff should do and what the police will need to know, as well as offe ring advice on personal safety and security. It begins by inviting managers to assess the thre at to their business and points out the measures that can be taken to re d u c e this thre at . It also explains the contri bu t i o n t h at vigilance and CCTV systems can make to reduce the thre at from criminals and g i ves guidance on what action to take in the event of an at t a ck . It is hoped that by taking the adv i c e and suggestions contained within the d o c u m e n t , m a n agers will be able to take ap p ro p ri ate action to ensure that they are able to deal with crime on their pre m i s e s effectively.


October 2002

...they are able to deal with crime on their premises effectively.

Business Crime

13

Partners against crime: the role of the corporate sector in tackling crime
Institute for Public Policy Research (IPPR)

Copies of this report, published in April 2002 and priced £10, are available from IPPR, 30-32 Southampton Street, London, WC2E 7RA, Tel: 0845 4589911 or E-mail: info@ippr.org.uk. Visit their website at:

http://www.ippr.org.uk

Companies are often the best placed to reduce opportunities for crime against their ow n p roducts and serv i c e s. This re p o rt discusses the need for a new partnership between the government and the corporate sector in the fight against crime. R e s e a r ch indicates that 49% of crimes committed against businesses are not re p o rt e d because of the lack of confidence in police response. Crimes against businesses should not be disregarded on the grounds that the offence is ‘victimless’ or that businesses are rich enough to look after themselves. T h e re are many examples of good practice of companies who design out crime in their p roducts and services and these successes have been larg e ly ach i eved without a clear publ i c policy framework or specific government strategy. This paper sets out to examine these questions: • What are the limits of a company’s responsibility to prevent the criminal misuse of its products and services? • Where does its responsibility end and that of the state begin? • How much should it be expected to invest and at what cost in its competitive position in the market place, to prevent crime which may be of no direct detriment to itself? • What public policy framework should government set in place to encourage and persuade companies to mainstream crime prevention thinking at the design stage of their products and services and redesign them if the potential for crime emerges after the product or service is already on sale? The paper argues that, companies’ responsibilities for tackling crime is a corporate social responsibility issue that, sometimes but not always, fits with the business case. The case for a c o m p a ny to act is strongest when the gre ater the role their product or service has to play in causing crime, and the greater the contribution that the company could play in reducing the opportunity for crime, compared to the contribution of other players. The paper concludes that companies’ c o n t ri bution to cri me prevention is ve ry s i g n i fi c a n t , but that there has been little recognition of this in the past. Some of the re c o mmendations it makes include: • Where it is possible for a company to make a material difference to crime and they can do so practically, t e ch n i c a l ly and financially, the company will make ap p ro p ri ate changes to the design of the product or service. In re t u rn , the state will deal more effectively with crimes against business. • Consumer groups should help to identify opportunities for companies to design crime out of particular products and services. • Companies should include details of their contribution to crime prevention in their annual re p o rt s. • The Association of British Insurers should include failure to prevent crime among the environmental and ethical matters on which companies should make disclosure. • Business in the community should consider launching a Business Action on Crime campaign to help drive this agenda.

14

Business Crime

October 2002

Crime Prevention effects of closed circuit television: a systematic review
Home Office Research Study 252
CCTV has proved a popular method used to reduce crime over recent ye a r s , h oweve r t he effe c t i veness of CCTV has yet t o be p rove n . R e p o rts of its ef fe c t i ve (or otherwise) implementation are fre q u e n t ly based on anecdotal evidence. This re s e a r ch re p o rt examines the results of previous eva l u ation studies to fo rm a clearer picture of the cri m e p revent ion effe c t i veness of CCTV. Conclusions suggest that CCTV does have a s i g n i ficant desirable effect on cr i m e, bu t that the overall reduction is only 4%. CCTV has been im plemente d e x t e n s i ve ly across the UK in the past 10 years and there are nu m e rous justifi c at i o n s for its installation: • Caught in the act - perpetrators will be detected, and possibly removed or deterred. • You’ve been framed - CCTV deters potential offenders who perceive an elevated risk of apprehension. • Nosy parker - CCTV may lead more people to feel able to frequent the places under surveillance. This will increase the extent of natural surveillance by newcomers, which may deter potential offenders. • Effective deployment - CCTV directs security personnel to ambiguous situations, which may head off their translation into crime. • Publicity - CCTV could symbolise e f fo rts to take crime seriously, and the perception of those efforts may both energise law-abiding citizens and/or deter crime. • Time for crime - CCTV may be perceived as reducing the time available to commit crime, preventing those crimes that require extended time and effo rt . • Memory jogging - the presence of CCTV may induce people to take elementary security precautions, such as locking their car, by jogging their memory. • Anticipated shaming - the presence of CCTV may induce people to take elementary security precautions, for fear that they will be shamed by being shown on CCTV. • Appeal to the cautious - cautious people migrate to the areas with CCTV to shop, leave their cars, and so on. Their caution and security-mindedness reduce the risk. • Reporting changes - people report (and/or police record) fewer of the crimes that occur, either because they wish to show the [desirable] effects of CCTV or out of a belief that “the council is doing its best” and nothing should be done to discourage it. Bu t there has been little ev i d e n c e p roduced to demonstrate the effe c t i ve n e s s of CCTV. This study has attempted to rectify this situation by examining 22 CCTV schemes that fitted the following cri t e ri a : • CCTV was the focus of the intervention. • There was an outcome measure of crime. • The evaluation design was of high methodological quality, with the minimum design involving befo re and-after measures of crime in experi mental and control areas. • There was at least one experimental area and one comparable area. • The total number of crimes in each area before the intervention was at least 20. Of the 22 eva l u at i o n s , e l even re s u l t e d in a desirable effect on crime and fi ve an u n d e s i r able effe c t . F i ve schem es had no s i g n i ficant effe c t , and the effect of the one remaining scheme was unclear. The effe c t of CCTV in most settings (city centre, public house, public transport) was mixed, however there was a clear decrease in crime in car parks where CCTV had been installed.
Copies of this research study, published in August 2002, are available free from Research, Development and Statistics Directorate, Communications Development Unit, Room 201, 50 Queen Anne’s Gate, London, SW1H 9AT, Tel: 020 7273 2084 or E-mail: publications.rds@homeoffice. gsi.gov.uk and can be viewed and downloaded from the Home Office Website at:

http://www.homeoffice. gov.uk/rds/pdfs2/ hors252.pdf

October 2002

CCTV

15

To CCTV or not to CCTV? A review of current research into the effectiveness of CCTV systems in reducing crime
NACRO

For copies of this report, published in May 2002 and priced £5.00 each, (£4.00 for orders of 10 copies or more), contact NACRO, Crime and Social Policy Section, 237 Queenstown Road, London, SW8 3NP, Tel: 020 7501 0555, Fax: 020 7501 0556. The report is also available to download via their website at:

http://www.nacro.org.uk /templates/ publications/ briefingItem.cfm/ 2002062800-csps.htm

This re p o rt by NAC RO, has been written to inform community safety practitioners about recent re s e a r ch into the effe c t i veness of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV). Funding opportunities for Crime and Disorder Partnerships (CDRPs) to introduce CCTV as a crime prevention measure have increased over the last decade and so too has the belief that CCTV is a ‘cure all’. R e s e a r ch has shown that the extent to w h i ch CCTV can act as an effe c t i ve cri m e p revention deterre n t , is ve ry mu ch dependent upon the context in which it is ap p l i e d . This re p o rt wa rns against ove rinvestment into very hi-tech CCTV systems at the expense of more effective measures such as better street lighting. The re p o rt identifies the high pro fi l e cases of the abduction and murder of James Bulger and the arrest of Brixton nail bomber D avid Copeland, w h i ch has given CCTV an almost common sense ap p e a l . The re p o rt argues that whilst CCTV schemes in car parks can be effective in reducing crime, cameras

in town centres have little impact on serious or violent crime. Evidence has also shown that , w i t h o u t the constant publicity of CCTV schemes, they can quick ly lose their effe c t i ve n e s s. I n d e e d the biggest falls in crime linked to CCTV installations has been shown to occur before cameras are actually operational, coinciding with the per iod when publicity of the scheme is at its greatest. Although there are few official fi g u re s that show the extent in which CCTV is used, the following estimates highlight its growth: • 1990:Three town centre schemes with approximately 100 cameras. • 1994: 16 town centre schemes with approximately 400 cameras. • 1997: 167 schemes with approximately 5,238 cameras. • Based upon funding provided over the last five years, it is estimated that by the end of 2002, there will be approximately 500 systems with 40,000 cameras.

16

CCTV

October 2002

Effects of improved street lighting on crime: a systematic review
Home Office Research Study 251
This rev i ew summarises the findings of previous studies carried out in the USA and Bri t a i n on the effects of improved street lighting on crime. Systematic reviews use specific methods for locat i n g, appraising and producing evidence from previous eva l u ation studies, and have clear objectives and cri t e ria together with extensive searches to locate possible re l eva n t studies. There are two main theories as to why improved street lighting may cause a reduction in c ri m e. The first suggests that improved lighting leads to increased surveillance of potential o f fenders (by improving visibility and increasing the number of people on the street) and subsequently the deterrence of offenders. The other theory maintains that improved lighting indicates improved community investment in the area, leading to an increase in community pride and cohesiveness. The studies included in this review had to meet specific cri t e ri a : • improved street lighting was the main intervention • there was an outcome measure of crime • there was at least one experimental area and one control area • there were before and after measures of crime • the total number of crimes in each area before the intervention was at least 20. Sixteen potential case studies we re obtained and screened but we re excluded from the re p o rt du e to a lack of comparable control condi tions, the absence of an outcome m e a s u rement of crime and too small nu m b e r s. Most of these studies found that improve d street lighting was followed by a decrease in crime. Eight American and five British evaluation studies met the cri t e ri a . Four of the A m e ri c a n studies found that improved street lighting was effe c t i ve in reducing cri m e, while the other four had no effect. Combining together the results of all eight studies showed that improved s t reet lighting led to a near- s i g n i ficant 7% decrease in cri m e. Results of the British studies s h owed that improved street lighting led to a 30% decrease in cri m e. Two studies made financial savings from reduced crimes, which exceeded the costs of the improved lighting. All 13 studies showed that improved lighting led to reductions in crime, with an overall 20% reduction in crime in experimental areas compared with control areas. The conclusions showed that improved lighting should be included as one element of a s i t u ational crime reduction pro g r a m m e. It is an inclusive intervention benefiting the whole of a neighbourhood and leads to an increase in perceived public safe t y. I m p roved stre e t lighting is associated with gre ater use of public space and neighbourhood streets by the community.
Copies of this research study, published in August 2002, are available free from Research, Development and Statistics Directorate, Communications Development Unit, Room 201, 50 Queen Anne’s Gate, London, SW1H 9AT, Tel: 020 7273 2084 or E-mail: publications.rds@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk and can also be viewed and downloaded from the Home Office Website at:

http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs2/hors251.pdf

...improved lighting led to reductions in c ri m e, with an overall 20% reduction in crime...

October 2002

Designing Out Crime

17

The Recessed Pest: Reducing Crime Opportunity in Recessed Doorways A Guide for Residents, Building Managers and Crime Prevention Practitioners
Metropolitan Police

This guide has been prepared in partnership with the Metropolitan Police, Camden Council and the London Fire Brigade, to help crime prevention practitioners, building managers and the public, in identifying the problems associated with recessed doors. It suggests ideas that can be used to either remove the recess or make alterations in order to eliminate the problems associated with it. Most recessed doors that suffer problems such as drug abuse, litter, burglary and prostitution, tend to be located in inner cities close to pubs and clubs,and in areas where there is illicit drug use or a generally high level of crime. Additionally, recessed doors in shops, factories and warehouses often become a point of access for burglars because of the cover they provide. Designers of new buildings should be aware of the problems associated with recessed doors and consider the local crime pro blems in order to reduce the need for them. Designers are encouraged to contact their local Crime Prevention Design Adviser or Architectural Liaison Officer where a new building is to be located. The information contained within this guide is based upon current Building Regulation and Legislation for England and Wales.The interpretation of this may differ within local authority areas. As alterations to emergency exit doors are ‘ m at e rial alterat i o n s ’ (in respect of Building Regulations), authority must be sought from the local Building Control Officer before carrying out any work.

Domestic Violence Coaster Project
Arun District Council

A run District Council, in partnership with West Sussex County Council, Sussex Po l i c e an d the vo l u n t a ry organised Dom esti c Violence Fo ru m , h ave introduced an i n i t i at i ve in t he fight against domesti c v i o l e n c e. The Coaster Project has been set up fo l l owing consultation wit h the Dom estic Violence Working Gro u p ( DV W G ) , who recognised that victims of this t ype of viol ence we re incre a s i n g ly hesi tant at re p o rting incidents to the p o l i c e. O f t e n , victims of domestic violence b e l i eve that somehow they have re s p o n s ibility for the violence or they do not wa n t to upset the status quo, p a rt i c u l a r ly where ch i l d ren are invo l ve d .T h e re may also be a fear of fur ther re t a l i at o ry violence following police action against an offender. The working group realised that , t h o s e dealing with victims of domestic abu s e often did not know where to obtain further help and advice. To address this situation and raise awa reness of domestic violence in general, the coaster project was implemented. T h i s

i nvo l ved the design of a coaster, c o m p l i a n t wit h the national domestic violence s t r at e g y, w h i ch describes the definition of domestic violence, as well as prov i d i n g useful contact num bers for local and national domestic violence organisations. Coasters have been delive red to health p ro fessionals across the distri c t , t o g e t h e r with additional info rm ation including a domestic violence questionnaire and eva l u ation fo rm and fact sheet. T h e q u e s t i o n n a i re eva l u ates the effe c t i veness of the coasters, as well as assessing the extent of info rm ation cur re n t ly ava i l able to victims. Results so far have been encourag i n g, with packs distr i buted to ove r 500 recipients in the area and an 8.3% response to the questionnaire s. F u rther requests fo r i n fo rm ation and pre s e n t ations continue to be re c e i ved and victims of domestic violence now have a gre ater chance of obt aining help, a dvice and info rm at i o n from the relevant support groups.

18

Designing Out Crime/Domestic Violence

October 2002

Arrest Referral: emerging findings from the national monitoring and evaluation p ro g ra m m e
Drugs Prevention Advisory Service Paper 18
These fi n d i n g s , p u blished on 16 July 2002, s h ow that arrest re fe rral schemes effe c t i ve ly t a rget pro l i fic pro blem dr ug-using offenders and signifi c a n t ly reduce their leve l of re - o f fe n d i n g. Evidence suggests that two thirds of heroin and crack cocaine users we re a rrested less often in the six months after seeing an arrest re fe rral wo r ker than in the six months befo re. It summarises early eva l u ation evidence from arrest re fe rral sch e m e s , w h i ch use the point of arrest as an early opportunity to offer access to treatment for offenders. Most arrest referral schemes started in April 2000 and evaluations will finish in spring 2003. Arrest referral workers screened about 49,000 individuals in England and Wales between October 2000 and September 2001. M o re than half of them we re vo l u n t a ri ly re fe rred to a specialist drug treatment service, of those referred, a quarter entered tre at m e n t . The re s e a r ch identifies significant reductions in offending and in the pro p o rtions of o f fenders using heroin and/or crack cocaine. T h e re we re also significant improvements in p hysical and psychological health. H owever the re s e a r ch does suggest that pro blem dru g using offenders who were referred by an arrest referral scheme, were more likely to drop out of treatment compared to self or GP re fe rred drug users. The re s e a r ch also iden tified key groups who did not fully engage with tre at m e n t s e rv i c e s , including bl a ck and Asian pro blem drug-using offe n d e r s , older heroin and crack users, young, male crack-using street robbers and female crack-using sex wo r ke r s. Two other re s e a r ch re p o rt s , p u blished by the Home Offi c e, highlight ways in which m o re women and minority ethnic drug users may be encouraged to access d rug serv i c e s. These are ; ‘D e l i vering Drug Se rvices to Black and Minority Ethnic Communities’ and ‘Wom en Drug Users and Drugs Se rv i c e Prov i s i o n’ . These re p o rts identify barriers faced by women and minori t y ethnic drug users seeking tre at m e n t .T h ey also highlight innovat i ve practice a round the country, and make a series of re c o m m e n d ations for future policy and practice. As well as examining numbers using drugs and ente ri n g t re at m e n t , the re p o rts outline reasons why women and minority ethnic dru g users do not access drug treatment services. These reasons include: • fears about being stigmatised as a drug addict by one’s local community or as a drug-using mother • concerns about childcare and child protection issues • an emphasis by treatment services on injecting heroin users to the detriment of other forms of drug misuse found among some users from minority ethnic communities seeking help, including the smoking of heroin and stimulant use.

The re s e a r ch suggests that wo m e n ’s access t o drug services could be i m p roved through gre ater outre a ch work to engage groups such as pro s t i t u t e s and mothers unable to attend services. Women drug users tend to have multiple p ro blems and the re s e a r ch highlights the need for better joi nt wo r k i n g b e t ween agencies and the cre ation of new local serv i c e s. It also recommends a m o re ‘ c u l t u r a l ly competent’ ap p ro a ch by drug services towards m inor i t y ethnic commu n i t i e s. In addition to appointing minority ethnic staff and m a n ag e r s , this includes providing services that go beyond medical tre at m e n t s , which break away from a heavy focus on opiate injectors.
These findings are available to download via the DPAS Website at:

...research suggests that women’s access to drug services could be improved through g re at e r o u t re a ch work...

http://www.drugs.gov.uk/ReportsandPublications/Communities/ArrestReferral/ A4888.pdf or contact Prolog for a free copy, Tel: 0870 241 4680

October 2002

Drugs and Alcohol

19

Drug Stop Initiative: Stamping out drugs in North Lanarkshire
Strathclyde Police

S t r at h c lyde Police in part n e r s h i p with North Lan arkshire Council, local Housing A s s o c i ations and C r ime Prevention Panels have l a u n ched a three year initiat i ve to e n c o u r age local com munities to a n o ny m o u s ly info rm the police of il legal drug activit ies and associated crime in their area. The freepost “Drug Stop” leafl ets ask for info rm ation on k n own drug dealers such as their n a m e, a d d re s s , busiest dealing tim es and types of dr ugs or c r ime they are invo l ved in. T h e re is also space on the l eaflet for any additional c rime info rm ation that may be k n own and details of the N ational Drugs Help Line and C rime Stoppers numbers are i n c l u d e d . Once com pleted, leaflets can be re t u rned free of ch a rge to t he local Div isional Intelligence Offi c e,

w h e re the info rm a tion is processed and used as evidence for warrants for pro-active drugs operations. Leaflets are distri buted via the police, local Crime Prevention Panels and Housing A s s o c i at i o n s , or can be posted to specifi c p ro blem locations. The pilot scheme, which ran on 4 A p ril 2002 for six weeks re s u l t e d in 747 l eaflets delive red to 10 areas of suspected dr ug dealing, with 20 leaflets returned and 5 Crimestopper calls received. S u b s e q u e n t ly, 5 wa rrants we re issued and s u c c e s s f u l ly exe c u t e d , with f urt h e r i n fo rm ation received regarding dealing and crime in target areas.
For more information and copies of the leaflet, for which there may be a charge, contact Sgt Scott McEwen, Community Safety Department, Strathclyde Police, ‘ND’Sub-division, 5 Thorn Road, Bellshill, ML4 1PB, Tel: 01698 747474 Ext: 361

Proceeds of Crime Act - Code of Practice
Home Office

The Proceeds of Crime Act gives police and customs officers the power to seize assets t h at t hey re a s o n ably suspect to be the p roceeds of crime or intended for use in c ri m e. It expands upon the present powe r s t h at allow for the seizure of dr u g - re l at e d cash at national boundari e s. B e fo re these p owers can be fully intro d u c e d , a Code of Practice must be publ i s h e d . A draft Code has been made ava i l able by the Home O f fi c e, an d commen ts are invited by 15 November 2002. Recovering criminal assets and tackling m o n ey launder ing are at the heart of the G ove rn m e n t ’s pledge to disrupt org a n i s e d c rime and double assets re c ove red fro m d rug traffi ckers and other major cri m i n a l s by 2004. The final version of the cash re c ove ry Code of Practice will be subj ect to Parliamentary approval.

Full details of the Proceeds of Cri m e Act and the draft Code of Practice are ava i l able only, via the Home Office Web s i t e at: http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/ proceeds/index.htm
This code relates to England, Wales & Northern Ireland. There is a separate Code relating to police officers exercising the search power in Scotland. This Code is issued by Scottish Ministers and is also going out for consultation. Visit: http://www.scotland.gov. u k /

consultations/justice/ cashcodeconsultation.pdf

20

Drugs and Alcohol

October 2002

A rock and a hard place: drug markets in deprived neighbourhoods
Home Office Research Study 240
This re p o rt presents the findings of a study of retail drug markets and the local action take n against them in eight depri ved residential neighbourhoods of va rying type in six diffe re n t regions of England. The work was carried out in late 2000/early 2001 and mainly focused on markets for heroin and crack cocaine. The report concludes that neighbourhood regeneration will not be easy unless drug markets are tackled at the same time. The aims of the study were: • To identify the extent of drug market activity in such neighbourhoods and to describe its nature and scale. • To draw out any associations between types of area and types of drug market. • To understand how drug market activity affects disadvantaged neighbourhoods. • To find out how local agencies and local communities, singly and jointly, are tackling drug markets and with what effect. The report aims to look at neighbourhood drugs markets in the context of the new policy agenda for neighbourhood re n ewa l , includin g the Neighbourhood Renewal Strategy, Neighbourhood Renewal Fund, New Deal for Communities and neighbourhood management arrangements. I n t e rv i ews we re car ried out with front-line staff and residents who we re know l e d g e able about the detail of the drug marke t , its impact on the area (if any) or the broader problems of the area and responses being taken. B e t ween six and nine drug users we re also interv i ewed in each area and supporting documents and statistics were collected with the focus on heroin and crack cocaine markets. The re p o rt suggests that there are particular resource pro bl e m s , w h i ch hinder the delivery of effective local action to combat drug markets, p a rt i cu l a r ly concerning law enfo r c e m e n t . H oweve r, the level of resources needed cannot be determ i n e d , and nor is it clear what re t u rn could be expected f rom higher levels of investment at local leve l , this would need furt h e r e x p l o r at i o n . Suggestions include the use of pilot sites to develop neighbourhood drugs strategies (possibly under the New Deal for Commu n i t i e s Initiative). Resources should be made available to these areas in response to local need as identified by mu l t i - agency partnerships and ap p ro p ri at e government departments. The report suggests that the cost and effectiveness of strategies should be fully eva l u ated in comparison with control are a s with similar drug markets. F i n a l ly, the re p o rt goes on to ack n owledge that effe c t i ve action ag a i n s t h e roin and crack will not be re s o l ved by interventions only at local level and re q u i re s resourcing at national and international level. The report reveals a complex, growing problem that requires a concerted and co-ordinated response at all levels.
Copies of this research study and Research Findings 167 - ‘Drug Markets in Deprive d Neighbourhoods’ , published in June 2002, are available free from the Research, Development and Statistics Directorate, Communications Development Unit, Room 201, 50 Queen Anne’s Gate, London SW1H 9AT, Tel: 020 7273 2084 or E-mail: publications.rds@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk They can also be viewed and downloaded from the Home Office Website at: http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs2/hors240.pdf (study) and http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs2/r167.pdf (findings)

...suggests that there are particular resource p ro bl e m s , which hinder the delivery of effective local action to combat drug markets...

October 2002

Drugs and Alcohol

21

‘It’s Your Choice’
Bedfordshire Police

A strategic framework for drugs and alcohol educat i o n , ‘I t ’s Your Choice’ was launched on the 12th July 2002 at the Rufus Centre, Flitwick in Bedfordshire. This is a multi-agency drug p revention initiat i ve involving life education centre s , t he pol ice, t h e at re groups and c o m munity alcohol services and is financed by Communities Against Drugs and the ch a ri t y, C ri m eb e at . The framework was introduced due to attempts at co-ordinating part i c i p at i o n f rom va rious agencies into school education and is ap p roved by the local Drug Action Te a m (DAT). The strategy invo l ves a drug and alcohol education input to local sch o o l s , b e g i n n i n g with nu r s e ry pupils through to year 13. S chools are committed to supporting these lessons, p rovided by the va rious outside ag e n c i e s , both befo re and fo l l owing their sessions, and an education pack is supplied for staff to use in conjunction with each part of the framework. The success of the strategy will be measured through links cre ated to other lessons within the school curri c u l u m , together with the increased sharing of info rm ation betwe e n schools and the police.

Drug Awareness Training Pack
Arun District Council

The Dr ug Awa reness Training Pa ck is the result of a partnership between West Sussex County Council Drug Action Te a m , S u s s e x Po l i c e, West Sussex Health Au t h o rity and A run District Council. The training pack , which includes a video, workbook, p a re n t ’s a dvice book and graphic cards, ai ms to p rovide basic drug awa reness training to those working with the public and community groups. The Substance Misuse Working Gro u p recognised the need for a drug awa re n e s s p a ck after identifying a training need fo r f rontline staff and agencies dealing with people and drug-related difficulties. The training pack enables users to a dvance at their own pace, and although not a pri m a ry source in t acklin g dru g related crime, it will assist agencies such as the police, youth offending teams, v i c t i m s u p p o rt and sch o o l s , in identifying dr u g users and re fe rring them in their re h ab i l itation. The video provides info rm ation on the most commonly used dru g s , h ow they are u s e d , ( re c re at i o n a l , at wo r k / h o m e, trauma/stress related or peer pressure), and challenges the stereotypical perceptions t h at some people have of dr ug users. T h e p a c k also addresses attitudes to alcohol u s age and dealing with drug users at wo r k . The video and workbooks are split into four sections, which include:

• • • •

Attitudes and opinions Drugs and their effects How drugs are used Dealing with drug users at work.

The video has been pilot ed and eva l u ated by a wide range of ag e n c i e s including police, health wo r ke r s , v i c t i m s u p p o rt and a local commu n i t y - p a re n t i n g g ro u p, who all felt that it was a va l u abl e training re s o u r c e. The Drug Action Te a m assesses completed workbooks and subject to ap p rova l , users are issue d with a C e rt i fi c ate of Drug Awa reness - Level One. This cert i fi c ate allows users to be accepted on to other levels of training t hro u g h va rious agencies and the workbook is a c c redited through the Open College Network. A p p rox i m at e ly 60 people attended the l a u n ch of the project in June this year and feedback has been very encouraging. Whilst it is too early t o eva l u ate its success, t h e p a ck could potentially be rolled out acro s s West Sussex as part of a wider dr u g s training initiative later in the year.

22

Drugs and Alcohol

October 2002

Cards Today: The Big Picture on Payment Cards - August 2002 - Edition 2
Association for Payment Clearing Services (APACS)

C a rds To d a y is a bi-annual new s l e t t e r p roduced by A PACS for people wi th an i n t e rest in the payment card industry. I t fe at u res the lat est deve lopm ents in t he p ayment card industry such as plastic card s t at i s t i c s , s e c u ri t y, t e c hnology deve l o pments at ATMs and initiatives to tackle card fraud. This issue of Cards To d ay fe at u re s i n fo rm ation on the early success of t he D e d i c ated Cheque and Plastic Crime Unit ( D C P C U ) , fo rmed in A p ril this year by A PACS and the Home Office as a two - ye a r pilot to fight organised crime syndicat e s. The unit, w h i c h is headed by DCI To ny Drain of the City of London Po l i c e, fo c u s e s p ri m a ri ly on criminals involved in counter-

feiting and will also target ch e q u e, AT M , identity theft and card-not-present fraud, where organised crime is involved. A PACS is the body re s p o n s i ble fo r overseeing money transmissi on and p ayment clear ing activities in the UK. Members of A PACS include maj or banks and building societies.
Copies of this newsletter can be downloaded from the APACS Website at:

http://www.cardwatch.org.uk/pdf_files /cardstoday2.pdf

Community Safety Pa rt n e r s h i p s
Audit Commission

This re p o rt is part of the Audit Commission Knowledge - Learning from Au d i t , I n s p e c t i o n and Research Series and is intended pri m a ri ly for Local Authority Chief Executives and Police C o m m a n d e r s. The purpose of the re p o rt is to rev i ew the perfo rmance of local ag e n c i e s e n g aged in delive ri ng communit y safety since 1999. It explores the key issues facing community safety partnerships as they develop and implement strategies for the period 2002 - 2005. Between November 2001 and May 2002, the Commission reviewed the implementation of community safety by local part n e r s h i p s , using evidence from audits, inspections and re s e a r ch . This report is based upon data from: • community safety value-for-money audits in 1999 and 2000 covering most councils in England and Wales • Audit Commission inspections of community safety in 23 English and Welsh councils • HM Inspectorate of Constabulary inspections of 16 police basic command units • ten community safety beacon council applications to the Department for Transport, Local Government and the Regions (now covered by the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister) • Audit Commission fieldwork in 19 local partnership areas, selected on the basis of Audit Commission Inspection score, crime rates between 2000 - 2001 and entry to the beacon council scheme. The research also identified a number of challenges for Government including: • supporting performance and encouraging learning about ‘what works’ • providing incentives that develop community safety both nationally and locally • providing leadership and a corporate approach across central gove rn m e n t . A separate bri e fing paper has also been pro d u c e d , w h i ch summarises the main points f rom this re p o rt and highlights the key issues for councillors and senior managers of local c o m munity safet y part n e r s h i p s , toget her with stakeholders in the wider worl d of government and related bodies.
Copies of the full report, published in July 2002 and priced £18, are available from Audit Commission Publications, PO Box 99 Wetherby, LS23 7JA, Tel: 0800 502030. Quote stock code reference: LL12785

October 2002

Fraud/General

23

Crime Control and Community: The new politics of public safety
Edited by Gordon Hughes and Adam Edwards

This book, p u blished by Willan Publ i s h i n g, b r ings together findings from case studies of community-based crime prevention in B ritain by examin ing this ap p ro a ch and its re l at ionship with c r iminal justice and social policies. It also looks at assessing the lessons intern at i o n a l ly that can be drawn from this in the theory, practice, research and politics of crime control. The book highlights a new framework for understanding c o m munity-based crime prevention and focuses on understanding the d i versity of com munity crime prevention strat e g i e s. It looks at particular localised conditions in which strategies are conducted and the c hoices open t o aut hor it ies concerned with implementing them, whilst at the same time exploring the political and ethical dilemmas that arise. This publ i c ation will be essential reading for any b o dy with a p ro fessional or academic interest in crime control and the broader social and criminological issues arising from it.
Copies of this book, published in June 2002 and priced £25.00 Hb, are available from Willan Publishing, Culmcott House, Mill Street, Uffculme, Cullompton, Devon, EX15 3AT, Tel: 01884 840337, Fax: 01884 840251, E-mail: info@willanpublishing.co.uk or visit their website at: http://www.willanpublishing.co.uk

Improving Partnership Working
Home Office, Department of Health, Local Government Association, NHS, Health Development Agency

A ch i eving healthy and safe neighbourhoods requires partnership working at a local level with local commu n i t i e s. P ri m a ry Care Trusts have the lead role in improving the health of the population in their area as well as contributing to the quality of life in their commu n i t i e s. T h ey have a central ro l e in helping Crime and Disorder Reduction Pa r tnerships (CDRPs) and Dr ug A c t i o n Teams (DATs) meet their objectives. This short booklet outlines: • the impact of crime on health • the costs to the NHS of crime, financially and in terms of beds used, staff morale, staff safety and liabilities • how and why health organisations c o n t ri bute to crime reduction

the involvement of heath agencies in CDRPs, and proposals to make Primary Care Trusts responsible authorities useful websites.

The booklet is a good introduction on health and health authorities and how they can help reduce crime.
Copies of the booklet, published in May 2002, are available to download via the Crime Reduction Website at:

http://www.crimereduction.gov.uk/ p a rt n e r s h i p s 4 2
or can be obtained free from Angelica Rodrigues, Home Office Crime Reduction Programmes and Partnerships Unit, Tel: 020 7271 8806

24

General

October 2002

Crime in England and Wales 2001/2002
Home Office Statistical Bulletin 07/02
The Government has published the Recorded Crime Figures and the British Crime Survey for 2001/02 in a new annual publ i c at i o n , which will give a complete figure of crime in the UK for the first time. The British Cri m e S u rvey is based on a sample of 36,000 people - the largest sample eve r. It shows a reduction in crime of around 2%, a l t h o u g h this drop is not large enough to be stat i s t ic a l ly signifi c a n t . Police statistics provide a good measure of trends in we l l - re p o rt e d c rimes and can be used for local cri m e pattern analysis. The overall trend shows that the level of crime has been fairly stable over the past 12 m o n t h s , with neither a significant rise nor fa l l . The 7% r ise in recorded crime is c o n s i d e red to be mainly due to changes in police reporting practices over the past year. The key findings for last year include: • Overall, crime appears to have been stable over the last year, following a period of consistent decline, which has seen crime fall by 22 per cent since 1997. • The BCS estimate for crimes against adults living in private households, based on interviews taking place in 2001/02, is just over 13 million. This represents a decrease of 2 per cent compared with the estimate for 2000. • The total number of crimes recorded by the police in 2001/02 was 5.5 m i l l i o n , an increase of 7 per cent c o m p a red to 2000/01. Changes in police recording practice means that the underlying increase is estimated to be 2 per cent. • Between 1999 and 2001/02, all BCS c rime fell by 14 per cent, w h i ch is a s t at i s t i c a l ly significant re d u c t i o n .T h i s fi g u re includes dramatic falls in domestic bu rg l a ry (down 23 per cent), vehicle thefts (down 14 per cent) and common assaults (down 28 per cent). Comparing individual offence categories between 1999 and 2001/02, statistically significant falls were observed for theft f rom vehicles (16 per cent) and attempted thefts of and from ve h i c l e s (14 per cent). D e c reases for bu rg l a ry with entry (26 per cent), burglary with loss (26 per cent), attempted bu rg l a ry (19 per cent), attempts with no loss (21 per cent) and other household theft (21 per cent), we re also stat i s t i c a l ly significant. Since 1995, the BCS has reported a fall in crime at each survey. T h e re was a 22 per cent fall in crime measured by the BCS over the last 5 years from 1997 to 2001/02. The risk of becoming a victim of crime s h ows little va ri at i o n , suggesting that c rime risks have stayed stable over the last year at around 28 per cent overall. In 2001/02, it is estimated that the impact of recording changes was to a rt i fi c i a l ly inflate the recorded cri m e numbers by at least 5 percentage points ove r a l l . A detailed commentary on this a n a lysis is being published within the new volume. For violence against the person, it is e s t i m ated that , if the impact of recording changes is taken into account, the 8 per cent increase in re c o r d e d crimes becomes a 5 per cent fall. These impacts are likely to be consid erably larger in 2002/03, as the new NCRS is fully implemented by all police forces in England and Wales.

Copies of this report, published in July 2002, are available free from the Research, Development and Statistics Directorate (RDS), Communications Development Unit, Room 201, 50 Queen Anne’s Gate, London, SW1H 9AT, Tel: 020 7273 2084 or E-mail: publications.rds@homeoffice. gsi.gov.uk. It can also be viewed and downloaded from the Home Office Website at:

http://www.homeoffice. gov.uk/rds/pdfs2/ hosb702.pdf
For further information about crime statistics you can e-mail the Patterns of Crime Group in the Research, Development and Statistics Directorate of the Home Office at: crimestats.rds @homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk or write to them at: Patterns of Crime Group, Room 840, Home Office, 50 Queen Anne’s Gate, London, SW1H 9AT

Also published at the same time we re a number of re l ated statistical analy s e s , w h i ch are also ava i l able from RDS as ab ove, or can be viewed and downloaded via their Website at : http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/index.htm. • Home Office Statistical Bulletin 5/02 - International comparisons of criminal justice statistics 2000 • Family Origins: Developing groups of Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnerships and Police Basic Command Units for comparative purposes • Maintaining Basic Command Unit and Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnership Families for Comparative Purposes.

October 2002

General

25

Improving public attitudes to the criminal justice system
Home Office Research Study 245
This re s e a r ch surveyed a nat i o n a l ly re p re s e n t at i ve sample of 1022 people to assess levels of k n owledge about cri m e, sentencing and the criminal justice system (CJS); attitudes to sentencing; and confidence in the CJS. Of these, 220 people participated in an experiment to test the impact of providing info rm at i o n . E a ch of these 220 was either shown a video combining fo o t age of one of the seminars with other visual mat e ri a l , g i ven a 24-pag e booklet designed to be visually at t r a c t i ve and easy to understand, or attended a seminar i nvolving pre s e n t ations by experts and question and answer sessions. These 220 we re then i n t e rv i ewed again to assess the impact of the info rm ation provided and how it had affe c t e d their knowledge and attitudes to the CJS.

Knowledge of crime and the criminal justice system • Overall knowledge about crime and the criminal justice system amongst the general public is re l at i ve ly poor, particularly with reference to crime and current sentencing trends. • Most people believed crime was going up and the use of custody in sentencing was considerably underestimated. • There was little systematic va ri ation in knowledge across the population, although men and people of working age tended to be slightly more knowledgeable. • After receiving info rm at i o n , participants increased the number of questions they answered correctly and all three fo rm ats significantly improved knowledge scores. Sentencing • Crime reduction was frequently mentioned as the ‘most important’ aim of sentencing and opinions of the main aims of sentencing changed little after receiving info rm at i o n . • There was a slight shift away from thinking of punishment as the main aim of sentencing and widespread belief in the effectiveness of prison at reducing crime. Fear of Crime • A reduction in the fear of victimisation was found for all info rm ation fo rm at s. Those who were originally ‘very worried’ were more likely to report a lower level of worry after receiving info rm at i o n , as were those with educational qualifications. • Providing info rm ation also had an effect on opinions about sentencing, with people being less likely to think that sentencing was too lenient after receiving the info rm at i o n . • People with little belief in the CJS were likely to improve in confidence in the system after receiving the info rm at i o n . Those who had initially expressed an interest in law and order issues changed less than others. Conclusions • Providing simple, factual info rm ation about crime and sentencing also had an impact on attitudes to, and confidence in, the criminal justice system. • All three info rm ation fo rm ats tested improved knowledge and had some influence on attitudes. • The booklet was the most cost-effective fo rm at tested and reached the widest crosssection of people. It has subsequently been redesigned and updated, taking into account the comments from the participants in this re s e a r ch .
Copies of this research study, published in July 2002, are available free from Research, Development and Statistics Directorate, Communications Development Unit, Room 201, 50 Queen Anne’s Gate, London, SW1H 9AT, Tel: 020 7273 2084 or E-mail: publications.rds@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk and can also be viewed and downloaded from the Home Office Website at: http://www.homeoffice.gov. u k / rd s / p d f s 2 / h o r s 2 4 5 . p d f

26

General

October 2002

Investigating and Prosecuting Transnational Crime
Kent Criminal Justice Centre

Kent Criminal Justice Centre, in association with the Kent Crown Prosecution Ser v i c e ( C P S ) , o rganised a one-day confe rence on the pro bl ems of i nve s t i g at ing and prosecuting international crime. O ver 100 delegates attended the c o n fe re n c e, w h i ch took place on 10th July 2002 at t he Universit y of Ke n t . T h ey included re p re s e n t at i ves from the police and CPS, as well as the Home Office and other gove rnment ag e n c i e s. D e l e g ates also attended from the European Commission in B ru s s e l s , together with twenty Fre n c h Judges and re p re s e n t at i ves from the French Embassy. The day began with an ove rv i ew of the p ro blems faced by the police, followed by a re p re s e n t at i ve from Wa r w i ck Unive r s i t y

L aw Sch o o l , who provided a thoro u g h rev i ew of the issues encountered by the English court s when conf ronted with evidence gat h e red in other juri s d i c t i o n s. P re s e n t ations we re given on the intern at ional legal ag reement s cove ri n g c o - o p e r ation in criminal justice and the role of Euro j u s t , w h i ch was set up to help c o - o r d i n ate the inve s t i g ation and prosecution of serious cross-border crime. The highlight of the day was a p owerful talk given by HM Customs and Excise on the tools ava i l able to the law ye r in building cases against transnat i o n a l c ri m i n a l s , and the day ended with a discussion on inter n ational fraud by the Serious Fraud Office.

Focus Areas Manual
Kent County Constabulary

Kent County Constabu l a ry has produced a manual on partnership working to help mu l t i agency partnerships develop ways of working together in specific focus areas suffe ri n g significantly from the effects of crime and disorder. The manual details a five-phase ap p ro a ch , which includes: • Audit • A n a ly s e • Plan • Implement and Review • E va l u at e The audit phase concentrates upon the determ i n ation of a focus are a , e n s u ring that it wa rrants the dedication from the va rious partner ag e n c i e s. This also distinguishes betwe e n focus area and ‘ h o t s p o t ’ , as well as va l i d ating the locat i o n . R e p e ating themes along with critical features are provided to assist with the data collection and later targeting of resources. The success of this stage of the process depends on the effe c t i ve sharing of data betwe e n ag e n c i e s. A revised ‘ I n fo rm ation Exchange Protocol has been signed by all of the Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnerships in the county, and training is also provided. The next stage is to analyse the info rm ation and make re c o m m e n d at i o n s , taking ri s k factors into consideration and ensuring partners know what is expected of them. The third s t age is to fo rmu l ate a plan and then implement the pro j e c t , fo l l owed by a rev i ew of the whole pro c e s s. The last stage determines ‘ w h at wo r k s ’ and lessons learn t , with results of projects implemented included in the Focus Areas Manual.

October 2002

General

27

RaceActionNet
Lemos & Crane

Reports, frameworks and toolkits developed from these projects will be published on the RaceActionNet Website. To become a member of RaceActionNet, visit

www.raceactionnet.co.uk
or E-mail admin@ lemosandcrane.co.uk

RaceAct ionNet is an action network produced independently by social re s e a r ch e r s L e m o s & C r a n e, t h at brings together expertise and experience in tackling racial harassment and racist attacks in the home and neighbourhood. The project was launched in March 2001 with funding from the Home Office, N at i o n a l Assembly for Wales, Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (ODPM), Housing Corporation and the Scottish Executive. RaceActionNet has over 1400 members from local authorities, police, social landlords, c riminal justice agencies and community gro u p s , and membership is fre e for all these organisations. RaceActionNet’s website - www.raceactionnet.co.uk - features searchable directories of action being taken by va rious org a n i s ations against racial harassment across the country. I t includes local case examples, legal guidance, p e r fo rmance standards and toolkits, as well as an active Discussion Fo ru m . Members of RaceActionNet also take part in re s e a r ch projects looking for solutions to p ro blems identified by the network itself such as: • Challenging and changing racially motivated anti-social behaviour by young people. This project is funded by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation and will evaluate the effectiveness of approaches such as restorative justice, diversion and education from the perspectives of young people. It will also develop a framework, setting out the different ap p ro a ches being taken and how they are used by practitioners. • Looking at alternatives for social landlords to eviction in dealing with perpetrators of racial harassment. Funding from the ODPM and Housing Corporation allows members to develop new and innovative ways of dealing with perpetrators, where eviction or other legal remedies are not always ap p ro p ri ate or effective in the long term.

Policing and Watch Schemes: Guidance on Information Sharing
ACPO Crime and Disorder Reduction and Partnership Sub-Committee

In the summer of 2000, a survey of how police forces share info rm ation with watch s c hemes was car ried out, w h i c h showe d t h at a va riety of diffe rent practices we re o p e r ating across t he country. The main finding of the sur vey suggested that i n fo rm ation was being widely share d , bu t d i f fe rent police forces experienced va ri o u s p ro blems when doing this. The conclusions of the survey suggested that difficulties in sharing info rm ation are often not universal and related to legal issues, but are localised and linked to working practices. The aim of this guidance is to addre s s these localised issues and provide clear outline advice and good practice nat i o n w i d e. It deals with concerns surro u n d i n g the disclosure of info rm ation t o wat c h s chemes and the disclosure of wat c h s che mes details to third part i e s. It also

p rovides a re fe rence point for staff seeking to share info rm ation and for Force Dat a Protection Officers. The guidance has been developed in c o - o p e r ation with the Office of the I n fo rm ation Commissioner, the Home O f fi c e, the National Neighbourhood Wat ch A s s o c i ati on and ACPO and whilst it is hoped that it will answer fre q u e n t ly aske d q u e s t i o n s , it is expected to continue to evo l ve over time. The original document has subsequently been amended to re f l e c t the provisions of the Data Protection A c t 1998 and the Human Rights Act 1998.

28

Hate Crime/Neighbourhood Wardens & Watch

October 2002

Use of two-way radios in the community
National Neighbourhood Watch Association

The National Neighbourhood Wat c h Association (NNWA) two-way radio project is cur re n t ly in its second ye a r, a n d members are seeing th e benefits of t he A s s o c i at i o n s ’ p a rtnership with Motoro l a , the official telecommu n i c ations sponsor and radio partner. A mu l t i - agency ap p ro a ch betwe e n Tu n b r idge & Malling Borough Cou ncil , Kent Police and Neighbourhood Wat c h members has successfully used two - way radios in cr ime ‘hot spots’ as part of a p ro - a c t i ve crime reduction pack ag e. T h i s has enabled the community and the police to work together to tackle vehicle cri m e, d aytime bu rg l a ry and the ft fro m o u t bu i l d i n g s. I n fo rm ation gat h e red has led to high pro file arrests and up to a 40% reduction in cri m e. Wa r w i ck s h i re Po l i c e h ave also issued two - way radios as a re s u l t of crime trends. Two - way radio is proving to be a useful tool in the fight against cri m e, a l l owing instant commu n i c ation betwe e n Neighbourhood Wat ch members. Out of ap p rox i m at e ly 155,000 Neighbourhood Wat ch sc hemes cur re n t ly in operat i o n a c ross the UK, t h e re is still only a small p e r c e n t age using two - way radios. It is

e nv i s aged that this will increase dramat ic a l ly, once the benefits of t he sch e m e become apparent. A “Tw o - Way Radio Scheme To o l k i t” has been produced by the NNWA to help c o m munity safety practitioners set up s chemes in their are a . Copies are ava i l abl e by contacting NNWA Tel: 0800 389 3632.

Glossary of Security Terminology
Sold Secure

Sold Secure have published the second edition of their “G l o s s a r y of Se c u r i t y Te r m i n o l o g y”, which has been extended and now covers over 700 security definitions. It is an essential re fe rence to those invo l ved in crime reduction and contains info rm ation on vehicle security, alarm systems, domestic security and British and European Standards.
Copies can be downloaded free from the Sold Secure Website at: h t t p : / / w w w. s o l d s e c u re . c o m or contact them via E-mail at: admin@soldsecure.com

October 2002

Neighbourhood Wardens & Watch/Property Crime

29

Tackling crime in rural communities conference
Crime Concern

C rime Concern are hosting a learning day on 21st Ja nu a ry 2003 in Wa r w i ck s h i re, w h i ch will look at crime reduction and p reve n t i ve ap p ro a ches to tackling crime in rural communities. The day wi ll have an open, c re at i ve agenda based on themed discussions, c a s e studies and practical sessions. The focus of the event will be on sharing info rm at i o n and views on what is and isn’t working in tackling problems in rural locations. T h e re are no guest speakers for t his event as the day is given entire ly to active p a rt i c i p ation from del egat e s , with help f rom trained fa c i l i t ators to keep the discussion focused and flowing.

Issues that will be taken into account include: • How can measures for tackling crime and anti-social behaviour be tailored within a rural setting? • What is currently working? • What are proving to be the biggest obstacles to community safety and how can they be overcome? • What is the current and potential role of local residents and how can crime reduction become an integral part of the rural community development process? The cost of the eve n t , w h i ch includes l u n ch , refreshments and a range of learning resources, including practical manuals is: Statutory organisations - £130.00 plus VAT Voluntary organisations - £90.00 plus VAT Community activists/tenants and residents - £45.00 plus VAT

Rape and sexual assault of women: findings from the British Crime Survey
Home Office Research Findings Paper 159
The 1998 and 2000 British Crime Surveys included computerised self-completion questionnaires designed to provide the most accurate ever estimates of the extent and nature of sexual v i c t i m i s ation in England and Wa l e s. Questions we re asked of both men and women aged 16 to 59, however these findings reflect the victimisation of women only. Estimates from the self-completion modules suggest sexual victimisation is a widespread p ro blem in England and Wa l e s. Young women under the age of 25 reflect higher risks than older wo m e n , and results also suggest that the traditional perception of rape as perp e t r at e d by strangers in public places is a false one. This has important implications for policy and practice. These findings suggest that a large proportion of rape and sexual victimisation occurs in domestic settings. It is also ap p a rent that sexual at t a cks by partners are more like ly to re s u l t in physical injury and repeated at t a ck s , than attacks by any other perp e t r at o r. Some of the key points include: • 0.9% of women said they had been subject to some form of sexual victimisation (including rape) in this period. • 18% of incidents of sexual victimisation reported to the survey came to the attention of the police. 32% of women who reported rape were ‘very satisfied’ with the way the police handled the matter, 22% were ‘very dissatisfied’. • Less than two-thirds (60%) of female rape victims were prepared to self-classify their experience as ‘rape’ and less than three-quarters (70%) of women who self-classified themselves as having been the victim of ‘attempted rape’, also self-classified this incident as a crime.

Copies of these findings, published in July 2002, are available free from Research, Development and Statistics Directorate, Communications Development Unit, Room 201, 50 Queen Anne’s Gate, London, SW1H 9AT Tel: 020 7273 2084 or E-mail: publications.rds@homeoffice. gsi.gov.uk. They can also be viewed and downloaded from the Home Office Website at:

http://www.homeoffice.gov. uk/rds/pdfs2/r159.pdf

30

Rural Crime/Sexual Offences

October 2002

Funding for retailers in deprived areas
Home Office

O ver 4,500 shops in some of the most depr i ved areas in England and Wales re c e n t ly d i s c ove red that they will benefit from increased security measures funded by the Home Office as part of an allocation of £15 million over three years from the Capital Modernisation Fund. Va r ious retail schemes will benefit from nearly £6 million this ye a r, to help small s h o p keepers tackle crime and va n d a l i s m . I m p rovements include the installation of CCTV, bu rglar alarm s , s e c u rity lighting, l o ck s , toughened glass, s i g n ag e, i n t e rnal mirro r s , s h u t t e r s and environmental landscaping for rundown shopping areas. Benefits of the programme are already having an effect: • Nearly 3,000 shops were installed with £3 million worth of security measures from the first year funding. • Improvements in security of up to 200 highly victimised shops in St Leonards near Hastings have been carried out including door and window locks, burglar alarms, toughened glass and security lighting. • Manchester used more than £70,000 to improve a neighbourhood shopping centre in a local area with a history of derelict properties, vandalism and youth nuisance. Va rious businesses around the country will benefit from the second year funding and whilst a number of schemes focus dire c t ly on improving security of shops, m o re dive rsionary measures include: • building a seating/meeting area for young people in the Isle of Wight • developing a personal safety training programme in Reading • creating youth shelters in Milton Keynes • co-ordinating a family area in Solihull • building a mobile skateboard unit in Sedgefield.
Regional funding breakdowns and more information can be accessed via the Crime Reduction Website at: h t t p : / / w w w. c r i m e re d u c t i o n . g ov. u k / b u s i n e s s 2 5 . h t m or contact your local Government Office for the Regions, details can be found at:

http://www.crimereduction.gov.uk/regions.htm

Over 4,500 shops...will benefit from increased security measures funded by the Home Office, as part of an allocation of £15 million over three years...

www.crimereduction.gov.uk/ regions.htm
October 2002 Town/Shopping Centre Crime 31

“Transport Alert Forum”
Northumbria Police

A n a lysis of crime re l ating to public serv i c e vehicles in the Wallsend area indicated a d i s p ro p o rt i o n ate amount of thefts fro m these vehicles and assaults on dri ve r s. As a result and in an effo rt to addre s s these issues, t he “Tra n s p o rt Al e rt Fo r u m” was cre at e d . A l l bus company re p re s e n t at i ve s with a vested interest in the area we re invit ed to att end fo ru m meetings to allow a free flow of i n fo rm at i o n , share their concerns and ag ree a joint ap p ro a ch to tackling these problems. It was suggested during one of these meetings that many of the issues raised could be addre s s e d utilising va rious crime preve n t i o n m e a s u re s , including advice to d ri vers on personal safety as well as a basic knowledge of the law outlining the re q u i rements by police to obtain a successful prosecution at court. A booklet has been produced and issued to all public service vehicle dri ve r s with guidance on:

• • • •

Understanding law Personal safety issues/handling difficult situations Criminal damage Racial and sexual harassment.

Posters have also been pri nted and placed on all public ser vice vehicles and bus st ops in the Wallsend are a , f u n d e d t h rough contr i butions made by bu s companies themselves and pr inted by Nexus. Fo rum meetings are ongoing and the i n i t i at i ve has extended to New c a s t l e, G ateshead and South Shields with intere s t also expressed from other areas. To assist in the monitoring and eva l u ation of the pro j e c t , q u e s t i o n n a i re s have been issued to all bus drivers for their v i ews on t he init iat i ve and bu s - re l at e d crime in the area has also reduced since the start of the campaign.

Crime Bill is down on Britain’s Se rv i c e Stations
British Oil Security Syndicate (BOSS)

N ew fi g u res released by the British Oil Security Sy n d i c a t e (BOSS) reveal a signifi c a n t reduction in the cost of forecourt crime. BOSS tackles crime at Bri t a i n ’s service stations and estimates that fo re c o u rt cri m e, excluding credit card fraud, cost the oil industry £19 million last ye a r, c o m p a red to £28 million in 2000 and £35 million in 1998. Figures show an overall reduction in cost, together with all the main crime categories of service station crime including drive-offs, burglary and ro bb e ry. Areas that show only a slight increase, are criminal damage and shoplifting. BOSS collated these fi g u res using a system developed by the University of Leicester’s S c a rman Centre, who carried out the 2000 Fo re c o u rt Cr ime Sur vey. T h ey have re c e n t ly published an occasional paper entitled ‘The Nature and Extent of Crime Committed Against Petrol Service Stations in the UK’, which provides an insight into this type of crime.
For a copy of ‘The Nature and Extent of Crime Committed Against Petrol Service Stations in the UK’ Occasional Paper Series No. 18, published in May 2002 by the University of Leicester Scarman Centre, contact them at 154 Upper New Walk, Leicester, LE1 7QA Tel: 0116 252 3946, Fax: 0116 252 5788 E-mail: scarman.centre@le.ac.uk or visit their website at: http://www.le.ac.uk/scarman/.

32

Vehicle Crime

October 2002

Street Crime Initiative
June A rm s t ro n g, a member of the College Training Te a m , re c e n t ly attended a seminar on the Street Crime Initiative, introduced by the Director of the Street Crime Action Team ( S C AT) and including guest speakers fro m other ag e n c i e s. Minister John Denham wa s the keynote speaker and he spoke of the fall in overall crime fi g u res and the ch a n g i n g nature of street crime: • 2 in 5 victims and offenders were under the age of 21 years.This increase in younger age involvement was not seen in any other crime type. • Victims were targeted in different ways - most robberies occur in the late evening and at night with over half of the school age range of involvement in offending taking place during the late afternoon. • Male victims suffered more physical assault during ro bb e ri e s. Weapons were used in approximately one third of robberies - the knife being the most common. • 2 in 5 personal robberies result in injury and 2 in 5 robberies are mobile phones - one quarter of robberies occur while the victim is using or displaying the mobile phone. Other aspects of the initiat i ve we re d i s c u s s e d , including video identifi c at i o n p a r a d e s , fast tracking through the cri m i n a l justice system and improved drug treatment s e rv i c e s , with a need to extend good practice into education, truancy sweeps and d rugs re h ab i l i t at i o n . D e l e g ates we re aske d to examine systems curre n t ly in place and identify if, and how, t h ey could be improved. Work alre a dy com pleted on the i n i t i at i ve includes changes in funding and l e g i s l at i o n , with work continuing on i m p rovements in tre atment for those with d rug pro blems and enhanced commu n i t y involvement. The street crime initiat i ve considers four key ideas: Fo c u s - finding the solution and implementing, not giving up at the early signs of success or when things are running into difficulties. C l a r i t y - understanding the pro bl e m .W h at a re the br utal facts? A re we making compromises and adjusting all the time; e.g. giving bail be cause there are no pri s o n places available? U rg e n c y - people are impatient for ch a n g e - eve ry pro fession wants to see other p ro fessions change quick ly, but need more time for their own change. I r re ve r s i b i l i t y - not giving up until the problems are solved - evidence-based policy works. Various agencies gave their own presentations, which were followed by workshops and question and answer sessions.
For more information contact June Armstrong at The Crime Reduction College, Tel: 01347 825071 or E-mail: june.armstrong@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk

October 2002

Violent Crime and Street Crime

33

Violent Crime: reconfiguring the debate
NACRO

This re p o rt is mainly concer ned with viole nt cr i m e, as it most comm only understood - including abu s e, h a r a s s m e n t , assault, and wounding and street ro bb e ry. It focuses on violent offences as distinct from sexual offences and concentrates on t he most comm on, r ather than t he most extreme, forms of violence. The re p o rt sugge sts that effe c t i ve s t r ategies to reduce violent crime mu s t include general policies, w h i ch address the wider social , econom ic and cultural contexts within which violent offences are c o m m i t t e d . It also urges for part i c u l a r m e a s u res t o be developed t o addre s s specific forms of violent offending. C l e a r ly there are links betwe e n d e p ri vation and violent offending and this re p o rt attempts to explain this link. It also looks at other factors re l ating to violent c ri m e, which have previously received little attention. The report argues that gender and age are better predict ors of violen t o f fending than, for example, c l a s s , in that

re l at i ve ly affluent young males are more l i ke ly to comm it violent offen ces th an s o c i a l ly excluded middle-aged females or older men. The re p o rt makes a number of re c o mmendations for policy development such as t a rgeting crime reduction initiat i ves and the principles that should gove rn decisions on how resources are allocat ed betwe e n competing crime reduction pri o ri t i e s. P ri m a ri ly, this re p o rt suggests that policies to tackle violent crimes should aim to ensure that all members of society are e q u a l ly protected against violence. It stat e s t h at the cr iminal justice system has a central role to play in the reduction of violent offending other than being simply a ‘law and order’ issue.
Copies of this report, published in June 2002, are available priced £12.50 plus P& Pfrom Nacro Publications, 169 Clapham Road, London, SW9 0PU, Tel: 020 7840 6427 Fax: 020 7840 6444 or E-mail: publications@nacro.org.u.

Robbery - Get a Proper Life! for Citizenship Education
West Midlands Police

Fo l l owing on from the video ‘S c a r red for life: The effects of street ro b b e ry on the community’ , w h i c h explored the issue of re p e at victimisation and stre e t ro bb e ry carried out by youths on the elderly, West Midlands Police have launched a second video entitled: ‘Robbery - Get a Proper Life!’ The video has been produced as an educational resource and can be incorpor ated into Citizenship Education and P. S . H . E . It has been distri buted to eve ry school in the region and is intended to be interactive and engage young people in discussion on how they can stay safe and avoid becoming a victim of crime. The video explores issues such as what attracts street ro bb e r s , p e e r p re s s u re, personal safety and life in pri s o n . It runs for 25 minutes and is the l atest initiat i ve under ‘O p e ration Safer Streets II’ , w h i ch has led to the a rrest of almost 1400 people and a we e k ly reduction in offences since the start of April 2002.

34

Violent Crime and Street Crime

October 2002

Patterns of offending behaviour: a new a p p ro a c h
Home Office Research Study 171
This study focuses on developing a typology of criminal activity and describes this in fi ve year age groups rather than the usual ap p ro a ch of summarising a lifetime of cri m e. It also t ries to identify criminal ‘ p at h way s ’ or how offenders in one age group might pro g ress to a d i f fe rent type of crime, as they become older.

Key Points • Using criminal conviction data, criminal activity within fi ve - year age bands (or ‘strips’) was examined so that types (or clusters) of offending behaviour can be identified. • Patterns of offending behaviour for a set of offenders born in 1953 vary markedly between males and females. Male offending (with nine identified types) shows greater diversity than female offending (with three identified types). There is evidence of greater diversity for offenders born in 1958, for both males and females. • For the males, each type of offending had a distinct age pro fi l e. For example, clusters of offending, which were termed ‘non-violent pro p e rt y ’ and ‘shoplifting’, were most prevalent in the 10-15 age group. The types of offending for females showed much less va ri ation with age. • Changes in criminal activity as offenders grow older can be assessed using this methodology and there is evidence of increasing specialisation in older age groups. • One type of male offending, identified as ‘aggressive property offending and wideranging car crime’, has a particularly strong likelihood of recurrence in every age group. • This research provides the basis for a tool with which practitioners can assess recent offending behaviour, the chances of reconviction and shifts in crime pat t e rn s.
A summary of the intensity of offending for males, f rom the age of criminal re s p o n s ibility to around the age of 30, has shown that there are similarities in the pat t e rns of o f fending amongst young males in diffe rent cities (D’Unger et al, A m e rican Jo u rnal of Sociology Volume 103, N o. 6 , M ay 1998). H oweve r, t h at study concentrated on the amount of offending and does not consider its nat u re. It provides a summary of offe n d e r s ’ m o s t active years but does not provide guidance on the earlier chapters of an offender’s life. Instead of considering rates of offending over an active life - s p a n , this study has taken a d i f fe rent ap p ro a ch by finding ‘clusters’ of criminal activity within fixed fi ve - year periods of the offender’s criminal history. If an offender is criminally active in more than one fi ve - ye a r p e ri o d , they can change from one form of offending activity to another, which will influence the type of cluster of offending that will be ap p ro p ri ate for each five-year period. This methodology aims to provide scope for understanding a more circumscribed period of an offe n d e r ’s life, s u ch as the previous fi ve years and guidance as to what is like ly to happen in the next five years.
Copies of the research study, published in 2002, are only available to download from the Home Office Website at: http://www.homeoffice.gov. u k / rd s / p d f s 2 / p a t t e r n s re v i s e d r 17 1 . p d f The research findings with the same title, published in 2002, are available free from the Research, Development and Statistics Directorate, Communications Development Unit, Room 201, 50 Queen Anne’s Gate, London, SW1H 9AT Tel: 020 7273 2084 or E-mail: publications.rds@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk and can also be viewed and downloaded from the Home Office Website at: http://www.homeoffice.gov. u k / rd s / p d f s 2 / r 17 1 . p d f

October 2002

Working with Offenders

35

“On The Streets”
Manchester Neighbourhood Warden Service

“On The Stre e t s” is a dive r s i o n a ry yo u t h p roject set up by the Neighbourhood Warden Service in Gort o n , M a n ch e s t e r. T h e aim of the project is to reduce yo u t h nuisance and anti-social behaviour in the a re a , by providing info rm ation to yo u n g people about the sch e m e, w h at is expected f rom them and what they can expect in return. Objectives of the scheme include: • fo s t e r ing and fa c i l i t ating cap a c i t y building in the community • e m p owe ring the community to deal with youths in their own area and e n c o u r aging young people to behave in an acceptable manner • linking young people to central s e rv i c e s , including drugs/alcohol serv i c e s , m e n t o ring and the young people’s information shop • building on young people’s awa re n e s s of the consequences of anti-social behaviour and the misuse of drugs and alcohol. Staff invo l ved in the scheme targ e t g roups of young people on the stre e t s b e t ween 6pm and 10pm who are, o r p e r c e i ved to be, causing a nu i s a n c e. Vo l u n t e e r s , who can spare a few hours per we e k , n e t work with the young people on their estates and build on relationships with

t h e m . Nuisance behaviour is ch a l l e n g e d i m m e d i at e ly and altern at i ve solutions are s u g g e s t e d , s u ch as the use of indoor fa c i l i t i e s. This provides a safe place for the young people to meet and discuss their p ro bl e m s , as well as showing them how their behaviour affects them, other residents and the community as a whole. Training is also made ava i l able to the young people on dru g s , a l c o h o l , s e x u a l health, first aid and anti-bullying strategies. As an added incentive, re f reshments are s u p p l i e d , together with external leisure facilities for each gro u p, w h i ch can be u n d e rt a ken on a reward basis and bu i l d s upon active youth interaction in the community. To date, the scheme has seen the distribution of over 3,000 leaflets to yo u n g people throughout the area, with 200 young people targeted in ap p rox i m at e ly 8 gro u p s , working consistently over the period of the s ch e m e. Regular meetings have been held b e t ween the young people and re s i d e n t s , including negotiation and joint pro bl e m s o l v i n g. 12 clean up campaigns have been carried out in hot spot areas and as a reward for their enthusiasm and commitment, t h e young people are taken on external leisure a c t i v i t i e s , s u ch as trips to the local ice ri n k or go-karting.

Splash Tap (Targeted Activities Programme)
Wiltshire Police

In addition to this year’s mainstream Splash summer scheme, Wiltshire Police will be involved in a new programme called Splash Tap (Targeted Activities Programme), which is being run by Splash on behalf of Wi l t s h i re County Council. The Tap Programme is funded by the New Opportunities Fund and will benefit nearly 400 vulnerable young people this summer. The programme is designed to appeal to young people aged 9 - 16 years of age who are at risk of being excluded from sch o o l , a re in care, h ave fa m i ly pro blems or who are at risk of o f fe n d i n g. Activities run for a minimum of 20 hours during the summer holidays and are intended to improve personal skills, self esteem, motivation, confidence and a willingness to l e a rn . The young people taking part in the scheme are encouraged to keep a record of their a ch i evements to show what they have learnt.

36

Youth Crime

October 2002

Summer Splash Schemes 2000: Findings from six case studies
Home Office Crime Reduction Research Series Paper 12
In the summer of 2000, 105 ‘Splash’ schemes were funded and run in disadvantaged estates in England and Wales, targeting youths aged 13 to 17 years of age. The schemes were admini s t e red by the Youth Justice Board and offe red a programme of events and activities duri n g the school summer holidays with the aim of reducing incidents of crime and disorder. This paper re p o rts on the findings from six of these sch e m e s , examining the pro c e s s e s i nvo l ved in implementing and running them, together with identifying the impact of such schemes on crime and disorder in the areas in which they were carried out. S chemes we re selected to provide a broad geographical spread and va rying levels of experience in running youth programmes. Applicants had three weeks to submit their project p roposals and develop a programme of activities when planning for the sch e m e s. Some of the main problems included: • lack of consultation with young people (concerning their preferred activities) • lack of experienced youth workers • lack of available venues for external trips. The schemes generally managed to include a fa i r ly high pro p o rtion of youths in the p roject are a , ave r aging 24% across the six sch e m e s. The schemes we re less successful at targeting ‘at risk’ youths, with only 16% of Splash attendees already known to the local Youth Offending Team (YOT). Some of the main findings include: • Of the six schemes examined, detailed crime and disorder incident info rm ation was available for only three. Reported incidents of crime and disorder were higher in August 1999 (before the introduction of Splash) than at most other times of year in two of the three schemes. The extent of the difference was slight, suggesting that the impact of young people having more leisure time during the summer holidays and therefore more l i ke ly to get involved in criminal activity, is minimal. • Only one of the three schemes showed a decline in incidents reported to the police in August 2000. This scheme differed from the other two in that it was the only one with little existing summer youth provision and a re l at i ve ly high rate of incidents. • ‘Splash’ schemes are more likely to have an impact on levels of crime and disorder if they are based on ‘ g re e n fi e l d ’ sites where there has been little previous provision for young people, adopt an effective targeting strategy and are situated in high crime areas. The re p o rt also makes some good practice re c o m m e n d ations aimed at practitioners to ensure that the most is made of any future funding for this type of activity including: • targeting high crime areas • targeting ‘greenfield’ sites • targeting the right young people • allowing time for planning • marketing ‘Splash’ locally • selecting ap p ro p ri ate locations for ‘Splash’ • running ‘Splash’ at the optimum times • ensuring resources are available on demand • tailoring activities to meet the interests of young people.
Copies of this research paper and briefing note, published in July 2002, are available free from the Research, Development and Statistics Directorate, Communications Development Unit, Room 201, 50 Queen Anne’s Gate, London, SW1H 9AT Tel: 020 7273 2084 or E-mail: publications.rds@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk. They can also be viewed and downloaded from the Home Office Website at: http://www.homeoffice.gov. u k / rd s / p d f s 2 / c r r s 12 . p d f (research paper) and http://www.homeoffice.gov. u k / rd s / p d f s 2 / c r r s 12 b n . p d f (briefing note)

October 2002

Youth Crime

37

MORI 2002 Youth Survey
Youth Justice Board

This report analyses the main findings from the 2002 survey of secondary school pupils together with a similar survey carried out among pupils excluded from mainstre a m s e c o n d a ry school educat i o n . Both survey s we re carr ied out by Market and Opinion Research International (MORI) on behalf of the Youth Justice Board among yo u n g people aged 11 - 16 years. All questionnaires we re completed in i n t e rv i ewe r- s u p e rv i s e d , s e l f - c o m p l e t i o n sessions. 5,167 pupils completed questionn a i res in 215 schools and pupils curre n t ly excluded f rom mainstre am sch ools and attending a special project completed q u e s t i o n n a i res in 82 projects betwe e n January and March 2002. The aims of the research we re : • To explore the prevalence of offending among young people in England and Wales, their offending behaviour and the consequences of their offending within the Youth Justice System. • To gauge any links between truancy and offending and to also look at levels of truancy and exclusion. • To investigate young people’s alcohol and drug-taking behaviour. • To assess young people’s ethics and fears. • To measure the proportion of young people who have been victims of c ri m e, particularly crimes committed by other young people.

Som e of the m ain findings from the report are: • There is no change in the prevalence of reported offending among mainstream pupils since last year (26%). However, offending levels among excluded pupils, which are already much higher than mainstream pupils, have risen slightly by 4% to 64%. • The profile of offenders remains consistent with previous years, still tending to be males aged 15 - 16 years of age. • The most common offences carried out by both mainstream and excluded offenders are fare dodging, graffiti, criminal damage and shoplifting. More serious offences are the exception for the mainstream offenders, as in previous years, but are more prevalent amongst excluded offenders, particularly stealing a car, being a passenger in a stolen car and carrying a knife or gun. • Boredom, peer pressure and being drunk are the reasons most likely for offending behaviour by both groups, and in particular young people aged 15 - 16 years.
Copies of the full report and a summary, both published in July 2002, are available to download via the Youth Justice Board Website at: h t t p : / / w w w. yo u t h - j u s t i c e - b o a rd.

gov.uk/policy/ youth_survey_2002.pdf
or contact them on Tel: 020 7271 3033 for free, hard copies.

http://www.youth-justice-board.gov.uk/policy/youth_survey_2002.pdf

38

Youth Crime

October 2002

Crime Prevention Initiative
Project Name: Description Summary:
(the aims and objectives of the project and how it works)

Geographic Location: National: County:

Project Area: Coverage:
e.g. specific estate, town centre

Lead Organisation: Partners: Contact Details: Name(s): Organisation: Address:

Post Code: Tel: Project Status: Start Date: Fax: Planning/Ongoing/Completed/Abandoned (delete as appropriate) End Date:

Materials:

Is there any material to support this initiative?
(e.g. Leaflets, video, report, handbook etc.)

Please detail and attach if possible.

Evaluation:
(Is there anything documented which gives an indication of the success or otherwise of the project ? Please detail key findings and where they came from.)

If there is to be a later evaluation, please note here so that we can follow up at a later date.

Funding:
(Funding Sources if applicable e.g. SRB, Local Authority, Business, Panel... Cash or Kind e.g. secondment/office space)

Total Cost:
(if known)

£

Thank You I agree to this information being stored on Home Office database Office Use Only: Source: Cat: D Ref: Sub: Keyw: Yes No