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Submitted to:Mechanical Deptt. Submitted by:Mukesh Kumar Yadav Roll No. - 7534 Mech. 7th Sem.


It would be prudent to commence this report with an expression of gratitude towards all those who have played an indispensable role in the accomplishment of this report by providing their valuable guidance. For todays professional student, industrial training is very essential, I was quite lucky to have some practical training at UPPER


I sincerely thank Mr. RAJESH YADAV(GM of SMS department) for giving me precious guideline to make this project. I am very much thankful to Mr.J.P.JOLLY(GM of Rolling Department)who has given all possible support and guidance for the completion of this report. I take this opportunity to express my gratitude to my project guide Mr.Jagmann (GM of Perssonal Department) and Mr.Sanjeev Sharma (GM of QAD department) who guided me time to time to complete my summer training . Their constant motivation & professional approach towards me was the main driving force for me. Last but not the least I would like to thank our worthy director, Mr.RAJIV SHARMA for motivating us at each step.

Mukesh Kumar Yadav

Mech. 7th Sem. Roll No. - 7534




Company History
- The company was incorporated on 7thJanuary,under the name of Upper Indian Steel Metal Industries Private Limited for the manufacture of cold rolled steel strips and steel ingots at Focal Point in Ludhiana(Punjab).

- The company undertook the setting up of a new plant for the manufacture of wide width Cold Rolled Steel Strips with integrated plant facilities. -The company became a deemed public limited company under Section 43-A(I-A) of the Companies Act, 1956 with effect from 14 th July.

- The company made its maiden Public Issue of 22 lac equity shares of Rs.10 each at a premium of Rs.55 share aggregating Rs. 1430 lacs in September/October. - The shares of the company were listed on the Delhi Stock Exchange on 22nd December consequent to which the company became a widely held listed public limited company. - The Company allotted 26,43,600 No. of Equity Shares of Rs.10 each at a premium of Rs.55 per share on 3rd December.

- The galvanising plant was commissioned in January. Presently the company has facilities for the manufacture of 1,20,000 tonnes per'annum of wide width cold rolledsteel strips. - The Company proposes to set up a new plant for manufacture of 1.5 lac tpa of wide width CRCA Coils with further integration by way of 40,000 tpa of Galvanised Sheets at an adjacent/contiguous location to the existing plant facilities at Sahibabad Industrial Area, Distt. Ghaziabad in Uttar Pradesh.

- The Cold Rolling Expansion the Company is installing state of the art 1600mm width 6HI combination Universal Crown Mill (UCM) of Hitachi, Japan with sophisticated features for shape control and surface finish to cater to the requirements of the automobile and white goods sector. - The Company offered a Right Issue of 82,50,000 Unsecured Zero lnterest Convertible Debentures aggregating Rs. 5362.50 lacs with Detachable Warrants which was well received by the shareholders and was over subscribed. - The Company also made a Public Issue of 68,94,800 - 14% Unsecured Fully Convertible Debentures aggregating Rs. 16750 Lacs including firm allotment of 20,24,800 Debentures aggregating Rs. 5062 Lacs. - Upper Indian Capital & Credit Services Ltd. and Jawahar Credit & Holdings Ltd. are subsidiaries of the Company.

- The Part B of 68,94,800 14% unsecured fully convertible Debentures aggregating Rs 8375 Lacs have been converted into Equity Shares w.e.f. 1st April.

- With the commissioning of the new plant recently set up at company's existing site at Sahibabad (UP), the company is now exploring further growth possibilities of setting up a modern Cold Rolling cum Galvanizing Unit at West Coast of the Country. - The Delhi-based Upper Indian Steel and Strips Ltd to setup twosteel cold rolling and galvanising units - one near Haldia and the other at Patalganga, near Mumbai. - The Rs.800-crore Upper Indian Steel has commissioned a cold rolled steel plant at Ghaziabad, in collaboration with Sumitomo of Japan, which will cater to the needs of the automotive sector.

- During the year, the company has set up a dedicated service centre for large OEM customers at Sahibabad so as to ensure supplies to them on 'just in time'concept.

- The Delhi-based Upper Indian Steel and Strips' to set up a Rs 750 crore cold rolled steel plant is likely to hit a road block. - The company has proposed to set up a steel plant with a 2.8 m t p.a capacity on 5,000 acres of land in a two-phase programme. - Upper Indian Steel & Strips is to set up Rs 4,000 crore, 2.5 million tonne hot-rolled coil steel plant. - The company is also exploring possibility of raising funds through the GDR and ADR route. - The Board has approved amalgamation of Upper Indian Ltd. With the company and setting up project of 2,50,000 tpa Cold Rolled Products in Maharashtra.

-Strikes an important position in the market for cold rolled steel for automobiles, feeding over 70% of demand for car bodies.

-Enters into a strategic alliance with Sumitomo Metal Industries of Japan under which, the latter has further extended process know-how for the manufacture of automotive steel sheets for a period of six years -Board approves the setting up of Hot Rolled Coil Project in Orissa -Sanjay Singal resigns as Managing Director of the company

-Upper Indian Steel awards Rs 36 cr order for BHEL -Delists shares from Ahmedabad and Delhi Stock Exchanges

Upper Indian Steel & Strips Ltd has informed that Sh. Sanjay Singal, has ceased to be a Director of the Company w.e.f. October 18, 2006.

UPPER INDIAN STEEL uses stateof-the-art technology to maximize efficiency...

From the scrap yard through shipping, UPPER INDIAN STEEL uses state-of-the-art technology to maximize efficiency, quality and safety. UPPER INDIAN STEEL uses steel scrap as the main raw material for our Electric Arc Furnace in the melt shop. From there, the liquid steel is refined in the Ladle Refining Furnace (LRF). After refinement, the steel is transferred to our continuous Caster and molded into billets. After reheating, the billets are processed into finished hot rolled sections in the in-line Rolling Mill. Finally, the rolled product is conveyed to the Finishing department for any additional processing, storage and shipment. The UPPER INDIAN STEEL Trucking, Garage, Maintenance and Engineering departments round out the team, providing outstanding support for the production areas. Throughout the process, we place safety first. And we make every effort to keep our equipment current and our staff up-to-date on all advancements in the steel industry. It's how we grow and succeed.

Number of stages included:1) SMS (Steel Melting Shop) Scrap EAF(Electric Arc Furnace) LRF(Laddle Refining Furnace) VD(Vacuum Degassing) Injection of the CaSi 2) Concast 3) QAD (Quality Assurnace Department) 4) Rolling 5) Finishing


SMS (Steel Melting Shop):-

Scrap: A Renewable Resource

UPPER INDIAN Steel Texas is one of the largest recyclers in the state of Texas. Steel scrap arriving at our plant is subjected to radiation testing to ensure that no radioactive material enters into the manufacturing process.

It is then sorted according to type and characteristics, and prepared so that it may be charged into the furnace in the mix required for the product being manufactured.

Electric Arc Furnace Steel making

The electric arc furnace operates as a batch melting process producing batches of molten steel known "heats". The electric arc furnace operating cycle is called the tap-to-tap cycle and is made up of the following operations:

Furnace charging Melting Refining De-slagging Tapping

Furnace Charging
The first step in the production of any heat is to select the grade of steel to be made. Usually a schedule is developed prior to each production shift. Thus the melter will know in advance the schedule for his shift. The scrap yard operator will prepare buckets of scrap according to the needs of the melter. Preparation of the charge bucket is an important operation, not only to ensure proper melt-in chemistry but also to ensure good melting conditions. The scrap must be layered in the bucket according to size and density to promote the rapid formation of a liquid pool of steel in the hearth while providing protection for the sidewalls and roof from electric arc radiation. Other considerations include minimization of scrap caveins which can break electrodes and ensuring that large heavy pieces of scrap do not lie directly in front of burner ports which would result in blow-back of the flame onto the water cooled panels. The charge can include lime and carbon or these can be injected into the furnace during the heat. Many operations add some lime and carbon in the scrap bucket and supplement this with injection. The first step in any tap-to-tap cycle is "charging" into the scrap. The roof and electrodes are raised and are swung to the side of the furnace to allow the scrap charging crane to move a full bucket of scrap into place over the furnace. The bucket bottom is usually a clam shell design - i.e. the bucket opens up by retracting two segments on the bottom of the bucket. The scrap falls into the furnace and the scrap crane removes the scrap bucket. The roof and electrodes swing back into place over the furnace. The roof is lowered and then the electrodes are lowered to strike an arc on the scrap. This commences the melting portion of the cycle. The number of charge buckets of scrap required to produce a heat of steel is dependent primarily on the volume of the furnace and the scrap density. Most modern furnaces are designed to operate with a minimum of back-charges. This is advantageous because charging is a dead-time where the furnace does not have power on and therefore is not melting. Minimizing these dead-times helps to maximize the productivity of the furnace. In addition, energy is lost every time the furnace roof is opened. This can amount to 10 - 20 kWh/ton for each occurrence. Most operations aim for 2 to 3 buckets of scrap per heat and will attempt to blend their scrap to meet this requirement. Some operations achieve a single bucket charge. Continuous charging operations such as CONSTEEL and the Fuchs Shaft Furnace eliminate the charging cycle.

The melting period is the heart of EAF operations. The EAF has evolved into a highly efficient melting apparatus and modern designs are focused on maximizing the melting capacity of the EAF. Melting is accomplished by supplying energy to the furnace interior. This energy can be electrical or chemical. Electrical energy is supplied via the graphite electrodes and is usually the largest contributor in melting operations. Initially, an intermediate voltage tap is selected until the electrodes bore into the scrap. Usually, light scrap is placed on top of the charge to accelerate bore-in. Approximately 15 % of the scrap is melted during the initial bore-in period. After a few minutes, the electrodes will have penetrated the scrap sufficiently so that a long arc (high voltage) tap can be used without fear of radiation damage to the roof. The long arc maximizes the transfer of power to the scrap and a liquid pool of metal will form in the furnace hearth At the start of melting the arc is erratic and unstable. Wide swings in current are observed accompanied by rapid movement of the electrodes. As the furnace atmosphere heats up the arc stabilizes and once the molten pool is formed, the arc becomes quite stable and the average power input increases. Chemical energy is being supplied via several sources including oxyfuel burners and oxygen lances. Oxy-fuel burners burn natural gas using oxygen or a blend of oxygen and air. Heat is transferred to the scrap by flame radiation and convection by the hot products of combustion. Heat is transferred within the scrap by conduction. Large pieces of scrap take longer to melt into the bath than smaller pieces. In some operations, oxygen is injected via a consumable pipe lance to "cut" the scrap. The oxygen reacts with the hot scrap and burns iron to produce intense heat for cutting the scrap. Once a molten pool of steel is generated in the furnace, oxygen can be lanced directly into the bath. This oxygen will react with several components in the bath including, aluminum, silicon, manganese, phosphorus, carbon and iron. All of these reactions are exothermic (i.e. they generate heat) and supply additional energy to aid in the melting of the scrap. The metallic oxides that are formed will end up in the slag. The reaction of oxygen with carbon in the bath produces carbon monoxide, which either burns in the furnace if there is sufficient oxygen, and/or is exhausted through the direct evacuation system where it is burned and conveyed to the pollution control system. Auxiliary fuel operations are discussed in more detail in the section on EAF operations.

Once enough scrap has been melted to accommodate the second charge, the charging process is repeated. Once the final scrap charge is melted, the furnace sidewalls are exposed to intense radiation from the arc. As a result, the voltage must be reduced. Alternatively, creation of a foamy slag will allow the arc to be buried and will protect the furnace shell. In addition, a greater amount of energy will be retained in the slag and is transferred to the bath resulting in greater energy efficiency. Once the final scrap charge is fully melted, flat bath conditions are reached. At this point, a bath temperature and sample will be taken. The analysis of the bath chemistry will allow the melter to determine the amount of oxygen to be blown during refining. At this point, the melter can also start to arrange for the bulk tap alloy additions to be made. These quantities are finalized after the refining period.

Refining operations in the electric arc furnace have traditionally involved the removal of phosphorus, sulfur, aluminum, silicon, manganese and carbon from the steel. In recent times, dissolved gases, especially hydrogen and nitrogen, been recognized as a concern. Traditionally, refining operations were carried out following meltdown i.e. once a flat bath was achieved. These refining reactions are all dependent on the availability of oxygen. Oxygen was lanced at the end of meltdown to lower the bath carbon content to the desired level for tapping. Most of the compounds which are to be removed during refining have a higher affinity for oxygen that the carbon. Thus the oxygen will preferentially react with these elements to form oxides which float out of the steel and into the slag. In modern EAF operations, especially those operating with a "hot heel" of molten steel and slag retained from the prior heat, oxygen may be blown into the bath throughout most of the heat. As a result, some of the melting and refining operations occur simultaneously. Phosphorus and sulfur occur normally in the furnace charge in higher concentrations than are generally permitted in steel and must be removed. Unfortunately the conditions favorable for removing phosphorus are the opposite of those promoting the removal of sulfur. Therefore once these materials are pushed into the slag phase they may revert back into the steel. Phosphorus retention in the slag is a function of the bath temperature, the slag basicity and FeO levels in the slag. At higher temperature or low FeO levels, the

phosphorus will revert from the slag back into the bath. Phosphorus removal is usually carried out as early as possible in the heat. Hot heel practice is very beneficial for phosphorus removal because oxygen can be lanced into the bath while its temperature is quite low. Early in the heat the slag will contain high FeO levels carried over from the previous heat thus aiding in phosphorus removal. High slag basicity (i.e. high lime content) is also beneficial for phosphorus removal but care must be taken not to saturate the slag with lime. This will lead to an increase in slag viscosity, which will make the slag less effective. Sometimes fluorspar is added to help fluidize the slag. Stirring the bath with inert gas is also beneficial because it renews the slag/metal interface thus improving the reaction kinetics. In general, if low phosphorus levels are a requirement for a particular steel grade, the scrap is selected to give a low level at melt-in. The partition of phosphorus in the slag to phosphorus in the bath ranges from 5 to 15. Usually the phosphorus is reduced by 20 to 50 % in the EAF. Sulfur is removed mainly as a sulfide dissolved in the slag. The sulfur partition between the slag and metal is dependent on slag chemistry and is favored at low steel oxidation levels. Removal of sulfur in the EAF is difficult especially given modern practices where the oxidation level of the bath is quite high. Generally the partition ratio is between 3 and 5 for EAF operations. Most operations find it more effective to carry out desulfurization during the reducing phase of steelmaking. This means that desulfurization is performed during tapping (where a calcium aluminate slag is built) and during ladle furnace operations. For reducing conditions where the bath has a much lower oxygen activity, distribution ratios for sulfur of between 20 and 100 can be achieved. Control of the metallic constituents in the bath is important as it determines the properties of the final product. Usually, the melter will aim at lower levels in the bath than are specified for the final product. Oxygen reacts with aluminum, silicon and manganese to form metallic oxides, which are slag components. These metallics tend to react with oxygen before the carbon. They will also react with FeO resulting in a recovery of iron units to the bath. For example: Mn + FeO = MnO + Fe Manganese will typically be lowered to about 0.06 % in the bath.

The reaction of carbon with oxygen in the bath to produce CO is important as it supplies a less expensive form of energy to the bath, and performs several important refining reactions. In modern EAF operations, the combination of oxygen with carbon can supply between 30 and 40 % of the net heat input to the furnace. Evolution of carbon monoxide is very important for slag foaming. Coupled with a basic slag, CO bubbles are tapped in the slag causing it to "foam" and helping to bury the arc. This gives greatly improved thermal efficiency and allows the furnace to operate at high arc voltages even after a flat bath has been achieved. Burying the arc also helps to prevent nitrogen from being exposed to the arc where it can dissociate and enter into the steel. If the CO is evolved within the steel bath, it helps to strip nitrogen and hydrogen from the steel. Nitrogen levels in steel as low as 50 ppm can be achieved in the furnace prior to tap. Bottom tapping is beneficial for maintaining low nitrogen levels because tapping is fast and a tight tap stream is maintained. A high oxygen potential in the steel is beneficial for low nitrogen levels and the heat should be tapped open as opposed to blocking the heat. At 1600 C, the maximum solubility of nitrogen in pure iron is 450 ppm. Typically, the nitrogen levels in the steel following tapping are 80 - 100 ppm. Decarburization is also beneficial for the removal of hydrogen. It has been demonstarted that decarburizing at a rate of 1 % per hour can lower hydrogen levels in the steel from 8 ppm down to 2 ppm in 10 minutes. At the end of refining, a bath temperature measurement and a bath sample are taken. If the temperature is too low, power may be applied to the bath. This is not a big concern in modern melt shops where temperature adjustment is carried out in the ladle furnace.

De-slagging operations are carried out to remove impurities from the furnace. During melting and refining operations, some of the undesirable materials within the bath are oxidized and enter the slag phase.

It is advantageous to remove as much phosphorus into the slag as early in the heat as possible (i.e. while the bath temperature is still low). The furnace is tilted backwards and slag is poured out of the furnace through the slag door. Removal of the slag eliminates the possibility of phosphorus reversion. During slag foaming operations, carbon may be injected into the slag where it will reduce FeO to metallic iron and in the process produce carbon monoxide which helps foam the slag. If the high phosphorus slag has not been removed prior to this operation, phosphorus reversion will occur. During slag foaming, slag may overflow the sill level in the EAF and flow out of the slag door. The following table shows the typical constituents of an EAF slag: Componen Source t CaO SiO2 FeO MgO CaF2 MnO S P Charged Oxidation product Oxidation product Charged as dolomite Charged fluidizer slag 2 - 5% Composition Range 40 - 60 % 5 - 15 % 10 - 30 % 3-8%

Oxidation product Absorbed from steel Oxidation product

Once the desired steel composition and temperature are achieved in the furnace, the tap-hole is opened, the furnace is tilted, and the steel pours into a ladle for transfer to the next batch operation (usually a ladle furnace or ladle station). During the tapping process bulk alloy additions are made based on the bath analysis and the desired steel grade. De-oxidizers may be added to the steel to lower the oxygen content prior to further processing. This is commonly referred to as "blocking the heat" or "killing the steel". Common deoxidizers are aluminum or silicon in the form of ferrosilicon or

silicomanganese. Most carbon steel operations aim for minimal slag carry-over. A new slag cover is "built" during tapping. For ladle furnace operations, a calcium aluminate slag is a good choice for sulfur control. Slag forming compounds are added in the ladle at tap so that a slag cover is formed prior to transfer to the ladle furnace. Additional slag materials may be added at the ladle furnace if the slag cover is insufficient.

Temperature Sampling Process

The modern disposable thermocouple was introduced to steelmaking almost 40 years ago and temperature measurement had become an integral part of tracking progress throughout the tap-to-tap cycle in steelmaking. Expendable probes are also used for tracking bath carbon content and dissolved oxygen levels in the steel. These tools have enabled the tap-to-tap cycle to be accelerated by eliminating long waiting periods for lab results, thus increasing productivity. Disposable probes are typically mounted in cardboard sleeves that slide on to a steel probe(pole) which has internal electrical contacts. The disposable probe transmits an electrical signal to the steel pole, which in turn transmits the signal to an electronic unit for interpretation. Almost all probes rely on an accurate temperature measurement to precisely calculate carbon or oxygen levels. Most facilities keep several spare poles on hand so that they can be quickly replaced if they have reading problems.

Cooling System
Another system that is integral to EAF operation is the cooling water system. Typically, there are several cooling systems. Some operations require extremely clean, high quality cooling water. Transformer cooling, delta closure cooling, bus tube cooling and electrode holder cooling are all such applications. Typically, these systems will consist of a closed loop circuit, which conducts water through these sensitive pieces of equipment. The water in the closed loop circuit passes through a heat exchanger to remove heat. The circuit on the open loop side of the heat exchanger typically flows to a cooling tower for energy dissipation. Other water cooled elements such as furnace side panels, roof panels, offgas system ducting, furnace cage etc. will typically receive cooling water from a cooling tower.

The cooling circuit typically consists of supply pumps, return pumps, filters, a cooling tower cell or cells and flow monitoring instrumentation. Sensitive pieces of equipment normally have instrumentation installed to monitor the cooling water flow rate and temperature. For most water-cooled equipment, interruption of the flow or inadequate water quantities can lead to severe thermal over loading and in some cases catastrophic failure.

Furnace Heat Balance

To melt steel scrap, it takes a theoretical minimum of 300 kWh/ton. To provide superheat above the melting point of 2768 F requires additional energy and for typical tap temperature requirements, the total theoretical energy required usually lies in the range of 350 to 370 kWh/ton. However, EAF steelmaking is only 55 to 65 % efficient and as a result the total equivalent energy input is usually in the range of 560 to 680 kWh/ton for most modern operations. This energy can be supplied from a variety of sources as shown in the table below. The energy distribution is highly dependent on local material and consumable costs and is unique to the specific meltshop operation. A typical balance for both older and more modern EAFs is given in the following Table: UHP FURNACE Electrical Energy INPUTS Burners Chemical Reactions TOTAL INPUT Steel Slag OUTPUT Cooling Water S Miscellaneous Offgas 50 - 60 % 5 - 10 % 30 - 40 % 100% 55 - 60 % 8 - 10 % 8 - 10 % 1-3% 17 - 28 % 15 - 25 % 100% 50 - 55 % 8 - 12 % 5-6% 17 - 30 % 7 - 10 % Low to Medium Power Furnace 75 - 85 %

Of course the above figures are highly dependent on the individual operation and vary considerably from one facility to another. Factors such as raw material composition, power input rates and operating

practices (e.g. post-combustion, scrap preheating) can greatly alter the above balance. In operations utilizing a large amount of charge carbon or high carbon feed materials, up to 60 % of the energy contained in the offgas may be calorific due to large quantities of uncombusted carbon monoxide. Recovery of this energy in the EAF could increase energy input by 8 to 10 %. Thus it is important to consider such factors when evaluating the energy balance for a given furnace operation. The International Iron and Steel Institue (IISI), classifies EAFs based on the power supplied per ton of furnace capacity. For most modern operations, the design would allow for at least 500 kVA per ton of capacity. The IISI report " The Electic Furnace - 1990" indicates that most new installations allow 900 - 1000 kVA per ton of furnace capacity. Most furnaces operate at a maximum power factor of about 0.85. Thus the above transformer ratings would correspond to a maximum power input of about 0.75 to 0.85 MW per ton of furnace capacity.

Carbon Injection
Carbon injection is critical to slag foaming operations, which are necessary for high power furnace operations. Carbon reacts with FeO to form CO and "foam" the slag.

Furnace Turn-around
Furnace turn-around is the period following completion of tapping until the furnace is recharged for the next heat. During this period, the electrodes and roof are raised and the furnace lining is inspected for refractory damage. If necessary, repairs are made to the hearth, slag-line, tap-hole and spout. In the case of a bottom-tapping furnace, the taphole is filled with sand. Repairs to the furnace are made using gunned refractories or mud slingers. In most modern furnaces, the increased use of water-cooled panels has reduced the amount of patching or "fettling" required between heats. Many operations now switch out the furnace bottom on a regular basis (2 to 6 weeks) and perform the hearth maintenance off-line. This reduces the power-off time for the EAF and maximizes furnace productivity. Furnace turn-around time is generally the largest dead time (i.e. power off) period in the tap-to-tap cycle. With advances in furnace practices this has been reduced from 20 minutes to less than 5 minutes in some newer operations.

EAF Transformer
The power flow from the utility's generators, through their network, arrives at the steel plant at very high voltage and must therefore be converted to low voltage suitable for the furnace arcs. Transformers perform this task. The EAF transformer receives the primary low current, high voltage power and transforms this to a high current, low voltage power for use in the EAF. Reliable operation of the EAF is totally dependent on reliable operation of the EAF transformer. Many large furnace transformers are rated 100MVA or greater. Transforming the power from the kV level at the incoming utility line to the voltage level needed in the EAF is usually done in two stages. A first transformer (occasionally two transformers in parallel) steps the voltage down from the high-voltage line to a medium voltage level which is generally standardized for each country. In the USA this medium voltage is usually 34.5 kV, while in Europe, Japan and other areas the voltages are not very different, often 30 to 33 kV. From the 34.5 kV busbar, the arc furnace is powered by a special, heavy-duty furnace transformer. The secondary voltage of this furnace transformer is designed to allow operation of the arcs in the desired range of arc voltages and currents. Since there are varying requirements of arc voltage/current combinations through the heat it is necessary to have a choice of secondary voltages. The furnace transformer is equipped with a tap-changer for this purpose.

LRF (Laddle Refining Furnace):This method is also called secondary steel making process. In this deoxidation will be done means reduction of the oxygen and increment in hydrogen.

Following steps are taken in this stage: Addition of elements according to there demand for eg: Carbon(C), Magnesium (Mg), Silicon (Si), and Sulphur (S), Aluminium (Al), Copper (Cu), Tin (Sn), etc. Addition formula/ Wt. of Additive = LM(Liquid Metal)*Point(Max. pt limit) Efficiency of the element which is to be added

Supply of the Argon- to maintain the homogeneity in the laddle because it is a noble gas which means that it will not react with any metal. Addition of fluxes for refining of steel and making of reducing slag they are 2Slag, VD Slag, Lime etc.

LRF(Ladle Refining Furnace)

During refining increasing of element add as Coke for Carbon FeMn for Mn FeSi for Si(Silicon) FeS for S(Sulphur) FeP for P(Phosphorous) FeCr for Cr(Chromium)

Vacuum Tank degassing systems (VD)

Vacuum tank degassing is one of the oldest degassing techniques in use in the steel industry for improving steel quality. A teeming ladle is placed in a vacuum tank, which is connected to a vacuum pump system. The ladle is equipped with 13 porous plugs through which inert gas is injected into the melt to promote stirring. Metallurgical reactions such as degassing, deoxidation, decarburization, desulfurization and alloying take place under vacuum conditions.

The VD Process

During vacuum treatment the carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, and sulfur contents are reduced in different process steps depending on the melt composition. A vacuum alloy hopper system allows for compositional adjustments. Good homogenization and high alloy yields are characteristic features of this process. Depending on the metal lurgical reactions in the ladle, a freeboard of 6001,200 mm is required. In order to increase productivity, the VD system can also be designed (or expanded) to a twin-vessel system.

Features and benefits

Accelerated reactions under vacuum conditions Achieving low contents of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur Improved steel cleanliness, especially with respect to oxides and sulfides Low investment and operational costs

Vacuum Pumps - The Heart of every Vacuum Degassing Plant

The necessary vacuum pump systems for vacuum degassing units are entirely designed and engineered by Siemens VAI process specialists. This assures that the technical performance of each supplied pump system will meet the process and metallurgical requirements under all climatic conditions. A typical pump system consists of an arrangement of steam ejectors with the necessary condensation stages, often in combination with mechanical pumps. Siemens VAI offers the full range of pumping systems, including customized and cost-saving solutions for tail pipe and hot well tank systems.

2.CONCAST:For this the raw material is the liquid metal which is after the VD (Vaccum Degassing). In which all the unwanted gases from the molten iron are removed under some suitable temperature which is around 14500C-15500C for the concast. In the concast, there is making of the billets is to be done according to the requirement. In this process we also cool down the temperature

with help of the water because in this we are using water as coolant. Supply of the water on the billets on regular interval, this is to be done because after this stage metal will go in the other department where the temperature should be less or we can say that very less temperature. Dimensions of the billets are:a. 80X80 b. 100X100 c. 130X130 d. 160X160 e. 180X180 f. 200X200 all are in mm (millimeter). Suppose if we have to prepare a file of 9mm, then which section of dimension we will use? The answer is 130X130mm because all the mechanical property like strength, hardness, fatigue, creep, brittleness, etc. will increase. Because if we use 100X100 sections then we have compress of only of one mm due to this file will not so hard, due to this time life of the equipment will decrease i.e. we use 130X130.

Types of the Concast:a) Open type Concast

b) Closed type Concast

Open type Concast: In this type of the concast all the liquid metal will be seen by our naked eyes but it dangerous to the life because it is manually, therefore chance of the accident will goes on increasing.

Closed type Concast:In this type of the concast all the liquid metal will not seen by our naked eyes due to this chance of the accident will be very less, therefore life will be safe. One thing more in this type all the procedure is automatic.

3.QAD (Quality Assurance Department):An independent Quality Assurance department is functioning in Emirates Steel Industries with a strong management commitment to quality. The main objective of the department is to achieve and maintain high quality finished products with consistent compliance. Finished products will be available for dispatch only after inspection, testing and classification by quality assurance.



The department has well equipped laboratory and inspection facilities manned by qualified and trained personnel. All the testing, inspection and monitoring are carried out as per stipulated standards and test certificates are provided to customers. With the operation of the Quality management system as per ISO9001-2000 and third party product certification by globally authorized agency CARES in United Kingdom, the compliance of product to the required specification and consistency is verified by independent inspection and testing. Unique CARES logo mark on Emirates Steel Industries finished products assures confidence and satisfaction to customers.

4.ROLLING:Types:1. Hot Rolling 2. Cold Rolling

HOT ROLLING:Hot rolling is a hot working metalworking process where large pieces of metal, such as slabs or billets, are heated above their recrystallization temperature and then deformed between rollers to form thinner cross sections. Hot rolling produces thinner cross sections than cold rolling processes with the same number of stages. Hot rolling, due to recrystallization, will reduce the average grain size of a metal while maintaining an equiaxed microstructure whereas cold rolling will produce a hardened microstructure.

COLD ROLLING:Cold rolling is a metalworking process in which metal is deformed by passing it through rollers at a temperature below its recrystallization temperature. Cold rolling increases the yield strength and hardness of a metal by introducing defects into the metal's crystal structure. These defects prevent further slip and can reduce the grain size of the metal, resulting in Hall-Petch hardening.

Hot Rolling:Process
A slab, billet, or ingot is passed or deformed between a set of work rolls revolving at the same speed, but in opposite directions. The distance between the work rolls is slightly less than that of the passing metal which allows for thinning. The temperature of the metal is generally above its recrystallization temperature, as opposed to cold rolling, which takes place below this temperature. Hot rolling permits large deformations of the metal to be achieved with a low number of rolling cycles. As the rolling process breaks up the grains, they recrystallize maintaining an equiaxed structure and preventing the metal from hardening. Hot rolled material typically does not require annealing and the high temperature will prevent residual stress from accumulating in the material resulting in better dimensional stability than cold worked materials. Hot rolling is primarily concerned with manipulating material shape and geometry rather than mechanical properties. This is achieved by heating a component or material to its upper critical temperature and then applying controlled load which forms the material to a desired specification or size. The degree of change to the metal is directly related to the heat of the metal, high heats allowing for greater thinning.

Hot rolling is used mainly to produce sheet metal or simple cross sections such as railroad rails from billets. Mechanical properties of the material in its final 'as-rolled' form are a function of:

material chemistry, reheat temperature, rate of temperature decrease during deformation, rate of deformation, heat of deformation, total reduction,

recovery time, recrystallisation time, and subsequent rate of cooling after deformation.

Types of rolling mills

Prior to continuous casting technology, ingots were rolled to approximately 200 millimetres (7.9 in) thick in a slab- or bloom- mill. Blooms have a nominally square cross section, whereas slabs are rectangular in cross section. Slabs are the feed material for hot strip mills or plate mills, and blooms are rolled to billets in a billet mill or large sections in a structural mill. The output from a strip mill is coiled and, subsequently, used as the feed for a cold rolling mill or used directly by fabricators. Billets, for re-rolling, are subsequently rolled in either a merchant, bar or rod mill. Merchant or bar mills produce a variety of shaped products such as angles, channels, beams, rounds (long or coiled) and hexagons. Rounds less than 16 millimetres (0.63 in) in diameter are more efficiently rolled from billet in a rod mill.

Types History



In 1779 a rolling mill was created in Fontley, Hampshire where Henry Cort developed ideas for rolling processes. In 1783 Cort received a patent for his groove rolling process and in 1784 a patent for pudding furnace. Much of Cort's work was based on the previous ideas of Thomas and George Cranege who developed the process of the reverberatory furnace for the production of wrought iron from cast iron in 1784.

Cold Rolling:Physical metallurgy of cold rolling

Cold rolling is a method of cold working a metal. When a metal is cold worked, microscopic defects are nucleated throughout the deformed area. These defects can be either point defects (a vacancy on the crystal lattice) or a line defect (an extra half plane of atoms jammed in a crystal). As defects accumulate through deformation, it becomes increasingly more difficult for slip, or the movement of defects, to occur. This results in a hardening of the metal. If enough grains split apart, a grain may split into two or more grains in order to minimize the strain energy of the system. When large grains split into smaller grains, the alloy hardens as a result of the Hall-Petch relationship. If cold work is continued, the hardened metal may fracture.

During cold rolling, metal absorbs a great deal of energy. Some of this energy is used to nucleate and move defects (and subsequently deform the metal). The remainder of the energy is released as heat. While cold rolling increases the hardness and strength of a metal, it also results in a large decrease in ductility. Thus metals strengthened by cold rolling are more sensitive to the presence of cracks and are prone to brittle fracture. A metal that has been hardened by cold rolling can be softened by annealing. Annealing will relieve stresses, allow grain growth, and restore the original properties of the alloy. Ductility is also restored by annealing. Thus, after annealing, the metal may be further cold rolled without fracturing.

Degree of cold work

Cold rolled metal is given a rating based on the degree it was cold worked. "Skin-rolled" metal undergoes the least rolling, being compressed only 0.5-1% to harden the surface of the metal and make it more easily workable for later processes. Higher ratings are "quarter hard," "half hard" and "full hard"; in the last of these, the thickness of the metal is reduced by 50%.

Cold rolling as a manufacturing process

Cold rolling is a common manufacturing process. It is often used to form sheet metal. Beverage cans are closed by rolling, and steel food cans are strengthened by rolling ribs into their sides. Rolling mills are commonly used to precisely reduce the thickness of strip and sheet metals.

Pickling is an acid treatment to remove high temperature scale produced in welding, heat treatment or hot working. It also removes red rust from corrosion of the steel or from corrosion of contaminant iron or steel particles. Note that passivation is not sufficiently aggressive to remove this corrosion product after the free iron has begun to rust. High temperature dark scale is not only undesirable for aesthetic reasons - it also results in a reduced corrosion resistance of the underlying steel surface layer. The type of scale and hence the methods to remove it will depend upon the steel grade and the heating conditions involved. The straight-chromium grades such as Grades 410, 416 and 430 scale more readily and unfortunately the resulting scale is also more tenacious. All pickling operations result in metal removal, and the outcome is therefore to some degree a dulling of the visual brightness and perhaps also a significant reduction in dimensions. The best solution to the scale problem is not to create it in the first place! Heat treatment in a vacuum or a good controlled atmosphere, such as bright annealing, eliminates the need for pickling, and generally results in a better final surface finish. If pickling does need to be carried out the treatments given in Table 2 can be used. An initial pickle in sulphuric acid is often beneficial as this softens the scale so that it can more readily be removed by subsequent pickling in hydrofluoric and nitric acids.

Pickling Paste
A very convenient method for pickling is use of "Pickling Paste". This is a prepared mix of strong acids in a stiff paste which enables it to be applied to small areas and to vertical or even overhanging surfaces. It is especially useful for pickling to remove heat tint following welding. Again precautions for handling acids must be followed and the residue flushed thoroughly to a suitable waste stream after completion. Most commercial pickling paste is formulated for the austenitic grades, so if these are used to clean lower alloyed grades such as 3CR12 the process must be closely monitored to ensure the paste is quickly removed and very thoroughly rinsed off afterwards. Table 2. Pickling procedures. Refer ASTM A380 Grade All stainless steels except free machining grades. (Useful to loosen heavy scale prior to other treatments) Grades with less than 16% Chromium (except free machining grades e.g. 416) Free machining grades and grades with less than 16% Chromium Notes: Treatment Temperature Time

8-11% sulphuric 65-80C acid

5-45 minutes

15-25% nitric acid + 1-8% hydrofluoric acid


5-30 minutes

10-15% nitric acid + 0.5-1.5% hydrofluoric acid


5-30 minutes

1. Trial treatments should be carried out first to confirm that dulling is acceptable. 2. Pickling should preferably be carried out on fully annealed stainless steels due to risk of grain boundary attack. This problem is especially relevant to steels sensitised in welding. 3. All pickling treatments must be followed by thorough rinsing.

4. Observe all precautions for handling acids - sulphuric, nitric and especially hydrofluoric acid are highly corrosive and dangerous to exposed skin.

Grease, oil, cutting fluids, drawing compounds and other lubricants must be removed from the surface of stainless steel components before heat treatment (to prevent carbon pick-up) or final passivating treatments (to enable full access by the treatment). Parts must also be degreased prior to further assembly by welding, again to prevent pick-up of carbon at high temperature.

CUTTING OF METAL Both liquid and vapour degreasers are used. Liquid cleaning is often by hot alkaline detergents; proprietary mixes may also contain various additives. The parts should be thoroughly rinsed afterwards. Organic solvents can be applied by spraying, swabbing or vapour degreasing. These treatments should again be followed by thorough hot water rinsing. As with cleaning operations on other metals, the rate of cleaning can be increased by the use of brushing, jetting or stirring etc. during the operation.

Electropolishing is an electrochemical process which brightens the steel surface by selective dissolution of the high points - it is the opposite of electroplating, and is carried out with similar equipment.

The process is able to produce a very attractive and hygienic finish, but trials should first be conducted to determine the optimum prior surface condition and polishing parameters. Electropolishing of some surfaces results in a frosted rather than smooth finish.

Grinding and Polishing

Stainless steels can be readily ground, polished and buffed, but certain characteristics of these materials require some modification of standard techniques for best results. Most notably, the high strength, tendency to "load up" abrasive media, and low thermal conductivity of stainless steels all lead to build-up of surface heat. This in turn can produce heat tinting (surface oxidation) or surface smearing, and in extreme cases even sensitisation of austenitic stainless steels or "burning" (re-hardening) of heat treated martensitic grades. Techniques that help prevent build-up of surface heat include (a) use of lower speeds and feeds, and (b) careful selection of lubricants, and of proper grit size and type, so as to minimise loading of the abrasive.

Corrosion resistance of stainless steels may be adversely affected by polishing with coarse abrasives. Corrosion resistance is often adequate following polishing to a No.4 (approx 180-grit) finish. Polishing with fine alumina or chromium oxide to obtain still higher finishes - such as buffed finishes No.7 and No.8 - removes fine pits and surface imperfections and generally improves corrosion resistance. Buffing can also be carried out by using a "Scotch-brite" buffing wheel.

Iron contamination must be avoided or removed if polished stainless steel surfaces are to have good corrosion resistance. Abrasives and polishing compounds must be essentially iron-free (less that 0.01% for best results), and equipment used for processing stainless steels must not be used for other metals. If these conditions cannot be met, a cleaning/passivation treatment (after pre-cleaning to remove polishing compounds and lubricants) will be required to restore good corrosion resistance.

Mechanical Cleaning
Problems associated with chemical cleaning processes can be avoided by using mechanical cleaning. With all mechanical cleaning processes great care must be taken to prevent the stainless steel surface from becoming contaminated by iron, steel or iron oxide particles.

Barrel Finishing and Vibratory Finishing

Barrel finishing and vibratory finishing both use abrasive media to mechanically polish small parts and are widely used on fasteners such as screws and bolts and on pipe fittings. Mechanically cleaned parts are not quite as corrosion resistant as acid pickled material because mechanical cleaning leaves some scale residues and often some residue from cleaning. It can be used as a preparatory step before acid pickling.

To a very large extent stainless steels are used because of the corrosion resistance of their surfaces. This excellent corrosion resistance can only be achieved if proper cleaning and finishing operations are carried out after any fabrication process which has impaired the surface condition.

In every field in the universe we need to follow some types of safety whether in the field of industy. If we follow the safety rules while working the chance of accidents will increase.

We believe... ... that each individual must take charge of his/her safety at UPPER INDIAN Steel Texas; ... that no amount of production is worth any amount of risk to the well being of our people; ... that we can reach our production goals only through safe work practices and ongoing safety training;

... that the safe way is the best way to do any job in our plant; ... that injuries can be avoided if we observe reasonable caution and use good judgment in performing our jobs; ... and that individuals will develop a sixth sense of safety awareness if they make safety the most important part of everything they do.

The Difference between Iron and Steel:Iron is an element, steel is an alloy. Steel is made from Iron. It is an alloy made up of iron and carbon. Other metals can also be added to steel to produce alloys with different characteristics. For instance steel with chromium added is stainless steel. Unlike regular steel it doesnt rust. Steel is used extensively in buildings. Steel beams, studs, nails, bolts, doors, and siding are commonly used in residential construction. I believe rerod and wire mesh used in cement is made of iron. In larger buildings steel is used even more in the structures of the buildings. Iron was used first, then cast iron, then wrought iron, and now steel. We use steel instead or iron because its stronger than iron; superior in tension and compression.

Books with Author

Steel-rolling Technology by Ginzburg Metal Cutting Theory and Practice by David A. Stephenson Manufacturing Engineering Processes by Leo Alting Flat Rolling Fundamentals by Vladimir B. Ginzburg


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