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-Arun Kumar Upadhyay, IPS
B-9, CB-9, cantonment Road, Cuttack-753001
1. Difficulties in Pur¢´a accounts-Pur¢´as are remnants of knowledge of very ancient
times. They were copied last time under rule of Param¢ra King Vikram¢ditya (82 BC-19 AD)
as per Bhavi¾ya pur¢´a. Then the compilers did not know the whole world and mixed up the
accounts of solar system and earth surface which had been given similar names. To some
extent, description of galaxies and higher structures also was mixed up. Examples of past
knowledge are several in all texts of astronomy like ¡ryabha°a-1 (337 Kali=2765 BC),
Var¢hamihira (95 BC-20 AD), ¡ryabha°a-2 (476 -550 AD), Brahmagupta (626 AD), Bh¢skara
1 ans 2-(1) North pole is in water surrounded by land and south pole is on land surrounded by
water (2) Revolutions of planets, their apogees and nodes in1 kalpa of 4.32 billion years,
(3)4 cardinal points on earth at 90
east and west and 180
east from Ujjain, (4) Puar¢´a
geography of 7 continents.
2. Continents and oceans-Vi¾´u-pur¢´a (2/7/3-4) defines 3 earths and their successive
sizes. Earth (Bh¦mi) is defined as the zone lighted by sun and moon both-(1) Earth planet,
which is lighted by sun and moon both, (2) Zone of solar system which is lighted by sun. This
is exlusive zone of sun. Place of creation is land of solar system under its gravitational field.
The zone which has more light than average of galaxy is its dyu (sky). In particular, the
planetary system of 100 crore yojana is called disc-shaped earth whose half size of 50 crore
yojana diameter (yojana=1000 part of earth diameter) is loka (lighted) part and the outer
zone is aloka (relatively dark) part. This loka part also is divided into 7 continents named like
earth continents surrounded by seas of successively double sizes. These circular rings are not
on earth surface. They are in solar system only, formed by apparent rotation of planets around
earth. Their sizes are compared with modern measures of planetary orbits (less than 2%
error) in my book S¢nkhya-siddh¢nta based on Vedic Cosmology of R.L. Thomson (MLBD,
Delhi). This is called Ratha of Priyavrata in Bh¢gavata pur¢´a, skandha 5,. It might have been
measured and mapped in time of Priyavrata, elder son of Sv¢yambhuva Manu (29102 BC as
per Brahm¢´²a pur¢´a). (3) Third earth is the last limit of reach of sun rays (S¦rya-siddh¢nta
12/82), called Brahm¢´da (1 a´²a=egg of Brahma=universe) or Parame¾°h¤ (largest brick). It
is written that in all the earths- rivers, oceans and mountains are mentioned. Zones of galaxy
are not so numerous-they are generally in terms of 7x7=49 marut zones. Descriptions of
solar system and earth surface have been mixed up in pur¢´as.
The three earths and their skies ae in same ratio, i.e earth planet, its sky solar earth, galaxy
and its sky universe are all in same ration (10
) which is ratio of man and earth.
·l+ =·:==i+i+·=+o·+·i-+(Ÿ: = ==: =l··==i (i+(i +l(+i -=(iŸ::·Ÿ::
+i+·+=i¤i +l(+i l+-(i· +l·=ª·=i(Ÿ: -·-(i+·+=i¤ + ·+i= =ª·=(i l:=Ÿ::Ÿ::
3.Merus-There are at least 5 types of Meru in pur¢´a and jaina literature-(1) Rotation axis
of earth is Meru. North pole is Sumeru and south pole is Kumeru in all texts of astronomy. (2)
Center of largest land mass Jamb¦-dv¤pa (Asia, may be Europe also) is Pr¢¬-Meru (=Meru of
east or first Meru), 12
west of Ujjain, which is called Pamir. Its just opposit is Apara-Meru
(the other meru) which is Peru. The line joining them has been called Nyagrodha (Va°a=Ficus
bengalensis). Its base is Pu¾kara-dv¤pa (south America)
·+ºi=. |+·«i| (¬¤. -(i++·i++Ÿ: (|-+|·++ul( (¬i |++i+. u·iu·. Ÿ::
(l+¤ |·i¤ ¯/¯/c·, (¬iª· |·i¤ c/c/)
·-(«i|. u+-(i+i+(ºi +·+u|-((.Ÿ: (-+il| +·+++ +·+ +++|+(.Ÿ::Ÿ::
-(·i-il( uitai +i·++·-+ -i··+.Ÿ: +l+·. ºi·-i=-(i·«il+-·+|·+ l+-((.Ÿ::cŸ:: (l+¤ |·i¤ ¯/¯)
º+ |+·+·++ +·i +il( l·+i+·.Ÿ: l+-· =iº·( +l··+i-(·i +itl·i+ì ºl(.Ÿ:: (l+¤ |·i¤ ¯/c/¯¯)
+·i·|l· +++ (¬¤. +l((i l·l+Ÿ:: ··Ÿ:: (-+i-u++·((--i·i l·-iu l+l·-iu -Ÿ: (l+¤ |·i¤ ¯/¯)
Thus, Pu¾kara is a town 12
west of Ujjain on Sumeru (Pr¢¬-meru), which is place of Brahm¢.
There the maximum day is 18 muh¦rtta. This is at a place of 35
north latitude, called Bukhara
now in Uzbekistan. There is also a Pu¾kara dv¤pa whose center is Apara-meru.
(3) Meru of 100 thousand yojana can not be on earth of 1000 yojanas. It is rotation axis of
earth extended into space. Its north pole rotates around N¢ka (north pole of earth orbit)
around a circle of 24
radius, equal to inclination of earth axis. Its path has been called
¹iºum¢ra-chakra (Chapter 9, Vi¾nu pur¢´a, part 2) which has been compared with Persian
texts by Al-Biruni. Shape of stars in that region is like an animal ¹iºum¢ra called sismar in
Persian. That divides the precession cycle of 26000 years into 3 parts, each is 1 Dhruva-
samvatsara of 9090 manu¾ya years (of 324 days or 12 lunar revolutions)=8100 solar years.
(4) Extent of 1 lakh yojana of Meru is equal to the gravitational field of earth called Jamb¦-
dv¤pa of 50 thousand yojana radius. Moon is at 31000 yojana distance within that zone.
(5) Jamb¦-Dv¤pa may be actual radiation belts due to magnetic field of earth in space. That
axis is not parallel to rotation axis of earth.
In addition, rotation axis of galaxy also is a meru, one of the lingas of ¹iva in ¹iva pur¢´a.
Backbone of man and vertebrates is also called meru (-da´²a). Junction of prayer m¢l¢ is also
called meru or sumeru.
4. Number of oceans-At most places in pur¢´as, 7 dv¤pas (continents) surrounded by 7
oceans are described. That is both in solar system and on earth surface. According to Muzaffar
Ali (The Geography of the Puranas), the s¢garas separating dv¤pas may be desert/cold diificult
zones also. Accordingly, he had fitted all 7 dv¤pas in east hemisphers only excluding Antarc-
tica. But it appears that, it included both Americas and Antarctica also.
At other places, 4 oceans are stated as in Raghuvamºa (2/4) by K¢lid¢sa. This is parallel to
oceans (spread matter in space). These zones are called 3 dh¢mas-
1. Uppers (uttama) dh¢ma-Universe-field is Aryam¢, ocean is Sanyat¤, water is salila.
2. Middle(madhyama) dh¢ma is field of galaxy called Varu´a, ocean is sarasvat¤, water is
ambha. Both Ambha and salila are Ap.
3 Lower (avama) dh¢ma is solar system whose field is Mitra, ocean is Ar´ava, water is mara.
All the dh¢ma combined are Parama dh¢ma containing unform material rasa or ¢nanda
(Taittir¤ya upani¾ad 2/7/2).
Correspondingly, largest land mass is Jamb¦-dv¤pa, which is (Asia+Europe), or Eurasia.
Mathematically, its is land between north pole and 24
north latitude circle. Ocean on 4
sides-north, east, west, south-are 4 oceans.These oceans are covered by 4 dv¤pas-Australia,
2 Americas and Africa. Antarctica may be 5th, called place of Ananta (¹e¾an¢ga). In space,
¹e¾an¢ga is the spiral arm of galaxy. The place where sun is located, is Mahar-loka whose
of earth size) is width of arm in that region. It contains 1000 stars called 100
heads of ¹e¾a.
5. Difficulty in pur¢´ic meanings-Eternal things are in Vedas, contemporary explana-
tions are in Jaina texts called Loka (Git¢ 15/15). Vedas are seeing the unity by §¾is in 3
worlds-¡dhidaivika (Cosmic), ¢dhibhautika (Physical world) and ¢dhy¢tmika (within human
body). Their scientific explanation in each context separately is by Jaina Munis.
Thus, history is of two types-Itih¢sa=Iti+ha+¢sa=thus it has happened. This is chronologi-
cal records of incidents. Pur¢´a=pur¢+navati=How old becomes new. In this sense, it is told
in western thought that history repeats itself. Both Itih¢sa and Pur¢´a are used to explain
vedas. For example, three things are to be seen in history of modern India-(1) What are the
permanent features of the country, its society, traditions, geograpgy etc.? (2) What changes
have come in past 200 years or past 1000 years ? (3) What are the reasons of such changes-
British rule, Islamic rule etc.?
As the current editions of pur¢´as was made by persons unaware of scientific knowledge
lost after Mah¢bh¢rata, cosmic, physical and internal meanings have been mixed up. 7 differ-
ent units of length are used which are assumed as one which creates contradictions. For
exapmle, Var¢ha has been told of 10 yojana width and 100 yojana high from sun (V¢yu
pur¢´a (6/12). Earth is much smaller than even the teeth of that var¢ha, thus yojana here can
not be 1000 parts of earth diameter. In units of sun diameter, earth is 108-109 units away
from sun. As part of var¢ha, it shoud be between 100-110 yojanas from sun. Thus, yojana
here is diameter of sun. In units of sun diameter, ratha of sun (extent of solar system) has
been stated as 157.5 lakh yojanas, but much bigger Maharloka having 1000 suns is stated
only 100 lakh yojanas. Thus, yojana here has to be a bigger unit. Sun is ¢tm¢ of world as per
yajurveda (7/42), so its diameter is ¢tm¢ yojana mentioned in Jaina astronomy text Trailokya-
praj®apti. Again as per Maitr¢ya´¤ samhit¢ (39/40), pram¢ is measure of antarikºa. Its meas-
ure is in Pram¢´a-yojana=500 ¢tm¢-yojanas. Using this rule repeatedly, sizes of Janah-loka
(galaxy) of 2 crore, Tapah loka (visible universe) of 6 crore and Satya loka of 12 crore
yojanas are in successively units bigger in ratio of 500.
Similarly, there are 7 yugas used for measurement, still bigger times of Vi¾´u, ¹iva, ¹akti
are not used in any calculation. Out of 7 yugas, 5 are used to indicate historic eras in same
ways as 5 indicators are used for a day in pa®ch¢®ga. These can be further verified by esti-
mates of glacial cycles and astrononical data after 4713 BC for which calculations can be
made in modern astronomy. By mixing of 3 world-systems, 7 yugas and 7yojanas and story
like style of pur¢´as, a lot of confusion is created. We assume all as one and decare puranas
as false. Swami Day¢nanda did not try to understand vedas through pur¢´as, rather refuted
Bh¢gavata which was written by Veda-vy¢sa only for explaining Vedas. Similarly, for claim-
ing supremacy jaina and vedic streams opposed each other. Actually, both are complemen-
tary and without one, the other can not be understood. Even if thy are not connected, they
describe the same world and have to be equivalent, may be with different style of writing.
Kum¢rila Bha°°a (557-493 BC) went to the greatest jaina guru K¢lak¢ch¢rya of Ujjaina (599-
527 BC) for revival of vedas. Both did not find anything unusual in it. But later on, semi-
literae Jaina munis thought that it was treachery against jaina tradition to explain vedas.
Actually, they should have been happy that vedas can not be fully understood without Jaina
texts. But their view showed that it was not truth or science and only a matter of faith which
was to oppose vedas. Thus, in stead of supremacy, it destroyed the knowledge base of jainism.
That was the reason of decline, not by any propaganda of ¹ankar¢ch¢rya who gave test of
Jaina texts in ¹¢rad¢ p¤°ha and admitted it to be valuable knowledge.
6. Methods-Muzaffar Ali has tried to identify names of mountains and rivers connected
with countries and towns. In Asia, they retain the same names. 4 major parts with north pole
as circle are explained but this was not made use of. In each continent, countries are sepa-
rated by var¾a-parvata. Within a country (var¾a), janapada are separated by kula-parvata.
These are natural permanent divisions, political divisions have varied. For locating towns, he
has tried to trace river names, their sources and paths and has done brilliant work to identify
most of pur¢´ic towns of India. But he has assumed that thedescription did not include Ameri-
cas, Antarctica. There are voluminous references in all pur¢´as about complete view of earth.
Sri Ali has not referred astronomy texts which couuld give pin-pointed locations. References-
(1) 4 mountains as petals-
=«i-+ |+(i +·i. +(+i·-- ||--+Ÿ: +º « ( +l+¬· (+i+·+l+·i+(.Ÿ::¯Ÿ::
=i·(i. +(+i·i-- =«i-+i. +·+-((iŸ: |+il¤ ·i+|¤-- ++i·i-· (i=(.Ÿ::·Ÿ::
···i ·++·-- ++i·i |+(i+=iŸ: «i ·l¬¤i·i·i+i+i+i+i· l+º=i+(iŸ::·Ÿ::
···ivi. |-((i +·i-(ºi «i «i -(l·-+Ÿ::·Ÿ:: (l+¤ |·i¤ ¯/¯)-
++ |·i¤ |+ ·/¯·,/··,·¯), +i+ª·+ |·i¤ ··+i+ (·¯-·) ·il·Ÿ:
(2) -++· -(·+·+ +·+i (·+i+o - ·· +·+Ÿ: ·+·+·i +·+·( |·-|·+=. |-((i+ l++(+Ÿ::·¯Ÿ::
-·+i +i ·‘i+i ui--(++. ul+(·+ lu÷|·Ÿ: +·+i•i +++i·+i ·i++ l+º+-=·i+ -+i(Ÿ::··Ÿ::
-(···+·+·‘i =+·+i+i =+·-(=iºŸ: -·l++i ·‘i+i. (·-(·- u+i·i·(.Ÿ::·Ÿ:: (·i+=·i+, /·¯-·)
When it is sunrise at La¬k¢, it is sunset at Siddhapura, midday at Yavako°i, and midnight at
Romaka. (Ujjayin¤ is at longitude75
43’ E and latitude 23
09’). La¬k¢ is at same long. as
equator, Romaka is 90
west and Yavako°i is 90
east. Siddhapura is diametrically opposite
to La¬k¢. From the centres of the land and the water, at a distance of one-quarter of the earth
circumference, lies La¬k¢; and from La¬k¢, at a distance of one fourth thereof, exactly north-
wards, lies Ujjayin¤.
=+·i|i· |+-+i +++i·il( l+¬(iŸ: =«i-++º +º·i -+¤+i+i· (i·¤iŸ::
+i-+i+i =i·( +º ·‘i («·+ti|·iŸ: |l--+ +(+i·i·+ ·i++i·+i ++ìl((iŸ::
-·+ lu÷|·i +i+ +· +º ++ìl((iŸ: =+·i|i·l++·i-(i--i·+i·+ ++ìl((iŸ: (u+ lu÷i·( ·¯/·c-·)
(3) South east part of Bh¢rata is like ºu´da (trunk of elephant) from south of Thailand to
Indonesian islands. Thus, the end of Indonesia has been called ¹u´²¢ sea which is still the
name. End of east direction was marked by building a gate by Brahm¢. End of east should be
east from Ujjain (which is same as 180
west). There is still the largest pyramid at that
place (about 4
west of Mexico).(V¢lm¤ki R¢m¢ya´a, Ki¾kindh¢ k¢´²a, 40/54,64)
In addition to these references in R¢m¢ya´a, Yamako°i-pattana is 90
east of Ujjain, where
there is an undersea pyramid on the south-western tip of Newzealand. Southern latitude of
Yama star is same as that of this town. Similarly, south latitude of Magadaskara (M¨gataskara,
Hari´a island called by Arabs) is same as south latitude of M¨ga-vy¢dha star. There is also
reference of Atlas mountain where pillars of Hercules existed (Ketum¢la var¾a) (V¢lm¤ki
R¢m¢ya´a, Ki¾kindh¢ k¢´²a, 42/27,30).
-·i· +( u+«-+ lt+i«--+ ·l¬¤+Ÿ: +º (· =i·( +i+ =i·(i ++ u·(l(.Ÿ::·Ÿ::
+t·«i +·+. u=. -l-+i+¬ |+(.Ÿ: l+··+-- |il·+i+-- u(i+ +·|+(i.Ÿ::·Ÿ::
=i·(-+i-++º-+ ++ =·i|·+-i++Ÿ: .·««i |. +-·-- (i+|¤i º=|-(+i+Ÿ::¯Ÿ::
+iº«i |-((i ui-+i º·=+-·+( +i·¤.Ÿ: ·+ ( +++-(ºi «i |. uiº·u+(.Ÿ::Ÿ::
+i·+i+i uta ( «i |i-+ ·l¬¤i·i·i(Ÿ: |+ l+·i(i +-+i·(||--+ +++i. |-((i.Ÿ::cŸ:: (l+¤ |·i¤ ¯/¯)
The land (var¾a) which is north of samudra (ocean) and south of Him¢laya is called Bh¢rata
and its inhabitants are Bh¢rat¤. Its 7 kulaparvatas (natural dividors of janapadas) are-Mahendra,
Malaya, Sahya, ¹uktim¢na, §kºa, Vindhya, P¢riy¢tra. This Bh¢ratavar¾a has 9 parts-Indra-
dv¤pa, Kaºeru (-m¢n), T¢mrapar´a, Gabhastim¢n, N¢ga-dv¤pa, Saumya, Gandharva, V¢ru´a.
And this (Bh¢rata-kha´²a, or Kum¢rik¢-kha´²a) is the 9th, surrounded by s¢gara. In north
south direction, it extends for 1000 yojanas. Kir¢tas are at its east end and Yavanas at west
end. (Vi¾´u pur¢´a 2/2/2-8)
+i+ª·+ |·i¤ (·/¯-··) =iŸ: (i‡i+i +i·=i+i-- ·i=i·i +i·(i++i.Ÿ:··Ÿ::
·|·i·(-- -«i-- |‡+i--+o|ª·+i.Ÿ: ºi·=i·i +++i--+ lu·=ui+i ·+«+i.Ÿ:
-(«·i. +l·“i-- |i··i ti·=lº+i.Ÿ: +i··i (t=«i-- +++i ·-+il·+i.Ÿ:
-i+i--+ (ºi·i-- |‡+i (i=(i··i.Ÿ: ·i++i-- =·«i·i. |+·i-- +-· +i.Ÿ::··Ÿ::
·-|i+i. -·+i·i-- -l·+i ·iº·. utŸ: ·i|=i--il++«i-- l+·i(i+i - ·i(+.Ÿ::·Ÿ::
(i+ui tu+iºi-- +i-+i·i-( º¤i-((iŸ: -l·+i. +t+i--+ ¬¤i ·i+i-((+ -Ÿ::·Ÿ::
M¢rka´²eya pur¢´a (54/6-11) also tells the same. Further (35-41) list the parts in west,
north and east ends-B¢hl¤ka (Balkha of Iran), V¢°adh¢na, ¡bh¤ra, K¢latoyaka (M. Ali calls it
Kal¢t valley in Baluchistan), Apar¢nta (=West end, ¡prita=Afridi), ¹¦dra (a land, not caste),
Pahlava (like Pallava in south India, rulers of Iran), Charma-kha´²ika, G¢ndh¢ra (Kandahar),
Yavana (In Arab earlier, chased to Greece after attack by Baccus), Sindhu, Sauv¤ra, Madra (-
aka), ¹atadruja, Kalinga, P¢rada (Parthians), H¢rabh¦ºika (In land shaped as h¢ra=garland-
Nikobar to Philippines have almost same tribe), M¢°hara (R¢ma°ha), Bahubhadra, Kaikeya,
Daºam¢lika, Ch¤na, Tu¾¢ra, Pahlava B¢hyatodara (outer Pahlavas), ¡treya (S¢nkhya Atri
had gone to north west direction where script of 25 letters for 25 elements of s¢nkhya is still
used), Bharadv¢ja (One town state of Bharadv¢ja had fought with Alexander after he crossed
Persia), Pu¾kala (named after Pu¾kala, nephew of R¢ma ruling on northwest border), Kaºeruka,
Lamp¢ka (M. Ali calls is Lamghans in upper Kabul valley. But it is in east-Lampang town of
Thailand. Lombok island eastof B¢l¤ in Indonesia), ¹¦lak¢ra, Chulika, J¢gu²a (J¢nga²a or
J¢ngala=sparse forest, or Tanga´a, J¢ngi²a is a herb of west Himalayas in Atharvaveda, also
a title in Haryana), Aupadha, Ani-Madra (These are parts of old Madra=Medes), Kir¢ta (Eastern
Him¢laya, upto China), T¢masa, Hansa-m¢rga (Hunza ?), K¢ºm¤ra, ¹¦lika (Chulika), Kuhaka,
¥r´a (P¦r´a), D¢rva.
+·-+ |·i¤(··+i+ ··)-·(it +¤l++il++º-|-++ =i·( +·i.Ÿ: =·¤i·- +·i+i + ++=·( -·+(Ÿ::·Ÿ::
l+·-+-+i·-+ +º (· =i·( -+(+Ÿ: +(. -+º-- +i¬-- +·++--il| lt -+(.Ÿ::¯Ÿ::
+ o·+·++ +·+i+i =+i ++l+l=. -+(.Ÿ: =i·(-+i-+ +º-+ ++ =·i|·+(i=(Ÿ::Ÿ::
.·««i|. +-·-- (i+|¤i º=|-(+i+Ÿ: +iº«i |-((i ui-+i º·=+-·+( +i·¤.Ÿ::cŸ::
·+ ( +++-(ºi «i|. uiº·u+(.Ÿ: +i·+i+i uta ( «i |i-+ ·l¬¤i·i·.Ÿ::·Ÿ::
Matsya pur¢´a (114/5-6)-Now I describe the people of this Bh¢ratavar¾a. Manu (ruler of this
land) is called Bharata as he feeds the people of world. As defined in Nirukta also (not in
Nirukta of Y¢ska written in 2800 BC available now, some earlier Nirukta), this var¾a is
named Bh¢rata. Here only, svarga, mokºa, and madhyama (medium path of Buddhas prior to
Siddh¢rtha) are achieved. There is no other place in world called as karma-bh¦mi (place of
useful work). Now listen to the 9 parts of this country (same as earlier).
·i+(-( ++i·i(i º“i+i. ++ti+l=.Ÿ: l(+º·+ ( l+-(i¤. utail¤ ·-+ (Ÿ::··Ÿ::
«i |i =|l+l+·i-+ -·····(º u+-.Ÿ: +++i-- l+·i(i-- (-+i·( |+ ||--+Ÿ::··Ÿ::
(This 9th dv¤pa Kum¢rik¢ surrounded by ocean is 1000 yojana in north-south). It is oblique
and north (up) from Kum¢r¤ and then rectangular in Gang¢ region and spread in 10, 000
yojanas (boundary). On all ends, it is surroundedby Mlecchhas. Kir¢ta and Yavana are in east
and west ends.
(i¬¤i. ¬l++i +-+i +·+ -«i-- =iº-.Ÿ: .+i+=+l¤+il=+(+·(i ·++|-((i.Ÿ::·¯Ÿ::
u+·| |·-+i+i ( ·i¬+i¤i +(il+l= : .t -+ºi|+ºi( ++l·il·t +i+ºŸ::·Ÿ::
Here Br¢hma´a, Kºatriya, Vaiºya and ¹¦dra are well settled in their allotted works of yaj®a,
weapons, trade etc. Their mutual conduct is as per dharma for achieving dharma, artha, and
k¢ma through their works. Here all 4 ¢ºramas (brahmacharya, g¨hastha,v¢naprastha, sany¢sa)
are properly followed with the 5th state of kalpa (yog¤, siddha) for final object of mokºa.
+-·++ +i++i «i||-(+·+i+. ++ìl((.Ÿ: + º+ ·+( +·-+ u u+il·l( +ìl((.Ÿ::··Ÿ::
·+ ·i+-( +u+i··(l·¬l·(i -+(.Ÿ: -+·i·ui -+(i ·i+. |++·+il+ l+-(·i(Ÿ::·¯Ÿ::
This is m¢nava dv¤pa in triangle and rectangle shapes. Person ruling it completely is called
Samr¢°. Samr¢° is head of this loka. Head of antarikºa (adjacent 8 lands) also is called Svar¢°.
u( -i|-++ +ti+º l+¬(i. +· |+(i.Ÿ: +t·«i +·+. u=. -l-+i+¬+i+l|Ÿ::·Ÿ::
l+··+-- |il·+i+-- .·+( +·|+(i.Ÿ: (ºi uta---i·+ |+(i-( u+i|(.Ÿ::·cŸ::
There are 7 famous kulaparvatas in this great land-Mahendra, Malaya, Sahya, ¹uktim¢n,
§kºa, Vindhya, P¢riy¢tra. There are thosands of others nearby.
·l=-i(i-((--i·+ l+|·i|--+ ui++.Ÿ: ··+ (-+. |l·-i(i --+i --+i|·il++.Ÿ::··Ÿ::
(l+l+¬i ·i+|·i ·i+i -···i-- u+(.Ÿ: |i +·( +l·+i +vi º“i lu·= u·-+(iŸ::¯·Ÿ::
-(«--·«=iºi - +++i u·+-((iŸ: .·i+(i l+(-(i - l+|i-i ·l++i +tŸ.::¯·Ÿ::
ºi+(i =(|i|i - (it·i - ·º«(iŸ: +il-+ì - ((i+i - l+--i ·i ºª·+ì ((iŸ: -¬ ·ilt( .·+(i lt++·|i·l+.u(i.Ÿ:¯¯Ÿ:
+·-+l(+++(i ++·+i lu·=·+ -Ÿ: |¤i-i -··+i -+ u·i+i ·i +ti ((iŸ::¯·Ÿ::
|i·i -+ª++(i +|i l+l·-i +¤+·+l|Ÿ: l-+i =+·(i +·(i - |il·+i+il¬(i. -+(i.Ÿ::¯Ÿ:
-i¤i +ti+·i -+ ++·i u·ui l++i : +··il++i ·-i¤i - l-++·i ((+ -Ÿ: (+ui l||·i -++i +·(i+i l|-il-+iŸ:¯·Ÿ:
l++·i-·-·i -+ +···i +i·+ilt+iŸ:-l-+·(i -+i ··i++·i -l·+il| -:+¬+·(+u(i-(i +vi-+···i -=i.:¯¯Ÿ:
(i|i |+i¤i l+l+··+i l¬+i - l+º=i +·iŸ: +ª+i +(·¤i -+ l+-++i·i ++«(iŸ::¯Ÿ::
(i+i -+ +tiºi·i ·ºi-i·(.l-·i ((iŸ: l+··+|i·+u(i-(i +v. |ª+··i. -=i.Ÿ:¯cŸ::
ºi·i+·i =i+·(i +¤+¤i - +···iŸ: (“=«i u++iºi +i=i +i++(il| -Ÿ: ·l¬¤i|(+v-(i. u=|i·i· l+l+.u(i.:¯·Ÿ:
+(+i·i (i+|¤i ||·i -i·|·i+(iŸ: +·+i|·+.u(i +v. u+i. -i(··i. -=i.Ÿ::··Ÿ::
l+ºi+i +lº+·+i - .¬·i l+l·+i-·iŸ: ·i“l·+i +-=·i +t·«(++i. -+(i.Ÿ::··Ÿ::
+ºi +i u++i·i - +··ºi +··+ilt+iŸ: +|i |·il-+i -+ -l-+·+=+i. -+(i.Ÿ::·¯Ÿ::
There are many small mountains inhabited by many tribes-both ¡rya and Mlecchha-drinking
water of these rivers-Gang¢, Sindhu, Sarasvat¤, ¹atadru, Chandrabh¢g¢, Yamun¢, Saray¦,
Ir¢vat¤, Vitast¢, Vip¢º¢, Devik¢, Kuh¦, Gomat¤, Dh¦tap¢p¢, B¢hud¢, D¨¾advat¤, Kauºik¤,
T¨t¤y¢, Niºch¤r¢, Ga´²ak¤, Chakºu, Lauhita-all these have emerged from Him¢laya. Vedasm¨ti,
Vetravat¤, V¨traghn¤, Sindhu, Par´¢º¢, Charma´yavat¤, Y¦p¢, Vidiº¢, Ve´umat¤, ¹ipr¢, Avant¤
and Kunt¤-these have emerged from P¢riy¢tra parvata. ¹o´a, Mah¢nad¤, Narmad¢, Suras¢,
Kriy¢, Mand¢kin¤, Daº¢r´¢, Chitrak¦°¢, Tamas¢, Pippal¤, ¹yen¤, Karatoya, Piº¢chik¢, Vimal¢,
Cha®chal¢, Va®jul¢, V¢luv¢hin¤, ¹uktimant¤, ¹un¤, lajj¢, Muku°¢ and Hr¢dik¢-these rivers of
pure water have emerged from §kºavanta (§kºv¢n) parvata. T¢p¤, Payo¾´¤, Nirvindhy¢, Kºipr¢,
Ni¾adh¢, Ve´y¢, Vaitara´¤, Viºvam¢l¢, Kumudvat¤, Toy¢, Mah¢gaur¤, Durg¢, and Antahºil¢-
all these sacred rivers have emeged from Vindhya mountains. God¢var¤, Bh¤marath¤,
K¨¾´ave´¤, Va®jul¢, Tungabhadr¢, Suprayog¢, B¢hy¢ (Vardh¢) and K¢ver¤ - all these from
Sahya mountain flow in south region. K¨tam¢l¢, T¢mrapar´¤, Pu¾paj¢, and Utpal¢vat¤ -have
emerged from Malay¢chala. Tri¾¢m¢, §¾ikuly¢, Ikºul¢, Tridiv¢, Achal¢, L¢ng¦lin¤, Vamºadh¢r¢
are from Mahendra mountain (Mahendra-tanay¢ is name of a river also). §¾¤k¢, Sukum¢r¤,
Mandag¢, Mandav¢hin¤, K¨p¢, Pal¢ºin¤-all are from ¹uktim¢n mountain.
(iui +v|+v-- -(-i-( uta-.Ÿ: (i|-++ +· |i·-i·i. -i·+i--+ u·i“·i.Ÿ::·Ÿ::
-·u+i =«+i·i (i=i. ut|··-·i.Ÿ: +·-+i. l+·i(i. +··+i-- +·(·i. +il-+iu·i.Ÿ::··Ÿ::
·i+·(i-- +il·“i ++i--+i·=+. utŸ: +·+·- ·+|·i. +i+-. |l·+ìl((i.Ÿ::·¯Ÿ::
Along these rivers and their tributaries many janapada (countries) are located. In Madhyadeºa-
Kuru,P¢®ch¢la, ¹¢lva, Saj¢ngala, ¹¦rasena, Bhadrak¢ra, B¢hya, Sahapa°acchara, Matsya,
Kir¢ta, Kunt¤, K¢º¤, Kosala, Kalinga, M¦ka, and Andhaka (around Sahya mountain).
(i~·i +i +i·=i+i-- ·i=i ·i. +i·(i++i.Ÿ: |··=i--+ -«i-- |··+i--i ·io|ª·+i.Ÿ::·Ÿ::
ºi·=i·i +++i--+ lu·= ui+i · +«+i.Ÿ: -+i «=i. |l···i-- |i··iti·+l(+i.Ÿ::·Ÿ::
·i+·i. +ª·+i·i-- ++·+i ·-+i++i.Ÿ: ¬l++i|l++-i-- +-+i. -«+·il+ -Ÿ::¯Ÿ::
+i-(i·i ···i--+ ((·i |~·+i ((iŸ: ·i++i-- =·«i·i. +-(·i-- +u·+i.Ÿ::·Ÿ::
·-|+i-(·ºi+i-- ul++i. ut ·i“·.Ÿ: º( ·-i -·i·+i-( +i·+i+ ·-i+ l+(i=(Ÿ::Ÿ::
·“i +“i +·º·+i ··(lºl· (ltlº·iŸ: ((. ·+“+i(“i +++i +i·+i¤+i.Ÿ: u¬i·i·i. +l+·+i +iº+iº++i·+i.Ÿ:·Ÿ:
+i·+il(ºi-- |ª·i-- l+·ti-(i+l·(+i.Ÿ: -i·++iº=ºi+·i. +i·+i ·+|·i. -+(i.Ÿ::¯Ÿ::
·(i|· ·+|·i ·l¬¤i|(+ilu+.Ÿ: |iª·+i-- +··i--+ -i·i. +·+i-((+ -Ÿ::Ÿ::
u(+i +lº+i--+ +|(i +il·+ilu+i.Ÿ: +ti·i·i +iltº+i. +l·“i--+ u+-.Ÿ::cŸ::
·i=i·i-- utºi +i ·i··+i. -(·i-((iŸ: |l···i l+··++l·+i +·=i ·ª·+. utŸ::·Ÿ::
+·i+i-- lu·i·i-- ·-++i =iº+=+i.Ÿ: ((i (l·il·+i--+ ·l¬¤i|( +ilu+.Ÿ::··Ÿ::
+iluŠ+i--+ + -i·+ + -+i·(· ++·i.Ÿ: =i·+··i. u+it+i. ut ui·-+(-((iŸ::··Ÿ::
+i··i +i--+ ui·i·i ·i+(i ·(·. utŸ: .·+( ·|·i·(i-( ·i¤ + l+··++ilu+.Ÿ::·¯Ÿ::
+i·+i-- +-·i-- ++i·i--i·+·. utŸ: ·iª· +iºi ·-i¤i-- =i·i. l+|+·=+. utŸ::··Ÿ::
·-|i. -i|ª·+·i-- +il(ti+i ·+·(+.Ÿ: º( ·+|·i. ·+i(i l+··+|· l++ilu+.Ÿ::··Ÿ::
·(i ·-i+ ++·+il+ |+(i¬l+¤-- +Ÿ: l+·iti·i. u+ºi-- +|(i ·|(i-((iŸ::·¯Ÿ::
+|(+i+·¤i--+ ¬¤i·+i. u+«+i.Ÿ: l+º(i +ª··i--+ l+·i(i--i+·. utŸ::·Ÿ::
B¢hl¤ka (Balkha), V¢°dh¢na, ¡bh¤ra, K¢latoyaka, Purandhra, ¹¦dra, Pallava, ¡ttakha´²ika,
G¢ndh¢ra, Yavana, Sindhu, Sauv¤ra, Madraka, ¹aka, Druhya, Pulinda, P¢rada, ¡h¢ram¦rttika,
R¢ma°ha, Ka´°ak¢ra, Kaikeya, Daºan¢maka-these are colonies of Kºatriyas where vaiºya
and º¦dras also live. Kamboja, Darada, Barbara, Pahlava, Atri, Bharadv¢ja, Prasthala,
Kaseraka, Lampaka, Talag¢na, J¢ngala and Sainika are in north. Now listen to lands of east-
Anga, Vanga, Madguraka, Antargiri, Bahirgiri, Plavanga, M¢tanga, Yamaka, M¢lavar´aka,
Suhma, Pravijaya, M¢rga, V¢geya, M¢lava, Pr¢gjyoti¾a, Pu´²ra, Videha, T¢mraliptaka, ¹¢lva,
Magadha, Gonarda. Now lands of south-P¢´²ya, Kerala, Chola, Kulya, Setuka, M¦¾ika,
Kupatha, V¢jiv¢sika, Mah¢r¢¾°ra, M¢hi¾aka, Kalinga, ¡bh¤ra, Sahai¾¤ka, ¡°avya, ¹abara,
Pulinda, Vindhyamulika, Vaidarbha, Da´²aka, Kul¤ya, Sir¢la, Aºmaka, Bhogavardhana,
Taittirika, N¢sikya, and others along Narmad¢ river. Bh¢rukacchha, M¢heya, S¢rasvata,
K¢cchh¤ka, Saur¢¾°ra, ¡narta, Arbuda-all are Apar¢nta (west end) lands. Now listen to lands
of Vindhya-M¢lava, Kar¦¾a, Mekala, Utkala, Au´²ra, M¢¾a, Daº¢r´a, Bhoja, Ki¾kindhaka,
Toºala, Kosala (south), Traipura, Vaidiºa, Tumura, Tumbara, Padgama, Nai¾adha, Ar¦¾a,
¹au´²ikera, V¤tihotra, Avanti. Mountain regions are-Nir¢h¢ra, Sarvaga, Kupatha, Apatha,
Kuthapr¢va´a, ¥r´a, Darva, Samudraka, Trigarta, Ma´²ala, Kir¢ta, Ch¢mara.
7. Existing influence in Arab-Till today, goat beard is kept by Muslims. It started in Arab
where Prachet¢s, son of Pr¢ch¤nabarhi had done Tapa in Arab sea. Their son Dakºa Praj¢pati
had done a yaj®a at Haridwar in which ¹iva was insulted. This resulted in destruction of yaj®a
and injury to many. Dakºa was given head of goat and Bh¨gu, beards of goat-as heads of both
had burnt in trouble. Then, king B¢hu of S¦ryavamºa had been defeated by western tribes
with help of Haihaya and T¢lajanghas. His son Sagara captured the lands again and punished
Pahlavas (Iran) with beards of goat.
l+¤ |·i¤ (/·)-((i ++-+ (it+i-ui tt+(i··”il·l=.Ÿ |·il·(i-·(+··+i +lt+i ut ++ +l++-Ÿ::¯¯Ÿ::
(+ +l(|+ l·+i·(· - ut+ (+ º·¤il((·-+i (i·+i ·-Ÿ::··Ÿ::
(-+i+i ·i(++il·l++i l+|iv uº· .l( +i+ -+i·Ÿ::·¯Ÿ:: +++i·+|ª·(l-·ui-÷+|ª·(i··+i+ +·-( +-i+ |i··i+
|~·+i·i -+¬=·i+ l+--+i·+i+ +º·+i·i+(i+·+i-- ¬l++i--+i·Ÿ::Ÿ::
Then, V¨ka had son named B¢hu, who had gone to forest with his pregnant wife after being
defeated by Haihaya and T¢lajangha etc. There, after some days, a very bright son was born
with gara (poison) in womb. Sage Aurva did his j¢takarma (childhood rites) etc. and named
him as Sagara. He clean-shaved Yavanas, half-shaved ¹akas, P¢radas were kept with long
hairs, Pahlavas with goat beard-and all were expelled from education and yaj®a.
l+¤ |·i¤ (·/·)-|(i; |+i ( =+-i ·-i(-·(l÷+il·+iŸ:: l-o|ª·+i tl+=i++·(=i+i··+·i+(Ÿ::·Ÿ::
tl+=i+i( º·i·++i l=º¤i-·++·u(i+Ÿ: +i-i +(ltº -+ º+ +¤ +·il·+iŸ::¯Ÿ::
u+«(++i+i ( +(·i·i +ti|l(.Ÿ: +t(-(|(. |i· u+¤i+i +ti+(Ÿ::·Ÿ::
u+¤i=·i ui+«i ·- +i-i +(ltº.Ÿ: u+ +-(ui +i+ =++·-+ |i·ºi.Ÿ::¯Ÿ::
·|(·=+-·¤i-(-(+·( +t ·i|.Ÿ: ·-+ºutail¤ u+«ul··-+i.Ÿ::Ÿ::
P¨thu had Antardh¢na and V¢d¤. Antardh¢na had 6 sons from his wife Dhi¾a´¢ of Agni
family-Pr¢ch¤nabarhi, ¹ukra, Gaya, K¨¾´, V¨ja, Ajina. After tapa, Pr¢ch¤nabarhi married
Savar´¢, daughter of Samudra. 10 sons were born to her. All named Prachet¢ were experts in
archery. All did tapa in sea water for 10 thousand years.
(·/··)-+il·ºi +i+ +i-+ºi +¬i¤il+l( l+l+(iŸ: =i+i +i--( +ti=iºi =+ +-l++l÷+iŸ::cŸ::
++i+ (·ui-=+ ++ -i÷+ (·u.Ÿ: ·-+i+·|·-+·( l+«i··¬i+i+ +·i|l(.Ÿ::·Ÿ::
uº+i+-((i l+«i·u +++ +·i|l(.Ÿ: º|· ·¬i-u··+·+i +·ª+il+l( +. ¬(+Ÿ::··¯Ÿ::
(King Soma told Prachet¢s)This girl M¢ri¾¢ has been born from trees, it should marry you and
extend your family. From your teja, combined with mine, a great scholar Dakºa will be born
who will be Praj¢pati (ruler of people). With desire to expand family, Dakºa gave birth to 60
daughters from his wife Varu´¤ as we have heard.
++ |·i¤ |+, ··+i+ ·-º++Š·+i ( l++lº. --i|-+·l+l«º.Ÿ: u+iº(i+ (i¬¤i-(i+ ·¬ uiti·+ +il·¤.Ÿ::¯cŸ::
+-+i· (lt+(i +·i =+l·=. |·+-+·.Ÿ: l+l+|··(i +ti·+. -‘·i ·i++|··(.Ÿ::¯·Ÿ::
=l++·+ ++i(i=i. u+|i-+·l+l«º.Ÿ: l+···(i =-+· +iº +-i-+iu-+i+ui.Ÿ::··Ÿ::
l+·+i=i(u+i-i·i l+·+i-i++·il|+.Ÿ: +i+ (i· +l·+º +l··. l+· |il·(i.Ÿ::··Ÿ::
·+Š·+i (|i(· +·-+ º···+ +·+i+ |+.Ÿ: =l++l( rºi+-. -+il¬(i |·i·+o.Ÿ::·¯Ÿ::
Saying this, sage Dadh¤chi cursed the br¢hma´as opposing worship of ¹iva. As you have
disobeyed Vedas and blamed ¹ankara, worshipped by the world, you will be without knowl-
edge of Vedas and will spread false knowledge and conduct in kaliyuga. You will suffer the
troubles of kali yuga. Due to leaving tapa, you will al go to naraka (hell). Even if you seek
shelter of H¨¾¤ke¾a, he will not favour you.
=iº+( |·i¤ (/)-+·i|(··=-i¤i =+·+·+o l-·.Ÿ: l++-+ -¬º¬( =iº -+ (ltºi =º.Ÿ::·Ÿ::
|ºi ( +·+i+-+ ·l·=·¬( l|·=+Ÿ: ·+i. + +(u+i“i + + -··º¤ ··.Ÿ::Ÿ::
(it-+i+|-++i. |¤i t-(i-+i +((it+.Ÿ: =+··+·+++--i·+ (-(-+¬=º=+(Ÿ::·Ÿ::
(Mah¢deva told)-Head of Dakºa has burnt, goat head may be transplanted on him. Bhaga
without eyes may see his food with eyes of Mitra. P¦¾¢ without teeth may take ground food
only with teeth of yajam¢na. Limbs of all devas may be corrected as they have fixed my share
as all the left over materials. Performers of yaj®a like adhvaryu whose arms are broken may
work with hands of Aºvin¤kum¢ra. Persons whose hands are broken may work with hands of
P¦¾¢. Bh¨gu may be given beards of goat.
8. Continents in Pur¢´as-List from various sources is as below-
Continets Bh¢gavata, Garu²a Matsya Var¢ha Skanda Mah¢bh¢rata Siddh¢nta
& V¢mana, Brahma, & Padma ¹iroma´i
oceans M¢rka´deya, Linga, K¦rma
Brahm¢´²a, Agni, V¢yu,
Dev¤, & Vi¾´u
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
1. Jamb¦ Jamb¦ Jamb¦ Jamb¦ Jamb¦ Jamb¦
1a. Salt water (Lava´a) Salt water Salt water Salt water -- ---
2. Plakºa ¹aka ¹aka ¹aka ¹aka ¹aka
2a. Sugarcane juice (Ikºu) Milk(kº¤ra) Milk Milk --- ---
3. ¹¢lmala(i) Kuºa Kuºa Pu¾kara Kuºa ¹¢lmala
3a. Wine (sur¢) Ghee (gh¨ta) Curd (dadhi) Wine --- ---
4. Kuºa Krau®cha Krau®cha Kuºa Krau®cha Kuºa
4a. Ghee (Sarpi) Curd (dadhi) Ghee Curd --- ---
5. Krau®cha ¹¢lmala ¹¢lmala Krau®cha Pu¾kara Krau®cha
5a. Curd (dadhi) Wine (sur¢) Wine Ghee (Sarpi) --- ---
6. ¹aka Gomeda (ka) Gomeda ¹¢lmali --- Gomeda (ka)
6a. Milk (Kº¤ra) Sugarcane(Ikºu) Sugarcane Sugarcanejuice ---- ----
7. Pu¾kara Pu¾kara Pu¾kara Gomeda --- ---
7a. Fresh water (Sw¢duda) Fresh water Fresh water Fresh water --- ---
There are many views about seven Dv¤pas -(1) These are Asia, Europe, Australia, North and
South America and Antarctica.
(2) The seven Climates of the ancients.
(3) Various lands in the old world-
(a) Jambu (India), Plakºa (Arakan and Burma), Kuºa (Sunda Archipelago); ¹¢lmali (Malaya
Peninsula), Krau®cha (South India); ¹aka (Kamboja) and Pu¾kara (N. China and Mongolia)-
Col. Gerini, Researches on Ptolemys Geography of Eastern Asia (1909) page 725
(b) Jambu (India), Kuºa (Iran), Plakºa (Asia Minor), ¹¢lmali (Central Europe), Krau®cha
(Western Europe), ¹aka (British Isles) and Puºkara (Iceland)-F. Wilford-Asiatic Researches,
Vol.III, page 287-346
(c) Jambu (India), Krau®cha (Asia Minor), Gomeda (Komedie, Tartary), Pu¾kara (Turkistan),
¹aka (Sythia), Kuºa (Iran, Arabia and Ethiopia), Plakºa (Greece), ¹¢lmali (Sarmatia?)-V.V.
Iyer-The Seven Dwipas of the Puranas in The Quarterly Journal of the Mythical Society
(London), Vols. 15-17.
V¢yu pur¢´a, chapter 48, gives list of lands adjacent to Jambu dv¤pa-
(1) Mah¢kula Parvata named Vidyutv¢n runs thrice for 3000 yojanas. It abounds in flowers,
fruits with many peaks and ranges. Many rivers, tanks and wells. Many valleys and broad
plains, large population. many towns on mountains are walled with one gate, linked and on
one route. Short statured people, long beard, whiskers, live on monkeys and fruits.
(2) Anga Dv¤pa-many small states, mlechhas, gold, gems, corals, rivers, mountains, forests,
Lava´a sea. Both ends of Chakragiri mountain touch the sea in N¢gadeºa. Many rivers, falls,
caves. Australia in agni-ko´a (south east).
(3) Yama Dv¤pa-Dyutiman, gems and gold, This is Newzealand having 2 lands (yama=2).
Yama-ko°i-pattana has the same south latitude as Yama star (southern cruz) and it is 90
(4) Malaya Dv¤pa-Gold and precios stones, sndalwood, mines of silver (Tin ?), Agastya ¢ºrama
on Mah¢-malaya mountain and on Mandara mountain also. Trik¦°a mountain has gold and
silver, abode of R¢kºasas. Gokar´a temple of ¹ankara on west coast.
(5) ¹ankha Dv¤pa-of 100 yojanasm many Ga´as of Mlechhas. ¹ankhagiri mountain and
¹ankhan¢ga river, on its bank is ¢ºrama of serpent king ¹ankhamukha. (¹ankha =Zanga,
(6) Kuºa (or Kumuda) Dv¤pa.
(7) Var¢ha Dv¤pa-savage people, many cities, mountains, forests, Var¢ha mountain with
waterfall, gorges, caves. Var¢h¤ river. Vi¾´u in form of Var¢ha is principal diety.
8 islands of Jamb¦-Dv¤pa are mentioned in Bh¢gavata pur¢´a (5/19)-
(1) ¡vartana-Britain, (2 N¢rama´aka-Norway/Sweden.
(3) P¢®chajanya-5 islands in east under name Nippon (Japan)-Sakhalin, Honshu, Hokkaido,
(6) Svar´aprastha-Borneo, Java (Yava =barley shaped), Sum¢tra, Singapur, Penang, Nikobar,
(7) Simhala-Present Srilanka.
(8) Lank¢-Laccadiva-M¢ladiva-It is on 0
longitude passing through Ujjain and touching equa-
tor. Lank¢ and Simhala have always mentioned separately in B¨hatsamhit¢ and all texts of
astronomy. V¢lm¤ki R¢m¢ya´a, Sundara-k¢´²a tells Lank¢ as 30 yojana wide and 100
yojana long. Uttarak¢´²a (5/5, 20-28, 6/7,15; 8/22-24) tells that land of M¢l¤ was in south-
ern part of Lank¢, called M¢leya.
9. India-Parts of India according to Madhusudan Ojha in Indravijaya, chapters 2-3by
Jodhpur University, Rajsthan , 1997-
Sl. No. Name Synonym Common name English name
1. Indradv¤pa Indradyumna Indramana Andman
2. N¢gadv¤pa ------ Nikobar Nikobar
3. Saumya Somatr¢ Sumatr¢ Yavadv¤pa,Balidv¤pa (Java, Bali)
4. G¢ndharva ----- Philippines Lumbak, Sumbaflorin etc.
5. V¢ru´a ------ Borneo Brunei
6. Kaºerum¢n Kaseru Selebese -------
7. Gabhastim¢n ----- Malacca -------
8. T¢mrapar´a T¢mrapar´¤ Tapuroven/Srilanka Srilanka
9. Kum¢rik¢ Kum¢r¤ Bh¢rata-kha´²a India
Western parts according to that book-
(1)G¢ndh¢ra-Madra-Gandhar was east part of Afganistan called Kandahar now. West part
was Madra divided into north and south parts.
(2) S¢gara had expelled 5 tribes o west part-P¢rada, Pahlava,Kamboja, ¹aka, Yavana.
P¢rada followed the custom of K¢lakeya Asuras (Chaldia, Caucassus). P¢rada means bow-
wielding in Arabic. later on they were called Parthians.
(3) Pahlava-There was a similar Pallava dynasty in Tamilnadu. It means powerful. Pallava is
leaf or petal of flower. Developed musles due to exercise are also called pallava (pu¾pita in
Aitareya Br¢hmana, 32/1). Thus, a wrestler is called Pahalvan. Later on, they were called
sassani, parthava etc. M¢rka´²eya pur¢´a, chapter 54 tells that B¢hl¤ka, V¢°adh¢na, Pahlava,
Charmakha´²ika, G¢ndh¢ra, P¢rada, H¢rabh¦¾ika, K¢mboja and Darada were like people of
(4) Kamboja is derived from k¢ma-bhoja, i.e. free in consuming. It was in west and different
from Combodia, south of Thailand.
(5) ¹aka are followers of Jaratha-u¾°ra (old camel) or Zoroster in west of Afganistan as per
Bhavi¾ya pur¢´a (139/43-45, chapter 14). ¹aka dv¤pa is different.
(6) Yavana are on west border of India. On being expelled by Sagara, they settled in Greece.
(7) Heli are Haileya asuras living in Greece. They were called Pelasgi. By living in mountains
(giri), they were called Girik¢ya (or big body like mountain) which became Greece.
Double names- India was standard of culture, education and civilization (Vi¾´u Pur¢´a 2/3).
Thus names and customs of different parts were copied in connected parts-
1. Malaya-Malayagiri and malayalam are in Kerala. Its parallel in Malaya peninsula in south
east India (greater India). Its capital is Kualalampur. On Keral coast west of Tiru-Anantapuram
also, there is Kovalam beach. Kalamba is soth pole in ecliptic system. Kadamba is north pole.
Thus port town,specially in south are kalamba (Colombo), kalamba era is in Kerala starting
from death of Paraºur¢ma in 6177 BC. Kadambas were rulers here.
2. Balikuda etc in Orissa are original areas of influence of Bali in north Ki¾kindh¢, Its coun-
terpart is B¢li dv¤pa in Indonesia. Probably it was capital of that group of islands and meant
the whole Indonesia.
3. Anga is present west Bengal. Correspondingly, there was Anga dv¤pa, whose description in
V¢yu pur¢´a tallies with Australia.
4. Kanya-kum¢r¤-Kenya. It also means virgin-mother, mentioned in new testament.
5. Mumbai-Mombasa, port of Kenya.
6. Maldiv-Mali in West Africa.
7 Banga-Bangladesh. Kalibangan, Kalimantan in Borneo.
8. Champa-Bhagalpur, Champaran in Bihar, Cambodia.
9. Suhma-Midnapur-Shy¢ma or Siam (Thailand)
10. Ki¾hkindh¢-land of Kandhas. place of Vanaras (Bandar=port or its controllers). Linked
with Borneo where main town is Bandar-Sri-Bhagwan.
Thus, parts of India on mainland and greater India are-
Kha´²as according Region in Region in main land
to M¢rka´²eya pur¢´a greater India
1. Indradv¤pa (a) Land east of Ir¢vat¤ (East Burma Mahendra mountains,
Laos-Air¢vata elephant of Indra). Indr¢vat¤ river area
Indra is lord of east region
(b) Control of P¢ka tribes on west border Indraprastha base
by ¹akra-Indra was called ¹akra and Capital of P¢´²ava in Delhi
P¢kaº¢sana-Sakkhar, Hakkar river of Pakistan.
2. Kaºerum¢n South east Indonesia, Vietnam Anam of Andhra coast (Yenam)
(old Anam), Mekong (M¢-Gang¢) delta God¢var¤ delta
3. Gabhastim¢n South of Kaºeru, Malacca strait, Between God¢var¤ to Mah¢nad¤
islands south and north of it, Indonesia §kºa and Malaya mountains
4. T¢mrapar´¤ ¹r¤lank¢ called T¢mrapar´¤ in Region south of K¢ver¤, T¢mralipti (north
in Ashoka inscriptions Orissa port) also had connection with it.
5. N¢gadv¤pa Andman and Nikobar Nagapattinam district in
Jaffna in Srilanka Tamilnadu
6. Saumya (north) Tibet (Trivi¾°apa)-Brahma vi°apa Coastal belt south of Sindhu,
is catchment of Brahmaputra, ¹iva may be Bengal delta also
vi°apa of Gang¢, Vi¾´u vi°apa of Sindhu (Sundarvana)
7. Varu´a Arabian sea island (Pa®chajana=five tribes West coast
of Arab peninsula.
10. Continents-(1) Jamb¦-dv¤pa is most of Asia and Russian region. Its parts are-(a) Il¢v¨tta-
Scandinavia, Siberia.(b) Nishadha is Varkhoyansk region (Var¾a parvata-mountains separat-
ing countries), Ural mountains (north Russia), Kjolen muntains of Sweden are west bound-
ary. (c) Harivar¾a is Russian and Mongolian plains. Hemak¦°a is Altai, Nanshan ranges in
China. (d) Kimpuru¾a var¾a is China and Tibet areas , whose Mongoloid features have given
the name of Kinnara or Kimpuru¾a (=are they man?). (e) Uttara-Kuru is near polar regions.
It can be Siberia or Canada, if we consider north of 24
latitude as Jamb¦-dv¤pa in Jaina
astronomy. (f) Bh¢rata-var¾a-Most important country of Jamb¦-dv¤pa is India, its capital
town was Hastin¢pur (elephant town). Eastern Himalayas bent south look like head of el-
ephant and the land to south including islands of Indonesia are like its trunk (¹u´²a-upto
Sunda strait)). Thus, the Chinese called India as elephant kingdom. Being the most important
country of Jamb¦-dv¤pa, jambu (Jumbo) itself has come to mean elephant or large size. (g)
Above Yamako°i (south west Newzealand, 90
east of Ujjain as per S¦rya-siddh¢nta), there is
no other land mass. Hence, only one mountain has been named-which may be Sikhote-Alin
range in eastern China. Korea, Japan. Aºva means fast moving, carrier and one of the mean-
ings is horse which has these qualities. However, in seas, trade winds carried mast ships and
they were called horse. Region of gentle winds is Bhadr¢ºva-in one sense, it is Pacific sea
surrounding the land and north of Yamako°i. The land mass close to it is still referred to as
Horse latitude, though it has nothing to do with horses-it is merely a translation of Bhadr¢ºva.
(2) Kuºa Dv¤pa is almost universally accepted as Africa. Ezypt was called Kuºa in earlier
days. Ethiopeans call themselves Kuºa. M. Ali opines Kuºa as the land from Perisa to Israel as
Kuºa and north Africa as it abounds in kuºa=grassland. Himalayas in Afganistan and Persia
are called Hindukuºa, as it is Hindu part of Kuºa. But Muslim historians Ibn-batuta, Badauni,
Abul Fazal and encyclopaedia Britannica, National geographic and many history text books
mention with pride that about 300 lakh hindus captured were brought as slaves through these
ranges and many of them died on way. So the name Pariy¢tra parvata was changed to Hindu
kuºa (kush=to kill in Persian).7 parts are-Udbhid, Ve´um¢n, Vairatha, Lambana, Dh¨ti,
Prabh¢kara, Kapila. 7 mountains-Vidruma, Hemaºaila, Dyutim¢n, Pu¾pav¢n, Kuºeºaya, Hari,
Mandar¢chala. 7 Rivers-Dh¦tap¢p¢, ¹iv¢, Pavitr¢, Sammati, Vidyut, Ambh¢, Mah¤.
(3) ¹aka Dv¤pa is opined to be south east Asia by M. Ali as it abounds in ¹aka (Teak) trees.
Actually, kuºa (k¨ºa=thin) means a reed. Its stronger version is ºaka (strong) by joining reeds
in a bundle or by bigger size. Symbol of 1 is kuºa, its bundle ºaka is cumulative count. The
calender system for calculation of planetary positions uses cumulative count (ºaka) of days
from a point of time, so it is called ºaka. The calender which is followed by society is samvatsara.
Bigger size trees shaped like a big kuºa or pole are also ºaka. In north India, Sal tree in sub
Himalayan tracts is ºaka (sakhua), Siddh¢rtha Buddha from that region was called ¹¢kyamuni.
In south India, it is Sagwan (ºaka-vana)=teak. Actually, only teak tree can not make south
east Asia as ¹aka dv¤pa. ¹aka tree of Australia is Eucalyptus in pillar shape. ¹aka worshipped
Agni and Agni -ko´a is south east direction. The land mass in tha direction is Australia. Agni
dv¤pa has become Anga-dv¤pa in V¢yu-pur¢´a. ¹aka tribe, however, was in central Asia,
where pole shaped trees were prominent. There place is called ¹akasth¢na=Sistan. ¹aka
tribes are Slav, Ukrain, Croat, Ugyur etc.7 parts of ¹aka dv¤pa-Jalada, Kum¢ra, Sukum¢ra,
Mar¤chaka, Kusumoda, Maud¢ki, Mah¢druma. 7 mountains-Uday¢chala, Jal¢dh¢ra, Raivataka,
¹y¢ma, Ast¢challa, ¡mbikeya, Kesar¤.. 7 rivers-Sukum¢r¤, Kum¢r¤, Nalin¤, Dhenuk¢, Ikºu,
(4) ¹¢lamali Dv¤pa- It is identified as south and east Africa. It includes Magadascar-Hari´a
dv¤pa of Pur¢´as or ¹ankha dv¤pa (Zenz of Arab), i.e. Zanzibar on Tanzania coast. M¨ga-
vy¢dha (south of Orion star) constellation has the same southern latitude. It means the same
as Malgasi or M¨ga-taskara (Magadascar).7 countries-¹veta, Harita, J¤m¦ta, Rohita, Vaidyuta,
M¢nasa, Suprabha. 7 mountains-Kumuda, Unnata, Bal¢haka, Dro´¢chala, Kanka, Mahi¾a,
kakudm¢n. 7 rivers-Yoni, Toy¢, Vit¨¾´¢, Chandr¢, Mukt¢, Vimochan¤, Niv¨ti.
(5) Krau®cha dv¤pa -It is named on mount Krau®cha. Mah¢bh¢rata tells is west from Meru
(12/14/21-25) and in north (16/12). B¨hat-samhit¢ and R¢m¢ya´a locate it in the north.
Kuºa and Krau®cha are always mentioned together. It may be north west Europe according to
M. Ali. But on these considerations, it should be East Canada and Greenland. Krau®cha dv¤pa
and its mountain are broken in these regions which fits the description. Actually, it is eastern
part only of Krau®cha. The whole of north America and main mountain range Rockies are
Krau®cha. whose shape is like Krau®cha (Heron) bird in flying position. It surrounds Gh¨toda
(butter like) sea, i.e. the icy sea between north west Europe and Canada. Another point is that
the rule of Asuras was in P¢t¢la which is in opposit hemisphere. Their power was supreme in
19302 BC when Krau®cha era started. (Dhruva samvatsara of 9090 m¢nu¾a years=8100
solar years is called Krau®cha samvatsara also in V¢yu pur¢´a). King Dhruva died in 27402
BC or 3 Dhruvas before Kali start (3102 BC). Krau®cha power was 2 Dhruvas before.
K¢rttikeya demolished Krau®cha dv¤pa in 16000 BC when Pole shifted from Vega (Abhijit)
and summer solstice started with Dhani¾°h¢ star (Mah¢bh¢rata, vana parva 301/8-10). Its 7
countries-Kuºala, Mandaga, U¾´a, P¤kara, Andhak¢raka, Muni, Dundubhi. 7 mountains-
Krau®cha, V¢mana, Andhak¢raka, Sv¢hin¤ (shape like mouth of horse), Div¢v¨t, Pu´²ar¤kav¢n,
Dundubhi. 7 Rivers-Gaur¤, Kumudvat¤, Sandhy¢, R¢tri, Manojav¢, Kº¢nti, Pu´²ar¤k¢.
(6) Plakºa dv¤pa-is also named as Gomeda in Var¢ha and Matsya pur¢´as and in Siddh¢nta-
ºiroma´i of Bh¢skara-1. It is named after Plakºa or Pakar tree which is characteristic of warm
temperature or Mediterranean islands. It is also in central America and Caribean islands. It is
identified with fig tree. According to Wilford, the name still persists in Placia, a town in Mycia
(south west Europe). There was a Pelasgi race in Cristone or Crotonen near Tyrrhanians in
Italy and Pelasgi who lived on shores of Hellespont. According to Herodotus, they all spoke
the same language. Sri V.V. Ayer identifies it with Greece and adjacent lands. The old names
in America have been lost, but it apears to have continued till central America through west
Indies and old Atlantis. 7 countries-¹¢ntahaya, ¹iºira, Sukhodaya, ¡nanda, ¹iva, Kºema,
Dhruva (near pole). 7 mountains-Gomeda, Chandra, N¢rada, Dundubhi, Somaka, Suman¢,
Vaibhr¢ja. 7 rivers-Anutapt¢, ¹ikh¤, Vip¢º¢, Tridiv¢, Aklam¢, Am¨t¢,, Suk¨t¢.
(7) Pu¾kara-Dv¤pa-It has two parts-one had no rainfall, no spring or vegetation. Other part is
full of water, lakes. It has a huge circular mountain chain in eastern half of dv¤pa. Western half
is surrounded by another circular range named M¢nasa with Mah¢vi°a (as its spur covering
outer rim) son of M¢nasa. Other pur¢´as tell that there is a mountain range running through
the whole dv¤pa, dividing it into two parts. According to Matsya, M¢nasa is like full moon
rising near sea coast. Sri M. Ali tries to fit it with Korea and Japan. Mountain range on sea
coast is in Australia, which is actually called the Great Dividing range and its almost semi-
circular. Mountains of west and central desert are not exactly circular, but the region be-
tween them is full of lakes and rivers, while the outer region is desert. But all the points tally
only with south America wich is actually divided from north to south by Andes mountain in
west part. This may be M¢nasa range which is exactly semi-circular from north coast to
Bolivia. Guyana highlands are almost its continuation, which may be called son of M¢nasa or
Mah¢vi°a. Circular mountains in east coast are Brazilian highlands which are called Chitr¢nºu
due to extensive forest cover (hence colourful and picturesque). West of Andes is desert, but
east and specially north east portion is full of water. Actually, north America also is continu-
ation of that mountain range. Rockies and Andes combined may be called Lok¢loka parvata
as it extends from Loka (north pole circle) to Aloka (south pole circle). Beyond that is Pacifc,
the biggest ocean, called Sweet water ocean. Anther feature is that it is exactly opposit to
Pu¾kara town of human Brahm¢ (12
west of Ujjain and at 35
north latitude). Thus, the same
Nyagrodha tree (axis on globe) is at both places and same name is given. Only onevar¾a-
parvata is M¢nasottara (Andes). Its two parts are-Dh¢tak¤-inside the circle of Andes i.e Bra-
zil, Argentina.Wset part is Mah¢v¤ra (=long boundary).
(8) Ananta- This may be part of the Pu¾kara (south America) called place of Ananta or
¹e¾an¢ga. Being southern-most part and shown down in map, it holds the earth. In India also,
south parts are called Ananta-e.g. Tiru-Ananta-puram, Ananta-pura. Ananta has always been
described with Pu¾kara. It has become Antactica.
11. Lokas and Talas-In astronomy, lokas are names of successively larger structures of
universe. Out of them, 4 are ma´²alas, i.e. spherical structures and3 are intervening spaces.
The 7 lokas are (1) Bh¦=earth planet, (2) Bhuvah=Seen from earth it is var¢ha of 4000 times
earth size, seen from sun it is £¾¢-da´²a (axle of wheel) upto 3000 sun diameters from sun
which is extent of solar wind as per Yajurveda (1/1).(3) Svar loka is the solar system. Earth
of solar system is of 1 lakh sun diameters which is exclusive zone of sun gravitation. Dyu or
sky of solar system is 1 crore times sun or 2
times earth size till which light is more than
average of galaxy in that region. (5) Mahar loka is a sphere of width of spiral arm containing
sun of size of 2
earth. Spiral arm is ¹e¾an¢ga and1000 suns in maharloka are 1000 heads.
(5) Janah loka is galaxy. Its spherical system is Brahm¢´²a (an egg of Brahma=universe), or
Parame¾°h¤ (largest brick). its creative sphere is Goloka (region of rays-nutrino corona) or
K¦rma (which does work of creation). galaxy is grand child of 2
times earth size,or 10
yojanas (yojana is 1000 part of earth diameter). K¦rma is 10 times bigger i.e. 10
per Tantra texts. (6) Tapah loka is visbe unverse 2
times earth size or 864 billion light years
radius called a kalpa or day of Brahm¢. (7) Satya loka is imaginary infinite world which is self
created i.e. Svayambh¦ ma´²ala taken as 10th part of Puru¾a of 2
times earth size. This is
satya is 3 ways-homogenous, isotropic and steady i.e. same in all places, directions and time.
Bh¦, Saura (Svar), Parame¾°h¤ (Janah) and Svayambh¦-these are 4 ma´²alas. All are succes-
times previous. This is also the ratio of earth and man as stated in Vi¾´u pur¢´a (2/
7/3-4). Smaller worlds are in ratio of 10
starting from man at levels. Thus, limit (ko°i) of
world at each stage starting with man is 10
, which is called ko°i (10
). Each world sphere is
a viºva which is a complete, closed and inter-connected system. Viºva smaller than man is
cell (kalila) which is 10
times smaller. Since this is limit of resolution of human eyes, it is
is called lakºa (=to see). 7 levels of viºva are smaller than man.
There are images of 7 lokas in human body which are subject of tantra and yoga. On earth
also, 7 lokas are in hemisphere of Bh¢ratavar¾a between equator to north pole. Equator to
Vindhyas is Bh¦, Vindhya to Him¢laya is Bhuvar amd Him¢laya is Svarloka . The country
Trivi¾°ap (Tibet) means svarga. China is maharloka as people of this region were called Mah¢n
(Han race) by Brahm¢. Janah loka is Mongolia. Janah loka is final place of soul after which
there is no individual structure. The soul on leaving the body is called Preta (=Pra+itah=gone
from here) or Mukul (mukta=released) in Arabic. Thus, the image of Janah loka is Mongolia.
Tapah loka is land upto Polar circle. Tapas is called Steppees. Polar circle is coldest corre-
sponding to Satya loka having least density. Europe also has Bh¦loka=meditarranean
(Bh¦madhya s¢gara) lands, Bhuvar=bavarian plain, Svar=Sverge (Sweden). Pu¾kara (south
America) has Iron land (Brazilmeans Iron, Dh¢taki), Argentina (Argentum=silver) and Ananta
asgold. In sky, sun, moon, earth are called purasof gold, silver, iron.
The lands surounding Atlanic ocean are divided into 7 talas, called 7 p¢t¢las. Atala is
identified as Italy or south west Europe. Tal¢tala is north Africa. In Ezypt, there is a place
called Til-et-tal-Amarn¢. Last place Ras¢tala is farthest from Him¢laya, i.e. Amazon basin
which is full of water (=rasa). Atal¢ntaka is beyond Atala,i.e. old Atlantis described by Plato.
Its remnants are west Indies and other islands of Atlantic. P¢t¢la is other part of south America.
North America may bedivided into Sutala and Vitala. Sutala may be plain and Vitala hilly
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