Luxury and Calvinism/ Luxury and Capitalism: Supply and Demand for Luxury Goods in the Seventeenth-Century

Dutch Republic Author(s): Jan de Vries Source: The Journal of the Walters Art Gallery, Vol. 57, Place and Culture in Northern Art (1999), pp. 73-85 Published by: The Walters Art Museum Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20169143 . Accessed: 11/10/2011 18:10
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given over to luxury set the stage for the of the state. that was artists. of feudal But It took as it was a dependent and of the institutions class. The Journal of theWalters Art Gallery 57 (1999) 73 . drew upon both the Christian and Classical capitalist associated and more episcopal complex traditions. but at the Luxury same time the consumption of luxury was universally to be fraught with moral understood danger. This sector. undermine one's health. but economic new forms of a development brought with it consumption: " 'New Luxury emerged to stand beside the traditional "Old Luxury. The accessible for military service to decisions needed history made study of ancient every educated a "hot button" In an economy topic in Early Modern the toil of millions where these lessons European. and societal ruin. prideful palate easily slid into more positive. was not so much a "middle class" standing between the elites and the peasantry a creature of the elites and back to poverty.) flowing. by riches to decadence rich complex of associations. This remained influential in theDutch Republic. and that established the definitions of refined taste and elegant material society's meager that supplied the commercialized in western Europe. special played by to the Dutch was Iuxury -?Europe. The a "Dance to the Music coercive supported?usually through classes of and privileged temporal spiritual churchmen.1 Werner Sombart. courts to the aristocracy and gentry. personality turned to lust. largely defined in later shape when in the pre luxury was by?princely as a far urbanized. elites with their It was inordinate hold on luxury production the markers of their status and authority. of peasants means?the rulers. (polite manners. sins. The traditional concept of luxury emphasized its moral and social dangers. implicated vanity. and landowners. and from them to the bourgeoisie. malice. as the comforts and pleasures life left men unfit the hard to the refined self-aggrandizer. and submerge a healthy in debauchery. Only a thin line separated the seven in his Luxury and Capitalism of 1913. The Nor were An elite downfall and the dangers of luxury purely personal. by their patronage and was associated with power. and sustained surpluses. embodiment of high culture: the fitness for rule of Europe's traditional rulers was visibly justified of the suppliers of luxurious goods services. between luxury and high culture and between luxury. of a luxurious averse defend to taking the state. the leading role of court emerged in culture what "civilization" meant. emerging savings. including most of in it: gluttony. etc. even centuries. Terrible vices. via emulation. "Practice changed in advance of theory. via the defining cultivation of luxury. the vain. society. the desire very nearly for the luxury sole among for those the groups craftsmen.and Capitalism: Luxury and Calvinism/Luxury in the for Luxury Goods Supply and Demand Dutch Republic Seventeenth-Century Jan de Vries This article offers an interpretation of luxury consumption in the seventeenth-century Dutch Republic. Europe. and a new. pursuit of sensuous greed. usually resident in cities. the admiration of gluttony. were deadly lust. and investment (as Max Weber had it) but from luxury spending: a spending incited by the example of the court and by which the "rule of women" led men into the reckless in such environments. saw capitalism not from frugality. and from the luxury of Time" warriors. avarice. anger. The Process civilization elevated presented as from the princely tastes. understanding of the role of luxury consumption emerged only later. support and performers who produced the non-quotidian goods and services of society. that society with?indeed. In his influential Elias study. The article closes by considering the limits a consumer society. and to the development of role the city of Utrecht in this development. of Civilization. the noble patron of the arts from a fine garment easily of pursuit luxury could bankrupt one's family. courts. long remained dominant. sloth. Norbert was the In short. personal deca dence. it was seemingly unavoidable fortitude and hard work supplied This led society through cycle leading from poverty via to riches. pride. luxury production design.

most in the high-fashion apparel and accessories whose It remains authority and influence the patronage and moral if these of elite?preferably associated is secured by elite? non-bourgeois ruinous expense multiplication served primarily nating Luxury a means and of discrimi the New meaning. 1. Where the Old Luxury as a marker. places.Fig."2 the "Old Luxury" of the pre-capitalist interpretations. Indeed. the society more commercial and nine society of the eighteenth teenth centuries. luxury still life was a popular displaying with a Lobster and Turkey. consists times called striving more "populuxe goods. or the "charm the eye. cultural with to communicate questions. Rather than being defined it is by a royal court.3 among participants The New Luxury was a product of the commercial and urban societies that Europe possessed by the sixteenth century and which grew in size and influ ence centuries. the nose. lent itself to and diffusion. oil on canvas. pre-capitalist today. This obviously of designers customers. impress call us it permitting dangerous There the New kind for which economy. more coherent type of luxury lives on today. on to lives influence. The Luxury. it style and hegemonic of heterogeneous Old elements. cultural message. and decoration. associations it would were not absent. in these touch. Abraham van Beyeren. Oxford: The Ashmolean Museum. The Still-Life of costly food. the ear. for comfort and enjoyment. perhaps even to shape. Its promise and its those of the Old Luxury. pleasure. striving grandeur exquisite some emulated only by distincdy inferior adaptations." The New Luxury. ca. between served times. all those things which the palate. let me there was no place but which is dominant in the reciprocal in consumption. is another Luxury. In short. presenting of luxury. every manner genre. drink. The relations?a kind of sociability? in the following from dangers differed 74 . a urban than Rather by generated society. people. or for could be refinement. 1660.

Bernard de Mandeville. Since a new discourse development of luxury came only after the end of the Dutch Golden a time when. vain. access or by is mediated thought by Max Weber. or so that all may plentifully. the lustful behavior of envious. for did men content themselves with bare necessities. That Noble Sin. health of the state. insights I want What into in the seventeenth century. not for luxury. Nor that we could live more endlessly to Calvin's is the exorbitant appetites of men. the traditional But it was views about in the forefront luxury of the of the New Luxury. but these could not restore the old damn'd baneful Vice. we should have a poor world. Calvin shared with the Christian Humanists of his age a "relativistic" view on the subject. broader reach. the experience of the time?and here is where comes into advanced economies the Dutch Republic a succession the picture?spurred of from the 1690s to the 1770s to raise a against pedigrees luxury and of the place of luxury in the most advanced economy seventeenth Dutch The with shared century. Republic the rest of Europe introduced above. was Dutch not also influenced society by the specific of Calvinism? For most people message today. governments regulating laws sumptuary repeatedly promulgated dress. it led wellspring improvement. godly "great luxury debate" of the eighteenth century some of the best minds of the time and led to the fundamental new insights in political economy of Adam Smith. will afterward be unable with any peace of conscience to drink the most vapid. individuals has the net prosperous society. a A on material survey of Calvin's observations goods and consumption in his Institutes of the Christian Religion does not yield numerous fulminations against materialism and luxury. when nothing disposed them to it. and had much Luxury consumption of the most yet. to pay for needless struck directly at the economic economics. because the New Luxuries had a patterns. which will take pains to gratify. there a human function consumption. the theory went. At its heart was the new understanding. Sir Dudley North wrote. the old arguments about the moral and social dangers of luxury came to be joined by new ones. based on experience rather than theory. the general European views on luxury. this in his scandalous poem of 1705. a productive. He describes as a beehive. In fact. the luxury products were Was slave to Prodigality. whether slenderly. He who "hesitate[s] respecting good wine. foresees are not should social good Dutch argued we worry simply. to answer for. the whole Mass a Paradise. on such a scale that imported. that God confers his blessings on them for the support of life."5 As our means of the things of this world that God increase. ingenuity.New to a much Luxury was accessible larger portion of society. whilst Luxury a million of the poor Employed and odious He concludes: Thus Yet This these every part was full of Vice. Thus. We to use and enjoy these things. a large gap opened between theory and practice. Moreover. that consumer exercised a powerful desire for luxury?formed aspirations?the of economic In fact. in which disguised hierarchies marker and emulation subverted In response. remember or moderately. to what we would call economic In 1691 development. their aggregate consumption supported of who formed producers larger groups significant industries. version of Weber's in the Protestant potted argument Ethic. and they visibly affected the balance of trade. and so be they to else will incline work. I will examining argue. with their ancient endorsements. the place to pursue the development of the foundations of modern to do here is examine the Pride a million more. and imports with silver abroad to pay for the of mercantilist is not new the shipment of gold and luxuries. discourse and human behavior: what people thought about luxury and the practice of luxury consumption Age." aren't these the seat of the of lust and gluttony. So itmay not hurt to go directly to the source. in his pamphlet Discourses upon Trade. or rather to industry The things. pride and vanity? Could the unashamed in these vices lead to the indulgence of economic emigrant precisely and growth? The prosperity to England. A drain of coin abroad luxury. and he will not presume even 75 . imports. In many cases. This attracted the attention of the state and which the development linked luxury with doctrines. on Christian In his discourse Liberty. more to be beneficial forbidden are brought within reach. became two different Besides we are philosophers fundamental challenge to the arguments I have just rehearsed.4 and The vices: "appetites of men. Calvin writes: "Let all men live in their respective stations. The main spur to trade. which created the potential for new dangers of social confusion and for the erosion of established as diffusion of luxury The Fable of theBees. effect of producing The That Root of evil Avarice ill-natured society the self-seeking.

Calvin did not council other-worldliness. keeping material goods in proper perspective." Such thinking and leads the Christian labyrinth. to touch purer and sweeter water than others. 2. . one. . This I admit. into a "snare.. whom his wealth permits not who is with luxurious splendour delighted in his entertainments. they indifferently in his dress. Calvin actually recommends to implement: station something much more difficult or income-specific moderation. 1633-34. Nor did he demand what we would call "Puritan abstemiousness. impact on consumer the best place to look for this influence perhaps 76 .e.. provided they be [argument] are too But where used. not strangely and in his flatter himself was playing far away it safe?staying the line separating proper from improper enjoy ment of material goods. are completely To boasted. Amsterdam Historisch Museum. of Calvinism had luxury were not really It ismore likely that the indirect influence rather than its specific teachings on luxury and is in the greater behavior. Calvin to reasoned was no goods was a matter say there of material the enjoyment This is not indifferent. The can be defended that such consumption argument as a matter of "things indifferent" does not impress Calvin. oil on canvas. or luxuriously themselves otherwise polluted by such vices.Fig. Regentesses of the Burgher Orphanage." inextricable ardently coveted. buildings. these things. an escape from the temptations of prosperity. i. of indifferent.. [into] a long . proudly lavished. Jacob Backer. who does on his elegance. there is scarcely any to be sumptuous." Such a course from [I]n the present age . theologically danger: that summarize. on Calvin's specific views exceptional.

this society. The in costume and hairstyle interval lends itself. 1683. over had become society culturally ripe. dependence to the Heidelberg Catechism?the introduction the faith used by the Reformed with churches?began one's on God's It is here [Just act consumption its first questions and answers. that's crazy enough already. or even to the theater. These display or of 1683 painting of in the 1633-34. and the propagandiste purposes for which foreign of urban society the anonymity actor fools a (willing) audience. to theatrics and to fool strangers was anathema. that is. And images to gain Dutch paintings 77 . two paintings of the Burgher's of Amsterdam. Amsterdam Historisch Museum. or status one does not possess. to the grand as an illusion is the "Dutch Example" turn to visual was paraded before infor easily readers. The Adriaen have been relatives those Backer. perhaps change or decadent.Fig. The beginning of Christian knowledge to know one's true self. Some of those sitting for the the female regents Orphanage Figs. to exploit in seventeenth-century Dutch society? We the observations written records?primarily visitors?and can turn to of foreign in their verdict these are nearly unanimous savers and that the Dutch as a whole were prodigious these documents frugal consumers. Calvin's was on what we emphasis today call the might examined life. where the whole intention is to pretend be what you are not. to the view that Dutch of Jacob Backer. The Christian was to in the psychological achieve authenticity. daughters painting over this fifty-year too easily." toch gewoon. was the nephew may painter. oil on canvas.] normally. 2 and 3. Regentesses of the Burgher Orphanage. and this raised a vigorous objection to a "culture of appearances" be fostered by a fashion industry. 3. sense. But. "Doe So. The use of luxury goods to project such as would power. what was the nature of luxury and where grace. wealth. this aversion and deception. Adriaen Backer. one's own sinfulness in the saying (which in my experience is expressed a to not to Dutch society and confined universal particular that every child hears from his mother: confession) dat is al gek genoeg. At the mundane level. We mation can also about gesture. in interpreting we must be mindful of the heavy ideological baggage attached to this subject.

corroborated. poking about the paintings for evidence down as an amateur a Dutch front might by walking into the uncurtained Already more sociologist today street and glancing of the houses. Rijksmuseum." The Observations written Sir William in the years by Temple. we should probably to odd stray find that it is largely confined notions gleaned from paintings.Fig. The imous windows visitors were writings of contemporary in celebrating what Constantijn Huygens unan called than fifty Century." opened Seventeenth Were his celebrated years ago. with a Child. those notions. Pieter de Hooch. was concerned with explaining the power and prosperity of the Republic readers. Amsterdam. and he placed great "Holland's we to test the average of life in the Netherlands knowledge during the Seventeenth Century. would be very from the impressions gained from the written and not so much supplementary as contradictory. 4. later writers if for no other reason than that or simply imitated. 1663. "Dutch Civilization with the observation: Dutchman's glorious simplicity. Johan Huizinga in the essay. oil on canvas. And different record. seduce us into believing that they offer framed views of society. Temple amazing economic to his envious emphasis on English 78 . he went on to say.6 his views. Golden so many Age society. where we employ a historian's gaze. Two Women beside a Linen Chest. English ambassador a as account has often stood definitive of 1668-70.

and except for as the small corps of noblemen. 1951. or in the fabrick. The Cleveland Museum of Art. be that spending coming what it will..7 Of or to say it more properly. 1663. adornment. There seem of men order he concluded are some with customs the observation: . left indulge but Temple such in that luxury expenditure thought the Republic course. Pieter de Hooch. in every man's less than he has in. and dispositions that all these through degrees as great frugality and Their more common than he riches spends.8 save a good deal could person to and still have plenty in extravagance.. Portrait of a Family Making Musk. whom he regarded imitations French than rather (of fashion) poor good originals. 5. of their houses.Fig. The of their magistrates simplicity and modesty in their way of living. Gift of the Hanna Fund.355. oil on canvas. to run generally them. which is so general. that I never knew one among them exceed the frugal popular air. excesses altogether clothes luxury of tables.9 lye in every man's having 79 . among in their expense. nor so vain as the extravagant and and attendance. things not so transitory. or so prejudicial as to Health and to Business is laid out furniture the constant perhaps expenses of common He described a rich every social class in turn.

to but this sell buy infinitely. they furnish infinite Luxury." then. Did this we find of Holland. . but wear plain traded and consumed woollens cloath [sic] Nay. again. . so much and feed upon they sell the finest their own fish and roots. and of the Persian silks. 1). They send abroad the best of . for the most part. and brought the foremost port. to of stressed the self-denial: Temple point frugality Here the character By Riches Now. of the New Luxury relative to the Old. from the Levant. Africa. the seat of of riches. such as Abraham van sumptuous Still-life with a Lobster and Turkey Beyern's can lend full credence to Temple's observa (fig. no one who has spent an afternoon viewing Dutch genre paintings or still lifes. Amsterdam. 6. .Fig. insightful.10 "The warehouse in of the world. which they never practice. Feast of the Gods. The Hague. to France. are masters of Indian the the great They spices. and traffique Pleasures which they never taste. But. all the world's be described by 1648 as: In short. and the rendezvous opulence. Asia. Mauritshuis. As Dutch trade her cargoes ports filled with the precious expanded. of is an observation. . taste. and buy coarse out of England for their own wear. could the New World. for their own use."11 80 . in Pleasures which they really "traffique never for and added measure. . in my opinion. They . out the foundation . oil on copper. just to remind themselves of what they were missing? tions. . Cornelis van Poelenburch. 1635. the darling of the gods. and their butter buy the cheapest out of Ireland . . ca. of their own words alert us to a special feature of Temple's Dutch society: it was more than ordinarily frugal and access to than ordinary sober in the face of a more luxuries and pleasures. For never of any the Country so little. they hang on their walls paintings of those very pleasures. . to which we will return. Russia.

which A in relied. he claimed with i 1 A H H H H H characteristic hyperbole. An ally in his project was the view of many historians of earlier generations ^^H ^^^H ^^^| ^^^H ^^^H ^^^B ^^^| ^^H folly. than the exterior. scale and on so enduring for the first a basis?was time? a whole story. However. but the reality of an enlarged In income. the old discourse to be sure. paintings that were industry. They achieve comfort more than refinement. raising purchasing segments investors. oil on copper. 38. industrialists on such a very. and freedom Now dilemma. His evocation on A and heavily paintings other visual images. Art Walters Baltimore. in his celebrated of Simon Schama. without the character and determination of its forefathers. wrongly. and adorned the interior. and whose extrava structed population making ential. Cornelis Susanna van G?lten. luxury consumption?which to Calvinist preaching?to my view. 1626. A small. we should the discourse to see the new consumer culture being con Choice moral gives freedom. draws venerable surround arguments about the moral pitfalls that in he. traditional to substantial tranche of society was now in a position exercise choice. ca. than to seventeenth-century plation was once Dutch history. of more and body. accus tomed to luxury and. 6 and 7. "In pictures and mar ble they are profuse. as this telling comparison of two paintings (figs. Gallery. to enter the market and spend money in which to fashion a consumer culture. and uncritically embraced by his torians eager for simple explanations of a difficult subject.12 In fact. 7. That Regentesses blandishments of 1633-34 is by Adreaen. "The Dutch may ascribe their present grandeur to the virtue and frugality of their ancestors as they relies luxury. families some burgher ^^B Certainly to the succumbed Figs. no. therefore. if not caused by. is by Jacob Backer. virtues. ascribes evoke a society caught on the horns of a dilemma. of society as well property as making and of aristocratic lifestyles and French fashion did indeed find many devotees by the 1670s. Both of these silk scarves feature multicolored specialty of Utrecht's silk weaving a 81 . earlier. of the fall of Rome Rather grip of attempt than simply seeing Republican society in the of the Old Luxury. in their and are buildings they to no and gardens dangers that derived from pre-capitalist. rejected about the of the sources ^^^ ^^^^^ inexorably to the vices of ^^^^^^H of Dutch prosperity. to the goods of the world was accessibility a growth in the productivity of domestic and the industry. prodigality conventional that notorious as the road wisdom champion to wealth. by the innumerable with and possessed its choices. De Mandeville. very rich. Fig. choices constrained by the heavy custom.This unique paired with power agriculture of broad merchants." he wrote in the early eighteenth century. the onset of a cultural over-ripeness: a decadent generation that the Republic's ^^H decline after the 1670s ^^M ^H ^ ^ van Poelenburch. its very where which produce prosperity. lead ^^^k ^^^^^H gances were channeled into well choreo into being a distinctive material brought toward which the luxuries were directed more both tended than home to the body. argument owes far more to the contem many owners. ace. Here. ^H on the traditional turn. 2 and 3) depicting the of the Municipal Orphanage indicate. ^^H themes of luxury's ^^H themselves I please. discretionary options remained of influ in its behavior culture the home narrowly graphed displays of excessive eating and drinking. these dilemma's large numbers who had their consumer hands of scarcity exposes one to were faced by in and other societies still. This to purchase luxuries the potential society a extended well beyond elite. pre-market societies: the Old Luxury. while the 1683 painting this was hardly the his nephew.227. Embarrassment of Riches. investigation on Dutch the culture."13 He that there great extravagant conceded were palaces was closely associated.

?i? ?lwtft?*a. shall find no private as a great in 1697. The was to make plan for Utrecht designed once been a center of luxury consumption of wealthy families. which had a sustained by large population C2. system of concentric around the old medieval city was nearing completion. for rich families of to settle. 8. What the Dutch restrained homes. just as their kitchens Delft and tables made use of the Orient could not do inspired was follow technical faience. were tiled with Delft tiles of varying qualities. The hope into a center Moreelse. luxury consumption 1664. Vienna. was ambitious expansion to turn Utrecht. Utrecht. by depth with to achieve a new form of private ample opportunity domestic comfort. by a thirty. These where often came from craft traditions the Southern Netherlands. of the world when Peter was their way into these homes. After during visiting canals where the Amsterdam. in the production of porcelain. the missing the court a new associations essential to design "Old Luxury. Archiefdienst. he noted wealth that "only a nation that does not squander on clothes or servants could have succeeded all this with its in of by the patronage What the cities were New Luxuries. and market 82 . Fig. made similar Papal Nuncio observations his visit of 1676. or Worcester element S?vres.14 The in all of Europe you so sumptuously buildings . The skills were not lacking. Expansion bourgeois the city an attractive by the Episcopal plan of Burgomaster place court.949. rather. doing was the erection so litde fuss. Copenhagen. prices." Exotic found luxuries from the four corners Indeed.."15 "All this. in a gradated of of being offered range qualities and more The canal like humble houses.JDnDOM ?. Meissen.to forty-foot bourgeois from blatantly advertising exterior frontage the occu a but endowed 190-foot pants' wealth. one of the Great of Russia traveled to Holland of his objectives was to acquire a fabulous collection precosia. to be or capable sure. Pallavicino. but products capable of multiplication. of many of comfortable thousands products requiring real skill. of long standing were sustained local and Spanish courts. abodes." of course.16 These dwellings also contained cosdy products of high craftsmanship such as tapestries and furniture.. of Holland themselves offered to Cologne. Gemeentelijke magnificent and other gendemen's many of the merchants' in Amsterdam houses and in some of the great cities of that small province.

an Old was to painting.17 came more up we from come below. book had pendulum clocks hanging had 781 printers and sellers (the Republic publishing in operation than by the 1660s. canal houses such were as wardrobes filled with and the work linen chests. responding to 83 . The cabinetmakers. Indeed. Then known. the exotic extra-European objects. as is well from reconstructed after the Reformation as elite patronage gave both economy. the Dutch cities. Bancroft Library. 4 and 5). . In contrast to pipes. Two Women beside a Linen Chest and Family Making Music (figs. had.7 to*. der Steden "S?15* Met hare Bechrijringen. From Toonneel of California. such as Delftware. 9. j?S?s 4 ITidily* Sat Fig.nilliliiiii?^????i''? Wf?smi? fe: ^^?^f v. 1649. This art. of as in two paintings from 1663 by Pieter de represented Hooch. By developing product innovations (new themes in the paintings one. over producing in price of the century many millions of paintings to the from thousands of guilders material the course ranging from Brabant or further afield in possessions were usually produced in New the Luxuries Europe. masters Luxury to a market painters opened new some 700 to 800 by mid-century allowing to be active simultaneously. of painting) to a New go on to discuss clock and instrument a solid majority of Friesian farmers 1700 (by on their walls). Berkeley. Here again. Joan Blau. tU& *r w*%& / / iwi . a far higher density in Europe). Berkeley. luxuries like tobacco elsewhere popular and utilitarian silver. modest. the possession guilder can to all of the in Delft be paintings generalized province paintings houses by the One makers of Holland. map University of Utrecht. or the most refined way and process and new techniques markets. must have could then something like three million on the walls of Holland's hung 1660s. The van de Vereenighde Nederlanden. decorative. the great pieces were the highest tradition of a furniture expression that albeit a that fetched (work by the dozen) "dozijnwerk" or two at if of the fair. versions for even of these farmers same items. Some were imitations and adaptations of foreign luxuries.

thing original the 1670s to another acted weakly Luxury Dutch. tapestry European or Amsterdam and Utrecht's silk industry. maps. century paper be Utrecht is set beside the cities of Holland I have made but the for to into comparison. The pendant of this society of luxury consumers was an old. Lutherans. Its outward refinement. broad-based? and by the prevailing cultural These imperatives. the cathedral chapters. interest etc. By the luxuries. reinforced more in in than the Holland Utrecht Thus. 6) in which to the sitter's colored silk scarf contributes a multi fanciful such as Delft and Gouda's third quarter movement of the seventeenth spreads across century a new cultural from Europe. works. was European articles. Reminders of the latter are found in two paintings by van Poelenburch: the Utrecht Cornells his painter Portrait of Susanna van Collen18 (fig. But a ground and hidden From New Luxury. Thus. Utrecht had no choice but to adapt to the new social and economic structures of the Republic. to me is the city's conscious particular modern. was not the undoing of the consumption in instead. prints. rather than the types of objects and their general form. emanating royal courts. genteel where its comparative 84 . the Republic's only by the migration new crafts and industries abroad. premature. in diffusion from inevitably find their origin Still. endowed?whether craft skills. burgerlijk. than specif social ically Dutch. Utrecht as a major medieval center of the Old functioned the canons of Luxury catering for the Prince Bishops. in Europe depended Craft production everywhere on specific skills that could be transferred successfully of artisans. and a Feast of the Gods19 (fig. or proto of expressing similar remarkably is its uniformity. could not be ness and that.21 and between the perspective of the outsider. regime. cultural and social control. that the Republic was poorly in social structure. however. but outsider. This one city stood In this Republic of New Luxury. books. had been the one Dutch city that had apart. one found all types of metal workers (which coach silk became a Utrecht weavers. 7). when seventeenth on the design on interior movement of everyday decoration. gallantry idealizing It affects the Republic. to take into account in this they do need preservation of textiles to be and printing glass. but it resonated with the Republic's and economic structures more fully and more creatively of Dutch which caused the output than elsewhere. By the seventeenth had abolished century the Reformation the bishop and the episcopal political regime. wig makers. status and achieving that Utrecht "old fashioned" this and in Germany. style?to original from to this new that had cultural interacted movement project. guild-organized that continued throughout that market. "shepherdess" a similar scarf graces the in which figure of Ceres. and the provincial nobility. The Old Luxury was thin on the from view. were ahead imperatives might be stamped with the label Calvinist. Dutch luxury production strengths of their time. to invoke of but it might be better the concept "Confessionalization. too. within luxury the Dutch urban production were life system. associated with aristocracy and featuring classical and rococo and forms. in the denomination?was concerned every Christian era of the Dutch Golden with its Age consolidating and penetrating the projects of religious revitalization insti broad base of society with programs of education. country. easily taking "read" by the cultural was in fact shape. shaped by the nature of a prosperity-fueled can only be argued isolation if the Netherlands in which it nesded. towns. however. Of wood carvers. A European with Dutch society to create some and powerfully appealing gave way after a particular they developed of Dutch demand?urban. who sits with her back to us. feature The comfort is revealed By of Dutch forms were the in the broader culture late seventeenth material study of material the striking century the Republican Utrecht of a period social in the city and or province of elite?noble patrician?whose on land. or was life offer much that mentality. from The fact largely of the Netherlands similar panoply of luxury producers era to serve the Republican drew towns its migrants in the east income was based basic between city and was It and the cost rich poor. and on rather on accessible clothing. Dutch society seemed to eschew luxury altogether. goddess of Abundance."20 Calvinists. and specific quality. The of the Confessional purpose integrating rather than differentiating impact of these New Luxuries culture. ceramics. that differed. and the dyeing seen as particularly well suited to the temper and era. paintings. Catholics? movement that inter European and derivatively with that same society. others were cheaper versions of Its modernity was. manifestations as evidence in the Netherlands of decadence are often held up inevitable (the consequence to luxury). in their new home form. the Europe complete It remains true. one we might call modern. specialty).Chinese porcelain. builders. greater movement of this multi-centered left a deep dimension mark luxuries. need nuanced the generalizations not be abandoned. The tutionalization. and on antique institutions that preserved their hold over the province's landed wealth. but that addiction is studied in attire. furniture.22 Thus.

Center for the History 1991). from Rijksmuseum. Lynn of Light. Art in History. Ibid. still and which. of the 1673). Civilization 1941). of Utrecht type of Old in which the artists (Oxford. grandiose?but aborted?plan to the Bees: a large residents by building to to zone rich the residential appeal designed in this map of an expansion rentier. 234-36. valid at the time of the planned remained for zones in The plan also provided expansion. or. eds. 1904-05). Temple. 17. "Confessionalization Political Culture. (Zwolle. 1913). This lived and worked. Utrecht's development effort to strategy was based on a conscious itself from the cities of Holland differentiate by offering superior facilities for the rich and the and industries demand. given the city's slow growth. Spicer 20." en hum spulten. Masters of Light. 11. Amsterdams 1. republication edition).. 1939). Overbeek. of Civilization. Werner 1967. and van Holland University of California Berkeley. The Process Elias. 18. Quoted Q.. 27. Provinces first ed. It plan attract well-healed an earlier map of the city dated 1649 (fig. Bernard Publick Remark 13. Amsterdam.. Ad see a discussion A. Johan Huizinga. 5.. the United 1972. ed. and Historisch Museum.. 1550?1850 Nederlanders 152. 119. (New York.. 1968. Remark 15. Ibid. van van Weesp en cultuur "De materi?le 21. (London. 2-5. 14. 86. first Dutch ed. is well the Spirit of Capitalism 1992.. 1997). Cult?rele en wetenschappelijke eds. eds. 9. Max Weber. 1997). nos. John Calvin. 1992). Cleveland. "Peasant demand development: in William N. 1996). tussen Rusland Amsterdams R. 85 . advantage of based economic the commercially prosperity of: the form took larger society 1. Orr. pp.. These in Mary an are Douglas the systematic accumulation purposes Isherwood. Historisch Ashmolean Museum. Joaneath Dutch Painters in Utrecht during Masters Federle eds. Utrecht. Disciplinary Prussia. fig. no. Schilling. of Early Modern Notes Paper Dutch presented Painting to the Walters from 1998: 31 January Art Gallery Seminar. 87. Baltimore. Sir George Observations Clark. and Annemiek 16. eds. (Amsterdam. 49-59.. Peter de Grote en Holland." eds. The Hague. launching a a university to appeal intended to the foreign and well born scholar. Thus. I7th-Century Imagination E. The Fable Civilization 1984. Bancroft Library. Norbert (London.. University fig." American 1.. Jephcott. to crafts accommodate the newly expanded city that would cater to the enlarged In short. Nederlandse Kistemaker.. in Heinz in the Empire. 53. 1550-1700. 8." ed. of California.the city's efforts to participate lay. Friesland. 1691). "The Protestant Philip in Holland and State Formation Revolution Journal of Sociology.en rariteitenverzamelingen. 1975). The ed. 189. of Utrecht Masters of Museum. 1992). 1936. an aes of is the known for arguing that Western product capitalism that made thetic impulse reinforced possible by Protestant theology the continuous. Jones.. Jan de Vries. Sir John Dudley. 9. Amsterdam Historisch Museum. of of capital. of Art and the Humanities. 99 (1993). 2-3. 2. as reflected can be compared with 1664 dated (fig. Ibid. Mauritshuis. For 19. in its 10. Gorski. De in Anton Schuurman Weesperkarspel. first ed. 9. (Ann Arbor. Berkeley. Luxury and Capitalism author of The Protestant Ethic and 60.. first ed. establishing particularly 3. PHOTOGRAPHS: Amsterdam. attracting luxury industries and the offer inducements numerous decommissioned in the 7. Aards geluk. of Art. See Ren?e Kistemaker. well born: to offer a modified is the context Luxury. 60 the Golden Age (New Haven and London. Dutch Civilization. 1981. trans. Ibid. 265-316. the Emergence Society (Leiden.. 7. Schilling. and economic patterns Jan de Vries. via financial of space churches. Ethic S. in of Paintings "The Volume and Value der Woude. 62. "Searching in the Golden of the Dutch Age Republic. See also E. 285-330. upon Trade fig. for a Role: The 22.. two cultural and Baron Anthropology of Consumption Discourses consumption proposed The World of Goods: Towards (New York. Quoted Perspective 12. catalogue and 61. European Peasants and their Markets (Princeton. Benefits 185-89. The quotations Book III. 1979). Parker and Eric L. Spicer with of the costume. Chapter 19. betrekkingen en Nederland ten tijde van tsaar Peter de Grote (Bussum. 2. et al." Light. upon (Oxford. Braudel. Revisited: and 205-46." in Jan de Vries and David in Art (Santa Monica. 6. Bergvelt binnen handberiek. 8. Sir William Netherlands. Oxford. 3. On with Orr. 1924. De wereld 1585-1735 kunst. Institutes of the Christian Religion from the last edition of 1559). fig. first Sombart. Ibid. The Cleveland Economy in Spicer. Gemeentelijke fig. Q. ed. Natalja Kopaneva. fig. 81-84. 8). 1978). in (Philadelphia. fig. History Getty Freedberg. Hans Koolbergen. first of and Capitalism 3. 9). in Huizinga. 4. Walters Art Gallery. at Berkeley California see Heinz confessionalization. (New York. figs. The Archiefdienst. 6. Religion. are all taken the Seventeenth Century (London. Private of 1732 Vices. in Fernand on the World Mandeville. at the Time of the Dutch Republic. and Utrecht: Reality. 5. Museum 4.

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