CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION TO PREVENT AND DETER The purpose of Prevent and Deter Implementation Timescales II. THE PREVENT AND DETER MODEL The conceptual framework The model for local implementation Strategic context Local leadership Programme development: identification, intervention, outcomes Effective partnership working 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 7 7 8 9

III. DEVELOPING THE LOCAL PROGRAMME: YOUTH JUSTICE INTERVENTIONS Identifying the target group Identifying the risk factors Meeting needs: youth justice sentence Meeting needs: following the sentence Persistent Young Offenders Local Criminal Justice Boards IV. DEVELOPING THE LOCAL PROGRAMME: INTENSIVE TARGETING Youth Inclusion and Support Panels Youth Inclusion Programmes Broader diversionary programmes V. PROGRAMME ASSESSMENT AND PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance management Accountability VI. CHECKLIST OF ACTIVITY STRATEGIC CONTEXT: EARLY INTERVENTIONS YOUTH OFFENDING TEAMS 20 20 21 23 28 16 17 18 10 11 11 12 13 14



I. 1.1

INTRODUCTION TO PREVENT AND DETER This is the third guidance paper to be issued to support the development of local programmes as part of the national Prolific and Other Priority Offender (PPO) Strategy. Earlier guidance was issued in July and September 2004 to support the development of Catch & Convict and Rehabilitate & Resettle arrangements in every CDRP area (copies can be accessed at This guidance is concerned with the remaining phase of the strategy: Prevent & Deter. As set out in the earlier guidance, the PPO Strategy comprises three complementary strands: Prevent & Deter, Catch & Convict, Rehabilitate & Resettle. Together these will combine to form a comprehensive, locally-delivered programme to reduce the number of prolific and other priority offenders. This guidance will help CDRPs in working with the key partner agencies to develop local Prevent & Deter arrangements alongside Catch & Convict and Rehabilitate & Resettle. As will be clear from the guidance, much of the activity required will fall to partner agencies, with CDRPs having the critical role of coordinating and monitoring delivery of the programme.



The purpose of Prevent and Deter 1.4 The purpose of this strand of the PPO Strategy is to increase the overall impact of the programme by ensuring that those effectively targeted by Catch & Convict are not replaced by the next generation of "super prolific" offenders. The clear aim is to prevent those most at risk of becoming the prolific offenders of the future from doing so, by diverting this group away from offending behaviours.

The purpose of Prevent and Deter is to: • prevent the most at risk young offenders from becoming the PPOs of the future through appropriately targeted youth justice interventions, supported by community-based interventions to tackle the risk factors that may drive their offending behaviour.

This purpose is supported by the secondary aim of: • preventing children and young people from becoming involved in criminality, by identifying and targeting those most at risk of offending with appropriate intervention programmes.


Implementation 1.5 The clear objective is to ensure that there are robust arrangements in every CDRP area to provide:
• • •

identification of those most at risk of becoming the PPOs of the future; interventions that are appropriate to meet the needs of this target group; outcomes – which will prevent continued offending amongst this group.


We know that there is already a great deal of activity in local areas involving work with children and young people at risk of offending, both within mainstream services, such as schools, and through more specialist community-based programmes. Similarly, in many areas, the approach set out in this guidance may already be well developed – for example, a number of local authorities in London are working with the Government Office to implement youth crime reduction strategies focusing heavily on those most at risk. Such activity will help to support local Prevent & Deter arrangements. We therefore expect all CDRPs to have a clear understanding of (or, if not, to undertake an assessment of): i. ii. the levels of youth offending or youth related crime in their area; and the available programmes or activities in the local area that target young people most at risk of offending or re-offending, or which provide support for them.



This will help to assess need against capacity. The intention behind Prevent & Deter is that local areas should then build on current and planned activities to provide comprehensive provision, based on a local assessment of need.

Timescales 1.9 We know that CDRPs will have been developing their local Catch & Convict schemes for implementation by 6 September, and that remains the priority. But we would expect partnerships to use the period from now to December to develop their Prevent & Deter schemes, undertaking any required assessment of need against current capacity, as set out here. It is the intention that, over time, the planned approach set out in this guidance will become an integral part of local crime and disorder strategies. The aim is for each CDRP to draw up an Action Plan to have the key elements of local Prevent & Deter programmes in place by the end of November 2004, with full implementation alongside the other strands of the strategy by the beginning of February 2005. In drawing up their plans CDRPs should have regard, in particular, to the key checklist of questions in section VI of this guidance.


II. THE PREVENT AND DETER MODEL FOR LOCAL IMPLEMENTATION The conceptual framework 2.1 The suggested framework for the local prevent and deter model is set out in figure 1 below.

Figure 1 : The Prevent and Deter Framework
Research shows that some young people are under greater risk of criminality because of risk factors in their lives.
Prolific young offenders Targeted by Catch and Convict

Risk of offending

More serious and persistent offending

Most at risk of becoming prolific offenders

At risk / low-level offending / ASB

At risk of criminality


No or little risk of progressing into criminality

Targeting those most at risk with effective preventative programmes substantially reduces the likelihood of offending behaviour .


The model recognises that not all children and young people – even those with high risk factors - offend. The annual Youth Survey, conducted by MORI for the Youth Justice Board, suggests that around a quarter of young people in secondary schools commit at least one offence (although offending rates are higher for those excluded from school); but the nature and seriousness varies. The priority for local Prevent & Deter arrangements should be action to target those towards the top of the pyramid in figure 1– these being the most active young offenders at greatest risk of becoming either juvenile or adult PPOs in the future. We would expect those who are already at the top of the pyramid to be targeted by the Catch & Convict strand of the programme. In taking this action, the needs of those lower down the offending hierarchy should not be ignored. In particular, CDRPs should involve themselves with the work of other agencies focused on those on the cusp of offending or engaged in
5 No or little risk of progressing into criminality



lower-level offending to prevent them from becoming more active young offenders and entering the pool of young people at risk of becoming future PPOs. 2.5 This work needs also to be supported by action to prevent young people from offending in the first place, set within the context of effective early intervention programmes, long before offending behaviour has taken root. But for the purposes of the Prevent & Deter strand of the programme, CDRPs should concentrate on the relatively small number of young people who are clearly at most risk of becoming prolific offenders in the short to medium term if action is not taken.

The model for local implementation 2.6 Building on this conceptual framework, the suggested Prevent and Deter model is summarized in figure 2 below.
Figure 2: Prevent and Deter model
•For some young people, targeted early intervention programmes help them to avoid offending. • For a smaller group, more intensive targeted programmes are required to steer them away from more serious criminality.

•For those who do go on to offend, youth justice interventions focus on preventing re-offending behaviour.


Higher tariff disposals, including custody/DTOs and ISSPs Referral Order Final Warning Reprimand CJIP pilot post-charge drug testing for 14-17s CJIP pilot juvenile arrest referral (10-17s) YIPs To prevent reoffending

Youth Justice interventions

Intensive targeting

Junior YIPs PAYP YP drugs strategy, inc Positive Futures Youth Inclusion and Support Panels Targeted DfES programmes, including Sure Start On Track Connexions

Focusing on those most at risk of more serious criminality


Early intervention programmes

Addressing risk factors for a range of negative outcomes

Mainstream education and health services


Strategic context 2.7 Work to develop the prevent and deter model locally should build on existing children and young people-focused provision. This may include early prevention programmes (such as Sure Start), those targeting at risk children and young people (such as Youth Inclusion Programmes, Positive Futures) and work with young offenders or those at risk of harm from substance misuse. It should also have full regard to the intended reforms of children and young people’s services, following the Green Paper Every Child Matters ( and the DfES Five Year Strategy for Children and Learners ( The Children Bill, currently before Parliament, will provide the necessary legislative framework for these reforms. Further information on the broader strategic context is provided in Annex A of this guidance. In addition, the Government’s Updated Drug Strategy 2002 sets out a range of policies and actions to reduce the harm that drugs cause to communities, individuals and their families. A key strand of the strategy is to prevent today’s young people from becoming tomorrow’s problematic drug users. Implementation within each of the pilot areas takes a child-centred and holistic approach. Ten pilot sites1, comprising 22 police custody suites, around the country are currently developing child and youth-centred models of arrest referral for 10 to 17-year-olds (ie up to their 18th birthday). From 1 August 2004, the same areas began piloting drug testing for 14 to 17-year-olds who are charged with a range of acquisitive crimes most linked to drugs. From 1 December 2004, five of the pilot areas (Bradford, Calderdale, Manchester, Middlesbrough and Newham) will begin piloting the provision of Action Plan and Supervision Orders with drug treatment and testing requirements.




Local Leadership 2.11 Effective joint working between service providers, agencies and/or partnerships responsible for developing and delivering the local Prevent & Deter programme will be central to its success. We are asking CDRPs to take responsibility for the ownership and implementation of the local Prevent & Deter programme, as set out in paragraph 2.5 above and paragraph 2.15 below, working with the relevant Government Office to agree the most appropriate working arrangements. It will be important to ensure an effective strategic join with the Catch & Convict and Rehabilitate & Resettle strands, recognising that the CDRP brings together many of the key partners responsible for the delivery of services for children and young people, and their families or carers.



Bradford, Calderdale, Camden, Kingston upon Hull, Liverpool, Manchester, Middlesbrough, Newham, Nottingham and Southwark.



CDRPs will need to consider how to ensure appropriate links to the Catch & Convict strand of the PPO strategy, but we would expect Prevent & Deter schemes to be focused on the 155 Youth Offending Team (YOT) areas in England and Wales (see Annex B). YOTs and CDRPs already have strong links: guidance to YOTs stresses the importance of these links in ensuring connection with the wider criminal justice and crime reduction agenda. And local youth justice plans should cross reference to CDRP activity and plans. The Prevent & Deter programme should ensure that these links, and also existing links between CDRPs and Drug Action Teams, are built upon, with the CDRP providing full support for YOTs’ preventative programmes.


Programme development: Identification, Intervention and Outcomes 2.15 The critical issue for the CDRP is to satisfy itself that there are appropriate multiagency arrangements in place to:

•tackle offending on the part of the most active (but not yet prolific) young offenders, by ensuring that local agencies work together to provide appropriate interventions for these young offenders to tackle the factors that increase the likelihood of their re-offending, both as part of youth justice sentences and following completion of the sentence where appropriate. The key issues are identification: ensuring that the most active young offenders are prioritised; intervention: as part of the sentence and following the sentence to tackle the specific risk factors for re-offending; and outcomes: reductions in levels of re-offending.

•identify those young people who may be on the verge of beginning a serious criminal career, to prevent them starting a criminal career that may, potentially, escalate to prolific levels, by ensuring that they receive targeted and intensive support, tailored to their specific needs, to enable them to engage in education, employment or training as the key to preventing offending behaviour. The key issues are identification: agencies pooling information about young people to identify those most at risk; intervention: appropriate and timely interventions focused on the target group; and outcomes: clarity about the impact and outcomes required, with appropriate systems to measure success.


Effective partnership working 2.16 YOTs may well provide the focal point for much of this activity. But Children’s Trusts, Children’s Fund partnerships and the local providers of services for children and young people represented on both YOTs and CDRPs (which include education, health, social care, criminal justice, social inclusion, leisure, youth provision and family support) will need to work together to ensure that, in the local area, there are community-based interventions and support programmes for both the most at risk young people and the most active young offenders. Similarly, it will be helpful for CDRPs to secure a commitment to Prevent & Deter at a strategic level from Local Strategic Partnerships and Children and Young People’s Partnerships. This will help to ensure that those agencies responsible for the design and delivery of services receiving referrals are committed to providing the services that are needed to meet the multiple needs of those young people targeted by Prevent & Deter. Effective partnership working and appropriate exchange of information between services will be critical to the successful delivery of Prevent & Deter on the ground. The joint Youth Justice Board and Association of Chief Police Officers guidance Sharing Personal and Sensitive Personal Information in Respect of Children and Young People at Risk of Offending (available from the YJB website will be a helpful tool for practitioners to assist information sharing (see also the information sharing mini-site on




III. DEVELOPING THE LOCAL PROGRAMME: YOUTH JUSTICE INTERVENTIONS 3.1 This section of the guidance provides advice for partnerships about the key components and principles of the first element of the local Prevent & Deter strategy, concerned with youth justice interventions for the most active (but not yet prolific) young offenders. This element of Prevent and Deter focuses on those young people who are already offending and involved in the youth justice system, whose offending is serious and persistent and likely to get worse without effective intervention, and who are therefore most likely to become the PPOs of the future, unless successfully diverted from this course. Youth Justice Interventions will help to reduce the supply of future PPOs in both the short and longer-terms by: • responding to the most active and persistent young offenders who may be at greatest risk of becoming juvenile or adult prolific or priority offenders; ensuring that their contact with the youth justice system, the sentence of the court and any package of interventions attached to it are managed in such a way as to maximise the potential to reduce continued offending; and where appropriate, developing exit strategies to provide appropriate support by mainstream services to meet identified needs from the end of the sentence.



Within the overall responsibility of CDRPs for the ownership and implementation of the local Prevent & Deter programme, YOTs will have the crucial role in delivering this element of the Prevent & Deter model. YOTs work in support of the youth justice system, undertaking the required assessments of the risks, needs and circumstances of young offenders, and facilitating effective partnership working between the criminal justice agencies, health and local government services in order to deliver targeted community-based programmes as part of court sentences to tackle re-offending.

Identifying the target group 3.4 This guidance does not introduce any changes to the way that YOTs work with young offenders who enter the youth justice system, where the aim is to provide appropriate interventions to reduce re-offending.



It does recognise, however, that the most active and problematic young offenders are also at the greatest risk of becoming the next generation of prolific or priority offenders. Some young offenders will already be such offenders and will be identified through the main Catch & Convict strand. It is those who fall just below this level, and outside the local definition of PPO, who should be targeted by the youth justice interventions element of the local Prevent & Deter programme. Many of this group may also be targeted as Persistent Young Offenders. It is important that there is effective action both through the youth justice system and through the delivery of targeted or mainstream services - both in support of the youth justice sentence and post-sentence - to tackle those factors in the lives of these young people that put them most at risk of re-offending and/or escalation of offending. We are not imposing a rigid central definition of this group. This will best be determined locally, taking account of this guidance, because the target group for this element of the local Prevent & Deter programme will be those young offenders who, while not quite at the level to be identified as PPOs under the Catch & Convict strand of the strategy, are those most at risk of becoming the PPOs of the future. It will also be for CDRPs, working with local YOTs, to make an assessment of the number of young offenders who fall into this category. This guidance does not set a specific number of young people whom CDRPs should target in this way since this will depend both on the size and nature of CDRPs and the capacity of local services. But as a guide we would expect CDRPs on average to target between 20 and 50 named individuals in this way with the very largest CDRPs almost certainly going somewhat above this range. Clearly this group will change over time as some young people are helped to leave this very high risk group and others, despite our best efforts, become prolific offenders and are identified as such within the Catch & Convict strand of the programme. But the aim should be for each CDRP to maintain broadly these numbers over time on this strand of the programme.




Identifying the risk factors 3.9 As at present, the ASSET common assessment system will be key to predicting the risk of re-offending. It is used nationally by YOTs to undertake an assessment of all young people who come in contact with the youth justice system, and enables YOTs to collect a wide range of information about young offenders, identifying the risk factors that increase the likelihood of re-offending. Those receiving the highest ASSET scores may well be those who are most at risk of becoming future prolific or priority offenders, if not already identified as prolific offenders.

Meeting needs: youth justice sentence


YOTs will, in particular, want to be certain that the information from the ASSET assessment is used to ensure that interventions attached to community sentences, or the community part of a sentence which involves custody, are tailored to meet the particular needs of these young offenders, as identified during the assessment. Because these offenders are likely to be very active and often engaged in serious offending, it is likely that their sentences will include Intensive Supervision and Surveillance Programmes, Supervision Orders with drug treatment and testing requirements (from 1/12/04) or Detention and Training Orders. The role of the YOT at sentence is to ensure that there is a specific and tailored programme of interventions attached to any community sentence to address all the key risks for re-offending identified through the ASSET assessment. The YJB guidance (known as the Key Elements of Effective Practice) on assessment, planning interventions and supervision will help with this. By their nature, these young offenders are likely to have multiple and complex needs, relating to lifestyle and behaviour. In particular:•they may need educational support; •they may need treatment for drug or alcohol problems; •they may have mental health, physical or emotional needs; •they may have problems around care or housing.




All of the young person’s identified needs should be addressed through appropriate interventions and support. That is why it is essential that partners work closely with the YOT to ensure that they have appropriate and swift access to the full range of essential services that may be required, and CDRPs will have a key role in helping to overcome any barriers that may get in the way of achieving this objective.

Meeting needs: following the sentence 3.14 A final ASSET assessment should be undertaken at the end of the sentence, to provide a picture of how the individual’s circumstances have changed during the sentence and provide an up-to-date assessment of continuing risk and needs. The YJB Key Elements of Effective Practice on resettlement emphasises the importance of sustaining engagement in services beyond the end of a specific order or licence. The final review at the end of an order provides an opportunity to develop an exit strategy, in collaboration with both statutory and voluntary agencies, determined by what is necessary to meet the identified risks and needs of the young person, to prevent re-offending.




Developing an exit strategy may mean agreeing that an agency continues to manage the case after the end of the sentence. For example, in England, the Connexions service would be a logical choice, or in Wales the Young People’s Partnership. Where this is not possible, agreed support within the community, whether statutory or voluntary, should continue until all needs are addressed in order to ensure that the risk of reoffending has been effectively tackled. Where appropriate, this should be taken forward initially by the YOT prior to the end of the sentence. One of the key outcomes will be to ensure that these young offenders are successfully engaged (or re-engaged) with education, training or employment, as a key protective factor against continuing offending behaviour. Effective support and continuing engagement in mainstream services will often be crucial in reducing escalation of offending and the potential for young offenders to become prolific offenders in the future. YOTS and CDRPs will need to be aware that it will become the statutory role of Directors of Children’s Services (once the Children Bill, currently before Parliament, is enacted) to ensure that there are appropriate multi-agency arrangements in place to tackle the range of issues facing all children and young people, including this target group. It will be critical, therefore, to ensure the engagement of Directors of Children’s Services and Children's Trusts in delivering the agreed exit strategy. The Home Office National Action Plan for Reducing Reoffending announced that the YJB is leading in establishing a national juvenile resettlement steering group involving all the key agencies to provide a joint policy steer, develop a specific juvenile action plan and support an emerging regional network for delivering services. One of the first tasks of the new national steering group will be to ensure that each region has adequate structures in place to facilitate effective juvenile resettlement. The YJB’s Effective Practice Quality Assurance process in 2005 will focus on resettlement in YOTs, and secure establishments should also be in a position to undergo quality assurance on this theme. This will provide information on strengths, weaknesses and gaps in the youth justice services, and identify aspects requiring improvement. With the juvenile resettlement action plan in place, the quality assurance process will build on this and highlight specific improvement actions which YOTs and secure establishments will be responsible for achieving.




Persistent Young Offenders 3.20 This strategy is not intended to change in any way the continuing work on the swift administration of justice for Persistent Young Offenders. Some of those identified as potential future prolific or priority offenders may well be identified as PYOs. There is no conflict here. Swifter administration of justice can only help to reduce the risk of their re-offending.

Local Criminal Justice Boards 3.21 In delivering this element of the Prevent & Deter strategy, CDRPs and Government Offices will wish to work actively with Local Criminal Justice Boards. LCJBs will have an active interest in the impact of Prevent & Deter, not least in ensuring that the interventions to be provided both as part of, and following, the youth justice sentence effectively tackle identified risk factors and therefore impact on reoffending. LCJBs will also have an interest in how the gains made in ensuring the swift administration of justice for Persistent Young Offenders can be built upon for those young offenders targeted for the purposes of Prevent & Deter.


IV. DEVELOPING THE LOCAL PROGRAMME: INTENSIVE TARGETING 4.1 This section of the guidance provides advice for partnerships about the key components of the second element of the local Prevent & Deter strategy: intensive targeting programmes for those young people on the verge of beginning a serious criminal career. This group is distinguishable from the target group for youth justice interventions. While the former will already be involved in serious offending and involved in the youth justice system, the target group for intensive targeting will be those who have not yet reached that stage, but who are identified locally, through their circumstances, behaviour or personal characteristics etc as being most at risk of beginning a problematic criminal career. All the evidence suggests that this group, left to their own devices, will go on to become highly active young offenders. So the purpose of the intensive targeting element is to address the problem at a much earlier stage, to prevent the places of those targeted by youth justice interventions being taken by the next group of increasing problematic young offenders. The emphasis here is on intervention earlier, to prevent these young people from going on to establish a problematic criminal career.
The local Prevent and Deter programme should include:



local arrangements to enable the identification of those children and young people most at risk of problematic offending; sufficient local provision to enable intensive work with this group, drawing on support from mainstream services, as appropriate, to support these young people in resisting criminality.


Evaluation has shown that interventions that target those young people most at risk of offending, which provide appropriate interventions for them, taking account of their individual needs and circumstances, are particularly effective in reducing offending as well as other problem behaviours. Because resources are limited, it is important to identify and prioritise those at greatest risk of criminality for intensive targeting. In doing so, it will be important to recognise the need to tackle, from an early age onwards, those whose behaviour or circumstances suggest that they may be most likely to become active and problematic young offenders. Accordingly, all areas will need to set up mechanisms to enable the identification, assessment and referral of children and young people most at risk, from an early age, where such arrangements do not exist already. Youth Inclusion and Support Panels, comprising representatives drawn from YOTs, the police,



schools, health, social services and the local community provide an example of an existing model. Youth Inclusion and Support Panels (YISPs)
YISPs are multi-agency planning groups that seek to prevent offending by offering voluntary support services to high-risk 8-13 year olds and their families before offending behaviours have taken hold. The main emphasis is on ensuring that they receive, at the earliest opportunity, mainstream public services together with complementary interventions from voluntary and community groups, to meet their needs. The focus is on 8-13 year olds because this is a significant period of transition from childhood to adolescence: the time of transfer from primary to secondary school, when attainment and attendance can suffer and exclusions increase. With careful and sensitive targeting and selection, initiatives such as YISPs can address issues at an early stage, before problems escalate.


YISPs (or a similar model) should be able to identify their target group from those in the age range living in the local area who are known to the YOT, but not yet formally within the youth justice system, or who are known to other local agencies or services and considered to be at very high risk of offending, based on the presence of risk and protective factors in their lives. The YISP develops and implements an individual Integrated Support Plan in respect of the targeted young people, drawing on appropriate multi-agency commitment and key worker support, and tracking implementation and impact over time. Home Office modeling suggests that YISPs lead to an annual reduction in the number of young offenders by some 12%. YISPs are now operating or being established in many areas. We recommend the establishment of at least one YISP in every top tier local authority area (that is, consistent with YOT boundaries) where there is not one in operation already. Where the need is greater, there may be a need for additional panels (for example, in high crime/high population density areas). A single YISP that covers the whole local authority area with high concentrations and a large population of offenders will need to ensure that they have an effective process to prioritise the potentially large number of referrals they are likely to receive. Good practice suggests that YISPs should be capable of carrying a “caseload” of up to 200 young people, and we recommend that the YOT and CDRP should together make an assessment of need, based on their experience of throughput and caseload over time. The YJB website provides a source of good practice guidance on establishing and running a Youth Inclusion and Support Panel.





Youth Inclusion Programmes 4.11 Over and above the introduction of YISPs, we recommend that all areas put in place specific, geographically targeted programmes that draw in those young people, from the age of 8 upwards who may be most at risk of going on to become highly active young offenders – either because they are involved, from an early age, in anti-social behaviour and low-level offending, or are otherwise considered to be at high risk. Such programmes will provide an important mechanism for steering those young people who may later become the most active young offenders and PPOs of the future away from criminality at an early stage. Programmes such as the (Junior) Youth Inclusion Programme, currently targeting the most at risk 8 to 13 year olds, and the (Senior) Youth Inclusion Programme, targeting the most at risk 13 to 16 year olds, provide good examples of successful intensive targeting programmes.


The Youth Inclusion Programme is a targeted intervention aimed at those young people on the edges of criminality, to prevent them developing a criminal career. Senior YIP schemes target 13-16 year olds in the deprived neighbourhood, each targeting the 50 most at risk of offending. The programme provides structured activities and assistance to steer these young people away from crime as well as helping to improve school attendance and reduce exclusions. Referrals to the programme can come from the police, schools, and local residents, with voluntary organisations involved in managing, designing and delivering the schemes. YIPs include a range of activities to engage young people and their families, backed up by targeted support services, including: family link centres based in schools; lunchtime and after school homework clubs, and school holiday clubs; skill centres providing training and qualifications; mentoring; sports and other forms of constructive recreation; and support services for parents and carers. In addition to focusing on the 50 most at risk young people, the programme also encourages wider groups of young people to participate in programme activities including siblings and peers.


There are already a number of junior YIP schemes, funded through the Children’s Fund and 72 senior YIPs across England and Wales, operating in accordance with YJB quality standards. But the number of such schemes in the local area should be dependent on an assessment of need, taking account of the workload of YISPs and referrals from the YOT and other local agencies. The YJB provides YIP management guidance with clear advice on the identification of young people most at risk of offending, including through the use of the ONSET assessment tool.



At present, the target group for YIPs is identified through a multi-agency consultation process, drawing on input from the YOT, police, social services, local education authority and/or schools and other local agencies and community groups where appropriate. Multi-agency working and sharing of information across agency boundaries is vital to the success of YIP schemes. In particular, it makes sense for YIPs to take referrals from the local YISP, to provide targeted support for those assessed as being most at risk, and for there to be links between local junior and senior YIPs - where both exist - to provide for comprehensive provision. There is also value in establishing effective links between YIPs and the local Connexions partnership and others providing specialist help for children and young people in the local area, to provide on-going support. The success of YIP schemes have been established by independent evaluation. The 2003 evaluation of the senior YIP programme showed an overall crime reduction of 6.3% in the YIP neighbourhhoods, with a 65% reduction in arrest rates amongst the targeted group. We recommend that all areas undertake an assessment of the demand for local YIP schemes through multi-agency discussion. The aim should be to establish a sufficient number of locally based schemes to deal with the number of high risk young people living in the local area. Again, the YJB website provides a source of good practice guidance on establishing and running Youth Inclusion Programmes.




Broader diversionary programmes

Local areas should also consider the need for broader diversionary programmes providing developmental activities for a wider group of young people, such as currently provided by the Positive Activities for Young People and Positive Futures programmes. Again the requirement will be for local areas to satisfy themselves that there is adequate such provision for the needs of young people in the area.

Positive Activities for Young People Programme This is a national programme providing developmental activities during school holiday periods for young people at risk of becoming involved in offending. The programme aims to reduce youth offending and encourage and support young people to return to education or training. The emphasis is on providing quality sports, arts and creative activities that are not only appealing but focused on the young person's individual needs, equipping them with new skills, improving their self-esteem and breaking down ethnic and cultural barriers. Key worker support – provided through the Connexions Service - helps those most at risk.


Positive Futures Positive Futures is a national sports-based social inclusion programme targeting marginalised 10 to 19-year-olds living in deprived areas. By engaging these young people in sport and other activities, Positive Futures aims to build relationships between responsible adults and young people based on mutual trust and respect, in order to create new opportunities for alternative lifestyles. The programme uses sport as a catalyst to encourage young people to make decisions for themselves, and to take selfdetermined steps towards a positive future. Steering young people towards educational and employment opportunities is at the heart of the programme’s agenda. Positive Futures involves: outreach and detached work to contact young people at risk; coaching skills across a range of sports; education, leadership and mentoring programmes; opportunities for volunteering, casual and part time work and pathways to full time employment.

Young People’s Development Programme The Young People’s Development Programme is a three year pilot programme aimed at 13-15 year olds. There are 30 local programmes, each different, but all concerned with addressing risk taking behaviour through a structured holistic developmental programme, which includes play and creative activities, life skills development including skills for employment as well as health based work. The programme is being evaluated by the Social Sciences Research Unit, University of London.


In addition to the above, there is a growing number of incentive schemes, such as the Karrot programme in Southwark, London, aimed at tackling anti-social behaviour such as truancy and crime. The schemes use a smart card system to reward young people for positive behaviour such as going to school and arriving on time. Rewards are decided in collaboration with young people to ensure they want to receive them and remain engaged with the process. They are dependent on the number of points that are earned. Parenting programmes can also feature at this level and can involve group work or one to one interventions, and can be delivered by statutory services (such as YOTs, LEAs, or social services) or third party organisations on their behalf. The programme should be appropriate to the particular parents or parent, taking into account any disability, special educational need or mental health problem that would affect the parent’s ability to participate in a programme and cultural, racial, linguistic, literacy, religious or gender specific issues that may affect the kind of programme that will be effective for a particular parent.



V. 5.1

PROGRAMME ASSESSMENT AND PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT In common with the Catch & Convict and Rehabilitate & Resettle strands of the programme, Government Offices will work with CDRPs and other partners to provide support and advice on developing and implementing comprehensive local Prevent & Deter arrangements. As far as possible, our aim will be to avoid, or at least to minimise, the need for additional reporting or monitoring requirements. Wherever possible, we will want to make use of, and build on, existing arrangements, as well as looking at how Government Offices can support the development and dissemination of best practice to support local arrangements.

Performance Management 5.2 The immediate priorities in terms of implementation for CDRPs is to ensure that there is a sufficient understanding of the levels of youth offending in the local areas and the capacity of local programmes to respond. CDRPs will have a key role in helping to ensure that appropriate services are able to meet the needs (as identified through the ASSET assessment process) of the most active young offenders both during and after sentence. This guidance also recommends the development of sufficient numbers of YISP and YIP (or similar) programmes in all areas to meet the expected level of demand, in addition to ensuring that services for children and young people recognise the need to address the risk factors for criminality alongside other negative outcomes. Consistent with the other strands of the PPO strategy, Government Offices will be responsible for ensuring that each CDRP in its region has taken the steps required to establish a local Prevent & Deter arrangements in accordance with the timescales set out in this guidance. And nationally, we will aim to develop a full performance management framework, to include appropriate performance measures and indicators for Prevent & Deter, aligned with the developing performance management framework for Catch & Convict and Rehabilitate & Resettle.


Accountability 5.4 As with the other strands, we will expect accountability to be set out along a clearly defined delivery chain - for example, from the centre, through Government Offices and CDRPs, and Youth Justice Board and YOTs to local programmes, with local schemes having strong ownership of delivery and performance management.




6.1 In drawing up the Action Plans described in para 1.10 of this guidance CDRPs should have regard in particular, to the following check list of questions. Government Offices stand ready to provide support and advice to CDRPs on the work to be done to ensure that they have robust local Prevent & Deter plans in place.

Prevent & Deter checklist Overall strategy: preparing to deliver (to be completed by November 2004) Q.1 Q.2 Has the CDRP commissioned/undertaken an assessment of levels of youth offending within its area (para 1.7(i))? Has the CDRP commissioned/undertaken an assessment of the capacity of available programmes/activities in the local area that target those young people most at risk of offending/re-offending (para 1.7(ii))? Does the CDRP have a clear picture of need against capacity and an understanding of whether key elements are in place and whether/where there are gaps in required provision (para 1.8)? Does the CDRP have the required links with the relevant Youth Offending Team and identified the most appropriate geographical arrangements (para 2.12 – 2.14)?




Youth Justice interventions (key elements by November, full implementation by beginning of 2005) Q.5 Are the necessary arrangements in place to identify the pool of active/ persistent young offenders to be targeted as part of the local Prevent & Deter programme eg highest ASSET scores (para 3.4 – 3.7)? Has the CDRP identified by name specific individuals who will be the first group to be targeted under this strand of the prgramme (para 3.8)? Are there arrangements in place to ensure that appropriate programmes of interventions are attached to the youth justice sentences of the Prevent & Deter target group, and systems to check that this is happening (para 3.9)? Are there arrangements in place to ensure that a managed exit strategy is developed at the end of the youth justice sentence for the Prevent & Deter target group to address continuing risks and needs to prevent re-offending, with systems to check that this is happening (para 3.13 – 3.14)?

Q.6 Q.7


Intensive targeting (key elements by November, full implementation by beginning of 2005) Q.9 Q.10 Is there at least one Youth Inclusion and Support Panel (or similar arrangements) in every top tier local authority area (para 4.6)? Does the CDRP have plans to review the caseload/throughput of local Youth Inclusion and Support Panel (or similar arrangements) to ensure that the established arrangements have the capacity to meet the demands on them (para 4.7)? Are there Youth Inclusion Programmes – junior and senior – (or similar) providing targeted provision for the most at risk young people operating in the local area (para 4.9)? Are there adequate local arrangements in place to assess the capacity of existing targeted provision against an assessment of local need (para 4.15)? Has the CDRP considered the need for additional broader diversionary programmes, providing developmental activities for a wider group of at risk young people (para 4.16)?


Q.12 Q.13


ANNEX A STRATEGIC CONTEXT: EARLY INTERVENTIONS A.1 Youth justice interventions and intensive targeting programmes will ensure the immediate impact of Prevent and Deter by contracting the pool of young offenders at risk of becoming the prolific offenders of the future. Longer-term sustainability will be provided through effective early intervention programmes targeted at children and young people at risk, before offending behaviour has taken root. In all areas there will be a large number of programmes that are designed to ensure that those most at risk are identified early. A summary is provided below.


Early interventions: key programmes
Key programmes Sure Start Description Works with parents-to-be, families with children under 5 in the 20% most disadvantaged areas to improve life chances for the poorest children. Targeted at 4-12 year olds and their families in 24 high deprivation/high crime areas to reduce offending and anti-social behaviour by targeting early interventions at the risk factors for crime and antisocial behaviour. Personal advisors work with young people including those identified as being at risk of, or already involved in, offending to deliver a tailored programme of action including specialist help where required. Provides diversionary activities for at risk 8-19 year olds both in school holidays and out-of-school hours throughout the year.

Contribution to Prevent and Deter
Aiming to lead to Children’s Centres in the most disadvantaged wards in England by 2007/08: 1,700 children’s centres by March 2008 will cover 56% of poor children and provide 100,000 new childcare places and a pilot to extend a free part time early education place to 6,000 2 year olds in disadvantaged areas. 24 neighbourhood level Programmes, successful in targeting over 7,000 4-12 year olds through a combination of five core services operating as targeted interventions. Early indications from the evaluation programme suggest improved behaviour by children and young people following attendance on the programme. Connexions Partnerships are working to deliver a target to reduce the proportion of 16 -18 year olds not in education, employment or training by 10%.

On Track


Positive Activities for Young People

YOTs, Connexions Partnerships, BIP schools and other agencies working with at risk young people identify and refer young people to the programme. All 26 highest ranking CDRPs have PAYP operating within them.


Behaviour Improvement Programme

Local programmes that best meet the needs of schools where poor attendance and truancy are significant barriers to learning.

Children’s Fund

Targeted at 5-13 age group focusing on tackling disadvantages and inequalities which derive from child poverty and social exclusion.

60 LEAs involved in the programme to March 2006. Individual measures include: Safer Schools Partnerships: police officers based in schools in all but one of the 26 highest ranking CDRPs; Extended schools, providing accessible family and community services in 61 areas, leading to 240 covering every LEA by 2006; Truancy sweeps: with nationally coordinated sweeps twice yearly; Behaviour and Education Support Teams: multiagency teams working with 4-18 year olds to prevent emotional and behavioural problems. 24 of the 26 highest ranking CDRPs have BESTs operating within them. The Children’s Fund is locally determined and flexible, with an emphasis on supporting children within the home, school and wider community. Also a strong focus on supporting parents. Children’s Fund partnerships currently required to devote 25% of the Fund to programmes to prevent crime and anti-social behaviour in consultation with YOTs: 477 services reaching 27,000 children, young people and carers. These services include Youth Inclusion and Support Panels and Youth Inclusion Programmes, Restorative Justice, Innovation Services, Safer Schools Partnerships and work with victims of crime. Alongside the 25%, the Children Fund has an explicit sub-objective to “ensure that fewer young people aged between 10 and 13 commit crime and fewer children between 5 and 13 are victims of crime”. As at September 2003, there were 3416 (73 % of all services) that claimed to have some element of their work that contributed toward the crime prevention subobjective. Overall, 1023 (22 % of all services) had this sub-objective as the main focus of their activity.

Neighbourhood Support Fund

Delivers a programme of informed learning and selfdevelopment to hard to reach 13-19 year olds in the most deprived local authority areas.

Currently supports around 230 local voluntary and community projects and is delivered in 40 of the most deprived local authority areas. 20 of the highest ranking CDRPs have NSF operating within them. In the pilot phase almost 51,000 young people participated in NSF, and of those leaving the programme, 67% have secured a positive outcome in education, training or work.


Many of these programmes are concerned with addressing risk factors in young people’s lives (see below).


Every Child Matters A.4 It is the intention that reforms introduced in support of Every Child Matters will lead to the development of a comprehensive system to identify children at risk of negative outcomes, including criminality, to allow for early intervention to help those children avoid those outcomes. Particularly significant amongst these reforms will be the Common Assessment Framework: a comprehensive and coherent approach to prevention and early intervention across agencies, to ensure that professionals are better equipped to spot early warning signs and more able to share information to build up a comprehensive picture of need. The Common Assessment Framework will enable those working with children and young people to: • • • A.7 ‘join up’ with other professionals also working with the child and to share concerns with them; assess the child’s needs in a holistic way and decide what response is needed; and identify risks early so that any required intervention is of a lower order than if the issue had been allowed to escalate.



In addition, CDRPs will also need to take into account the emerging development of Children’s Trusts, which will, over time, have the potential to have an influence on the early intervention element of the Prevent and Deter programme. Children’s Trusts go beyond children, families and schools departments by including children’s health services (through Section 31 of the Health Act 1999). They may also include other services beyond the local authority such as Connexions. Children’s Trusts will normally sit within the local authority and report to the Director of Children’s Services who will report through the Chief Executive to elected members. The key services that should be within a Trust are:



Local education authority – potentially all education functions, including the education welfare service, youth service, special educational needs and educational psychology, childcare and early years education, and school improvement. Children’s Social Services including assessment and services for children in need such as family support, foster and residential care,

adoption services, childcare for children in need, advocacy services and child protection, and services for care leavers.

Community and acute health services, such as community paediatrics, Drug Action Teams, Children’s and Young People’s Joint Commissioning Groups, teenage pregnancy coordinators, and locally commissioned and provided Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services. They could also include speech and language therapy, health visiting and occupational therapy services concerned with children and families. Primary Care Trusts will be able to delegate functions into the Children’s Trust, and will be able to pool funds with the local authority.

A.10 Other services which may be covered include:

Youth Offending Teams – multi-disciplinary teams working with young people and their families to prevent offending Connexions Service –– multi-agency information, advice and guidance service for 13-19s.


Some areas have pathfinder Children’s Trusts in place. A list of these pathfinder areas is below.

A.12 In addition to the reforms above, the DfES Five Year Strategy for Children and Learners signals a commitment to publish a Green Paper in Autumn 2004 focusing on ensuring that all young people are equipped and supported to do well. This Green paper will help to shape the future context in which work with those most at risk will be delivered.
Children’s trust pathfinders DH and DfES Ministers announced the names of the 35 Children’s Trust Pathfinders in July 2003. Trust sites get £60,000 pump-priming per year for three years, and can apply for up to a further £40,000 based on the size and complexity of their trust. The 35 Pathfinders are: Barnsley, Bexley, Blackburn with Darwen, Bolton, Brighton and Hove, Calderdale, Cambridgeshire City of York Croydon, Darlington, Devon, East Yorkshire, Essex, Gateshead, Greenwich, Hammersmith and Fulham, Hampshire, Hertfordshire, Leicester, Newcastle, North Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire,

Redbridge, Sandwell, Sheffield, Solihull, South Tyneside, Sutton, Telford and Wrekin, Tower Hamlets, Trafford, West Sussex Wokingham.



Risk and protective factors : a summary
There is a significant body of research which shows that there are identifiable risk factors that increase the likelihood of offending along with other negative outcomes. While these may not be causal factors, there is little doubt that the roots of youth crime lie in the way that multiple risk factors converge and interact in the lives of some children, particularly where there is an absence of protective factors, to mitigate against the impact of risk factors. Risk factors fall into four principal domains: the family, school, community and the individual. The risk factors themselves may not be specifically criminal, and the response to them will often most appropriately be about improving social conditions or skills rather than explicitly crime reduction, particularly where the response is delivered prior to the onset of criminality. Risk and Protective factors – summary Family Young mother; poor family management; family conflict; family history of criminal Risk: activity; parental attitudes that condone antisocial and criminal behaviour; low income, poor housing and large family size. Protective: School Risk: Protective: Community Risk: Protective: Individual Risk: Poverty; community disorganisation and neglect; community tolerance to crime; availability of drugs; high population turnover and lack of neighbourhood attachment. Ability to cope with stress; rewards for positive involvement; opportunities for positive involvement; prevailing social attitudes; community controls. Hyperactivity and impulsivity; low intelligence and cognitive impairment; alienation and lack of social commitment; attitudes that condone offending and drug misuse; early involvement in crime and drug/alcohol misuse; friends involved in crime and drug/alcohol misuse. Gender; social skills; character; regular attendance at religious services. Participation in family activities; family attachment; parental encouragement; parental monitoring. Low achievement; aggressive behaviour, including bullying; lack of commitment to school, including truancy; school disorganisation. Positive involvement in meaningful important activities in school.


By addressing risk factors, relevant programmes or interventions can help to prevent future generations of young people turning to crime. And as the risk factors are common to a range of negative outcomes, multi-agency working can help to avoid overlaps of provision and build capacity for the delivery of ‘common purpose’ preventative activities on the ground. Programmes or interventions that target multiple risk factors are likely to be more effective than those that address single factors.

ANNEX B YOUTH OFFENDING TEAMS There are 155 Youth Offending Teams. Their areas are based on local authority areas in England and Wales. YOTs comprise representatives of the police, Probation Service, social services, health, education, drugs and alcohol misuse and housing officers. They will often be involved with children and young people at risk of offending, including through supporting diversionary programmes or intensive targeting schemes such as the Youth Inclusion Programme. YOTs are also directly involved with young offenders because they have specific youth justice system functions to perform, such as advising courts and administering sentences, including intervention programmes attached to youth justice sentences. The 155 YOT teams are:

Eastern Region - Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire, Essex, Hertfordshire, Luton, Norfolk, Peterborough, Southend, Suffolk, Thurrock East Midlands - Derby City, Derbyshire, Leicester City, Leicestershire, Lincolnshire, Northamptonshire, Nottingham City, Nottinghamshire London - Barking and Dagenham, Barnet, Bexley, Brent, Bromley, Camden, Croydon, Ealing, Enfield, Greenwich, Hackney, Hammersmith & Fulham, Haringey, Harrow, Havering, Hillingdon, Hounslow, Islington, Kensington & Chelsea, Kingston Upon Thames, Lambeth, Lewisham, Merton, Newham, Redbridge, Richmond-Upon-Thames, Southwark, Sutton, Tower Hamlets & City of London, Waltham Forest, Wandsworth, Westminster North-East - Darlington, Durham, Gateshead, Hartlepool, Newcastle upon Tyne, North Tyneside, Northumberland, South Tees, South Tyneside, Stockton-onTees, Sunderland North-West - Blackburn, Blackpool, Bolton, Bury, Cheshire, Cumbria, Halton/Warrington, Knowsley, Lancashire, Liverpool, Manchester, Oldham, Rochdale, Salford, Sefton, St Helens, Stockport, Tameside, Trafford, Wigan, Wirral South-East - Bracknell Forest, Brighton & Hove, Buckinghamshire, East Sussex, Kent, Medway, Milton Keynes, Oxfordshire, Reading & Wokingham, Slough, Surrey, Wessex, West Berkshire, West Sussex, Windsor & Maidenhead South-West - Bath & NE Somerset, Bournemouth & Poole, Bristol, Cornwall & the Isles of Scilly, Devon, Dorset, Gloucestershire, North Somerset, Plymouth,

Somerset, South Gloucestershire, Swindon, Torbay, Wiltshire

Wales - Bridgend, Caerphilly & Blaenau Gwent, Cardiff, Carmarthenshire, Conwy & Denbighshire, Flintshire, Gwynedd & Ynyn Mon, Merthyr Tydfil, Mid Wales Powys & Ceredigion, Neath Port Talbot, Newport, Pembrokeshire, Rhondda Cynon Taff, Swansea, Torfaen & Monmouthshire, Vale of Glamorgan, Wrexham West Midlands - Birmingham, Coventry, Dudley, Sandwell, Shropshire & Telford/Wrekin, Solihull, Staffordshire, Stoke on Trent, Walsall, Warwickshire, Wolverhampton, Worcestershire & Herefordshire Yorkshire & Humberside - Barnsley, Bradford, Calderdale, Doncaster, E Riding of Yorkshire, Hull, Kirklees, Leeds, North East Lincolnshire, North Lincolnshire, North Yorkshire, Rotherham, Sheffield, Wakefield, York.