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Contaminated Sites Management Series
POTENTIALLY CONTAMINATING ACTIVITIES, INDUSTRIES AND LANDUSES
However. a Preliminary Site Investigation (PSI) is necessary to determine which contaminants may be present at a site. through the consideration of a number of factors such as current and historical site activities. the document is intended to be a guide only and should not be seen as a substitute for obtaining appropriate advice or making prudent inquiries. physical characteristics of the site. consultants. industry and the general public to identify potential contaminants associated with specific activities/industries. Industries and Landuses guideline has been prepared by the Department of Environment (DoE) to help local government authorities.gov. environmental mobility.PREFACE The Potentially Contaminating Activities. This guideline should be used in conjunction with the texts referenced herein. and characteristics of any chemicals which are or have been utilised at the site (such as toxicological characteristics.3 .au LIMITATIONS This guideline should be used as a preliminary reference for the identification of potential contaminants associated with specific industries. or other circumstances. DISCLAIMER The information provided in this document is made available in good faith and is believed accurate at the time of publication (or at the time of release on the internet). However. persistence in the environment. chemical reactivity and degradation). as part of the assessment of contaminated land and groundwater in Western Australia. activities and/or landuses. Enquiries may be directed to the Department of Environment: Contaminated Sites Section Environmental Management Division Department of Environment PO Box K822 Perth WA 6842 Telephone: (08) 9222 7000 Facsimile: (08) 9322 1598 Comments via email should be sent to: contaminatedsites@environment. Changes in legislation. statements and information.wa. planners. and any other appropriate references. The information is provided solely on the basis that readers will be responsible for making their own assessment of the matters discussed therein and that they should verify all relevant representations. after the document has been published may impact on the accuracy of any information or advice contained in the I 8/02/2005 V.
damage. In the event of any inconsistency between this document and relevant legislation. nor any employee or agent of the State or any agency or instrumentality of the State.3 . personal injury or death however caused (whether caused by any negligent or other unlawful act or omission of. Information presented in this document does not constitute. nor any authors or contributors to this document shall be liable for any loss.document and readers should not rely on the accuracy of information presented in this document. provisions of the relevant legislation will prevail. by or on the part of the State or otherwise) arising from the use of or reliance on any information. data or advice) expressed or implied in this document. Neither the State of Western Australia (“State”). and is not intended to be used as legal advice nor used as an interpretive instrument. II 8/02/2005 V.
and Landuses Reporting on Site Assessments Use of Monitored Natural Attenuation for Groundwater Remediation Administrative Guidelines • • • • • • • Certificate of Contamination Audit Scheme Contaminated Site Auditor Accreditation Scheme Contaminated Sites and the Landuse Planning Process Disclosure Statements Reporting of Known or Suspected Contaminated Sites Site Classification Scheme Use of Risk Assessment in Contaminated Site Management Reference and compliance with these guidelines should ensure that the minimum requirements of the DoE are satisfied.au>.CONTAMINATED SITES MANAGEMENT SERIES This guideline forms part of a management series developed by the DoE to provide guidance on the assessment and management of contaminated sites in Western Australia. Perth. III 8/02/2005 V. The Contaminated Sites Management Series contains the following documents: Technical guidelines • • • • • • • Assessment Levels for Soil. Sediment and Water Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils in WA Community Consultation Development of Sampling and Analysis Programs Potentially Contaminating Activities.gov. Copies of these guidelines are available from the DoE’s library located at Westralia Square.3 .environment.wa. 141 St Georges Terrace. Level 8. or from the DoE’s website at <www. Industries.
and Sampling & Analysis Plan (SAP) should be prepared IV 8/02/2005 V.STAGED APPROACH TO SITE INVESTIGATIONS The Contaminated Sites Management Series has been developed by the DoE to encourage a consistent approach to contaminated site assessment and management. One of the main focuses of the series is the staged approach to site investigation.3 . The purpose of this flow-chart. Industries and Landuses Reporting of Known or Suspected Contaminated Sites Development of Sampling and Analysis Programs Reporting on Site Assessments Community Consultation Stage 2 Detailed Site Investigation (DSI) Development of Sampling and Analysis Programs Assessment Criteria Reporting on Site Assessments Use of Risk Assessment in Contaminated Site Assessment Community Consultation Development of a HSE Plan and SAP* Development of Sampling and Analysis Programs Stage 3 Site Management Plan (SMP) Reporting on Site Assessments Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils Use of Monitored Natural Attenuation for Groundwater remediation Use of Risk Assessment in Contaminated Site Assessment Development of a HSE Plan and SAP* Development of Sampling and Analysis Programs Stage 4 Remediation Validation and Ongoing Management Reporting on Site Assessments Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils Use of Monitored Natural Attenuation for Groundwater Remediation Community Consultation Use of Risk Assessment in Contaminated Site Assessment *Where samples are to be collected a Health. which appears in the preface of each of the Contaminated Sites Management Series guidelines is to highlight the appropriate reference guideline(s) during each of stages of site investigation. Stages of Site Investigation Stage 1 Preliminary Site Investigation (PSI) Development of a HSE Plan and SAP* Contaminated Sites Management Series guidelines Potentially Contaminating Activities. Safety & Environment Plan (HSEP).
............................. 4 GLOSSARY........................................ 15 V 8/02/2005 V................ 1 2 3 4 5 WHO SHOULD USE THIS GUIDELINE AND WHEN ......TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE ...........................................................3 ............................1 CITED REFERENCES.............................................................................. 15 5....................................................................... 3 LIST OF POTENTIALLY CONTAMINATING ACTIVITIES.................................................................................... I CONTAMINATED SITES MANAGEMENT SERIES......... 14 REFERENCES ........................ INDUSTRIES AND LANDUSES....................... 1 1...................................................IV 1 INTRODUCTION ..... I LIMITATIONS ...................................................................... III STAGED APPROACH TO SITE INVESTIGATIONS.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 OTHER USEFUL REFERENCES ................................................................ I DISCLAIMER ....................................................1 OBJECTIVES OF THE GUIDELINE........................................................................................................................................................................................... 15 5..................................
Consideration may need to be given to other activities not listed when determining the potential for a site to be contaminated.g. agricultural or commercial activities. 110% of volume of the storage tank). however many other activities may contaminate a site. A Preliminary Site Investigation. including historical landuses which may have resulted in contamination at a site.1 INTRODUCTION The principal causes of environmental contamination are generally poor or inadequate operational practices associated with the manufacture. Section 3 of this guideline provides a quick reference list of a range of potentially contaminating activities. industries and landuses. have a higher potential for contaminating a site. fuel storage and chemical manufacturing. the waste oil will be contained within the bund and therefore not enter the environment. It should be noted that where an activity listed in this guideline has been undertaken at a site. such as oil production. depth to groundwater. Consideration should also be made of surrounding landuses. may allow the waste oil to discharge into the surrounding soil and possibly into the groundwater. For example. 1. pipe-work and drains. 1 8/02/2005 V. and regional contamination of groundwater by pesticide and fertiliser application. If the tank leaks. tanks. Each contaminated site is unique.3 . potentially resulting in contamination. However. The list of activities presented in this guideline is not exhaustive and is provided as a guide only. or from diffuse sources such as leaching of contaminants from inappropriate landfills. use and disposal of chemicals by past or current industrial. 2001) should be undertaken to identify any current or historical potentially contaminating activities. leakage of chemicals from drums. poor housekeeping practices. the site is not necessarily contaminated but there is an increased risk of contamination being present. Contamination may be caused by point sources such as accidental spillage of chemicals. such as leaving the outlet valve of the bund open. or proximity to sensitive environments such as wetlands and rivers. a vehicle repair workshop may have an above-ground waste oil storage tank situated in a concrete bund of appropriate capacity (e. the extent and degree of contamination at a site is dependent upon its physical characteristics such as soil type. completed in accordance with the guidance provided in Reporting on Site Assessments document (DEP. Experience has shown that some industrial activities and landuses.1 OBJECTIVES OF THE GUIDELINE The objectives of this guideline are to: • provide a quick reference indication of the type of activities which may contaminate the environment. Often. It is often the operation and general housekeeping practices at a site rather than the actual industrial activity and the associated chemical(s) which result in contamination.
and assist consideration of contaminated site issues prior to land transfer and redevelopment. and during planning processes.• • identify some of the potential contaminants for those specific industries. 2 8/02/2005 V. activities and landuses.3 .
as per the requirements of the Contaminated Sites Management Series of guidelines. INDUSTRIES AND LANDUSES LIST – WHO. Reporting of known or suspected contaminated sites pursuant to the CS Act 2003. To assist in the preparation of a Disclosure Statement. (Refer to DoE Reporting on Site Assessments guideline) • Environmental Practitioners • • Assist in identifying past and present potentially contaminating activities. 3 8/02/2005 V. • Determining whether the submission of a Disclosure Statement is warranted pursuant to the Contaminated Sites Act 2003 (CS Act). To determine whether investigation is warranted. disturbance of soil at depth not recommended) due to contamination. To identify potential liability issues. To determine the potential for site restrictions (e. • Current landowners • Identifying the potential for contamination. General public • Reporting known or suspected contaminated sites.3 . Early consideration of contaminated site issues can help avoid inappropriate restrictions on land uses. (Refer to DoE Disclosure Statements guideline) • Identify the potential for contamination prior to purchasing/developing a site.2 WHO SHOULD USE THIS GUIDELINE AND WHEN Table 1 provides examples of how and when the quick reference list provided in Section 3 could be used: TABLE 1. (Refer to DoE Reporting Known or Suspected Contaminated Sites guideline) Undertaking site investigations. To identify the need to submit a Disclosure Statement pursuant to the CS Act 2003. • • • • Prospective purchasers/developers • • To identify potential liability issues. USE OF THE POTENTIALLY CONTAMINATING ACTIVITIES. landuses and industries as part of developing a history of a site. groundwater abstraction not recommended. WHEN AND WHY WHO Local and State Government Authorities WHEN • During planning approval process (Refer to DoE Contaminated Sites and the Landuse Planning Process) WHY • The identification of a potentially contaminating activity may trigger the need for further information and/or investigation to enable informed decisions to be made regarding the suitability of rezoning and/or development proposals.g.
creosote) Monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e. nitrogen. acids. sodium and calcium hydroxide Acid/alkali plant. magnesium) Solvents Solvents. aluminium. which may have resulted in contamination at a site. Where one or more of the activities on the list has been undertaken at the site. toluene. metals. lead) 4 8/02/2005 V. toluene. chromium. the site is not necessarily contaminated but there is an increased risk of contamination being present. lead.g. benzene. formulation and bulk storage Airports • • • • Total petroleum hydrocarbons Monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e. chromium.g. iron • Lead from lead based paints • Tributyltin from boat maintenance • Mercury.g.3 LIST OF POTENTIALLY CONTAMINATING ACTIVITIES.g. phosphorus) Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) Total Suspended Solids (TSS) Oil and grease Abrasive blasting * Dependent on material being removed • Heavy metals. hydrochloric and nitric acids. sulphuric. commercial analytical laboratory sites • Asbestos production or disposal Asphalt or bitumen manufacture or bulk storage * • • • • • Asbestos Total petroleum hydrocarbons Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e. ACTIVITY & LANDUSE Abattoirs * COMMON CONTAMINANT TYPES • • • • Nutrients (e. ethylbenzene & xylene) Metals (e. INDUSTRIES AND LANDUSES The following list is by no means exhaustive and is provided as a guide only. benzene. Analysts.3 . Consideration may need to be given to other activities not listed when determining the potential for a site to be contaminated.g.g. ethylbenzene & xylene) Metals (e. INDUSTRY. Consideration should also be made of surrounding landuses. including historical landuses.
chromium.g. phosphoric) Metals (e.Adhesive/resins . sulphuric. blending or mixing *: .g.INDUSTRY. nitric) Sodium and calcium hydroxides Polyvinyl acetate (e. zinc) Acids (e. mercury) Acids (e. antimony. alkalis Hydrocarbons Asbestos Nitrates.3 . organotin.g. titanium. tributyltin) Asbestos. copper. lead Formaldehyde Biological hazards Brake lining manufacturers Breweries/distilleries Cement or lime manufacturing Cemeteries Chemical manufacturing. ethanol. mercury. adhesives) Phenol Formaldehyde (e. methanol) Nutrients (e. nitrogen. xylene. chromium.Acid/alkali Wide range of organic and inorganic compounds – See AS 4482. cobalt. hydrochloric.g.g. sulphuric.g. phosphorus) Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) Lime. copper. ACTIVITY & LANDUSE Automotive repair. nickel. hydrochloric) Refer to asphalt manufacturing Battery manufacturing and recycling • • Bitumen or asphalt manufacturing or bulk storage * • Boat building and maintenance * • • • • • • • • • • • • • Metals (e. lead. copper Alcohol (e.g. resins) Phthalate esters Metals (e.g. zinc) Alkalis Acids (e. Heavy metals.g. lead. manganese. white spirit) Phenol Chlorofluorocarbons Metals (e.g.g. toluene.g. chromium.g. engine works and spray painting COMMON CONTAMINANT TYPES • • • • • • • • Solvents Total petroleum hydrocarbons Monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e. cobalt) Solvents . cadmium.1 table II • • • • • • • • • Metals (e. calcium hydroxide. lead. sulphuric.Dyes 5 8/02/2005 V. silver.g. mercury. zinc) Antifouling paints (e.
arsenic. cadmium. boron. potassium Metals (e. atrazine) Metals (e.g. ACTIVITY & LANDUSE Chemical manufacturing. ethyl acetate. barium. isopropanol. manganese.g.g. Thiocyanate Ammonium compounds Sulphur compounds Phosphate Ethanol Formaldehyde Metals (e. arsenic.Pesticides • • • • • • • • • • • . cadmium) Solvents Styrene Sulphates Phthalate esters . blending or mixing (cont)*: .Herbicides . ammonium sulphate.g.g.g.Pharmaceutical Solvents (e. nitrates. magnesium.g.Plastics 6 8/02/2005 V.Photography • • • • • • • • • • • • • .INDUSTRY. cobalt.Fertilisers COMMON CONTAMINANT TYPES • • Metals (e. chromium) Organochlorine pesticides Organophosphate pesticides Carbamates Solvents (e.3 . lead. copper. mercury) Metals (e. aluminium) Formaldehyde Urethane Styrene Carbamates Metals (e. xylene. methanol. chromium. copper. zinc) Sulphur Ammonium thiocyanate Carbamates Organochlorine pesticides Organophosphate pesticides Herbicides (e.Foam production • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • .g. cadmium. arsenic.Fungicides . butyl acetate. mercury.g. silver). selenium. kerosene) Chlorinated hydrocarbons Synthetic pyrethroids Acid herbicides .g. butanol) Carbamates Potassium bromide Metals (e. herbicides and fungicides Metals (e. lead.g.Paints . molybdenum) Calcium phosphate. ethanol. titanium) Solvents (e. acetone. chromium. toluene) Resins Wide range of insecticides. chromium. carbonates. zinc.g. mercury. calcium sulphate.Flocculants . triazine. tin.
g. toluene) Solvents Potassium compounds Phosphates Ammonia alcohols Esters Sodium hydroxide Surfactants Silicate compounds Acids (e. sulphuric. ethane.Soap/detergents • • • • • • • • • • • • .INDUSTRY. xylene.g. cadmium. TNT. carbon tetrachloride) Nutrients (e. copper.g. iron. hydrochloric) Monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e. lead. RDX) Hydrocarbons Solvents Drum or tank re-conditioning or recycling facility • • • • Dependent upon contents of drums Solvents (e.g.g. toluene. chromium. phosphorus.g.g. trichlorethylene. silver) Explosives (e. zinc) Sulphur compounds Reactive monomers (e. benzene.3 . ethylbenzene & xylene) Chlorinated organics (e.g.g.g. aluminium.g. sulphuric. orthodichlorobenzene) Total petroleum hydrocarbons Metals (e. 2. potassium.g. 1.g. lead. nitrogen) Metals (e. mercury.6 DNT. lead.1.trichloroethane.4 DNT. aluminium. lead. methylene chloride.Rubber processing COMMON CONTAMINANT TYPES • • • • • • Metals (e. tin.g.Solvents Compost manufacturing * • • • Concrete batching or cement product manufacturing * Defence works and defence establishments • • • • Metals (e. zinc) Chlorinated hydrocarbons (e. 2.g. ACTIVITY & LANDUSE .1 . zinc) Asbestos . carbon tetrachloride. stearic) Oils Ammonia Monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e. mercury) Polychlorinated biphenyls Solvents Dry cleaning establishment • • Electrical transformers • • • Electricity generation/power stations * 7 8/02/2005 V. copper. perchlorethylene) Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Metals (e. isobutylene) Acids (e. isoprene.
lead. benzene. lead. ethylbenzene & xylene) Phenols 8 8/02/2005 V. sulphuric acid. tars) Asbestos Polychlorinated biphenyls Metals Monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g. vanadium. selenium. zinc) Thiocyanates Total petroleum hydrocarbons Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e. methanol. copper.6 DNT. Sulphur. barium.3 . lead.g. boron.g. metals.g.g. selenium. tin. particularly iron. nickel. TNT. Nitrates. arsenic. acetone. mercury. total dissolved solids. chromium and oxides). ethylbenzene & xylene) Acid (e. zinc. mercury. boron. cadmium. silver) Explosives (e.4 DNT. PCP) Chlorinated hydrocarbons Metals (e. sulphuric) Ammonia Solvents (e. fluorides and sulphates of these Acids Coke (PAHs) Fuel oil Foundry operations Gasworks • • • • • • • • • Cyanide Nitrate Sulphide/sulphate Metals (e. Molybdenum. cadmium. nickel. selenium) Total petroleum hydrocarbons Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e. ammonia Explosives production or bulk storage • • • • • • • Fertiliser manufacture or storage • • • • Fibreglass reinforced plastic manufacturing * • • • • • • • Solvents Resins Styrene Metals. silver.g.INDUSTRY. copper. manganese. nitric. benzene. chromium. ACTIVITY & LANDUSE COMMON CONTAMINANT TYPES • • • • • • • Fly ash (fly ash can comprise of sulphates. calcium sulphate. 2.g. chlorides. copper chloride. aluminium. 2. aluminium. iron. toluene.g. aluminium. ammonium nitrate. copper.g. antimony. creosote) Monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e. RDX) Total petroleum hydrocarbons (fuel) Calcium phosphate. toluene.
arsenic.g. Fenthion) Carbamates Total petroleum hydrocarbons (fuel) Monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e. benzene.g.g. phosphorus) Dependent on landfill type and waste disposed Polychlorinated biphenyls Alkanes Sulphides Metals Organic acids Nutrients (e. toluene. sulphuric.g.g. benzene.g. methane) Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) Monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e. lead. phosphorus) Total petroleum hydrocarbons Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Ammonia Landfill gas (e. copper. nitrogen. iron. toluene. lead. selenium. triazine.g. zinc) Acids (e. benzene. lead. iron) Organochlorine pesticides (e. aluminium. nitrogen. ACTIVITY & LANDUSE Iron and steel works COMMON CONTAMINANT TYPES • • • • • • Metals (e.g. Dieldrin) Organophosphate pesticides (e. mercury. copper. ethylbenzene & xylene) Metals (e.INDUSTRY. cadmium.g. orchards.g.g. Diazinon.g. chromium. Azinphos ethyl. copper. glass houses • • • • • • Metals (e. manganese. magnesium. toluene. DDT. cadmium. potassium) Nutrients (e. hydrochloric) Mineral oils Monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e. magnesium. atrazine) Nitrates Salinity Metals (e.g. aluminium.g. arsenic) Carbamates Organochlorine pesticides Organophosphate pesticides Herbicides Synthetic pyrethroids Intensive agriculture • • • • • • • • Landfill sites * • • • • • • • • • • • • • Livestock dip or spray race operations • • • • • • Market gardens. nickel. magnesium. coke residues) Refer to Gasworks Carbamates Organochlorine pesticides Organophosphate pesticides Herbicides (e. ethylbenzene & xylene) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e.3 . ethylbenzene & xylene) 9 8/02/2005 V.g. arsenic.
benzene. nickel. 1. lead) Paint residue Metals (e.g. sulphuric) Alkalis Lagging. tin) Chlorides Acids Alkalis Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) Organic flocculants (e.1 – trichloroethane.3 .g.g. hydrochloric. mercury).g.g. benzene. chromium. electroplating) * Metal smelting or refining * • • Mining and extractive industries * • • • • • • • Motor vehicle workshops • • • • • • Oil or gas production. toluene. refining and storage * • • • • • • • Total petroleum hydrocarbons Monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e. lead. chromium.g. sulphate. tin. copper. nitric. zinc) Acids (e. arsenic. arsenic. mercury) Total petroleum hydrocarbons Monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e. chromium. benzene. cadmium. lead. zinc. Metals should be decided according to the composition of the deposit and known impurities Cyanides 10 8/02/2005 V.1.g. ACTIVITY & LANDUSE Metal treatment or coating * COMMON CONTAMINANT TYPES • • • • • • • • • • Solvents Metals (e. toluene) Chlorinated hydrocarbons (e. toluene. barium. cadmium.g.g. lead.g. sulphuric. asbestos) Metals (e. selenium.g.g. aluminium. ethylbenzene & xylene) Solvents Resin Heavy metals PAHs Metal finishing and treatments (e. copper. cadmium. nickel.g. aluminium. aluminium. silver. phosphoric) Alkalis Plating salts Monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e. ethylbenzene & xylene) Total petroleum hydrocarbons Monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e. barium.g. copper.INDUSTRY. benzene. insulation (e. tetrachloroethylene) Cyanide Metals (e.g. cyanide) Metals (e. toluene. gold. copper. iron. ethylbenzene & xylene) Acids (e.
INDUSTRY.g.g. ACTIVITY & LANDUSE Orchard and market gardens COMMON CONTAMINANT TYPES • • • • • • Metals (e. cadmium. TNT.g. lead) Total petroleum hydrocarbons Monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e. Diazinon) Herbicides (e. magnesium) Solvents Polychlorinated biphenyls Oil and grease Total petroleum hydrocarbons Monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e. RDX) Metals (e. magnesium. lead.g.g. benzene. 2. nitrates. Dieldrin) Organophosphate pesticides (e.4 DNT.g. arsenic. toluene.g. lead) Metals (e. ethylbenzene & xylene) PAHs Rifle range • • • • • • • • • Scrap metal recovery * Service stations. DDT. chromium) Metals Paint residues (tin. toluene.g. benzene. mercury. zinc. lead. Azinphos ethyl. iron) Creosote Nutrients (e. cadmium. ammonia) Carbamates Organochlorine pesticides Organophosphate pesticides Herbicides Explosives (e. iron) Organochlorine pesticides (e. chromium.3 . benzene. Fenamiphos) Fungicides Acids Alkalis Solvents Metals (e.g. lead. 2.g. cadmium. ethylbenzene & xylene) Carbamates Organochlorine pesticides Organophosphate pesticides (e. Fenthion) Carbamates Total petroleum hydrocarbons (fuel) Monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e. aluminium.g. ethylbenzene & xylene) PAHs Pest control depots • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Printing shops (see also photography) Port activities Railway yards • • • • • • • • • • Total petroleum hydrocarbons Monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g.g. arsenic. toluene. toluene.g. ethylbenzene & xylene) Phenols Metals (e.6 DNT. Atrazine. Diazinon. benzene.g. copper. petrol stations and fuel 11 8/02/2005 V.
g. trichloroethylene) Oil and grease Nutrients (e. ethylbenzene & xylene) Organochlorine pesticides (e. copper) Formaldehyde Phenols Salts Solvents (e. manganese. pentachlorophenol) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e. sulphuric) Alkalis (e.g.3 . copper. ACTIVITY & LANDUSE storage facilities COMMON CONTAMINANT TYPES • • • • • • • Total petroleum hydrocarbons Monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e. benzene. chromium. potassium.INDUSTRY.g. nickel. carbon. aluminium. zinc) Phenols Chlorinated hydrocarbons (e. zinc) Phenols Pathogens Metals (e.g.g. hydrochloric) Metals (e. zinc.g.g. chromium. lead. nickel. arsenic.g. cadmium. Aldrin) Dyestuff residues Sodium hypochlorite Phenols Chlorinated hydrocarbons (e. perchloroethylene) Monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e. lead. Dieldrin. barium.g.g.g. benzene. toluene.g.g. tin) Acids (e. naphthalene) Organochlorine pesticides Metals (e. toluene. chromium) Ammonia Sewage treatment plant * • • • • Sheep and cattle dips • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Tannery (and associated trades)* Textile operations * • • • • • • • • • • Timber preserving/saw mills/Wwood storage * • • • • • 12 8/02/2005 V. white spirit) Total petroleum hydrocarbons Oil and grease Cyanide Ammonia Formaldehyde Metals (e.g. cadmium.g. cobalt.g. ethylbenzene & xylene) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Metals (e. phosphorus. arsenic) Carbamates Organochlorine pesticides Organophosphate pesticides Herbicides Synthetic pyrethroids Acids (e. nitrogen) Metals (e. titanium. creosote. chromium. copper.g. caustic soda) Salts Chlorinated hydrocarbons (e. kerosene. aluminium. aluminium. arsenic.g. cadmium.
mfe. ACTIVITY & LANDUSE Woolscouring * COMMON CONTAMINANT TYPES • • • • • • Nutrients (e.g.nz>. The Environmental Regulation Branch of the DoE should be contacted for further information on licence requirements on (08) 9222 7000.g. nitrogen) Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) Oil and grease Detergents Pesticides Bleaching agents (e. Ministry for Environment (New Zealand) (2004) Contaminated Land Management Guidelines Schedule B: Hazardous Activities and Industries List (HAIL) with Hazardous Substances <http://www.3 . A licence or registration from the DoE is required to undertake a prescribed activity. 13 8/02/2005 V. phosphorus. hydrogen peroxide) Compiled from: • • Victorian Environment Protection Authority (Vic EPA) (1995) Potential Contaminating Land Uses (Publication 472). * Prescribed activities under the Environmental Protection Regulations 1987.govt.INDUSTRY.
4 GLOSSARY Study of a site to determine possible and actual contaminants. An investigation which confirms and delineates potential or actual contamination through a comprehensive sampling program. underground water under that land or surfance water on that land. and judgement to perform the assigned tasks or activities satisfactorily. or has the potential to present.3 . Suitably qualified professionals with experience environmental investigations and management. experience. means a substance present above background concentrations. groundwater or sediment samples. Localised source of contamination such as storage tanks. In relation to land. The preliminary site investigation should be of such scope as to be sufficient to indicate whether contamination is present or likely to be present and to determine whether a detailed site investigation should be conducted. a detailed site inspection review of historical records/aerial photographs. a risk of harm to human health. Possessing the skills. May involve a desktop review of the site and may also include the collection and analysis of soil. that presents. All waters occurring below the land surface. underground water under the land. in Assessment Competent professional Contaminated Detailed Site Investigation (DSI) Groundwater Point source Practitioners Preliminary Site Investigation (PSI) An investigation consisting of a desktop study. or surface water on that land Site 14 8/02/2005 V. knowledge. Also to provide information for designing a DSI. the environment or any environmental value. pumps and drums. An area of land.
15 8/02/2005 V.1 CITED REFERENCES Department of Environment (DoE) (2004) Reporting of Known or Suspected Contaminated Sites.3 . Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC) and Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand (ARMCANZ)(2000) Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Water Quality. Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) (2000) Certificate of Contamination Audit Scheme. Department of Environmental Protection (DEP 2000) Contaminated Site Auditor Accreditation Scheme Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) (2000) Disclosure Statements.5 REFERENCES 5. Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC) and National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) (1995) Guidelines for Groundwater Protection in Australia. Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) (2001) Reporting on Site Assessments. Ministry for Environment (New Zealand) (2004) Contaminated Land Management Guidelines Schedule B: Hazardous Activities and Industries List (HAIL) with Hazardous Substances Victorian Environment Protection Authority (Vic EPA) (1995) Potential Contaminating Land Uses (Publication 472). 5. Department of Environment (DoE) (2003) Assessment Levels for Soil.2 OTHER USEFUL REFERENCES Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC) and National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) (1992) Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for the Assessment and Management of Contaminated Sites. Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) (2001) Development of Sampling and Analysis Programs. Sediment and Water (Draft V3).
1 Guide to the sampling and investigation of potentially contaminated soil. Standards Australia (1998) AS/NZ 5667.National Environment Protection Council (NEPC) (1999) National Environmental Protection (Assessment of Site Contamination) Measure.3 . Standards Australia (1997) AS/NZ 4482. Part 11: Guidance on sampling of groundwaters. 16 8/02/2005 V.11 Water quality – Sampling. Part 1: Non-volatile and semi-volatile compounds.
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