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International Seminar on Infrastucture Development inCluster Island EasternPart of Indonesia, Baubau, Indonesia

STUDY OF THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH AND PERMEABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CLAY LINER LAYER IS STABILIZED WITH CEMENT TO LEACHATE Achmad Zubair1, , H. Lawalenna S.2, a nd Mikael Pakambi3 ABSTRACT: This study aims to analisys characteristics of clay that is used as a layer of clay liner in sanitary landfill waste treatment system using cement stabilization of PCC variations through standard proctor test, unconfined compression strength test, and testing on infiltration modeling landfill. This study uses a low plasticity clay with a semen sample with a variation of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% and leachate samples with the addition of 50% of the volume of water used. through standardized testing proktor test obtained the highest value on the unit weight of dry cement content of 10% (1.85 gr/cm3). value in testing the compressive strength qu largest free cement content obtained in 20% (15.45 kg / cm ) with a curing time of 28 days. While the modeling of the column leach test obtained the lowest value of 14.58 cm / min and the value of k = 9.76 x 10-5 cm / sec at 10% cement content. Permeability decreases with the addition of up to 10% cement content. Permeability coefficient (k) for the cement content of 0% (5.19 x 10-4 cm / sec), cement content of 5% (2.71 x 10-4 cm / sec), and cement content of 10% (9.76 x 10-4 cm / sec). But the addition of the cement content above 10% increase in the coefficient of permeability, the rate of cement of 20% (2.74 x 10-3 cm / sec). So this suggests that the stabilization of clay using different levels of cement content of cement to the addition of 10% can be used in the final layer of clay ground with the method of landfill Sanitary Landfill. Key words: soil-cement stabilization, the compressive strength and permeability, sanitary landfill clay liner.

INTRODUCTION Urban wasteisaccommodatedinthe final disposallocation (lpa) willundergo a process of decomposition. The decompositionprocesscauses a physicalchange, chemicalandbiologicalgarbage. One result of thedecomposition of wasteis a liquidwasteleachate. Leachatefromthelandfillwastefromthelandfillsitewillseep intothesoilandconsequentlythesurroundinglandwillcontai ningredientscontainedintheleachate. Iftheseepage of leachatethroughthesoilandkelapisanflowsintothegroundw aterwillcontaminatethegroundwaterquality. Thoughmost of thepopulationstilluseswellwateraround (whichcomesfromgroundwater) as a source of cleanwater. Therefore, actionneedstobedoneishowtomakethelpaissafe for theenvironment. Topreventleachateseepedintogroundwater, thebase of a landfillmustbeimperviousorimpermeabletowater. Thistype of coatingiscommonlyusedtodayistheclaylineris a layer of compactedclay. Tocreateanimpermeableclayliner, clayisaningredienttomake a claylinershouldbecompactedlayerbylayerwith a certainenergyandwatercontent, becausethewatercontentandcompactionenergyisgreatlyaff ectedtheclaylinerseepageisconcerned (Mochtar, 2000).

Atthesamemoisturecontent, theseepagewascompactedbylowenergygreaterthanthatco mpactedwithhighenergy (HardcastelandMitchel, 1974). However, pleasenotewhetherthevalueobtainedwillbethesameseepag eapabilahclaylinerlayerbeingsubjectedto a stabilizationwithcementat a densityadjustedto optimum moisturecontent. In connection with the foregoing, the authors are interested in doing research under the title: "Study of the compressive strength and permeability characteristics of the clay liner layer is stabilized with cement to leachate RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Examination of the physical characteristics of the Land Testing the basic characteristics of the land used as moisture content, specific gravity, the size distribution of soil, permeability, and Atterberg limits (liquid limit and plastic limit) based on the standard ASTM tests, AASTHO and SNI. For the preparation of the soil, the soil material selanjutnya dried until it reaches the surface dry condition and then crushed to a grain-pass filter granulated no.4. Mechanical Characteristics of Soil Testing Method


Achmad Zubair, et al

Testing of the mechanical characteristics of soil cement stabilization as a layer of clay liner Sanitary Landfill through standard proctor compaction tests and free compressive strength (UCS) with variations in cement content of PCC 0%, 5%, 10%, and 20% based on ASTM test standards, AASTHO, and SNI. Test Method Characteristics Infiltration Tests of absorption / infiltration in this study using a model column leach clay layer liner on Sanitary Landfill Preparation of Model absorbing layer Land that has escaped later in peram no.4 sieve according to the optimum moisture content and dry weight of the compaction test results. Then put in the testing field samples in accordance with the required volume of loose soil and then leveled and compacted with a compacting system standard, the high falls, the number of collisions and the energy compaction of each layer, in order to obtain the density is assumed as the density field. Same test repeated in cement stabilized soil samples with a variation of cement content of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. This is done on each treatment in order to obtain the same conditions and homogeneous, in accordance with the density of compaction compacting system standard. Column testing Resapan Layer Modeling Clay Liner Sanitary Landfill By using a modeling column leach test / infiltration sanitary landfill liner clay layer that is designed in such a way, made of rectangular-shaped Acrylic etc / long column with transparent walls on four sides by container size 40 x 40 x 60 cm, and then given a plate elbow and iron as reinforcement at the four outer sides and the bottom for modeling infiltration column test equipment is capable of accepting the burden of the test sample, and at the compaction process. Basically made a hole to accommodate water infiltration into the soil and connected by a hose expenditure and storage containers (measuring cup). The following column test model:

Figure 1. Schematic diagram of the column layerResapan Modeling Clay Liner Sanitary Landfill the effect of some parameters of the absorption / infiltration that occurs. Soil physical characteristics Landusearesoildepositsareeasilyavailable. Results of basicsoilpropertiesthatwillbeusedarelistedin Table 1. Type of examination Examination

water content Specific gravity gradation atterberg limit

Soil classification

25,25 % 2,545 Sand = 48,69 % Silt = 9,20% Clay = 42,11% LL = 44,30 % PL = 25,36 % SL = 23,45 % PI = 19,02 % USCS : CL AASHTO : A-2-6

Compaction Curve Characteristics standard compaction testing conducted to determine the compaction characteristics of the original soil samples and soil samples that have been in the stabilization of the variation in cement content, so the density is known to


Study of the Compressive Strength and Permeability Characteristics of the Clay Liner Layer is Stabilized with Cement to Leachate

be used in the column leach modeling clay layer liner sanitary landfill the addition of cement can cause reduced levels of the content of the dry weight of the soil containing fine particles of sand and silt, such as sandy clay, this is caused by increased levels of cement, a mixture of gravity (gs) that the distribution of grains tend to be worse, resulting in severe decline in the content dry

until it reaches the collapse. Composition of the mixture of free compressive strength test (UCS) with a variation of cement stabilization after a period of curing (curing) of compressive strength test results obtained free of behaviors related to changes in mechanical properties after soil stabilized with cement content variation of curing time is shown in figure the chart below. Of Figure 3. showed that the addition of the percentage of cement content and curing time on its website (curing time) can increase the strength of the soil, it is seen that the changes at each percentage of cement content and length of curing time (curing time) gives the value of the strength (qu) which tends to increase .

Then calculated the volume of dry weight (d) of the land by using the following equation

where: Wdry =weight of dry soil (gram) Wwet= weight of wet soil sample was compacted samples (gram) = weight of dry sample volume of samples that have been compacted (gram) w = The water content of compacted soil after (%) Vmould= mold / ring sample volume ) \

Figure 3. The relationship graph of qu and Cement Levels

Figure 2. Volume Weight Relationships Graph Dry Moisture Levels In Semen Variation Figure 2 showsthattheclaysoilstabilizedwithcementmayaffectthe Characteristics of Unconfined CompresiveStrenght Strength testing of unconfined Compresive (UCS) in order to get the value of land forces in a free state

His influence was at maximum power levels of 20% cement persentae between the 3, 7, 14, and 28 days is significant. Qu test results with a variation of the curing time of cement content shows that the average value of the highest qu = 15.45 cm / kg, (very stiff consistency) occurred in the percentage of variation in cement content of 20% with 28 days curing time. This is due to the hydration process of cement particles thereby cement a strong link in the chain expands to bind the grains of the mineral and aggregate land nearby so that soil particles are extensively bound by the cement at the contact points only. Percolation - Levels of Semen curve Column infiltration testing on catchment modeling clay layer liner sanitary landfill aims to determine the function of clay liner on the original clay and loam soil cement stabilization, as an impermeable layer through observation of the pattern of infiltration that occurred and the permeability coefficient.


Achmad Zubair, et al

Observations made on the variation of absorption layer of clay liner material using clay Sanitary Landfill, stabilized with cement content of 0%, 5%, 10%, and 20% with the density obtained in accordance with the standard proctor compaction test results in the laboratory.

of standardized testing in the laboratory permeability values obtained permeability coefficient of variation of cement content shown in table 2.


500 400 300

Resapan, PERC

200 100 0 0 25 50 75 100 Waktu ( menit ) Figure 6. Moisture Relationship Graph and Time Variations In Levels of Cement Leachate Water 50% 50% fromfigure 6 showsthatchangesinwaterlevelsthatoccurredincreasedwit hincreasingtime for eachvariety of cementstabilizationtoachieveconstantconditions. CONCLUSION Based on theresults of researchand data analysis, severalconclusionscanbedrawn as follows: 1.. Testing of physicalcharacteristics of thesoil material inthestudybased on USCS classificationcategorized as sandyclaysoilwith a degree of plasticityis (CL) andtheclassification AASTHO classified as clay (A-7-6). 2.esting of themechanicalcharacteristics of theclaystabilizedwithcementmenunujukkanthephysicali mprovements, theaveragevalue of thehighestqu = 15.45 cm / kg (verystiffconsistency) occurredinthepercentage of variationincementcontent of 20% 3.3. Characteristics of thecolumnleach testing of catchment modeling layer on SanitaryLandfillClayLiner, showedthattheabsorptionand minimum permeabilitycoefficientisinthestabilization of clay (CL) with 10% cementcontent, theabsorptionvalue of 14.58 cm / min andthevalue of k = 9 , 76 x 10-5 cm / sec. REFERENCES Das, Braja M,.Endah, Noor. Dan Mochtar, Indrasurya B. 1988. Mekanika Tanah (Prinsip(cm/menit)

Figure 4.Relationship Graph infiltration and Time Variation in Cement Content.

Figure 4 shows the relationship between the absorption that occurs with variation of cement content on Sanitary Landfill Liner Clay models of the time, where the infiltration that occurs tends to decline with the addition of up to 10% cement content, with the scaling of the variation in clay content of the cement to stabilize the cement 0% (54 cm / min), 5% (28 cm / min), 10% (11cm / min). However, the variation in cement content of 20%, infiltration would increase with each recharge that occurs is 29 cm / min Permeability - Levels of Semen Curves The originalclayorloamsoilthat has beenstabilizedwithcement as a material variationinlevels of coverattheend of thesanitarylandfillisdesignedtominimizeinfiltration / waterinfiltrationso as tohavecriteria as impermeablelayer. Itcanbeknownthroughthecoefficient of permeability.

Table 2. The permeability coefficient of variation values Materials

No. 1 2 3 4 Variasi Material Tanah Asli Tanah Asli + 5% PCC Tanah Asli + 10% PCC Tanah Asli + 10% PCC Konsentrasi Lindi Air 50% : Lindi 50% Air 50% : Lindi 50% Air 50% : Lindi 50% Air 50% : Lindi 50% Koefisien Permeabilitas 5.19E-04 2.71E-04 9.76E-05 2.74E-04


Study of the Compressive Strength and Permeability Characteristics of the Clay Liner Layer is Stabilized with Cement to Leachate

PrinsipRekayasaGoeteknik)-Jilid I,.Erlangga, Jakarta. Das, Braja M,.Endah, Noor. Dan Mochtar, Indrasurya B. 1988. Mekanika Tanah (PrinsipPrinsipRekayasaGoeteknik)-Jilid II. Erlangga, Jakarta. Direktorat PLP, DirjenCiptaKarya, DepartemenPekerjaanUmum. 2006. NSPM PedomanPengoperasiandanPemelihraanTempatP embuanganAkhir (TPA) Sistem Controlled Landfill dan Sanitary Landfill. Hardyatmo, HaryCrhistiady. 2000. MekanikaTanah 1EdisiKelima. UGM Press, Yogyakarta. Joseph E. Bowles. (1984). Sifat-SifatFisisdanGeoteknis Tanah, PenerbitErlangga, Jakarta. Kanisius, Malang. Madyayanti, E. dan M.J. Smith, (1992), Seri Pedoman Godwin, Mekanika Tanah, EdisiKeempat, PenerbitErlangga, Jakarta.

KementrianPekerjaanUmum. 2009. PedomanOperasidanPemeliharaanPrasaranadan SaranaPersampahan, Jakarta. Nizar, Chairil. SkemaSistem Sanitary Landfill, Ilmu Purnomo, E.S.J dan G.D. Soedarmo, (1997), Mekanika Tanah 2, Qasim, Syed R dan Chiang Walter. 1994. Sanitary Landfill Leachate. Technomic SK SNI 03- 3241 - 94. 1994. Tata Cara PemilihanLokasiTempatPembuanganAkhir, DPU. Undang-UndangRepublik Indonesia No. 18. 2008. TentangPengelolaanSampah . Jakarta, DirektoratJendralPeraturanPerundang-undangan. Wesley, L.D, (1977), Mekanika Tanah, Cetakan VI, BadanPekerjaan. Umum, Jakarta Selatan.