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Pesticides – Introduction Aphids Mite Caterpillars Leafhopper Leafminer Mealybug Nemotode Scale Thrips Stink Bugs Weevels Whiteflies Powdery Mildew Downey Mildew

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Pesticides Introduction
Terminology and Definitions Pests Organisms such as insects, rodents, nematodes, fungi, weeds, birds, bacteria, viruses, etc., which damage the crops and reduce yield. Pests are injurious to human health and/or farmers economic efforts. Pesticides Chemicals or mixtures of chemicals that are used for killing. repelling, mitigating or reducing pest damage. Herbicides Substances used for inhibiting growth of plants, plant parts, or to kill/destroy the plants. Defoliants Substances that initiate leaves to fall. Desiccants Substances that cause plant tissue to dry up. Fungicides Substances that prevent, destroy or inhibit the growth of fungi in crop plants. Insecticides Substances that prevent, inhibit, destroy, kill insects. Rodenticides Substances that prevent, inhibit, destroy, kill rodents (Class Mammalia) Miticides/Acaricldes Substances that prevent, inhibit, destroy, kill or mitigate mites Nematicides Chemicals that prevent, repel, inhibit or destroy members of the Class (Nematodes) Molluscicides Prevent, repel, inhibit or destroy members of the Phylum Mollusca such as snails. Formulation The form in which a pesticide is sold for use. Active ingredient (a.i) is a part of a pesticide formulation which is the actual toxicant sometimes referred to as "technical grade" or "basic pesticide" Inert ingredients Substances, other than the active ingredient, which constitute a pesticide formulation. Classification of Pesticides Pesticides may be classified according to: a) the target pest species. b) their chemical constitution c) their site of action Systemic poisons and Contact poisons These poisons enter the body directly through the cuticle by contact with the treated surface of the foliage, stem, etc. These poisons act on the nervous system of the pest. These may also be applied directly on to the body of the pest as a spray or dust. Examples: benzene hexachloride. dichloro diphenyl trichloro ethane, endrin, quinalphos, carbamates, etc. Some of the known pesticides derived from plants also have contact action. Examples: pyrethrum, rotenone, sabadilla. nicotine, etc. Stomach poisons Stomach poisons enter the body of the pest through the mouth during feeding into the digestive tract from where these are absorbed into the systems. Stomach poisons are more effective against chewing insects and useful in controlling insects with siphoning or sponging types of mouth parts (housefly for an example). Examples: dieldrin, sulfur, lead arsenate, etc. Classification based on site of action By segmenting insecticides/acaricides and fungicides separately, insecticides/ acaricides can be classified on the basis of their routes of entry into the body system of the target pest. A. For spraying after mixing with water/oil i) Emulsifiable concentrates (EC) ii) Wettable powders (WP or WDP) iii) Ultra low volume concentrates (ULV) B. For dry application directly from the container

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i) Dusts (D) ii) Granules (G) iii) Encapsulated granules C. For application as a gas or vapor i) Fumigants ii) Smoke generators or tablets that vaporize iii) Aerosols and pressurized sprays D. Other formulations i) Seed protectants (dry or liquid) ii) Baits for rodents, slugs, flies, cockroaches, etc. These are concentrated solutions of the technical grade material containing an emulsifier to help the concentrate mix readily with water for spraying. The emulsifier is a detergent that causes the suspension of microscopically small oil droplets in water, to form an emulsion. When an emulsifiable concentrate is added to water and agitated (i.e., stirred vigorously), the emulsifier causes the oil to disperse uniformly throughout the carrier (i.e., water) producing an opaque liquid. Liquid formulations are easy to transport and store, and require little agitation in the tank. However, care must be exercised in handling the toxic concentrates. Emulsifiable concentrates (EC) Type of Formulations Formulations contain the a.i. in a definite concentration together with other materials such as inert carriers, emulsifiers, wetting agents, solvents, thickeners, encapsulants, etc. According to the intended mode of application, the common formulations can be grouped as follows: They have unsuitable physical characteristics. They are generally waxy or lumpy solids or viscous liquids. In this form, they are difficult to apply. They have high purity levels and hence the required dose is difficult to disperse. The quantity involved is very small to be evenly and effectively dispersed over a specified area. The toxicity of the a.i. is much higher compared to the formulations. Thus, application of a.i. is not only hazardous but also needs specialized training and knowledge in handling. The a.i. does not have the ideal physiochemical characteristics which the formulations have. Pesticides are first manufactured as technical grade (active ingredient or a.i). In this form, they are unsuitable for direct use because of the following reasons: Pesticides nomenclature Pesticides usually have three different names. i) Chemical name or the name of the active ingredient in pure form, ii) Common name, and iii) Trade name/brand name or proprietary name.


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Aphids are small, soft-bodied insects with long, slender mouth parts that they use to pierce stems, leaves, and other tender plant parts and suck out plant fluids. Almost every plant has one or more aphid species that occasionally feeds on it. IDENTIFICATION Aphids may be green, yellow, brown, red, or black depending on the species and the plants they feed on. A few species appear waxy or woolly due to the secretion of a waxy white or gray substance over their body surface. Generally adult aphids are wingless, but most species also occur in winged forms, especially when populations are high or during spring and fall. Although they may be found singly, aphids often feed in dense groups on leaves or stems. LIFE CYCLE Aphids have many generations a year. Most aphids in mild climate reproduce asexually throughout most or all of the year with adult females giving birth to live offspring (often as many as 12 per day) without mating. Young aphids are called nymphs. They molt, shedding their skins about four times before becoming adults. There is no pupal stage. Some species mate and produce eggs in fall or winter, which provides them a more hardy stage to survive harsh weather. In some cases, these eggs are laid on an alternative host, usually a perennial plant, for winter survival. When the weather is warm, many species of aphids can develop from newborn nymph to reproducing adult in 7 to 8 days. Because each adult aphid can produce up to 80 offspring in a matter of a week, aphid populations can increase with great speed.

DAMAGE Low to moderate numbers of leaf-feeding aphids are usually not damaging in gardens or on trees. However, large populations cause curling, yellowing, and distortion of leaves and stunting of shoots; they can also produce large quantities of a sticky exudate known as honeydew, which often turns black with the

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growth of a sooty mold fungus. Some aphid species inject a toxin into plants, which further distorts growth. A few species cause gall formations. Aphids may transmit viruses from plant to plant on certain vegetable and ornamental plants. Squashes, cucumbers, pumpkins, melons, beans, potatoes, lettuces, beets, chards, and bok choy are crops that often have aphid-transmitted viruses associated with them. The viruses cause mottling, yellowing, or curling of leaves and stunting of plant growth. Although losses can be great, they are difficult to prevent through the control of aphids because infection occurs even when aphid numbers are very low: it only takes a few minutes for the aphid to transmit the virus while it takes a much longer time to kill the aphid with an insecticide. A few aphid species attack parts of plants other than leaves and shoots. The lettuce root aphid is a soil dweller that attacks lettuce roots during most of its cycle, causing lettuce plants to wilt and occasionally die if populations are high. The lettuce root aphid overwinters as eggs on poplar trees, where it produces leaf galls in spring and summer. The woolly apple aphid infests woody parts of apple roots and limbs, often near pruning wounds, and can cause overall tree decline if roots are infested for several years. MANAGEMENT Although aphids seldom kill a mature plant, the damage and unsightly honeydew they generate sometimes warrant control. CHEMICAL CONTROL Insecticidal soap, neem oil, provides temporary control if applied to thoroughly cover infested foliage. To get thorough coverage, spray these materials with a high volume of water and target the underside of leaves as well as the top. Soaps, neem oil, only kill aphids present on the day they are sprayed, so applications may need to be repeated. Many other insecticides are available to control aphids in the home garden and landscape, including foliar-applied formulations of malathion, permethrin and acephate (nonfood crops only). Acephate has systemic activity, which means it moves through leaves, thus it can be effective where aphids are hidden beneath curling foliage. The soil-applied systemic pesticide Acephate is sometimes applied in roses for aphid control, but it is a highly toxic material to people. Use 1 part Acephate in 1 liter water. When considering application of pesticides for aphid control, remember that moderate populations of many aphids attacking leaves of fruit trees or ornamental trees and shrubs do not cause long-term damage. Low populations can be tolerated in most situations and aphids will often disappear when natural enemies or hot temperatures arrive. Often a forceful spray of water or water-soap solution, even on large street trees, when applied with appropriate equipment, will provide sufficient control.


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Mite Eggs

Mite Red

Mite Foliage Damage

Mite Colony

These small creatures can normally not be seen by the naked eyes. It is only after the damage occurs that we observe that the cause is mites. IDENTIFICATION There are over 20 different types of mites but the common ones are cyclamen and broad mites. These mites are about one-fourth the size of spider mites and can't be seen without a microscope or a 20X magnifier. Adult cyclamen mites can be translucent white, pinkish orange, or pale yellow. Broad mites are often translucent, yellowish, or greenish, and female broad mites have a white stripe down the center of their back. Broad mites have a tapered body that is widest between their second pair of legs and more narrow toward the rear. Cyclamen mites have sides that are more nearly parallel, not sharply tapered. LIFE CYCLE The mites, such as the two-spotted spider mite, lay as many as 100 to 200 eggs on the undersides of leaves on one of approximately 180 host plants. Host plants include field crops, ornamental plants, weeds or house plants. The eggs take up to 20 days to hatch, although they may hatch in just a few days if the weather cooperates. Cool-weather spider mites often spend the entire winter in the egg stage while attached to the host plant. The eggs begin hatching in the spring. The mite eggs hatch into tiny larvae with rounded bodies and three pairs of legs, a stage they stay in for several days while they rest and feed. Next, they molt into a nymph with four pairs of legs, resting and feeding before molting into a second nymph stage. Within a few days, the second-stage nymphs became adults. The entire process from egg hatching to adult stage takes between 7 and 14 days. Adult spider mites sport four pairs of legs extending off a single, oval body. Female spider mites have rounded abdomens while males have pointed abdomens. Some mites, such as the clover mite, only live for a few weeks as long as weather conditions stay in their favor. Female two-spotted mites often live longer, spending the winter in a protected spot.


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Cyclamen and broad mites infest many hosts such as begonia, dahlia, geranium, gerbera, and verbena. Infested leaves become cupped, curled, dwarfed, and thickened. Leaves or flowers may become discolored, bronzed, or stiff. Infested buds discolor, deform, or drop. Internodes may be short, giving plants a stunted or tufted appearance. When they feed on the sap of houseplants, spider mites cause damage by biting into them. Spider mite infestation causes light speckles to appear on leaves. Heavy infestations can stunt and even kill houseplants, MANAGEMENT Early detection of spider mites, before damage is noticed, is important. The tiny spider mites can be detected by taking a piece of white paper or cardboard and striking some plant foliage on it. The mites can be seen walking slowly on the paper. If 10 or more mites per sample are common, controls may be needed. Syringing Since rainy weather seems to knock off spider mites, using a forceful jet of water from a hose (syringing) can perform the same task. A regular syringing can keep spider mites under control on most ornamental plants in the landscape. This technique also helps conserve natural predators. Chemical Control - "Soft Pesticides". Most spider mites can be controlled with insecticidal oils and soaps. The oils, both horticultural oil and dormant oil, can be used. Horticultural oils can be used on perennial and woody ornamentals during the summer at the 1 to 2 percent rate. Higher rates of horticultural oil (3 to 4 percent) or dormant oil are useful for killing mite eggs and dormant adults in the fall and spring. The insecticidal soaps are useful in the warm season. Remember that mites are very tiny and soaps and oils work by contact only. Therefore, thorough coverage of the plant is necessary for good control. There are few products available to the gardener - Dicofol , Acephate), dimethoate , chlorpyriphos and malathion.
Broad and cyclamen mites are difficult to control with pesticides because they are protected from sprays by their habit of feeding in buds or within distorted tissue. Regularly inspect plants and disinfest or dispose of infested plants. Establish new plantings from mite-free stock and never plant new plants near infested ones. Horticultural oils, available at many garden supply stores, are the most effective spray against mites. Insecticides are also effective. If your plant is severely infested with spider mites use of Dicofol ,

Acephate), dimethoate , chlorpyriphos and malathion can control them. Spray 1 ml of the pesticide in 1 liter of water for 15-20 days with a gap of 3-4 days.. CATERPILLARS Caterpillar Eggs Caterpillar Common Caterpillar Red Caterpillar Moth

Most flowers are susceptible to damage from caterpillars of one or more species. Caterpillars are the immature or larval stage of moths and butterflies. Only the larval stage chews plants. Although adults consume only liquids, such as nectar and water, they are important because they choose which plants to lay eggs on. Larvae have three pairs of legs on the thorax (the area immediately behind the head) and leg like appendages on some, but not all, segments of the abdomen. LIFE CYCLE Moths and butterflies have complete metamorphosis and develop through four life stages. Adults have prominent, delicate wings covered with tiny scales that rub off and appear powdery when touched. After mating, the female moth or butterfly lays her eggs singly or in a mass on or near the host plant or nearby soil. Eggs usually hatch in several days. The emerging larvae move singly or in groups to feeding sites on

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the plant. Most caterpillars eat voraciously and grow rapidly. Some feed almost continuously. Others, such as cutworm larvae, hide in the soil during the day, emerging to feed at night. Caterpillars shed their old skins about five times before entering a nonactive pupal stage. Some species pupate in silken cocoons, and most species pupate in a characteristic location, such as on the host plant or in litter beneath the plant. The adult moth or butterfly emerges from the pupal case after several days to several months, depending on the species and season. Some common caterpillars have only one generation per year outdoors; other species have several generations each year and can cause damage throughout the growing season.

DAMAGE Caterpillars chew irregular holes in foliage or blossoms or entirely consume seedlings, young shoots, buds, leaves, or flowers. Some caterpillars fold or roll leaves together with silk to form shelters. Caterpillar feeding can kill or retard the growth of young plants. MANAGEMENT Handpick. Eliminate nearby weeds, which may host caterpillars. Provide proper cultural care to allow older plants to outgrow and replace any damaged tissue after infestations are controlled. Uses systemic products such as Acephate (1 ml in 1 liter water) spray, which easily eliminate any caterpillar that is feeding on ornamental plants. When heavily infested shrubs were sprayed with a solution of Imadaclorprid or use Permethrin. These applications should be made at about 10 to 14 day intervals to effectively kill the different generations of caterpillars that are probably present. The effect of Imadaclorprid spray 0.050 ml in 1 liter of water last for 6 months.


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Leafhopper Eggs

Leafhopper Nymphs

Leafhopper Adult

Leafhopper Damage Rose Leafs

Leafhoppers feed on several flower hosts such as aster, chrysanthemum, dahlia, and nasturtium. Most adult leafhoppers are slender and less than or about equal to 1/4-inch long. Some species are brightly colored, while others blend with their host plant. Leafhoppers are active insects; they crawl rapidly sideways or readily jump when disturbed. Adults and nymphs and their pale cast skins are usually found on the underside of leaves. IDENTIFICATION Leafhoppers may sometimes be confused with aphids or lygus bugs. Look for leafhoppers or their cast skins on the undersides of affected leaves. Look at their actions; they are faster than aphids and run sideways and jump. Lygus bug nymphs are light green and also move much faster than aphids. They can be identified by their red-tipped antennae. Aphids can be distinguished by two tubelike structures, called cornicles, protruding from the hind end. LIFE CYCLE Females insert tiny eggs in tender plant tissue, causing pimplelike injuries. Wingless nymphs emerge and molt four or five times before maturing in about 2 to 7 weeks. Leafhoppers overwinter as eggs on twigs or as adults in protected places such as bark crevices. In cold-winter climates, leafhoppers may die during winter and in spring migrate back in from warmer regions. Most species have two or more generations each year.


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Leafhopper feeding causes leaves to appear stippled, pale, or brown, and shoots may curl and die. Certain species secrete honeydew on which foliage-blackening sooty mold grows. Foliage can distort, discolor, and sometimes die. Some species vector pathogens. The aster leafhopper and other species vector the aster yellows phytoplasma, which infects many flower crops. MANAGEMENT Because of their mobility, leafhoppers are difficult to control. Fortunately, control is rarely needed. Remove alternate hosts to reduce populations. Insecticidal soap or other insecticides applied when nymphs are small may be used if necessary to reduce populations but will not reduce virus transmission significantly. For heavy infestation use BIFEN 0.50 ml in 1 liter water. Spray every 15 days. The effect will last for 6 months LEAFMINERS Leafminer Pupua Leafminer Larva Leafminer Nymphs Leafminer Mines

Leafminers attack many different flower hosts, including aster, begonia, dahlia, impatiens, lily, marigold, petunia, and verbena. Adult are small, active, black and yellow flies. The most important species are the serpentine leafminer and the pea leafminer. Larvae are yellow cylindrical maggots. IDENTIFICATION The adult is a small, shiny black, clear-winged fly about 2.2 to 2.7 mm long. Head entirely black; mesonotum shining black; pleura and legs entirely black; squamae and fringe silvery white; halteres variegated, primarily white, but knob with a conspicuous black area above; wing length about 2.2 to 2.7 mm. Larvae are yellowish white, about 3 mm long, and make blotch-like tunnels within leaves where these larvae are readily visible as they feed. LIFE CYCLE In warm weather, leafminers may be more active. The life cycle is only 2 weeks long. Eggs are inserted into leaves and larvae feed between leaf surfaces, creating a "mine." At high population levels, entire leaves may be covered with mines. Mature larvae leave the mines, dropping to the ground to pupate. There can be five to ten generations per year. Development continues all year, the population moving from one host to another as new host plants become available each season.

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DAMAGE Adult female leafminers puncture leaves and sometimes petals to feed on exuding sap. These punctures eventually turn white, giving foliage a stippled or speckled appearance. Larvae make a winding tunnel (mine) or sometimes a blotch between the lower and upper leaf surface. The mine becomes longer and wider as the larva grows. Mining usually has little impact on plant growth and rarely kills plants. Unusually heavy damage can slow plant growth and may cause infested leaves to drop. MANAGEMENT Provide proper care, especially irrigation to keep plants vigorous. Clip off and remove older infested leaves. Plant resistant species or varieties. Leafminers are often kept under good control by natural parasites. Insecticides are not very effective for leafminer control. For heavy infestation spray 1 ml Cyphermithrin in 1 liter water or Biflex 0.50 ml in in liter water every 15 days till eradicated.


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Mealybug Eggs

Mealybug Nymphs

Mealybug Adult

Mealybug Danmage

Most adult female mealybugs are wingless, soft-bodied, grayish insects about 0.05 to 0.2 inch long. They are usually elongate and segmented, and may have wax filaments radiating from the body, especially at the tail. Most females can move slowly and are covered with whitish, mealy or cottony wax. There are several different species IDENTIFICATION The ground mealybug is white and 2.4 to 3.9 millimeters long. It resembles a springtail, but moves much more slowly and cannot jump. The ground mealybug has slender waxy filaments that form a sort of netting over some individuals. The ground mealybug also secretes a small amount of wax, which can give the soil a somewhat bluish appearance when the mealybugs are abundant. Pritchard’s mealybug is snow white and 1.6 to 2.1 millimeters long and oval. It has small to non-existent eyes. LIFE CYCLE Most female mealybugs lay tiny yellow eggs intermixed with white wax in a mass called an ovisac. Mealybug nymphs are oblong, whitish, yellowish, or reddish and may or may not be covered with waxy filaments. Most species feed on branches, twigs, or leaves. Depending on the species, host, and climate, they may overwinter only as eggs or as females, or as all stages. Most mealybugs have several generations a year.

DAMAGE Mealybugs tend to congregate in large numbers, forming white, cottony masses on plants. High populations slow plant growth and cause premature leaf or fruit drop and twig dieback. Honeydew production and black sooty mold are the primary damage caused by most mealybugs. MANAGEMENT

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Provide proper cultural control so that plants are vigorous and can tolerate moderate mealybug feeding without being damaged. Naturally occurring predators and parasites provide good control of many mealybug species. Chemical control using systemic insecticides like Acephate (1 ml in 1 liter water) or Biflex (0.50 ml in 1 liter water) to be sprayed on the leaves, stem and the soil. NEMATODES Nematodes Nematodes Damge (Left Nematode Root Damage Nematode Leaf Onion – Right Bulb) Damage Above Ground

Nematodes are microscopic, eel-like roundworms. The most troublesome species in the garden are those that live and feed within plant roots most of their lives and those that live freely in the soil and feed on plant roots. Although there are many different species of root-feeding nematodes, the most damaging ones to gardens are the root knot nematodes. Root knot nematodes attack a wide range of plants, including many common vegetables, fruit trees, and ornamentals. They are difficult to control, and they can spread easily from garden to garden in soil on tools and boots or on infested plants. IDENTIFICATION Since you can not see nematode damage directly (without using a shovel!), you need to rely on visible symptoms including wilting during the warmest period of the day, chlorosis, stunted growth, and general lack of vigor. Ornamentals may have branch tip dieback and lose their leaves earlier than normal. And if you have a large enough area, you may also note that damage is uneven, with affected plants among healthy ones due to uneven distribution of nematodes. In general, nematodes don't kill plants (they wouldn't have survived as long as they have if they did). But they reduce the vigor of the plant and make it more likely to be harmed by other factors. And because the symptoms are the same ones you see for "traditional" problems, a good rule of thumb is to analyze general factors such as irrigation, nutrients, and visible symptoms of disease before suspecting nematodes (unless you know there's a history of nematodes in your soil. LIFE CYCLE Plant-feeding nematodes go through 6 stages —an egg stage, 4 immature stages, and an adult stage. Many species can develop from egg to egg-laying adult in as little as 21 to 28 days during warm summer months. Immature stages and adult males are long, slender worms. Mature adult females of some species such as root knot nematode change to a swollen, pearlike shape, whereas females of other species such as lesion nematode remain slender worms. Nematodes are too small to be seen without a microscope.

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DAMAGE Root knot nematodes usually cause distinctive swellings, called galls, on the roots of affected plants. Infestations of these nematodes are fairly easy to recognize; dig up a few plants with symptoms (see below), wash or gently tap the soil from the roots, and examine the roots for galls. The nematodes feed and develop within the galls, which can grow as large as 1 inch in diameter on some plants but usually are much smaller. The formation of these galls damages the water- and nutrient-conducting abilities of the roots. Galls can crack or split open, especially on the roots of vegetable plants, allowing the entry of soil-borne, diseasecausing microorganisms. Root knot nematode galls are true swellings and can’t be rubbed off the roots as can the beneficial, nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of legumes. Root knot nematodes can feed on the roots of grasses and certain legumes without causing galling. Aboveground symptoms of a root knot nematode infestation include wilting during the hottest part of the day even with adequate soil moisture, loss of vigor, yellowing leaves, and other symptoms similar to a lack of water or nutrients. Infested vegetable plants grow more slowly than neighboring, healthy plants, beginning in early to midseason. Plants produce fewer and smaller leaves and fruits, and ones heavily infested early in the season can die. Although nematodes can kill annual plants, they rarely kill woody plants. Nematode injury to woody plants usually is less obvious and often more difficult to diagnose. Infested fruit and nut trees can have reduced growth and yields. Woody landscape plants that are heavily infested can have reduced growth and branch tip dieback and can defoliate earlier than normal. MANAGEMENT Management of nematodes is difficult. The most reliable practices are preventive, including sanitation and choice of plant varieties. You can reduce existing infestations through fallowing, crop rotation, and soil solarization. However, these methods reduce nematodes primarily in the top foot or so of the soil, so they are effective only for about a year. They are suitable primarily for annual plants or to help young woody

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plants establish. Once nematodes infest an area or crop, try to minimize damage by adjusting planting dates to cooler times of the season when nematodes are less active. Try to provide optimal conditions for plant growth including sufficient irrigation and soil amendments to make plants more tolerant to nematode infestation. Chemical treatment is carried out by applying 0.50 ml of Biflex in 1 liter of water in the soil after digging it. This lasts for 6 months. SCALE Scale Eggs Scale Adult Scale Colony Scale Damage Orange Leaf Curl

Scale insects can be serious pests on trees, shrubs, and other perennials. The impact of infestations depends on the scale species, the plant species and cultivar, environmental factors, and natural enemies. Populations of some scales can increase dramatically within a few months, such as when honeydewseeking ants or dusty conditions interfere with scale natural enemies. Plants are not harmed by a few scales, and even high populations of certain species apparently do not damage plants. Soft scales and some other species excrete honeydew, a sweet, sticky liquid produced by insects that ingest large quantities of plant sap. Sticky honeydew and the blackish sooty mold growing on honeydew can bother people even when scale populations are not harming plants. IDENTIFICATION Scales are unusual looking and many people do not at first recognize them as insects. Adult female scales and most immatures (nymphs) are immobile, wingless, and lack a separate head or other recognizable body parts. Immature scales and adult females have a characteristic round or oval to elongate and flattened or humped appearance. Immature males are often a different color and shape than females, especially in later nymphal stages (instars). Adult male scales are tiny, delicate insects with one pair of wings. Adult males are rarely seen, do not feed, and live only a few hours. LIFE CYCLE Females of many scale species reproduce without mating (there are no males). At maturity, adult females produce eggs that are usually hidden under her body or cover. Eggs hatch into tiny crawlers (mobile firstinstar nymphs), which are yellow to orangish in most species. Crawlers walk over the plant surface, are blown by wind to other plants, or can be inadvertently moved by people or birds. They settle down and begin feeding within a day or two after emergence. Settled nymphs may spend their entire life in the same spot without moving as they mature into adults. Nymphs of other species can move slowly but rarely do, such as when species that feed on deciduous hosts move from foliage to bark in the fall before leaves drop. For species with multiple generations, all scale life stages may be present throughout the year in areas with mild winters. Armored Scales. Most armored scales have several generations a year. Armored scales overwinter primarily as first-instar nymphs and adult females. Except for crawlers and adult males, armored scales spend their entire life feeding at the same spot. Settled armored scales lose their legs, molt, and form their characteristic covers, which they gradually enlarge as they grow. Soft Scales. Most soft scales have one generation each year and overwinter as second-instar nymphs. The multi-generational brown soft scale is an important exception Brown soft scale females and nymphs of various size can be present throughout the year. Most immature soft scales retain their barely visible legs

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and antennae after settling and are able to move, although slowly. At maturity, females of certain soft scales, the woolly sac scales (Margarodidae), and some other species produce distinct external cottony or wax-covered egg masses.

DAMAGE When plants are heavily infested with scales, leaves may look wilted, turn yellow, and drop prematurely. Scales sometimes curl leaves or cause deformed blemishes or discolored halos in fruit, leaves, or twigs. Bark infested with armored scales may crack and exude gum. Certain armored scales also feed on fruit, but this damage is often just aesthetic. Soft scales infest leaves and twigs but rarely feed on fruit. A major concern with soft scales is their excretion of abundant honeydew, which contaminates fruit, leaves, and surfaces beneath plants. Honeydew encourages the growth of black sooty mold and attracts ants, which in turn protect scales from natural enemies. MANAGEMENT Scales are often well controlled by beneficial predators and parasites, except when these natural enemies are disrupted by ants, dust, or application of persistent broad-spectrum insecticides. Preserving (conserving) the populations of parasites and predators (such as by controlling pest-tending ants) may be enough to bring about gradual control of scales as natural enemies become more abundant. If scales become too numerous, a well-timed and thorough spray using horticultural (narrow-range) oil applied either during the dormant season or soon after scale crawlers are active in late winter to early summer should provide good control. Complete spray coverage of infested plants (such as the underside of leaves) is needed to obtain good control. Thorough spray coverage is especially critical when treating armored scales and oak pit scales, as these scales are generally less susceptible to pesticides than soft scales. In case of severe infetstaion Chemical Control should be applied. Application of 0.50 ml Biflex or Imidacloprid in 1 liter water is very effective and lasts for 6 months. This can be used as a foliar spray or as a soil application.

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THRIPS Thrips Eggs

Thrips Larva

Thrips Nymphs

Thrips Rose Bud Damage

Thrips, are tiny, slender insects with fringed wings. They feed by puncturing their host and sucking out the cell contents. Certain thrips species are beneficial predators that feed only on mites and other insects. Beneficial species include black hunter thrips and the sixspotted thrips. Pest species (often in the family Thripidae) are plant feeders that scar leaf, flower, or fruit surfaces or distort plant parts. Other species of thrips feed on fungal spores and pollen and are innocuous. IDENTIFICATION Most adult thrips are slender, minute (less than 1/20 inch long), and have long fringes on the margins of both pairs of their long, narrow wings. Immatures (called larvae or nymphs) are similarly shaped with a long, narrow abdomen but lack wings. Most thrips range in color from translucent white or yellowish to dark brown or blackish, depending on the species and life stage. A few species are more brightly colored, such as the distinctive reddish orange abdomen of larvae of the predatory thrips. In many species, thrips feed within buds and furled leaves or in other enclosed parts of the plant. Their damage is often observed before the thrips are seen. Discolored or distorted plant tissue or black specks of feces around stippled leaf surfaces are clues that thrips are or were present. However, some abiotic disorders, pathogens, and certain other invertebrates can cause damage resembling that of thrips. For example, lace bugs, plant bugs, and mites also stipple foliage, and lace bugs and certain plant bugs produce dark, watery fecal specks. Look carefully for the insects themselves to be certain that pest thrips are present and the cause of damage before taking control action. Thrips are poor fliers but can readily spread long distances by floating with the wind or being transported on infested plants. LIFE CYCLE The thrips life cycle includes the egg, two actively feeding larval (nymphal) stages, nonfeeding prepupal (propupal) and pupal stages, and the adult. Thrips have a metamorphosis that is intermediate between complete and gradual. Last-instar larvae change greatly in appearance, and they are often called pupae even though thrips do not have a true pupal stage. Thrips eggs are elongate, cylindrical to kidney-shaped, and relatively large in relation to the female. Females of most plant-feeding species insert their tiny eggs into plants, commonly into leaves or buds where larvae feed. The pale prepupae and pupae of most species drop to the soil or leaf litter or lodge within plant crevices. Greenhouse thrips pupate openly on lower leaf surfaces while pupae (and eggs) of some gall-making species, such as Cuban laurel thrips, occur on leaf surfaces but are enclosed within distorted plant tissue. Thrips have several generations (up to eight or more) a year. The life cycle from egg to adult may be completed in as short a time as 2 weeks when the weather is warm.

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DAMAGE Thrips prefer to feed in rapidly growing tissue. Feeding by thrips typically causes tiny scars on leaves and fruit, called stippling, and can stunt growth. Damaged leaves may become papery and distorted. Infested terminals may discolor, become rolled, and drop l eaves prematurely. Petals may exhibit ―color break,‖ which is pale or dark discoloring of petal tissue that was killed by thrips feeding before buds opened. Thrips cause silvery to brownish, scabby scarring on the avocado and citrus fruit surface, but this cosmetic damage does not harm the internal fruit quality. Feces may remain on leaves or fruit long after thrips have left. Where thrips lay eggs on grapes, dark scars surrounded by lighter ―halos‖ may be found on the fruit. Thrips feeding on raspberries, apples, and nectarines can deform or scar developing fruit; sugar pea pods may be scarred or deformed. Citrus thrips feeding severely distorts blueberry shoot tips and foliage, reducing fruit yield. In comparison with woody shrubs and trees in landscapes, herbaceous ornamentals and certain fruit and vegetable crops are generally more susceptible to serious injury from thrips’ feeding and thrips -vectored viruses, especially when plants are young. Thrips feeding on woody plants can damage fruit and very noticeably affect plants’ cosmetic appearance. But thrips rarely kill or threaten the survival of woody plants unless the thrips populations are very high and cause serious feeding damage resulting in premature leaf drop or stem dieback. MANAGEMENT Healthy woody plants usually tolerate thrips damage; however, high infestations on certain herbaceous ornamentals and developing fruits or vegetables may justify control. If control is necessary, use an integrated program of control strategies that combines the use of good cultural practices and conservation of natural enemies with the use of least-toxic insecticides, such as narrow-range oils. In case of heavy infestation uses of chemical insecticides become necessary. Spray CPP, Cypermithrin or Acephate 1 ml

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in 1 liter water every 15 days till eradicated. Use of Biflerx or Imidacloprid 0.50 ml in in liter water will last for 6 months. STINK BUGS Stink Bug Laying Eggs Stink Bug Nymphs Stink Bug Adult Brown Stink Bug Adult Green

The Stink Bug is also known as a shield bug because of the shield-like shape of its body. It also gets its name from the pungent odor it emits when squashed, jostled, cornered, scared or injured. In large groups, stink bugs are considered agricultural pests because they suck juices from their host plants and cause damage to crops. The four species of stink bugs are considered to be beneficial instead of pests: The Anchor Bug preys upon the Mexican bean beetle, Japanese beetle and other insects; the Two Spotted Stink Bug preys upon Colorado beetle larvae; the Spined Soldier bug feeds on caterpillars and other slow moving arthropods; the Arboreal Stink Bug patrols tree trunks for ants and insects. IDENTIFICATION True Stinkbugs usually have thickened forewings with membranous tips. When they rest, the dissimilar parts of their folded wings overlap. Most stink bugs can be recognised by the characteristic triangle or Xshape on the back formed by their folded wings. True bugs have sucking mouthparts, which on plantfeeding species point downward, perpendicular to the plane of the insect's body LIFE CYCLE Adult Brown Stink Bugs mate in early spring and females lay a mass of eggs weekly under the leaves of the host plant. She can lay up to 400 eggs in her lifetime. Eggs are light yellow to yellowish red. Nymphs are tick-like in appearance. They go through five nymphal instars before becoming adults and have red eyes and an abdomen that changes color during each of the instars. Stink bugs hibernate during cold winter months and will emerge in the spring as temperatures rise. Adults mate in the spring and females will lay eggs on plants. These eggs will be laid in groups and are not plant specific. Young will go through 5 stages to reach adulthood and this will occur in about three months.

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DAMAGE As a pest, the Brown Stink Bug will attack apples, cherries, raspberries, peaches, figs, mulberries, citrus fruits and persimmons. Feeding on fruit trees causes "cat facing" which will damage the fruit. They have also been found on ornamental plants, weeds, soybeans and green beans. The Brown Stink Bug will over winter in homes entering through small openings in windows and door frames, under roof shingles, in crawl spaces and attics. MANAGEMENT Chemical control – spray Cypermithrin or Deltamethrin, 1 ml in 1 liter water. Experts say that the best stink bug control is prevention. Those worried about stink bug infestation can start by keeping the yard clean of any unnecessary plants. Weeds and overgrown bushes should be taken care so stink bugs will not have any place to feed or lay eggs. To prevent a stink bug invasion, all holes, cracks and crevices around house should be tightly sealed with calk. The bugs are also known for using the attic and air conditioner to get inside the house. During fall, before they migrate inside the house, it is best to treat the exterior and attic of the house with multi-purpose insecticide such as Biflex 0.50 ml in 1 liter water.. Window a/c unit should be removed and the windows seal properly. Two popular pest control options: Permethrin is a pest repellant that paralyzes the nervous system of many insects and kills all stages of the insect’s growth. Imdeachlorprid 0.50 ml in 1 liter water. This will keep the stinkbugs away for 6 months.

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WEEVILS Weevil Eggs

Weevil Pupa (above) & Larva Below

Weevil Adult

Weevil Citrus Damage

Weevils feed on many flower hosts, including aster, begonia, carnation, chrysanthemum, dahlia, geranium, impatiens, lily, primrose, and vinca. Weevils are inconspicuous. Larvae are whitish or green grubs and live in soil. Adults are dull gray, blackish, or brown and feed at night, hiding in litter during the day. The head of adult weevils is elongated into a snout and their antennae are elbowed and clubbed. Adults do not fly. IDENTIFICATION There are more than 1,000 species of weevils or snout beetles in California. The most common pest weevil species in California is the black vine weevil,.Other important species include the cribrate weevil, , fuller rose beetle, obscure root weevil, strawberry root weevil, vegetable weevil, and the woods weevil.The adult weevils have a snout and are about one-fourth inch long. They vary from reddish-brown to gray to almost black in color. A distinguishing feature is the presence of two spurs on the front femur of each leg. The adult weevil is usually dull in color and herbivorous, characterized by a prolongation of the anterior part of the head into a rostrum (a beaklike extension). The apex of the rostrum contains the biting mouthparts, and two clubbed antennae are attached in depressions at each side. The oval body is covered with a rough, hard integument, and a single median suture traverses the lower part of the head. Weevils exhibit complete metamorphosis; the larvae are white, semicircular, fleshy grubs with vestigial legs, strong jaws, and rudimentary eyes; they feed entirely on plant life, causing much damage to crops. The adults usually hibernate for most of the winter. LIFE CYCLE Adult weevils spend the winter in ground trash near old cotton fields. Each female can lay up to 200 eggs (laying each egg in a separate cotton square or boll). The entire life cycle of egg to adult can be completed in 3 weeks or less. There are multiple (5 or more) generations per year. Females can produce eggs without mating, commonly laying them on or into soil near host plants. The female adults must feed for about a month before laying eggs. The larvae develop in soil through 6 instars over a period of 2 to 8 months. They are whitish grubs with a brown head and commonly have a C-shaped posture. Black vine weevil overwinters primarily as a late-instar larva. A few individuals of this and other species can overwinter as adults. Weevils overwintering as late instars form pupae in spring. Adults emerge from the soil about 2 weeks after pupation and begin feeding during the night. DAMAGE Adult weevils chew foliage, causing characteristic notching on leaf edges. The serious damage is caused by larvae. Young larvae chew the outer surface of young roots. More mature larvae chew older roots and basal stems, girdling plants near the soil surface and causing decline in mature plants and death in young plants. MANAGEMENT Destroy adults to prevent more serious damage. Grow species or cultivars that are less susceptible to weevil damage, and avoid replanting susceptible crops at infested sites. Grow older plants that are more likely to be infested away from younger plants susceptible to weevils. Provide cultural care to keep plants vigorous and better able to tolerate damage. Check roots before planting to make sure they are free from

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larvae. Trim branches that provide a bridge to other plants or the ground and apply a 6-inch band of sticky material to trunks to prevent flightless beetles from feeding on foliage. Application of Cypermithrin or Deltamithrin or CPP 1ml in 1liter water spray applied to leaves can control adults. WHITEFLIES White Flies Eggs White Flies Pupa White Flies Larva White Flies Colony

The silverleaf whitefly is slightly smaller (about 0.96 mm in the female and 0.82 mm in the male) and slightly yellower than most other whitefly pests of flowers. The head is broad at the antennae and narrow towards the mouth parts. The wings are held roof-like at about a 45° angle, whereas other whiteflies usually hold the wings nearly flat over the body. Hence, the silverleaf whitefly appears more slender than other common whiteflies. Whiteflies are tiny, sap-sucking insects that are frequently abundant in vegetable and ornamental plantings. They excrete sticky honeydew and cause yellowing or death of leaves. Outbreaks often occur when the natural biological control is disrupted. Management is difficult. IDENTIFICATION Whiteflies usually occur in groups on the undersides of leaves. They derive their name from the mealy, white wax covering the adult’s wings and body. Adults are tiny insects with yellowish bodies and whitish wings. Although adults of some species have distinctive wing markings, many species are most readily distinguished in the last nymphal (immature) stage, which is wingless. LIFE CYCLE whiteflies that were undoubtedly silverleaf whiteflies. Developmental times from egg deposition to adult emergence appears to be primarily controlled by temperature, humidity, and host plant. These times will vary from 16 to 38 days depending on these factors. The number of eggs laid by each female over her lifetime varies considerably, but appears to be around 80 to 100. ―Crawlers‖ hatch from the eggs and crawl about until they insert threadlike mouthparts into the underside of the leaf to feed. They tuck their legs and antennae underneath and settle down closely to the leaf surface. Crawlers molt into scale like nymphs that also suck out sap. Nymphs molt a second and third time. The fourth stage eventually becomes a non-feeding pupa. The adult whitefly develops within the pupa. Adults emerge from the pupa through a T-shaped slit about a month from the time the egg was laid. Females live about two weeks The eggs are inserted on end in the undersides of new leaves. The eggs are whitish to light beige with the apex tending to be slightly darker. Nymphs: The nymphal stages appear glassy to opaque yellowish and may or may not have dorsal spines, depending on leaf characteristics. The body is flattened and scale-like with the margin relatively near the leaf surface. There is not a marginal palisade of waxy spines. Pupae: The pupa or fourth nymphal instar will be somewhat darker beigeish-yellow and opaque and 0.6 to 0.8 mm long. Pupae are relatively more plump compared to previous nymphal stages. The apex of anterior and caudal spiracular furrows have smalls amount of white wax deposits. The caudal setae are prominent, and the caudal end is somewhat acute. Dorsal spines are present when the host leaf is hairy and absent when the host leaf is smooth.

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DAMAGE Direct damage is caused by the removal of sap, and indirect damage as a disease vector. The silverleaf whitefly is a vector for several important virus diseases of lettuce and melons in the southwestern United States. Both the adult and nymphal stages contribute to direct damage. Chlorotic spots sometimes appear at the feeding sites on leaves, and heavy infestations cause leaves of cucurbits and stems of poinsettias to blanch and wilt. The excretion of honeydew and the subsequent development of sooty mold fungi also reduces the appearance, photosynthesis, and other physiological functions of the plant. Even though the silverleaf whitefly is considered an economic pest, economic thresholds have not been generated for this pest on ornamental plants. Whiteflies suck phloem sap. Large populations can cause leaves to turn yellow, appear dry, or fall off plants. Like aphids, whiteflies excrete honeydew, so leaves may be sticky or covered with black sooty mold. The honeydew attracts ants, which interfere with the activities of natural enemies that may control whiteflies and other pests. Feeding by the immature silverleaf whitefly can cause plant distortion, discoloration, or silvering of leaves and may cause serious losses in some vegetable crops. Some whiteflies transmit viruses to certain vegetable crops. With the notable exception of the citrus whitefly, whiteflies are not normally a problem in fruit trees, but several whiteflies can be problems on ornamental trees . Low levels of whiteflies are not usually damaging. Adults by themselves will not cause significant damage unless they are transmitting a plant pathogen. Generally, plant losses do not occur unless there is a significant population of whitefly nymphs. MANAGEMENT Control of silverleaf whiteflies is difficult because the eggs and older immature forms are resistant to many aerosol and insecticide sprays (in addition, the adults are extremely resistant to dry pesticide residue). For good control, the pesticide mixture must be directed to the lower leaf surface where all stages of the whiteflies naturally occur. One must make regular applications of pesticides to control crawlers and second

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stage nymphs until the last of a whole generation of immature whiteflies has hatched. However, some of the pyrethroid pesticides are somewhat more effective and need not be applied as often. The best strategy is to prevent problems from developing in your garden to the extent possible. In many situations, natural enemies will provide adequate control of whiteflies; outbreaks may occur if natural enemies that provide biological control of whiteflies are disrupted by insecticide applications, dusty conditions, or interference by ants. Avoid or remove plants that repeatedly host high populations of whiteflies. In gardens, whitefly populations in the early stages of population development can be held down by a vigilant program of removing infested leaves, vacuuming adults, or hosing down (syringing) with water sprays. Aluminum foil or reflective mulches can repel whiteflies from vegetable gardens and sticky traps can be used to monitor or, at high levels, reduce whitefly numbers. If you choose to use insecticides, insecticidal soaps or oils such as neem oil may reduce but not eliminate populations. Chemical insecticides like Biflex and Imidachlorprid spray 0.50 ml in 1 liter water will control it for 6 months. POWDERY MILDEW Powdery Mildew Rose Powdery Mildew Squash Powdery Mildew Powdery Mildew Damage Damage Ornimental Damage Damage

Powdery mildew is a common disease on many types of plants and is prevalent under the diverse conditions found in many areas India. Different powdery mildew fungi cause disease on different plants. These fungi tend to infect either plants in the same family or only one species of plant. IDENTIFICATION AND DAMAGE You can recognize this disease by the white, powdery spore growth that forms on leaf surfaces and shoots and sometimes on flowers and fruits. Powdery mildews may infect new or old foliage. This disease can be serious on woody species such as rose, crape myrtle, and sycamore where it attacks new growth including buds, shoots, flowers, and leaves. New growth may be dwarfed, distorted, and covered with a white, powdery growth. Infected leaves generally free moisture. Wind carries powdery mildew spores to new hosts. Although relative humidity requirements for germination vary, all powdery mildew species can germinate and infect in the absence of free water. In fact, water on plant surfaces for extended periods inhibits germination and kills the spores of most powdery mildew fungi. Moderate temperatures of 60° to 80°F and shady conditions generally are the most favorable for powdery mildew development. Powdery mildew spores and mycelium are sensitive to extreme heat and sunlight, and leaf temperatures above 95°F may kill the fungus. die and drop from the plant earlier than healthy leaves. LIFE CYCLE All powdery mildew fungi require living plant tissue to grow. On perennial hosts such as roses, powdery mildew survives from one season to the next as vegetative strands in buds or as spherical fruiting bodies, called chasmothecia, on the bark of branches and stems. Most powdery mildew fungi grow as thin layers of mycelium on the surface of the affected plant parts. Spores, which you can see with a hand lens, are part of the white, powdery appearance of this fungi and

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are produced in chains on upper or lower leaf surfaces or on flowers, fruits, or herbaceous stems. In contrast, downy mildew, another fungal disease that produces visible powdery growth, has spores that grow on branched stalks and look like tiny trees.

MANAGEMENT The best method of control is prevention. Avoiding the most susceptible cultivars, placing plants in full sun, and following good cultural practices will adequately control powdery mildew in many situations. Some ornamentals do require protection with fungicide sprays if mildew conditions are more favorable, especially susceptible varieties of rose. Fungicide Applications In some situations, especially when growing roses, you may need to use fungicides, which function as protectants, eradicants, or both. A protectant fungicide prevents new infections from occurring, whereas an eradicant can kill an existing infection. Apply protectant fungicides to highly susceptible plants before the disease appears. Use eradicants at the earliest signs of the disease. Once mildew growth is extensive, controlling the situation with any fungicide becomes more difficult. Fungicides. Several least-toxic fungicides are available, including horticultural oils, neem oil, jojoba oil, sulfur, potassium bicarbonate, and the biological fungicide Serenade. With the exception of the oils, these materials are primarily preventive, although potassium bicarbonate has some eradicant activity. Oils work best as eradicants but also have some protectant activity. Oils. To eradicate mild to heavy powdery mildew infections, use a horticultural oil such as JMS Stylet Oil, Saf-T-Side Spray Oil, Sunspray Ultra-Fine Spray Oil, or one of the plant-based oils such as neem oil or

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jojoba oil. Be careful, however, never to apply an oil spray within 2 weeks of a sulfur spray, or it may injure plants. Also, you never should apply oils when temperatures are above 90°F or to water-stressed plants. Some plants may be more sensitive than others, and the interval required between sulfur and oil sprays may need to be even longer. Sulfur products have been used to manage powdery mildew for centuries but are effective only when applied before the disease appears. The best sulfur products to use for powdery mildew control in gardens are wettable sulfurs that are specially formulated with surfactants similar to those in dishwashing detergent (e.g., Safer Garden Fungicide). However, you shouldn’t use dishwashing detergent with sulfur. Additionally, sulfur can damage some ornamental cultivars. To avoid injuring any plant, do not apply sulfur when the temperature is near or higher than 90°F, and do not apply it within 2 weeks of an oil spray. Other sulfur products, such as liquid lime sulfur or sulfur dust, are much more difficult to use, irritate skin and eyes, and are limited in the types plants you safely can use them on. Biological fungicides are commercially available beneficial microorganisms formulated into a product that, when sprayed on the plant, destroys fungal pathogens. These products have some effect in killing the powdery mildew organism but are not as effective as the oils or sulfur in controlling it. How to Use. Apply protectant fungicides to susceptible plants before or in the earliest stages of disease development. Once mildew growth is mild to moderate, it generally is too late for effective control with protectant fungicides. These are effective only on contact, so applications must thoroughly cover all susceptible plant parts. As plants grow and produce new tissue, additional applications may be necessary at 7- to 10-day intervals as long as conditions favor disease growth. If mild to moderate powdery mildew is present, you can use horticultural and plant-based oils such as neem or jojoba oil. DOWNEY MILDEW Downey Mildew Downey Mildew Spots Downey Mildew Below Powdery Mildew Damage Damage Leaf Damage Damage

Downy mildews have gained a strong foothold in the horticultural industry. They are currently causing serious losses in many floricultural crops including rose, cut and bedding plant, pansy, viola, alyssum, salvia, and rosemary. Despite the sound-alike name of the powdery mildews, the two groups of fungi have little in common, attacking different plants, under very different conditions. Downy mildew diseases thrive when the weather conditions are wet and cool. Most of the fungi that cause these diseases are host specific, attacking only one kind of plant. The fungus that causes downy mildew on roses cannot cause the disease on snapdragons and visa versa. The fungus that causes downy mildew on violas causes the same disease on pansies as the two plants are very closely related. Some of the downy mildews are more aggressive than others. For example, downy mildew on snapdragons appears to spread much faster and cause more serious losses quickly than the downy mildew on pansy and viola. Since the fungus grows within the plant tissues and not on the surface it can escape notice until the conditions are ideal for sporulation. At this time, the fruiting structures of the fungus emerge

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from the undersides of leaves and create the grayish-colored, downy coating. On some plants, this may be the first indication that they are infected with a downy mildew fungus. In other plants, distortion of new leaves, downward curling and overall stunting occur which can mimic aphid damage. In contrast, roses develop reddish-black spots on leaves, petals, and stems, well in advance of sporulation. LIFE CYCLE Some downy mildew diseases are known to start from contaminated seed (sunflowers) but most have not been proven to be seed-borne as yet (snapdragon). In addition, there are many weed hosts of certain downy mildew fungi which attack cultivated crops and some epidemics start on weeds around the production area. Rose downy mildew sometimes starts on bare-rooted, apparently healthy stock. Rose canes infected with the fungus may not be obvious and symptoms may appear only when environmental conditions are ideal. Since exposure of spores to 80 F for 24 hours kills them, a heat treatment of canes, seeds or other propagation stock, might be effective. Killing the pathogen within the plant would be more difficult and the temperatures needed might damage the plant as well. ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS Downy mildew is most severe when nights are cool and days are warmer with high relative humidities. Humidity management is sometimes possible and always desirable when growing plants in a greenhouse. It is critical to keep the relative humidity below 85% to decrease sporulation on infected plants and stop germination of spores on healthy plants. This can be done in greenhouses by venting and raising the temperature at key times during the day, especially at sunset when the greenhouse air is warm and moisture laden and the outside air is cool and drier. Venting followed by heating will fill the greenhouse with warmer, drier air. Fans can speed leaf drying but also spread downy mildew spores. Other methods (perhaps fungicides or removing infected plants) should be used in combination with fans to minimize disease spread. The optimal temperature for development of rose downy mildew is 64 F and snapdragon downy mildew develops best with temperatures between 40 and 60 F. Temperature optima for other ornamental downy mildew fungi are not known at this time. A few of those known for non-ornamental crops include: crucifers (45-60 F), lettuce (5070 F), and soybean (50-80 F). Thus, although the temperatures are close, they are not identical and each disease must be studied to determine the optimal range for that spores on plants in the trash pile. Place plants in plastic trash bags as they are collected from the growing area to keep spores from being dislodged and spread in air currents. MANAGEMENT Sanitation requirements for downy mildew diseases are stringent. Infected plant tissues such as leaves, stems and flowers may drop to the ground where the spores can remain viable for various periods of time. Remove all infected plants and discard well away from your production area. If you collect debris in a pile close to production you may continue to experience new infections starting with formation of spores on plants in the trash pile. Place plants in plastic trash bags as they are collected from the growing area to keep spores from being dislodged and spread in air currents. USE OF FUNGICIDES The most important thing about using a fungicide for downy mildew control is to recognize the relationship between these fungi and other plant pathogens. The fungicides which are effective for water molds have the best activity against the downy mildew fungi as well. Fungicides have been tested for control of downy mildew on roses throughout the world. In general, dithiocarbamates (such as Dithane and sulfur dusts, and sometimes copper products have been recommended.

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