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COMPREHENSIVE SERIES OF TESTS ON SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF

REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM-COLUMN JOINTS


Hitoshi Shiohara and Fumio Kusuhara
Dept. of Architectural Engineering, The University of Tokyo; Tokyo, Japan
Background

RC beam-column joint safety in seismic design

joint shear strength design

potential of joint shear resistance were evaluated by


lot of tests empirically

specimens with beams and columns heavily


reinforced have been tested to assess the potential

No comprehensive data set is available for actual


strength and post-yielding behavior of joints with
realistic range of reinforcement ratio in the beams and
the columns
Test Program

Planed such that a dependable data set of RC interior


beam-column joint subassemblages should be obtained

Lateral capacity and post yielding behavior are discussed

Test parameters; including combinations of 3 factors


(1) amount of longitudinal reinforcement (3 levels)
(2) ratio of the exural strength of the beams to the
exural strength of the columns framing into a joint, (3
to 4 levels)
(3) ratio of the depth of the beam to the depth of the
column. (2 levels)
Conclusions

Current seismic provisions for RC beam-column


joints are decient, because they can not secure
the lateral strength of moment resisting frames
predicted by the exural theory of RC sections

Hence a large number of existing moment


resisting frame reinforced concrete structures
may be more vulnerable than we expect.

Serious consideration on this test results should


be addressed by structural engineers,
researchers and code writers.
Loading Setup
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6PS1HJR
Specimens
Loading Setup
Loading Direction
PC rod
PC rod
Specimens
1/400 0.5Qc
1/200
1/100 2
1/50 2
1/33 2
3.0
2.0
1.0
-1.0
-2.0
-3.0
0.0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Story Drift Ratio


Loading direction
Load Cycle
Strong floor
Load Cell Oil Jack
Load Cell
Load Cell
Oil Jack
Load Cell
pin joint
Loading Setup
Loading Direction
PC rod
PC rod
Specimens
1/400 0.5Qc
1/200
1/100 2
1/50 2
1/33 2
3.0
2.0
1.0
-1.0
-2.0
-3.0
0.0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Story Drift Ratio


Loading direction
Load Cycle
Strong floor
Load Cell Oil Jack
Load Cell
Load Cell
Oil Jack
Load Cell
pin joint
Specimens
240
2
4
0
120 240
2
4
0
700 700
700 700
unit in mm unit in mm unit in mm
Hoops or Stirrups
-D6@50 (SD295A)
C01 C03
J oint Hoops
Two sets
-D6 (SD295A)
J oint Hoops
Two sets
-D6 (SD295A)
J oint Hoops
Two sets
-D6 (SD295A)
700
700
Hoops or Stirrups
-D6@50 (SD295A)
Column
240
3
4
0
Column
240
1
7
0
Beam
240
2
4
0
Column
240
2
4
0
Beam
Beam
(a) Series B
(b) Series C
(c) Series D
700 700
Loading point
700
700
700
700
in total 31 specimens in FY2008
11 4 11
Three Major Test Parameters
(1) Amount of longitudinal reinforcement,
: 0.98% - 3.98%
(2) Ratio of the exural strength of the beams to the
exural strength of the columns framing into a joint,
: 72% - 268%
(3) ratio of the depth of the beam to the depth of
the column.
: 1.0 and 0.5
M
uc
M
ub

p
t

b
b
b
c
Common Parameters

Normal strength deformed steel bars

Concrete strength = 30 MPa

Beam width and column width = 240 mm

Joint shear reinforcement = 2 sets of D6


rectangular hoop

Column axial load = 0 kN


Typical Test Result
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
-0.03 -0.02 -0.01 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03
s
t
o
r
y

s
h
e
a
r

k
N
story drift ratio
Yielding of longitudinal bars in beams and columns
240 580
7
0
0
7
0
0
2
4
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
700 700 0 0 1 0 0 1
100
4-D13(SD345)
4-D13(SD345)
2sets -D6(SD295)
p
w
=0.32%
-D6@50(SD295)
240
2
4
0
3
6




1
6
8




3
6 4-D13 SD345
pt=1.04%
4-D13 SD345
pt=1.04%
joint hoops
beams
&
columns
column hoops & stirrps
unit in mm
north beam south beam
Story shear-story drift relationships
(a) Series A
B03 B01 B04
0
0
-25
-50
-75
-100
25
50
75
100
0
-25
-50
-75
-100
25
50
75
100
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
B05
-25
-50
-75
-100
25
50
75
100
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
B02
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
0
-25
-50
-75
-100
25
50
75
100
B06
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
0
-25
-50
-75
-100
25
50
75
100
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
B08
0
-25
-50
-75
-100
25
50
75
100
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
B07
0
-25
-50
-75
-100
25
50
75
100
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
0
-50
-100
-150
50
100
150
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
B10
0
-50
-100
-150
50
100
150
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
B09
0
-50
-100
-150
50
100
150
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
Calcualted story shear at flexural capacity of beam
Yielding of joint hoop
Yielding of longitudinal bar in beam (at diagonal crack)
Yielding of longitudinal bar in beam (at face)
Yielding of longitudinal bar in column (at diatonal crack)
Maximum story shear
Legend :
S
t
o
r
y

s
h
e
a
r

,

k
N
S
t
o
r
y

s
h
e
a
r

,

k
N
S
t
o
r
y

s
h
e
a
r

,

k
N
Story drift ratio , % Story drift ratio , %
Story drift ratio , % Story drift ratio , %
Series B
(a) Series A
B03 B01 B04
0
0
-25
-50
-75
-100
25
50
75
100
0
-25
-50
-75
-100
25
50
75
100
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
B05
-25
-50
-75
-100
25
50
75
100
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
B02
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
0
-25
-50
-75
-100
25
50
75
100
B06
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
0
-25
-50
-75
-100
25
50
75
100
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
B08
0
-25
-50
-75
-100
25
50
75
100
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
B07
0
-25
-50
-75
-100
25
50
75
100
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
0
-50
-100
-150
50
100
150
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
B10
0
-50
-100
-150
50
100
150
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
B09
0
-50
-100
-150
50
100
150
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
Calcualted story shear at flexural capacity of beam
Yielding of joint hoop
Yielding of longitudinal bar in beam (at diagonal crack)
Yielding of longitudinal bar in beam (at face)
Yielding of longitudinal bar in column (at diatonal crack)
Maximum story shear
Legend :
S
t
o
r
y

s
h
e
a
r

,

k
N
S
t
o
r
y

s
h
e
a
r

,

k
N
S
t
o
r
y

s
h
e
a
r

,

k
N
Story drift ratio , % Story drift ratio , %
Story drift ratio , % Story drift ratio , %
Story shear-story drift relationships
Longitudianal bar horizontal and
vertical, both of them yielded in joints
Series B
(a) Series A
B03 B01 B04
0
0
-25
-50
-75
-100
25
50
75
100
0
-25
-50
-75
-100
25
50
75
100
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
B05
-25
-50
-75
-100
25
50
75
100
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
B02
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
0
-25
-50
-75
-100
25
50
75
100
B06
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
0
-25
-50
-75
-100
25
50
75
100
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
B08
0
-25
-50
-75
-100
25
50
75
100
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
B07
0
-25
-50
-75
-100
25
50
75
100
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
0
-50
-100
-150
50
100
150
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
B10
0
-50
-100
-150
50
100
150
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
B09
0
-50
-100
-150
50
100
150
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
Calcualted story shear at flexural capacity of beam
Yielding of joint hoop
Yielding of longitudinal bar in beam (at diagonal crack)
Yielding of longitudinal bar in beam (at face)
Yielding of longitudinal bar in column (at diatonal crack)
Maximum story shear
Legend :
S
t
o
r
y

s
h
e
a
r

,

k
N
S
t
o
r
y

s
h
e
a
r

,

k
N
S
t
o
r
y

s
h
e
a
r

,

k
N
Story drift ratio , % Story drift ratio , %
Story drift ratio , % Story drift ratio , %
Story shear-story drift relationships
Longitudianal bar horizontal and
vertical, both of them yielded in joints
Cracking and crushing of concrete
concentrated in joints
Series B
(a) Series A
B03 B01 B04
0
0
-25
-50
-75
-100
25
50
75
100
0
-25
-50
-75
-100
25
50
75
100
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
B05
-25
-50
-75
-100
25
50
75
100
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
B02
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
0
-25
-50
-75
-100
25
50
75
100
B06
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
0
-25
-50
-75
-100
25
50
75
100
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
B08
0
-25
-50
-75
-100
25
50
75
100
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
B07
0
-25
-50
-75
-100
25
50
75
100
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
0
-50
-100
-150
50
100
150
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
B10
0
-50
-100
-150
50
100
150
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
B09
0
-50
-100
-150
50
100
150
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
Calcualted story shear at flexural capacity of beam
Yielding of joint hoop
Yielding of longitudinal bar in beam (at diagonal crack)
Yielding of longitudinal bar in beam (at face)
Yielding of longitudinal bar in column (at diatonal crack)
Maximum story shear
Legend :
S
t
o
r
y

s
h
e
a
r

,

k
N
S
t
o
r
y

s
h
e
a
r

,

k
N
S
t
o
r
y

s
h
e
a
r

,

k
N
Story drift ratio , % Story drift ratio , %
Story drift ratio , % Story drift ratio , %
Story shear-story drift relationships
Longitudianal bar horizontal and
vertical, both of them yielded in joints
Cracking and crushing of concrete
concentrated in joints
Maximum story shear observed were
smaller than exural capacity of beam
or column in some specimens
Series B
(a) Series A
B03 B01 B04
0
0
-25
-50
-75
-100
25
50
75
100
0
-25
-50
-75
-100
25
50
75
100
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
B05
-25
-50
-75
-100
25
50
75
100
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
B02
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
0
-25
-50
-75
-100
25
50
75
100
B06
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
0
-25
-50
-75
-100
25
50
75
100
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
B08
0
-25
-50
-75
-100
25
50
75
100
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
B07
0
-25
-50
-75
-100
25
50
75
100
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
0
-50
-100
-150
50
100
150
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
B10
0
-50
-100
-150
50
100
150
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
B09
0
-50
-100
-150
50
100
150
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0
Calcualted story shear at flexural capacity of beam
Yielding of joint hoop
Yielding of longitudinal bar in beam (at diagonal crack)
Yielding of longitudinal bar in beam (at face)
Yielding of longitudinal bar in column (at diatonal crack)
Maximum story shear
Legend :
S
t
o
r
y

s
h
e
a
r

,

k
N
S
t
o
r
y

s
h
e
a
r

,

k
N
S
t
o
r
y

s
h
e
a
r

,

k
N
Story drift ratio , % Story drift ratio , %
Story drift ratio , % Story drift ratio , %
Story shear-story drift relationships
Longitudianal bar horizontal and
vertical, both of them yielded in joints
Cracking and crushing of concrete
concentrated in joints
Maximum story shear observed were
smaller than exural capacity of beam
or column in some specimens
Hysteresis behavior showed slip shape
commonly for all specimens
Series B
Series B
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
B01 B04 B07 B08 B02 B05 B06 B03 B09 B10
M
a
x
i
m
u
m

a
t
t
a
i
n
e
d

s
t
o
r
y

s
h
e
a
r

k
N
Specimen
Test+
Test-
CalculatedFlexural capacity of beam or column section
CalculatedNominal joint shear capacity : AIJ Guidelines)
Joint shear capacity
Tests
Flexural Strength
Evaluation of Current Design Equations
Series B
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
B01 B04 B07 B08 B02 B05 B06 B03 B09 B10
M
a
x
i
m
u
m

a
t
t
a
i
n
e
d

s
t
o
r
y

s
h
e
a
r

k
N
Specimen
Test+
Test-
CalculatedFlexural capacity of beam or column section
CalculatedNominal joint shear capacity : AIJ Guidelines)
Joint shear capacity
Tests
Flexural Strength
Evaluation of Current Design Equations
Series B
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
B01 B04 B07 B08 B02 B05 B06 B03 B09 B10
M
a
x
i
m
u
m

a
t
t
a
i
n
e
d

s
t
o
r
y

s
h
e
a
r

k
N
Specimen
Test+
Test-
CalculatedFlexural capacity of beam or column section
CalculatedNominal joint shear capacity : AIJ Guidelines)
Joint shear capacity
Tests
Flexural Strength
Evaluation of Current Design Equations
1.0 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.0 1.4 1.8 1.0 1.0 1.0 M
uc
M
ub
Story shear-story drift relationships
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Specimen D01
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Specimen D03
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Specimen D02
58.6 kN
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Specimen D04
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
Specimen D05
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
Specimen D06
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
Specimen D07
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-120
-100
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Specimen D08
Calcualted story shear at flexural capacity of beam
Yielding of joint hoop
Yielding of longitudinal bar in beam (at diagonal crack)
Yielding of longitudinal bar in beam (at column face)
Yielding of longitudinal bar in column (at diagonal crack)
Yielding of longitudinal bar in column (at beam face)
Maximum story shear
Legend :
S
t
o
r
y

s
h
e
a
r

,

k
N
S
t
o
r
y

s
h
e
a
r

,

k
N
S
t
o
r
y

s
h
e
a
r

,

k
N
Story drift ratio , % Story drift ratio , %
Story drift ratio , %
(b) Series D
Series D
Story shear-story drift relationships
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Specimen D01
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Specimen D03
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Specimen D02
58.6 kN
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Specimen D04
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
Specimen D05
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
Specimen D06
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
Specimen D07
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-120
-100
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Specimen D08
Calcualted story shear at flexural capacity of beam
Yielding of joint hoop
Yielding of longitudinal bar in beam (at diagonal crack)
Yielding of longitudinal bar in beam (at column face)
Yielding of longitudinal bar in column (at diagonal crack)
Yielding of longitudinal bar in column (at beam face)
Maximum story shear
Legend :
S
t
o
r
y

s
h
e
a
r

,

k
N
S
t
o
r
y

s
h
e
a
r

,

k
N
S
t
o
r
y

s
h
e
a
r

,

k
N
Story drift ratio , % Story drift ratio , %
Story drift ratio , %
(b) Series D
Series D
Longitudianal bar horizontal and
vertical, both of them yielded in joints
Story shear-story drift relationships
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Specimen D01
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Specimen D03
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Specimen D02
58.6 kN
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Specimen D04
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
Specimen D05
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
Specimen D06
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
Specimen D07
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-120
-100
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Specimen D08
Calcualted story shear at flexural capacity of beam
Yielding of joint hoop
Yielding of longitudinal bar in beam (at diagonal crack)
Yielding of longitudinal bar in beam (at column face)
Yielding of longitudinal bar in column (at diagonal crack)
Yielding of longitudinal bar in column (at beam face)
Maximum story shear
Legend :
S
t
o
r
y

s
h
e
a
r

,

k
N
S
t
o
r
y

s
h
e
a
r

,

k
N
S
t
o
r
y

s
h
e
a
r

,

k
N
Story drift ratio , % Story drift ratio , %
Story drift ratio , %
(b) Series D
Series D
Longitudianal bar horizontal and
vertical, both of them yielded in joints
Cracking and crushing of concrete
concentrated in joints
Story shear-story drift relationships
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Specimen D01
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Specimen D03
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Specimen D02
58.6 kN
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Specimen D04
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
Specimen D05
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
Specimen D06
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
Specimen D07
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-120
-100
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Specimen D08
Calcualted story shear at flexural capacity of beam
Yielding of joint hoop
Yielding of longitudinal bar in beam (at diagonal crack)
Yielding of longitudinal bar in beam (at column face)
Yielding of longitudinal bar in column (at diagonal crack)
Yielding of longitudinal bar in column (at beam face)
Maximum story shear
Legend :
S
t
o
r
y

s
h
e
a
r

,

k
N
S
t
o
r
y

s
h
e
a
r

,

k
N
S
t
o
r
y

s
h
e
a
r

,

k
N
Story drift ratio , % Story drift ratio , %
Story drift ratio , %
(b) Series D
Series D
Longitudianal bar horizontal and
vertical, both of them yielded in joints
Cracking and crushing of concrete
concentrated in joints
Maximum story shear observed were
smaller than exural capacity of beam
or column in more specimens
Story shear-story drift relationships
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Specimen D01
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Specimen D03
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Specimen D02
58.6 kN
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Specimen D04
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
Specimen D05
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
Specimen D06
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
Specimen D07
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-120
-100
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Specimen D08
Calcualted story shear at flexural capacity of beam
Yielding of joint hoop
Yielding of longitudinal bar in beam (at diagonal crack)
Yielding of longitudinal bar in beam (at column face)
Yielding of longitudinal bar in column (at diagonal crack)
Yielding of longitudinal bar in column (at beam face)
Maximum story shear
Legend :
S
t
o
r
y

s
h
e
a
r

,

k
N
S
t
o
r
y

s
h
e
a
r

,

k
N
S
t
o
r
y

s
h
e
a
r

,

k
N
Story drift ratio , % Story drift ratio , %
Story drift ratio , %
(b) Series D
Series D
Longitudianal bar horizontal and
vertical, both of them yielded in joints
Cracking and crushing of concrete
concentrated in joints
Maximum story shear observed were
smaller than exural capacity of beam
or column in more specimens
Hysteresis behavior showed slip shape
commonly for all specimens
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
D01 D02 D03 D04 D05 D06 D07 D08 D09 D10 D11 E01 E02 E03
M
a
x
i
m
u
m

a
t
t
a
i
n
e
d

s
t
o
r
y

s
h
e
a
r

k
N
Specimen (D-series and E-series)
Test+
Test-
Calculated (F)Flexural capacity of beam or column section
Calculated (S)Joint shear capacity : AIJ Guidelines)
Series D
Tests
Evaluation of Current Design Equations
High Strength
Concrete
Specimens
Joint shear capacity
Flexural Strength
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
D01 D02 D03 D04 D05 D06 D07 D08 D09 D10 D11 E01 E02 E03
M
a
x
i
m
u
m

a
t
t
a
i
n
e
d

s
t
o
r
y

s
h
e
a
r

k
N
Specimen (D-series and E-series)
Test+
Test-
Calculated (F)Flexural capacity of beam or column section
Calculated (S)Joint shear capacity : AIJ Guidelines)
Series D
Tests
Evaluation of Current Design Equations
High Strength
Concrete
Specimens
Joint shear capacity
Flexural Strength
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
D01 D02 D03 D04 D05 D06 D07 D08 D09 D10 D11 E01 E02 E03
M
a
x
i
m
u
m

a
t
t
a
i
n
e
d

s
t
o
r
y

s
h
e
a
r

k
N
Specimen (D-series and E-series)
Test+
Test-
Calculated (F)Flexural capacity of beam or column section
Calculated (S)Joint shear capacity : AIJ Guidelines)
Series D
Tests
Evaluation of Current Design Equations
1.0 1.4 2.2 0.7 1.0 1.3 1.7 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.4
1.0 1.0 1.0 M
uc
M
ub
High Strength
Concrete
Specimens
Joint shear capacity
Flexural Strength
Mechanical Reinforcement Ratio and Strength
0.30
0.25
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.05
0.00
0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0
B01
B02
B03
0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0
0.00
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
D01
D05
D08
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d

m
a
x
i
m
u
m

m
o
m
e
n
t
*
1
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d

m
a
x
i
m
u
m

m
o
m
e
n
t
a
t
f
y
b
b
D
b
f
c
Mechanical reinforcement ratio
a
t
f
y
b
b
D
b
f
c
Mechanical reinforcement ratio
M
j
b
b
D
b
2
f
c
M
j
b
b
D
b
2
f
c
Series B
Series D
Calculated (S)
C
a
l
c
u
l
a
t
e
d

(
F
)
C
a
l
c
u
l
a
t
e
d

(
F
)
Calculated (S)
M
uc
M
ub = 1.0
Nominal joint shear strength
Flexural strength of section
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.05
0.00
2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5
B01
B04
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.05
0.00
2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5
B02
B05
B06
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.10
0.00
2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5
D07
D06
D05
D04
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.10
0.00
2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5
D01
D02
D03

Flexural strength ratio
Flexural Strength ratio
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d


m
o
m
e
n
t
*
3
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d


m
o
m
e
n
t
M
uc
M
ub M
uc
M
ub
Flexural strength ratio
Flexural strength ratio M
uc
M
ub
M
uc
M
ub
M
uc
M
ub
M
ub
M
uc
M
uc
M
uc
M
ub
M
ub
*
1
*
2
*
1
*
2
Series B Series B
Series D
Series D
M
j
bD
2
f
c
M
j
bD
2
f
c
Flexural Strengths Ratio
(Beam vs. Column)
Calculated (S)
Calculated (F)
beam
Calculated (S)
C
a
l
c
u
l
a
t
e
d

(
F
)
c
o
l
u
m
n
C
a
l
c
u
l
a
t
e
d

(
F
)
c
o
l
u
m
n
Calculated (F)
beam
Summary of Test Results
Summary of Test Results

Maximum story shear of some specimens are smaller 5% to


30% than the story shear calculated by the exural strength
of the beam or the column
Summary of Test Results

Maximum story shear of some specimens are smaller 5% to


30% than the story shear calculated by the exural strength
of the beam or the column

Those joints are conformed to current seismic provision, i.e.


they have safety margin of the nominal joint shear strength
by 0% to 50%.
Summary of Test Results

Maximum story shear of some specimens are smaller 5% to


30% than the story shear calculated by the exural strength
of the beam or the column

Those joints are conformed to current seismic provision, i.e.


they have safety margin of the nominal joint shear strength
by 0% to 50%.

The extent of insufciency in the story shear is larger


a. if the exural strength of the column is equal or nearer
to the exural strength of the beam, and
b. if the depth of the column is larger than that of the
beam.
Modeling of yielding of longitudinal
bars in a beam-column joint
To understand the reason why the exural theory overestimates strengths
Modeling of yielding of longitudinal
bars in a beam-column joint
loading start
corner cracking
story shear
story drift
corner cracking
corner cracking
diagonal cracking
story shear
story drift
diagonal cracking
crack opening
story shear
story drift
crack opening
load reversals
before
yielding
story shear
story drift
crack closing
crack opening
story shear
story drift
yielding
story shear
story drift
yield
yield
unloading
story shear
story drift
load reversals
after
yielding
story shear
story drift
crack remain due to residual stain after tensile yielding
residual crack remain
yielding
yield
yield
unloading
story shear
story drift
load reversals
after
yielding
story shear
story drift
story drift
story shear
slip
crack contact
crack contact
crack contact
ultimate
story drift
story shear
yield
yield
j
T
C
T
C
j
Denition of Ultimate Moment Capacity of Joint
yield
yield
yield
T
y
T
y
C
C
gD D
j
1
j
1
B
D
O
T
y
T
y
B
D
O
F
C = T
y
M
ju
M
ju
j
1
=
1
2
D g ~
T
y
bD
3
' f
c
|

|
|

|
T
y
T
y
gD D
j
j
2
j
2
j
1
1
B
D
O
B
D
O
F
M
ju
M
ju
oT
y
T
y
T
y
oT
y
oT
y
oT
y
C
1
C
1
C
2
C
2
C
1
= T
y
C
2
= oT
y
j
2
=
1
2
D (1~ g) ~
C
2
bD
3
' f
c
|

|
|

|
j
1
=
1
2
D g ~
C
1
bD
3
' f
c
|

|
|

|
M
ju
= 2 j
1
T
y
= 2 j
1
C
M
ju
= 2 j
1
T
y
+ j
2
oT
y
( )
= 2 j
1
C
1
+ j
2
C
2
( )
Proposed Equations for Ultimate Moment Capacity of Joint
(by Shiohara et al. : Nine Parameter Model)
Test (+)
Test (-)
CalculatedUltimate moment capacity of joint
CalculatedMoment at balanced failure of joint
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
B01 B04 B07 B08 B02 B05 B06 B03 B09 B10
M
a
x
i
m
u
m

a
t
t
a
i
n
e
d

n
o
t
a
l

m
o
m
e
n
t


k
N
Specimens
Prediction of Maximum Story Shear
(by New Model)
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
B01 B04 B07 B08 B02 B05 B06 B03 B09 B10
M
a
x
i
m
u
m

a
t
t
a
i
n
e
d

s
t
o
r
y

s
h
e
a
r

k
N
Specimen
Test+
Test-
CalculatedFlexural capacity of beam or column section
CalculatedNominal joint shear capacity : AIJ Guidelines)
Current New Model
exural strenth
moment capacity of joint
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
D01D02D03D04D05D06D07D08D09D10D11 E01 E02 E03
M
a
x
i
m
u
m

a
t
t
a
i
n
e
d

n
o
t
a
l

m
o
m
e
n
t


k
N
m
Specimen
Test (+)
Test (-)
CalculatedUltimate moment capacity of joint
CalculatedMoment at balanced failure of joint
Prediction of Maximum Story Shear
(by New Model)
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
D01D02D03D04D05D06D07D08D09D10D11E01E02E03
M
a
x
i
m
u
m

a
t
t
a
i
n
e
d

s
t
o
r
y

s
h
e
a
r

k
N
Specimen (D-series and E-series)
Test+
Test-
CalculatedFlexural capacity of beam or column section
CalculatedJoint shear capacity : AIJ Guidelines)
Current New Model
exural strenth
moment capacity of joint
Conclusions

Current seismic provisions for RC beam-


column joints are decient and can not secure
the lateral strength of moment resisting frames
predicted by the exural theory of RC sections.

The design parameters considered is not a rare


feature but is rather seen frequently in existing
reinforced concrete buildings.

Hence a large number of existing RC moment


resisting frame structures may be more
vulnerable than we expected.
Recommendation

Serious consideration on the impacts of


this test dataset on huge stock of RC
building in the world should be addressed
by structural engineers, researchers and
code writers.
Lets challange !
Bin Li (2009). Experimental and numerical Investigations on the Seismic Behavior of Lightly Reinforced Concrete
Beam-column Joint. Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Sept. 2009.
Bin Li (2009). Experimental and numerical Investigations on the Seismic Behavior of Lightly Reinforced Concrete
Beam-column Joint. Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Sept. 2009.
Acknowledgment

The authors acknowledge the supports by the Grant-in-aid for researches


on the building codes improvement by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure,
Transport and Tourism, Japan, awarded to a research proposal entitled
Research on design parameters of RC reinforced concrete beam-column
joint necessary for ductile behavior of building structures (PI: Hitoshi
Shiohara), FY2008.
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
-0.03 -0.02 -0.01 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03
s
t
o
r
y

s
h
e
a
r

k
N
story drift ratio
240 580
7
0
0
7
0
0
2
4
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
700 700 0 0 1 0 0 1
100
4-D13(SD345)
4-D13(SD345)
2sets -D6(SD295)
p
w
=0.32%
-D6@50(SD295)
240
2
4
0
3
6




1
6
8




3
6 4-D13 SD345
pt=1.04%
4-D13 SD345
pt=1.04%
joint hoops
beams
&
columns
column hoops & stirrps
unit in mm
north beam south beam
Yielding of longitudinal bars in beams and columns
Observed Crack at 3% Story Drift
Observed Crack at 3% Story Drift
A B
C
D
Story drift = 3%
Observed Crack at 3% Story Drift
A B
C
D
Story drift = 3%
A
B
C
D
Story drift = - 3%
loading
loading
corner cracking
story shear
story drift
corner cracking
story shear
story drift
diagonal cracking
story shear
story drift
diagonal cracking
story shear
story drift
load reversals
load reversals
crack opening
story shear
story drift
crack opening
story shear
story drift
yielding
story shear
story drift
yielding
story shear
story drift
ultimate
story shear
story drift
ultimate
story shear
story drift