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Table X: Summary of Responses to the Problems of Anti-Social Behaviour in Public

Transport Systems. (Source: Anti-Social Behaviour. Problem Solving Guides for Public Transport.
See Appendix to this Toolkit.)

No. Response How it Works Works Best Considerations

Increasing the Effort Needed for Crime

1. Harden targets Protects staff against ...(1) employees May make

and protect violence and anti- actually use them communication
victims social behaviour – where optional between
e.g., spitting employees and
e.g., install (2) employees do passengers more
protective not leave difficult, which
interior screens protected cabin may increase
for bus drivers area conflict; may
produce glare and
obstruct drivers
vision; may
restrict air flow;
may not prevent
assaults involving
some weapons

2. Control access Makes entry to …(1) design May conflict with

to transport locations more features facilitate other goals – e.g.,
facilities difficult for potential access-control station concourse
offenders, those businesses
e.g., by intent on disorderly (2) access-control
restricting behaviour, and others can be achieved May leave large
access to parts whose actions may without staff areas of big city
of stations to interfere with the intervention termini still open
fare-paying smooth running of to anyone
passengers the transport system (3) staff are
trained to deal May create
with any disputes disputes
that arise

3. Deflect Prevents unruly … (1) school(s) Unless well-run,

offenders from school children from and transport does not protect
encountering encountering and operators co- vulnerable
suitable victims harassing other public operate to monitor children against
transport passengers and control on- their anti-social
e.g. dedicated board behaviour peers
school bus
services for (2) bus staff like Doesn’t teach
pupils young people and children how to
are trained to deal use public
with them transport safely
and courteously
(3) parents
support service
4. Control (1) Makes it difficult …(1) the Offenders may
facilitators of to loiter with comfort requirements of adapt their
anti-social in transport settings the group in behaviour - e.g.,
behaviour question are by bringing what
(2) Discourages non- accurately they need with
e.g., remove or passengers from identified, are them
charge for hanging around and relatively
public being disorderly important to them, Passengers may
lavatories; and cannot resent lack of
remove readily be facilities,
comfortable obtained close by especially if
seating from delays to services
non-farepaying (2) accompanied require them to
areas; close fast by formal hang around for
food outlets and surveillance and long periods in
bars; sweep and intervention in the this environment
mop floors event of anti-
constantly social behaviour

Increasing the Risks of Offending

5. Extend (1) Makes passengers …supplemented Taking routine

guardianship poorer risks as by the presence of precautions is
victims of anti-social help points, sensible but
e.g., take behaviour through CCTV neither obligatory
precautions being confident, surveillance of nor possible in all
when travelling: travelling with others, less-frequented situations or
travel with a moving quickly, and parts of the against all events
friend; carry a looking alert and system, and
mobile phone purposeful availability of Public transport
(but don’t flaunt staff in case of operators have
it); know how to (2) Reduces the emergency duty to keep their
summon help; ability of offenders to passengers safe
know where you choose vulnerable from anti-social
are going; avoid victims by making behaviour
deserted places the victims less
vulnerable to
aggressive begging or

6. Assist natural (1) Makes it easier …(1) trains are Denies choice of
surveillance for passengers to designed to assist travelling in
notice others in natural solitude
e.g., reduce the distress and intervene surveillance:
number of open-plan with May expose
carriages (2) Increases risk to unobstructed passenger to
making up a offenders of being sight-lines unwanted contact
train at off-peak observed and between carriages with disorderly
times, or close identified groups in
off empty (2) trains stop at remaining
carriages designated safety carriages
points on

7. Reduce Increases risk for …(1) uniforms Cost can be a

anonymity those engaging in readily identify problem, but
anti-social behaviour school uniforms may
e.g., enforce of being identified reduce
wearing of (2) children are perceptions of
school uniforms proud to be a social and
member of the economic
school and to differences
wear its uniform amongst pupils

8. Utilise place Provides for …(1) combined Cost-effectiveness

managers increased with CCTV issues may arise
surveillance of surveillance and in fully automated
e.g., bring staff transport settings by two-way transit systems, or
out from employees, and communication small stations
“backstage” to quicker responses to help-points in
manage help- anti-social behaviour less-frequented
points and do areas
other tasks in
public areas (2) when staff are
trained for
responsibilities as
place managers

9. Strengthen (1) Increases …(1) personnel Over time there

formal offenders’ perceived presence is may be some
surveillance risks of detection increased at times displacement of
and locations anti-social
e.g., increase (2) Allows personnel where anti-social behaviour to times
police, and/or to detect and/or behaviour is most and locations
other accredited apprehend offenders concentrated where personnel
official more easily are not present
surveillance of (2) the increase in
transport (3) Increases presence is well-
settings passengers’ feelings publicised
(security guards, of security
community (3) personnel
support officers, receive the
train captains, appropriate
etc.) training and can
quickly summon
further assistance
Reducing the Anticipated Rewards of Crime

10. Remove targets (1) Forces passengers …(1) card can be Value of card may
of petty crime or to retain cards for scanned without encourage snatch
anti-social recharging being displayed thefts and other
behaviour too openly crimes
(2) Prevents ticket
e.g., replace touts from being able (2) card can be Touts may turn to
disposable daily to re-sell discarded quickly disabled other forms of
travel passes passes by eliminating if lost or stolen aggressive
with this type of pass begging
rechargeable (3) card carries
smart cards photo of owner to
make fraudulent
use riskier

11. Disrupt markets Reduces the supply …(1) donations May displace
of money supporting are to specialist begging to other
e.g. post alcohol and its local charities locations
warning notices misuse, making (e.g., for the
discouraging aggressive begging homeless) May cause some
donations to less profitable offenders to turn
beggars; offer (2) support work to more serious
alternative ways funded by acquisitive crimes
of helping this donations is
group perceived to be
happening in the

12. Deny benefits (1) Exposes young …(1) groups in Passengers, staff
people to the sound question can be and neighbours
e.g., play and ambience created accurately may not like
classical music by classical music, identified classical music
over public which they may either
address system dislike (2) music is both
at train and bus boring and socio-
stations (2) Increases the culturally
likelihood that young intimidating
people will see public
transport facilities as
dull, old-fashioned
and “uncool” places
to be seen hanging
about in
Reducing Pressures and Provocations

13. Reduce frustrations (1) Provides …(1) the Providing information

and stress information to information about service
passengers that provided addresses problems is no
e.g., where caused reduces their feelings passengers’ needs substitute for running
by delays, service of powerlessness and to plan around any an efficient service
failures and bodies angry frustration, problems
on the line, by enables them to make
providing swift, alternative (2) all staff are also
accurate and up-to- arrangements and to kept equally well-
date information keep others informed informed about
about causes, of their situation what is happening
duration and travel
alternatives (2) Makes it less (3) the
likely that organisational
interruptions to culture is one that
services will lead to sees open
anti-social behaviour communication
from passengers with its customers
as commercially

14. Avoid disputes (1) Separates people …(1) journey is a Only practicable
using mobile phones long one where enough seating
e.g., by providing or portable disk- is available for users
“quiet” carriages on players from (2) requires clear and non-users
trains passengers who value signage about its
peace and quiet location and rules Having a “quiet”
of use, and regular carriage may lead to
(2) Avoids the risk of monitoring and legitimate complaints
unnecessary disputes enforcement by and danger of
between people with trained staff confrontations if rules
different tastes and are not enforced
traveling habits

15. Reduce emotional Improves employees’ … (1) staff can Cannot compensate in
arousal ability to deal with summon backup longer run for
angry or distressed quickly if required persistent operational
e.g., training passengers and inefficiencies or
employees to prevent disruptive (2) refresher organizational failure
handle difficult behaviour training is provided to tackle anti-social
confrontations periodically behaviour in transport
(3) staff are
monitored while
dealing with
problems, and de-
briefed regularly
16. Neutralise peer (1) Provides …(1) role model is It may be difficult to
pressure to behave acceptable role credible and find suitable role
anti-socially models for good acceptable to the models acceptable to
behaviour and peer group – e.g. an very anti-social
e.g., provide independent thinking admired and groups
credible popular peer
role models for (2) Helps people to Role models may be
good behaviour in resist peer pressures (2) role model is co-opted by peer
relevant transport towards behaving present in the pressure
settings anti-socially setting and willing
to act appropriately
in the face of peer

(3) role model has

position of
authority – e.g., bus
monitor, head of
17. Discourage Limits the publishing …(1) general Access to the internet
imitation of details of agreement can be makes curiosity about
dangerous activities obtained from all anti-social behaviour
e.g., persuade such as train, bus or types of media so increasingly easy to
media not to tram ‘surfing’, that none lose by satisfy and may lead
publish details of which, if known, may co-operating to imitation
anti-social or encourage people to
dangerous activities try it out (2) messages are
on public transport targeted at media
listened to by
potential offenders
Remove Excuses
18. Set rules Establishes …(1) prohibited Small posters in fine
parameters for behaviours are print tucked away in
e.g. , publicise acceptable listed in detail corners are unlikely to
byelaws applicable behaviours in the be effective
to transport setting public transport (2) rules are highly
setting and removes visible and widely Ineffective unless
excuses for anti- publicized in the regularly and visibly
social behaviour transport settings to enforced, with
which they apply penalties for non-
(3) rules are
supplemented by
additional posters
and public
drawing attention to
the most important
prohibitions for that

(4) rules are

routinely enforced
19. Post instructions Removes excuses for … (1) instructions Ineffective unless
non-compliance by are clearly visible accompanied by
e.g., signs drawing clearly indicating and repeated regular enforcement
attention to important throughout relevant and penalties for non-
particularly behaviours that settings compliance
important rules for passengers and others
the transport have to desist from or (2) instructions are
setting, such as “No carry out supplemented by
begging”, “No public
smoking”, or “Keep announcements
your possessions
with you at all (3) instructions are
times” routinely enforced

20. Alert conscience Induces guilt and …(1) used as Will only affect those
compliance by slogans referring to with a conscience to
e.g., post messages suggesting that the more detailed alert
like “Take your behaviour in question campaign messages
litter home” is anti-social Anti-terrorist
(2) accompanied by measures make easier
a regular cleaning alternatives, such as
programme that litter-bins, impractical
makes discarded
litter stand out

21. Assist compliance Offers alternative …(1) needs of There often is

places to meet friends group have been nowhere else to go.
e.g., providing for the young people carefully identified
alternative meeting- and homeless who Disorderly or anti-
places for groups of only use stations, bus (2) alternative social individuals are
people hanging stops, etc., because location has frequently unwelcome
about stations, etc. there is nowhere else somewhat superior in conventional clubs
to go facilities and day centres, and
may not like
(3) is free, and can organised settings
manage and tolerate
a measure of

22. Control drugs and Limits the …(1) police patrols Growing number of
alcohol consumption of routinely monitor designated areas may
alcohol, which is designated areas for drive drinkers into
e.g., by designating often used as an infringements large city termini
public transport excuse for disruptive where their drinking
settings and their and intimidating (2) ban on alcohol may more easily
surroundings as behaviour consumption and escape notice or
alcohol-free areas confiscation of action.
containers are
enforced with a
measure of