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AN INTRODUCTORY GUIDE TO THE BULGARIAN LANGUAGE

For those who are interested in facts and information, the following is a short description of the Bulgarian Language. Bulgarian is a Slavonic language, like Russian, Czech, Polish, and Serbian. Its history is centuries old and it is the earliest written language. It is a phonetic language, i.e. you pronounce what is written. Of course, first you get familiar with the Cyrillic alphabet! Overall, it is easy to be mastered by English speakers: its structure is similar to English; besides so many Volunteers have learned it and speak it fluently. Naturally there are some distinctive features like the gender of nouns and the verb system. The Old Bulgarian period dates back to the creation of the alphabet, the Glagolitsa, (circa 862 - 863 AD) by the Thessaloniki monks, Cyril and Methodius. The invention of the Glagolitic alphabet, comprised of 41 letters, constituted an original creative act. It was a new graphic system and ingenious creation, exactly adapted to the phonetic peculiarities of the Old Bulgarian language. Between the ninth and eleventh centuries yet another script was created in Bulgaria - the Cyrillic alphabet, or Kirilitsa. It includes the 24 letters of the Greek titular code lettering to which several new signs have been added for the sounds peculiar to the Old Bulgarian tongue. The Cyrillic script is used by (among others) Bulgarians, Russians, Ukrainians, Byelorussians, Serbians, Macedonians and Mongolians, who adopted it from the Russians. The Modern Bulgarian period is the third phase in the historical evolution of the traditional language of the Old Bulgarian and Middle Bulgarian periods. It has all the characteristic features of the Bulgarian of today. Thus, in a variety of ways, the language of Cyril and Methodius lived through the centuries, and conveyed the literary and language traditions, from the time of Cyril and Methodius to that of the modern Bulgarian literary language. Bulgarian is an easy language to learn for speakers of English, as its structure is similar to English. However, there are some differences: the alphabet and sound system, the verb system, the place of the definite article, and the gender of nouns. PLEASE BE AWARE THAT YOU ARE EXPECTED to know the Bulgarian alphabet when you arrive. As soon as you master the sounds and the letters you will be able to read Bulgarian. What follows are several phonetic assignments for you, for this purpose.

CONTENTS The text accompanies the following seventeen (17) audio tracks: BG_Bulgarian_Lesson_1.mp3 BG_Bulgarian_Lesson_2.mp3 BG_Bulgarian_Lesson_3.mp3 BG_Bulgarian_Lesson_4.mp3 BG_Bulgarian_Lesson_5.mp3 BG_Bulgarian_Lesson_6.mp3 BG_Bulgarian_Lesson_7.mp3 BG_Bulgarian_Lesson_8.mp3 BG_Bulgarian_Lesson_9.mp3 BG_Bulgarian_Lesson_10.mp3 BG_Bulgarian_Lesson_11.mp3 BG_Bulgarian_Lesson_12.mp3 BG_Bulgarian_Lesson_13.mp3 BG_Bulgarian_Lesson_14.mp3 BG_Bulgarian_Lesson_15.mp3 BG_Bulgarian_Lesson_16.mp3 BG_Bulgarian_Lesson_17.mp3 (Time: 1:38) (File Size: 1.88 MB) (Time: 2:01) (File Size: 2.30 MB) (Time: 3:05) (File Size: 3.54 MB) (Time: 0:58) (File Size: 1.11 MB) (Time: 3:19) (File Size: 3.79 MB) (Time: 1:02) (File Size: 1.19 MB) (Time: 4:29) (File Size: 5.13 MB) (Time: 2:25) (File Size: 2.78 MB) (Time: 2:53) (File Size: 3.30 MB) (Time: 0:46) (File Size: 901 KB) (Time: 2:55) (File Size: 3.34 MB) (Time: 1.29) (File Size: 1.71 MB) (Time: 1:40) (File Size: 1.92 MB) (Time: 1:53) (File Size: 2.16 MB) (Time: 3:48) (File Size: 4.35 MB) (Time: 2:26) (File Size: 2.79 MB) (Time: 2:33) (File Size: 2.91 MB)

A LANGUAGE GUIDE TO BULGARIAN


Lesson 1: THE BULGARIAN (CYRILIC) ALPHABET Letter a b v g d e zh z i y k l m n o p Pronunciation as in "far" as in "bag" as in "van" as in "good" as in "dog" as in "men" as in "s" in "pleasure" as in "zoo" as in "tin" as in "yes" as in "key" as in "lip" as in "man" as in "not" as in "or" as in "pen" Letter Xx r s t oo f h ts ch sh sht u Pronunciation as in "risk" as in "sit" as in "tin" as in "boot" as in "fill" as "hot" as in "cats" as in "chin" as in "short" as "-shed" in "washed" as in "but" this letter has no sound, it softens the preceding consonant as in "youth" as in "yard"

yu ya

PHONETIC DRILLS 1. Listen to the alphabet as many times as you need. 2. Listen to the alphabet and repeat it as many times as you feel comfortable with the sounds.

Lesson 2
Look at the alphabet and find the letters that are written the same as the English letters. Say the Bulgarian sounds. Now listen and repeat them. Did you discover any differences? 0 X

Some letters are written the same as in English, but pronounced differently. Say the Bulgarian sounds of the letters from ex. 3 that differ most from the English ones. Now repeat the following letters. E P H X C B

Others are pronounced and written very differently from English. Look at the alphabet and find these letters. Now repeat them.
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Basic Language Lessons for Bulgarian, Peace Corps/Bulgaria

Some of these letters are written differently from English, but have a similar pronunciation. These are:

Lesson 3
Listen to the words and repeat them: America Florida Nevada Bulgaria Sofia Europe

First look at the script and read the words. Did you guess their meaning? Now listen and repeat.

Word dictation. Listen to the words, repeat them and try to write them. Check the spelling below.

Introduce yourself following the model. I am ..... ( your name) I am from America 'az sum... 'as sum ot.Amerika. ... .

Basic Language Lessons for Bulgarian, Peace Corps/Bulgaria

Lesson 4: SOME USEFUL EXPRESSIONS IN BULGARIAN


Greetings/Wishes: Good morning! Good afternoon! Good evening! Good night! Hello! Good bye! Welcome to Bulgaria! Here you are. All the best! Have a nice day! dob'ro 'ootro! 'dobur den! 'dobur 'vecher! 'leka nosht! zdra'vey! (sg./informal) zdra'veyte! (pl./formal) do'vizhdane! dob're dosh'li v Bulgaria! Zapoviadaite. 'fsichko 'hoobavo! pri'yaten den! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! . ! !

Lesson 5:
Meeting Somebody/Your Host Family: What is your name? kak se 'kazvash? (sg./informal) kak se 'kazvate? (pl./formal) 'kazvam se..../ 'az sum... (or tell the name only) pri'yatno mi e! pri'yatno mi e! ot ku'de si? (sg./informal) ot ku'de ste? (pl./formal) 'as sum ot... / ot... (sum). 'kak si? (sg./informal) 'kak ste? (pl./formal) blagoda'rya, dob're sum. a 'ti? (sg./informal) a 'vie? (pl./formal) ne 'mnogo dob're. go'vorite li an'gleeski/'bulgarski? 'malko. suzha'lyavam, ne go'vorya. raz'birate li? ne raz'biram. ne 'znam. 'molya, govo'rete 'po 'bavno. o'muzhena sum. (said by a woman) 'zhenen sum. (said by a man) ne 'sum o'muzhena. (said by a woman) ne 'sum 'zhenen. (said by a man) ? ? ... ... ! ? ? ... / ... . ? ? , . ? ? . /? . , . ? . . , -. . . . .
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My name is... How do you do? Glad to meet you! Where are you from? I am from... How are you? I am fine, thanks. And you? Not too well. Do you speak English/Bulgarian? A little. I am sorry, I don't. Do you understand? I don't understand. I don't know. Please, speak more slowly. I am married.

I am single.

Basic Language Lessons for Bulgarian, Peace Corps/Bulgaria

I am divorced.

Do you have children? I have one child. I have two children. I have a son/a daughter.

raz'vedena sum. (said by a woman) raz'veden sum. (said by a man) 'imate li de'tsa? 'imam ed'no de'te. 'imam dve de'tsa. 'imam sin/dushte'rya.

. ? . . /.

Lesson 6:
Forms of Address: Mrs. Miss Mr. Members of the Family: man woman boy girl father muzh zhe'na mom'che mo'miche ba'shta mother son daughter brother sister 'maika sin dushte'rya brat ses'tra gospo'zha gos'pozhitsa gospo'din

Lesson 7:
Some Basic Questions and Answers ( Initial Community Exchanges): What is this? This is a hotel. What does it mean? How do you say table in Bulgarian? Where is the hotel? It is over there. Go... ...straight ...to the right ...to the left How can I get to the hotel How can I get to... the center? the station? To/on the right. To/on the left. Straight ahead. Where can I buy coffee? Have you got coffee? Yes, we have. No, we haven't. Please, give me a coke. kak'vo e to'va? to'va e ho'tel. kak'vo 'znachi to'va? 'kak e na 'bulgarski table? ku'de e ho'tela? tam e. vur'vete... ...na'pravo ...na'dyasno ...na'lyavo. 'kak da 'stigna do ho'tela? 'kak da 'stigna do... 'tsentura? 'garata? na'dyasno. na'lyavo. na'pravo. ku'de 'moga da 'koopya ka'fe? 'imate li ka'fe? da, 'imame. ne, 'nyamame. 'molya, 'dayte mi 'kola. ? x. ? table? x? . ... ... ... .... ? ... ? ? . . . ? ? , . , . , .
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Basic Language Lessons for Bulgarian, Peace Corps/Bulgaria

How much is it? Here you are. Thank you. You're welcome.

'kolko 'stroova? zapo'vyadayte. blagoda'rya. 'nyama zash'to./ 'molya. Sorry. (it is my fault) izvi'nete. izvi'nete, 'mozhe li da vi Excuse me, may I ask you something? po'pitam 'neshto? Excuse me, may I ask izvi'nete, 'mozhe li da vi you for something? po'molya za 'neshto? Yes, please. da, ka'zhete. Yes, of course. da, raz'bira se. I have a problem. 'imam prob'lem. I need help. 'imam 'noozhda ot 'pomosht./ pomog'nete mi! I've lost my way. iz'goobih se. Please, show me the way 'molya vi, poka'zhete mi 'putya na 'kartata. on the map. I don't feel well. ne se 'chufstvam dob're. I'm sick. 'bolen sum. I'm tired. oomo'ren sum. What time is it? 'kolko e cha'sa? It's two o'clock. cha'sa e dva. Would you like a coffee? 'iskate li ka'fe? With pleasure. s oodo'volstvie. No, thanks. ne, blagoda'rya. Where can I get a taxi? ku'de 'moga da 'vzema tak'si? Can I get a receipt, 'mozhe li da mi da'dete please? kasova belezhka, 'molya? Where can I change ku'de 'moga da obme'nya 'dolari? dollars? What is the exchange ka'kuf e 'koorsa? rate?

...? . . ./ . . , ? , ? , . , . . . / ! x . , . . . . ? . ? . , . ? , ? ? ?

Lesson 8:
In a Restaurant: A table for one/two, please. Are the seats available? What would you like? I would like... ...a glass of mineral water ...juice/coffee/tea/milk ...a bottle of wine ...beer ...a coke ...a salad ...a steak ...an omelette We don't have any. 'masa za e'din/'dvama, 'molya. svo'bodno li e? kak'vo shte zhe'laete? 'molya, 'dayte mi... ...'chasha mine'ralna vo'da ...sok/ka'fe/chay/'mlyako ...bu'tilka 'vino ...'bira ...'kola ...sa'lata ...pur'zhola ...om'let 'nyamame. /, . ? ? , ... ... .../// ... ... ... ... ... ...

.
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Basic Language Lessons for Bulgarian, Peace Corps/Bulgaria

I'm a vegetarian.

Do you serve vegetarian food? Here you are! Thank you! Enjoy your meal! Cheers! Where is the bathroom? Can I have the bill, please? Here you are! Thank you!

az sum vegetari'anets. (said by a man) az sum vegetari'anka. (said by a woman) ser'virate li vegetari'anska Hra'na? zapo'vyadayte! blagoda'rya! do'bur ape'tit! naz'drave! ku'de e toa'letnata? 'mozhe li 'smetkata? zapo'vyadayte! blagoda'rya!

. . x? ! ! ! ! ? ? ! .

Lesson 9:
Food Items:
meat veal pork lamb chicken turkey fish ham mushrooms bread cucumbers tomatoes peppers potatoes me'so 'teleshko 'svinsko 'agneshko 'pile 'pooyka 'riba 'shoonka 'gubi hlyab 'krastavitsi do'mati 'chooshki kar'tofi cheese butter salt sugar vinegar black pepper fruits apples oranges yoghurt white wine red wine beer soft drink 'sirene / kashka'val mas'lo sol 'zahar o'tset 'cheren pi'per plodo've 'yabulki porto'kali 'kiselo 'mlyako 'byalo 'vino cher'veno 'vino 'bira bezalko'holno /

Lesson 10:
The Days of the Week: Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday ne'delya pone'delnik 'ftornik 'sryada chet'vurtuk 'petuk 'subota

Basic Language Lessons for Bulgarian, Peace Corps/Bulgaria

Lesson 11:
Numbers:
one two three four five six seven eight nine ten eleven twelve thirteen fourteen fifteen sixteen ed'no dve tri 'chetiri pet shest 'sedem 'osem 'devet 'deset edi'nayset dva'nayset tri'nayset chetiri'nayset pet'nayset shes'nayset seventeen eighteen nineteen twenty thirty forty fifty sixty seventy eighty ninety one hundred two hundred three hundred one thousand sedem'nayset osem'nayset devet'nayset 'dvayset 'treeset che'tiriset petde'set shey'set sedemde'set osemde'set devetde'set sto 'dvesta 'trista hi'lyada x

Lesson 12:
House Orientation: House Bedroom Bathroom 'kushta 'spalnya 'banya K C (where you wash and have a shower; because in some houses in Bulgaria the bathroom and the toilet are separate) T ... ...? ...? ...?

Toilet Where is... ...the bedroom? ...the bathroom? ...the toilet? cold water hot water

toa'letna ku'de e... ...'spalnyata? ...'banyata? ...toa'letnata? stoo'dena vo'da 'topla vo'da

Lesson 13:
Common Medical Problems: I am sick. I have a headache. I have a cold. 'bolen sum. (said by a man) 'bolna sum. (said by a woman) bo'li me gla'va. nas'tinal sum. (said by a man) nas'tinala sum. (said by a woman) bo'li me sto'maha. . . . . . x.
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I have a stomach ache.

Basic Language Lessons for Bulgarian, Peace Corps/Bulgaria

Call the Medical Officer. I am tired.

oba'dete se na 'lekarya. oomo'ren sum, (said by a man) oomo'rena sum, (said by a woman) I want to go to bed. 'iskam da si 'lyagam. I cannot drink water from the ne 'mi e pozvo'leno da 'piya tap. vo'da ot chesh'mata i'li ot 'sudove za suHra'nenie. Where is the bathroom? ku'de e toa'letnata?

. , , . . ?

Lesson 14: Listening Exercises


Listening Exercise 1: - ! ? - . ? - . - . - . Listening Exercise 2: - ! . - . - . - . - ? - . ? - . - . - . A: Hello! I'm Bill. B: I'm Maria. A: Pleased to meet you. B: Pleased to meet you. A: Where are you from? B: I'm from Bulgaria. And you? A: I'm from America. B: Good bye! A: Good bye! A: Hello! What's your name? B: I'm Bill. And you? A: I'm Maria. B: Pleased to meet you. A: Pleased to meet you.

Lesson 15:
Listening Exercise 3: - ! - . . - . - . - . - ! - . . - . - . - . Good afternoon! I'm Mary. I'm from America. I'm from Florida. I'm a teacher. I'm a Peace Corps Volunteer. Good afternoon! I'm Bill. I'm from America. I'm from Nevada. I'm a teacher. I'm a Peace Corps Volunteer.

Basic Language Lessons for Bulgarian, Peace Corps/Bulgaria

- ! - . . - . - . - . - ! - . . - . - . - .

Good afternoon! I'm Jimmy. I'm from America. I'm from Texas. I'm a business consultant. I'm a Peace Corps Volunteer. Good afternoon! I'm Dona. I'm from America. I'm from Montana. I'm an environmentalist. I'm a Peace Corps Volunteer.

Listening Exercise 4: - , ? - . - , ? - . A: Excuse me, where is the bathroom (toilet)? B: Over there. A: Excuse me, where is the post office? B: Over there.

Lesson 16:
Listening Exercise 5: - ! - ! - ? - . - , ! ? - , . - ? - , . - ? - , . . - . - , . Listening Exercise 6: - ? - , . - ? - , . - ? - , . A: Do you like coffee? B: Yes, I do. A: Do you like milk? B: Yes, I do. A: Do you like cheese? B: Yes, I do. A: Good morning! B: Good morning! A: How are you? B: I'm fine. A: Please, have a seat! Would you like some coffee? B: Yes, please. A: What about milk? B: No, I don't like milk. A: Would you like sausages? B: No, thanks. I'm a vegetarian. I'd like some cheese and butter. Some more coffee, please.

Basic Language Lessons for Bulgarian, Peace Corps/Bulgaria

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Lesson 17:
Listening Exercise 7: - ? - , . - ? - , . - ? - , . Listening Exercise 8: - ? - , ! - ? - , ! - ? - , ! Listening Exercise 9: - E , m. - ! - . ? - 50 . A: Coffee, please. B: Here you are! A: Thank you. How much is it? A: 50 stotinki. A: Can I have mineral water? B: Yes, here you are! A: Can I have tea? B: Yes, here you are! A: Can I have a sandwich? B: Yes, here you are! A: Do you like coffee? B: No, I don't. A: Do you like milk? B: No, I don't. A: Do you like cheese? B: No, I don't.

Basic Language Lessons for Bulgarian, Peace Corps/Bulgaria

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