WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
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WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning

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WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning

Confidentiality level: Customer

Revision Record
Date 1-07-2007 Version 1A Change description Author Victor Toledo

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WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning

Confidentiality level: Customer

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WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning

Confidentiality level: Customer

Table of Contents

1 Traffic Model........................................................................................................ 9 Service overview............................................................................................ 9 QoS type ..................................................................................................... 11 Traffic Model ................................................................................................ 12 CS Traffic Model ......................................................................................... 13 PS Traffic Model .......................................................................................... 14 2 Uplink Capacity Analysis ................................................................................ 20 Uplink Interference Analysis- Uplink Interference Composition.................... 24 Uplink Interference Analysis- Uplink Load Factor ........................................ 23 3 Downlink Capacity Analysis ............................................................................ 26 Downlink Interference Analysis.................................................................... 29 4 Multi-service capacity estimation procedure ................................................. 30 Network capacity restriction factors ............................................................. 30 Downlink Channel code resources .............................................................. 32 Channel Element ........................................................................................ 34 Iub Interface Capacity ................................................................................. 36 Typical capacity design methods-Erlang B formula ..................................... 37 Typical capacity design methods- Equivalent Erlangs ................................. 41 Typical capacity design methods- Campbell´s theorem............................... 42 5 Network estimation procedure ........................................................................ 45 6 Capacity enhancement technologies.............................................................. 46 Transmission Diversity................................................................................. 46 Sectorization ................................................................................................ 48

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Page 6/50 .WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei.

Page 7/50 .WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer Objectives Upon completion of this module. you will be able to: Grasp the parameters of 3G traffic model Understand the factors that restrict the WCDMA network capacity Understand the methods and procedures of estimating multi-service capacity Understand the key technologies for enhancing network capacity Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei.

Page 8/50 .WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer Foreword WCDMA is a self-interference system WCDMA system capacity is closely related to coverage WCDMA network capacity has the “soft capacity” feature The capacity planning of the WCDMA network is performed under certain traffic models Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei.

the WCDMA network planning analysis should be based on the prerequisite of a certain traffic model estimate.g. supports uplink/downlink rate-asymmetrical services (Internet access). considers the future service development requirements.g. The WCDMA system supports the variable-rate service. Page 9/50 . e. In different propagation environment. high-speed data packet service (multimedia).. transmission delay. the rate is up to 384 kbps. in case of walking. and provides sufficient capacity and data bearing capability of flexible rate matching methods. in highspeed motion. hybrid service. The QoS of the WCDMA service is described by data rate. the WCDMA system requires reaching different target transmission rate values. Therefore. stream service ) Large-capacity and flexible service bearing The WCDMA system provides the users with flexible and diversified services.g. Different services and service composition proportions affect the WCDMA performance significantly. AMR voice) Combined services (e.g.WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer 1 Traffic Model Service Overview The WCDMA system supports multiple services Variable-rate services (e. Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei. bit error rate (BER). and the rate in indoor environments is up to 2 Mbps. CS & PS) High-speed data packet services (384k service) Asymmetrical services (e. the rate is up to 144 kbps. and delay jitters. which is an important characteristic of WCDMA.

round-trip delay is the most important index of this service type. the stream-type service tolerates the call waiting to a greater extent. the stream-type service imposes low requirement on the end-to-end delay. we can use the Erlang C formula to calculate the blocking probability of this type of users (defined as the probability of the call waiting for a specified time). the processing can be stopped at any time. The service is described with the terminal user’s request response pattern. the delay is required to be smaller than 150ms. For example.Services and quality of service. and can tolerate the delay of a magnitude of an hour. Therefore. the system can perform no queue processing for the calls. the system can save such requests in the busy hour. The background-service tolerates delay to the greatest extent. For the session-type services. Interaction-type service refers to the service through which the user requests data from the server. The interaction-type services are typically carried on the CS domain. and can provide the call queue mechanism. The session-type services are typically carried by the CS domain. and respond when the channel becomes idle. it will be difficult to understand the voice. For the session-type service. Generally.WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer QoS Type Table I. requirement on end-to-end delay is strict. Compared with the session-type service. for the voice service. Due to such great delay tolerance. Page 10/50 . In this case. In this case. The Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei. once a request with higher QoS comes in.. meanwhile. otherwise. we can use the Erlang B formula or the extended Erlang B formula to calculate. for such services. and must not exceed 400ms.

Objectives of Setting Up Traffic Model In order to determine the system configuration. Therefore. The users of traffic-type services also tolerate the call waiting to some extent. e. Page 11/50 . in order to predict the performance of the WCDMA system in carrying a certain type of service. which are closely related to the type of service carried by the system.g. The system provides a queue mechanism. We need to set up an expected data transmission model of the customer so that we can plan the network properly. spectrum efficiency. and uses the Erlang C formula to calculate the blocking rate. according to the difference between the maximum number of channels and the busy-hour average occupied channels.. the operator should provide some statistic data as reference. we can calculate the traffic of the background-type service. In order to set up a right model. The system has many key performance indicators. coverage. the above formulas—Erlang B formula and Erlang C formula are not applicable. we must know the service features.WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer system decides startup and termination at any time. Service features are represented by the traffic model. different transmission model will generate different system capacities. Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei. Generally. we need to determine the capacity of the air interface first. In the data service.

and the distribution of users in different regions. Figure 1. the traffic measurement model. By calculating the hybrid services of multiple traffic models. and user behaviour refers to the conduct of people in using the service. we determine the network system configuration. In the actual application.The contents of the traffic model. Contents of a traffic model The contents of a traffic model consist of service patterns and user behaviours. Page 12/50 . and sometimes is no strictly different from. Service pattern refers to the service features. service pattern is closely related to. we determine the traffic models of various services in the network.. Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei. By determining the service pattern and the user behaviour parameters. frequency of using the service. the user behaviour research mainly forecasts the service types available from the 3G. the number of users of each service type.WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer Traffic Model Traffic model is a means of researching the capacity features of each service type and the QoS expected by the users who are using the service from perspective of data transmission. In the data application.

Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei. since the channel structure and demodulation method are different. vehicle) User’s average moving speed Service Type Uplink and downlink service rates Spreading factor Time delay requirements of the service QoS requirements of the service For each service. For a typical service.WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer Typical Service Features Description Typical service features include the following feature parameters: User type (indoor . A typical service can be described by the following parameters: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) User type (indoor users. outdoor users) User’s average moving speed (km/h) Voice. non real time data Uplink and downlink service rates (kbps) Spread factor (SF) Signal delay requirement of the service (ms) The above parameters ultimately determine the QoS requirements of the service. real-time data. Page 13/50 .outdoor. the required uplink rate is different from the required downlink rate even for the same service type and the same data rate. users inside a vehicle. we first need to identify whether it is uplink or downlink rate.

service pattern is closely related to. CS Traffic Model Parameters Mean busy-hour traffic (Erlang) per user = BHCA * mean call duration /3600 Mean busy hour throughput per user (kbit) (G) = BHCA * mean call duration * activation factor * mean rate Mean busy hour throughput per user (bps) (H) = mean busy hour throughput per user * 1000/3600 Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei.WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer CS traffic model Voice service is a typical CS services. and sometimes is no strictly different from. Key parameters of the model: Penetration rate BHCA Mean busy-hour call attempts Mean call duration (s) Activation factor Mean rate of service (kbps) (Erl)For CS service. Voice data arrival conforms to the Poisson distribution. the traffic measurement model. mean busy-hour traffic (Erlang) per user = BHCA * mean call duration /3600 (Erl) (kbps)Mean busy-hour throughput per user = BHCA * mean call duration * activation factor * mean rate of service (kbps) In the actual application. Its time interval conforms to the exponent distribution. Page 14/50 .

Packet session description.03. Figure 3.. Page 15/50 .Packet service session.WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer PS traffic model The most frequently used model is the packet service session process model described in ETSI UMTS30.. Figure 2. Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei.

Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei. the average values will apply.WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer PS Traffic Model Parameters Figure 4. Take the distribution most proximate to the standard probability as the corresponding parameter distribution through comparison with the standard distribution function. We identify the service types through the different values of the parameters..Parameters used in the PS traffic model. Packet Call Num/Session: Takes on the geometric random distribution Reading Time (sec): Takes on the geographic random distribution Packet Num/Packet Call: Takes on the geographic random distribution Packet size: Takes on the Pareto random distribution When using the parameters. Obtain the probability distribution of the parameters through processing of the sample data. Parameter Determining The basic parameters in the traffic model are determined in the following ways: Obtain numerous basic parameter sample data from the existing network. The service pattern-related parameters in the traffic model include: these parameters commonly determine the pattern of one session. Page 16/50 .

ParetoGeneral standard probability distributions include: logarithmic normal distribution. The parameter value varies between different services. when calculating the data transmission time. Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei. This will increase the traffic to be transmitted. the retransmission caused by erroneous blocks should be considered. according to the actual situation. Pareto distribution. BLER: In the PS service. we select the typical value of the bear rate. It will affect the activation factor. PS User Behavior Parameters Figure 5. geometrical distribution. and negative exponent distribution. the air interface block error rate is BLER.WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer We have determined the traffic model parameters. Typical Bearer Rate (kbps) : Bearer rate is variable in the actual transmission process. The linchpin is to determine such parameter values. Suppose the data volume of service source is N.. The service control mechanism will retransmit the erroneous blocks. Block error rate belongs to QoS. the total required data volume to be transmitted via the air interface is: During the planning. but will not affect the correctness of the planning result.User behavior parameters for PS. Page 17/50 .

we divide the users into high-end users. life custom and economic level will affect the service distribution.WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer The country. Medium. the progress of the construction of the WCDMA pilot system will provide us with reference. In the planning. In the future. mid-end and low-end users. : The time in a single session of service for Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei. mid-end users and low-end users. we can only use the existing analysis to make prediction. Penetration Rate : The percentage of the users that activates this service to all the users registered in the network. Page 18/50 . Low end) The users are divided into high-end. PS Traffic Model Parameters • Session traffic volume service (Byte): Average traffic of single session of the • Data transmission time (s) purpose of transmitting data. region. Currently. Different operators and different application situations will have different user distributions. BHSA : The times of single-user busy hour sessions of this service User Distribution (High. and believe that the BHSA and penetration rate are different between different types of user groups.

• Busy hour throughput per user (Kb): • PS throughput equivalent Erlang formula (Erlang) Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei. Page 19/50 .WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer Holding Time s ( ): Average duration of a single session of service Active factor: The weight of the time of service full-rate transmission among the duration of a single session.

we must analyze from both uplink and downlink perspectives. All users in the WCDMA system use the same band. This multi-access interference restricts the capacity. all the cells share the same frequency. However.WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer 2 Uplink capacity analysis Uplink Interference Analysis—Uplink Interference Composition Basic Principles In the WCDMA system. Page 20/50 . The radio system capacity is decided by uplink and downlink. When planning the capacity. The interference in a cellular system consists of two parts: co-frequency and adjacent frequency interference. which is beneficial to improve the system capacity. All the users are different by modulating the respective signal to the code sequences that are mutually orthogonal. the receiving signal is the sum of all user signals and the channel noise. Interference is the main factor that decides the system performance of the cellular system. Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei. co-frequency multiplexing causes interference between users. Therefore.

WCDMA signal bandwidth 3. Under the ideal power control : is active factor Hence : The interference from users of this cell is the sum of power of all the users arriving at the receiver: • Mexico Training Center :Interference from users of adjacent cell Confidential information of Huawei.84MHz − K − 10lg(KTW) = -108dBm/3.WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer • Receiver noise floor PN :Boltzmann constant.38× − T:Kelvin temperature.84MHz NF = 3dB (typical value of macro cell BTS) IOwn Interference from users of this cell : Interference that every user must overcome: is the receiving power of the user j . normal temperature: 290 K − W:Signal bandwidth. Page 21/50 . 1.

the typical value of adjacent cell interference factor is 0.65 Uplink Interference Analysis Define Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei.55 − For the 3-sector directional cell. cell layout. Adjacent cell interference factor : When the users are distributed evenly − For omni cell. and antenna direction diagram. Page 22/50 . the typical value of adjacent cell interference factor is 0.WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer The interference from users of adjacent cell is difficult to analyze theoretically. because it is related to user distribution.

67 Adjacent cell − interference factor − i = 0. Page 23/50 ..2 kbps voice users.55 Figure 6. the noise will rise: Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei. is infinite.WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer Suppose that: All the users are 12. the demodulation threshold Eb/No = 5dB Voice activation factor vj = 0. “threshold capacity”. Uplink Interference Analysis—Uplink Load Factor Define the uplink load factor When the load factor is 1. and the corresponding capacity is called Under the above assumption. the threshold capacity is approx 96 users.Total Interference calculation. Uplink Interference Analysis—Load Factor and Interference According to the above mentioned relationship.

and make the system support more users. (But call quality of such users will be deteriorated) Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei..Noise raise against Load factor. Uplink Interference Analysis—Limitation of the Current Method The above mentioned theoretic analysis uses the following simplifying explicitly or implicitly: No consideration of the influence of soft handover − The users in the soft handover state generates the interference which is slightly less than that generated by ordinary users.WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer Figure 7. No consideration of the influence of AMRC and hybrid service − AMRC reduces the voice service rate of some users. and makes them generate less interference. Page 24/50 .

Page 25/50 .WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer − Different services have different data rates and demodulation thresholds. Considering the above factors. So. the demodulation threshold even for the same service is time-variable. and the adjacent cell interference is constant. we should use the previous methods for analysis. but it will complicate the calculation process. Ideal power control assumption − The power control commands of the actual system have certain error codes so that the power control process is not ideal. the system simulation is a more accurate method: − Static simulation: Monte Carlo method − Dynamic simulation Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei. − Since the time-variable feature of the mobile transmission environment. and reduces the system capacity Assume that the users are distributed evenly.

Page 26/50 .WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer 3 Downlink Capacity Analysis Downlink Interference Analysis—Downlink Interference Composition Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei.

WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer Suppose the power control is desired. we obtain Then Because Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei. Page 27/50 .

Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei. we can define the downlink load factor: When the downlink load factor is 100%. As different from the theoretic calculation of uplink capacity.WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer Then Resolve PT to obtain where ij is the adjacent cell interference factor of the user. defined as: According to the above analysis. the downlink capacity is related to the spatial distribution of the users. and in the downlink capacity formula are variable related to user position. the transmitting power of the BTS is infinite. Page 28/50 . and can only be determined through system simulation. and the corresponding capacity is called “threshold capacity”. Namely.

we do not allow the mean transmitting Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei. In order to ensure system stability. Page 29/50 .. the supported maximum number of users is approx 114.Result simulation for downlink interference analysis. Downlink Interference Analysis—Simulation Result Analysis When the transmitting power of the BTS is 43dBm (20W).WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer Downlink Interference Analysis—Simulation Result Figure 8.

and the terminal will be impossible for access or service. Page 30/50 .WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer power of the BTS to be more than 80% of the maximum transmitting power. Downlink power When the downlink transmitting power of the BTS reaches the load threshold. Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei. 42dBm. This way. namely. the supported number of users is 111. the terminal will be impossible to meet the requirements of demodulation quality through improving the transmitting power. This will make the terminal impossible for access or service. 4 Multi-service capacity estimation Network capacity restriction factors The WCDMA network capacity restriction factors in the radio network part include the following: Uplink interference Downlink power Downlink channel code resources (OVSF) Channel element (CE) Iub interface transmission resources Uplink interference If the uplink interference of the BTS reaches a certain extent. no redundant power is available for allocation.

Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei. The transmit power is allocated by the cell to each user varies with service demodulation threshold. In this case. The WCDMA system uses the orthogonal variable spread factor (OVSF) code sequence in a tree distribution.WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer Downlink channel code resources In the downlink direction. the circumstance may occur that no channel units are available for allocation. and the other part for dedicated (traffic) channel. scrambles are used for identifying the cells. The actually usable code sequence set is made up of the code words of SF=4~128. Channel processing unit In view of cost. propagation path loss and the interference received by the user The downlink transmit power of the cell is shared by all the users in the cell We generally use the simulation method to analyze the downlink interference. Downlink Transmit Power The downlinktransmit power has two parts: one part is used for common channel. Iub interface capacity The Iub interface currently still uses the E1 link as physical media. which may a bottleneck to the radio network capacity. the Channel element will be configured to full capacity. Page 31/50 . while the channel codes are used for identifying the channels.

UE number against downlink NodeB power. When the maximum transmitting power among the downlink transmitting powers that arrive at the BTS reaches a certain threshold. The user’s position relative to the adjacent cell BTS and this cell’s BTS. propagation path loss and the interference received by the user. Due to the complexity of the downlink capacity analysis. Downlink Channel Code Resources The WCDMA network use the codes whose SF is 4~512. The transmitting power allocated by the cell to each user varies with service demodulation threshold. The propagation path loss is related to the user’s position relative to this cell. Page 32/50 . The downlink transmitting power of the cell is shared by all the users in the cell. we can define the ratio of the downlink power of cell to the maximum transmitting power of the BTS as the downlink load of the cell. the higher the supported data rate will be. Therefore. the new users will be impossible to access.. The smaller the SF is.WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer Figure 9. we generally use the emulation method to analyze it. Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei. and the transmitting power of this cell’s BTS and the adjacent cell BTS decide the interference received.

WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer In the code tree. the allocable codes should meet the following conditions: No codes on the path from this code to the root node of code tree are allocated No codes in the sub-tree whose root node is this code are allocated Try to reserve the code words whose SF is small. The generation of the channel code uses the Hadamard matrix.. The downlink OVSF codes are like a code tree. In the process of code allocation. because the code words whose SF is small can support higher data rates and can be split into code words whose SF is larger. so as to improve the utilization efficiency. Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei.OVSF codes. and the SF is spread factor. Page 33/50 . Figure 10. it is appropriate to try to reserve the code words whose SF is small for purpose of improving utilization.

.WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer Downlink Channel Code Resources Figure 11. Page 34/50 . Channel Element (CE) The Channel element the quantitative data that measures the resources Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei.Example of code resources allocation.

the number of channel processing units occupied by other services is: Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei. and more resources will be occupied. This way. One 3*1 WCDMA BTS is equivalent to the GSM sites of one S10/10/10. for the fully configured NodeB.2kbps services as a channel processing unit. If we define the resources required for processing AMR 12.2kbps CS64kbps PS64kbps PS144kbps PS384kbps SF=128 SF=32 SF=32 SF=16 SF=8 Due the technical features of the WCDMA. Page 35/50 . If we offer the quotation based on the maximum hardware channel capacity of TRX like the GSM. For example. and. and only a portion of it is required (e. the number of channels of one carrier is 128. The SF of typical services are: AMR12. the RNC and Node B present enormous capacity.. the operator is bound to pay the equipment price to the supplier according to the actual use capacity.3 has the processing capacity of 128 12. At the beginning of the WCDMA network construction.WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer logically occupied for service processing. the operator will reduce the initial investment and mitigate the risks. which is more than 10 times of that supported by a TRX of GSM. 10%).g. The resource occupied by the service processing is mainly related to the spreading factor of this service.2kbps voice channels. the greater the data traffic will be. subsequently. compared with the 2G systems such as GSM. so high a capacity is not a necessity. The smaller the SF is. One uplink processing unit of our NODEB 1. it will make the operators incur enormous cost and mismatch the user quantity. pay more equipment prices with the increase of the user quantity. To reduce the initial investment.

WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer AMR12. Iub Interface Capacity The contents transmitted on the Iub interface include: The user data encapsulated in the AAL2 format (common channel and dedicated channel) Signaling data encapsulated in the AAL5 format BTS operation & maintenance data Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei. It will be used when calculating the hybrid service capacity of the cell. It is used for calculating the number of required channel boards and the number of channel processing units configured on the board. Page 36/50 .2kbps CS64kbps CS144kbps CS384kbps PS64kbps PS144kbps PS384kbps 1 4 8 16 4 8 16 The relative proportion of the services with different SFs can be calculated in the following formula (related to version): Num_SF128/128 + Num_SF64/64 + Num_SF32/32 + Num_SF16/16 + Num_SF8/8= 1 The channel unit of service can represent the channel resources occupied when establishing the connection.

Through segmentation and encapsulation of the application data at each layer. Maintenance efficiency. and estimate out the transmission configuration of the Iub interface. Page 37/50 .Protocol stack for Iub interface. it is necessary to calculate the throughput rate of each service type..WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer Figure 12. When calculating the Iub interface traffic. More users will generate more data traffic. Traffic. Typical capacity design methods Erlang-B Formula The Erlang-B formula is used for estimating the peak traffic that meets Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei. the data quantity at the bottom layer will be increased to different extents compared with the application data at the upper layers. Certain bandwidth is required in the background maintenance for BTS data transmission. we obtain the total traffic of the Iub interface. According to the planned user quantity. Factors to be considered when estimating the interface capacity: Frame coding efficiency.

.WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer certain call loss rate when the average traffic (Erlang) is given. Comparison of multi-service capacity estimation methods : Post Erlang-B Equivalent Erlangs Campbell’s Theorem For the unitary CS services. Assume the traffic arrival takes on a Poisson distribution. when a service establishes a link.g. Page 38/50 . the resources are estimated in unit resources. the service requires the resources which are more than the unit resources. the resource request is no longer equal to its mean value. e.Variation of demand with time. If. a Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei.. In the CS domain. The Erlang-B formula is only used for Circuit switched services Single service The WCDMA system provides CS and PS domain multi-services which are determined by the radio network planning. Figure 13. and the Erlang-B formula is not applicable in this case. namely. its variance is equal to its mean value. we use the Erlang quantity to express the traffic volume. The prerequisite of the Erlang-B is the requests of resources take on a Poisson distribution.

we obtain the capacities required for the combined services. Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei.Post Erlang B (-) resources calculation. No consideration of the resource efficiency of different services Figure 14.WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer 64kbps timeslot.. Post Erlang-B (一) By summing up the capacities required for different services. Page 39/50 .

6 Erlang Calculate capacity required for each service Service 1: 12 Erlangs require 19 connections.6 Erlang Calculate capacity required for each service Service 1: 12 Erlangs require 19 connections (19 unit resources). Consider that two services share resources Service 1: 1 unit resource/connection.12 Erlang Service 2: 1 unit resource/connection. We will understand this through the following example. then sum up the channel resources required for all services. calculate the channel resources required according to the traffic volume of each service. meeting the 2% blocking rate Service 2: 6 Erlangs require 12 connections (equivalent to the 36 unit resources of service 1). meeting the 2% blocking rate Total 31 unit resources However. the reasonable results should be: 18 Erlangs require 26 Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei. meeting the 2% blocking rate Service 2: 6 Erlangs require 12 connections. This method is vulnerable to overestimation of the channel resources.12 Erlang Service 2: 3 unit resources/connection. Page 40/50 .WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer Method of using the Post Erlang-B: First. meeting the 2% blocking rate Total 55 unit resources Consider that two services use the same resources Service 1: 1 unit resource/connection.

As seen from the above example. according to the Post Erlang-B method.WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer connections for meeting the 2% blocking rate. Equivalent Erlangs By converting the bandwidth from one service to another service. Selecting different services as the measurement benchmark will lead to different capacity requirements. two services with the same unit resources have 18Erlangs in total. 31 resources are required. combine different services and then calculate the required capacity. So this method obviously overestimates the required channel resources. However. Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei. The actually required channel resources are 26 resources. Page 41/50 .

the two services are equivalent to 10 Erlangs in total. the result is 39 channel resources. then search the Erlang-B table to obtain the total channel resources required. the result is 51 channel resources required. if the calculation uses service 2 as benchmark. Consider that two services share resources Service 1: 1 unit resource/connection.12 Erlang Service 2: 3 unit resources/connection.WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer Figure 15. different channel resource requirements will result. In this method. The difference between the two results is 12 channel resources. the two services are equivalent to 30 Erlangs in total. 30 Erlangs require 39 connections (39 unit resources).Equivalent Erlang estimations. meeting the 2% blocking rate If using service 2 as measurement benchmark.6 Erlang If using service 1 as measurement benchmark. Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei.. Page 42/50 . if the calculation uses service 1 as benchmark. if selecting different services as measurement benchmark. The equivalent Erlang method is to convert the service of two service with different unit channel resources to the total Erlangs of one of the services. meeting the 2% blocking rate As seen from the above example. 10 Erlangs require 17 connections (equivalent to 51 unit resources of service 1).

Page 43/50 . the amplitude “ai” represents the channel resources required for a single connection.2k service bit rate * Eb/No of Voice service) Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei.2k service = (service bit rate * Eb/No) / (Voice12.WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer Campbell’s Theorem (I) The Campbell theorem introduces the mean value and variance.2k service as 1. Here. hence: Amplitude of other service relative to the Voice12. Generally. so that the multiservice capacity calculation result is more proximate to the actual value compared with the foregoing two methods. we specify the amplitude of the Voice12.

the obtained two results will be only 2 channel resources different from each other. 12Erl). As illustrated for the three methods above. calculation result through the Post Erlang-B method is 55 channel resources required. a total of 51 unit resources are required Campbell´s Theorem In the same conditions. we assume that the conditions are identical. The comparison of the different capacity method Post Erlang-B Service 1 (1 unit resource/connection. a total of 39 unit resources are required resources/connection. Page 44/50 . the calculation result through the Erlang method is 39~51 channel resources required. as calculated respectively on the benchmark of service 1 and service 2. different services require different capacities. The calculation result through the Campbell theorem is more Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei. 47~49 unit resources are required in total. 12Erl) and service 2 (3 unit resources / connection. and the calculation result through the Campbell method is 47~49 channel resources required. requiring 55 unit resources in total Equivalent Erlangs Calculated Calculated according according to to benchmark benchmark of of service service 1 2 (1 (3 unit unit resource/connection. 6Erl).WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer For the same GoS. According to the calculation method of the Campbell theorem. 6Erl).

Page 45/50 .WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer proximate to the actual value compared with the other two methods. 5 Network estimation procedure Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei.

WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer Figure 16.Network estimation flow.. 6 Capacity Enhancement Technologies Transmission Diversity -TxDiv Txdiv has two types in WCDMA system: Open loop TxDiv Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei. Page 46/50 .

Page 47/50 . Gain of TxDiv The gain is obtained due to additional amplifier Pure gain is obtained due to TxDiv technology Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei..WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer Closed loop TxDiv TxDiv could improve downlink capacity Need additional amplifier Need equipment support Don’t need additional antenna Figure 17.Transmission Diversity feature.

Gain of TxDiv The gain is obtained due to additional amplifier Pure gain is obtained due to TxDiv technology TxDiv should reduce downlink power TxDiv should reduce requirement of Eb/N0 Usually ... Transmission diversity can enhance the downlink capacity and coverage. Figure 19.Downlink capacity with Tx diversity. Conclusion of capacity enhancement of transmission diversity STTD mode: Capacity increase of 17 ~ 24% Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei. Page 48/50 .closed loop TxDiv would obtain more gain than open loop TxDiv.WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer Figure 18.Comparison of target Tx Eb/No.

6-sectors BTS generally use the antenna whose horizontal lobe is 33º The capacity of a 6-sector BTS is 1. Page 49/50 . The main affecting factor is the downlink capacity coverage and capacity. Sectorization In the dense urban areas and the normal urban areas with high traffic. Here the calculation of capacity and coverage of gain is similar to that of receiving diversity.77 times that of a omni. azimuth angle and down tilt angle of the antenna carefully. For 3sector and 6-sector circumstances. the azimuth angle can be planned with the Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei.BTS • When there are many sectors. e. transmitting diversity breaks down into two types: open loop transmitting diversity. In the WCDMA system. Different transmitting diversity modes obtain different gains. The latter is subdivided into two modes. • In order to obtain higher capacity. the sector azimuth angle should be designed as mutually complementary to prevent blind area of coverage. transmitting diversity can obtain extra gain to enhance the capacity and coverage.. increasing sectors of the BTS is a method of improving the capacity.g.WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer TxAA(1) mode: Capacity increase of 16 ~ 23% TxAA(2) mode: Capacity increase of 31 ~ 37% For the single-antenna transmitting.67 times that of a 3-sector BTS The capacity of a 3-sector BTS is 2. it is necessary to plan the mount height. 6 sectors. and closed loop transmitting diversity.

• From perspective of the BTS capacity. the coverage performance will be better. and the downlink capacity will be higher. Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei. Page 50/50 . • The down tilt angle of the antenna should be designed properly to align the upper half power point of the antenna lobe with the cell edge.67 times that of a 3-sector BTS. when the cell radius is small.77 times that of an omnidirectional BTS. the capacity of a 3-sector BTS is 2. and the sector antenna gain will be higher. the coupling loss will be less.WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer regular hexagon apex excitement method. For the uplink. and the capacity of a 6-sector BTS is 1. for the downlink. • When the cell radius increases. the sectors will increase.

Page 51/50 .WCDMA Radio Network Capacity Planning Confidentiality level: Customer Mexico Training Center Confidential information of Huawei.

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