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~phytosfiero! or phytosterots or phyfiostanol or phyfiostanols or ' plant sterol" or "plant sterols" or "plant stanol" or "plant stanols" or11 "Dlan sterols and stanols" or P ant stanols and sterols" or ( ( sfearol esters" or "stnnot esters") and plant)) and ("cholesterol lowering" or "cholesterol-lowering" or "reduce cholesterol" or "lower cholesterol" or "a reduction in cholesterol")
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Abunnweis SS, VanstUne CA . Ebine N, KasSis A, rlusman LM, Jones PJ . LtGhLP.F31"1P,EII A I r_

Intake of a single morning dose of standard and novel plant sterol preparations for 4 weeks does not dramatically affect plasma lipid concentrations in humans .
J Nutr . 2006 Apr,136(4) :1012-6. PM[i7: 16549466 [PubMed - in process] 0? : Lea_t.J . Ilcpburn PA,.,

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Safety evaluation of phytosteral-esters . Part 9: Results of a European postlaunch monitoring programme .
Food Chem 7'oxicvl . 2006 Mar 14 ; [Epub ahead of print] PM :(D: 16542769 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
F 3 : Mc~nrisi KG, C)c~stl3uir.en \~~,_Upperrna~~ .AM_,

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PhytosterolslStanols lower cholesterol concentrations in familial hypercholesterolemic subjects: a systematic review with meta-analysis . J Am Coll Nutr. 2006 Feb;25(1):41-$.
PMiD: 16522931 [PubMcd - in process] Naumann C;, .van Ft.e .e.t AI3, .t)nnin9G:, C?:,tc;_R, V~'~clra._J~,M .e_nsi.n;k Related Articles, Links RI' .

{beta}-Glucan incorporated into a fruit drink effectively lowers serum LDL-cholesterol concentrations .
Am J Clin Nutr . 2006 Mar,R3(3):E0l-5 . PMID : 16522906 [PubMed - in process]

Jenkins I)1 ; Kericiait C'W, Faulkner L)A, Nguyen T, 1Cenip T, Related Articles . Links MarctE ;ti_A ,.Wong .tVt, cic, S~«qra R_F:matn .,A_ .V i;ci~eij F, Trautwein
E;A, Lap,sIcy ;Ki; . 1I«lme~ C~ Jossr RG LeiterL~~Cvne_Ily__}?W, Singer W .

Assessment of the longer-tenn effects of a. dietary portfolio of cholesterollowering foods in hyperchotesterolemia. 0
Am :t C'lin Nutr . 200( Mar;83(3) :542-91, PMID : 165229(34 [PubMed - in process)

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Related Articles, Links F ( : Oswald S,_ Haenisch . S, Fricke C, Sudhop T, Remmler C, Giessmann T, Jedlitschky G, Adam U, Dazert E, Warzok R, Wacke W, Cascorbi 1, Kroemer HK, Weitschies W, von Bergmann K, Sieg mund_W_

Intestinal expression of P-glycoprotein (ABCB 1), multidrug resistance associated protein 2 (ABCC2), and uridine diphosphateglucuronosyltransferase 1 A 1 predicts the disposition and modulates the effects of the cholesterol absorption inhibitor ezerimibe in humans .
Clin Pharmacol Ther . 2006 Mar;79(3):206-17_ Epub 2006 Feb 7 . PMID : 16513445 [PubMed - in process]

E_ 7 ; Calpe-Berdiel L Escola-Gil JC Blanco-Vaca F.

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Phytosterol-mediated inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption is independent of ATP-binding cassette transporter Al .
Br J Nutr. 2006 Mar;95(3) :618-22. PMID : 16512948 [PubMed - in process]

EI-$ ; Yatskar L. Fisher EA, Schwartzbard A.

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Ezetimibe: rationale and role in the management of hypercholesterolemia . Clin Cardiol. 2006 Feb;29(2) :52-5. PMID : 16506638 [PubMed - in process] ~9; Hedman MMiettinen TA, Gvllin_gH KetomakiA Antikainen M. Related Articles, Links Serum noncholesterol sterols in children with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia undergoing pravastatin therapy.
J Pediatr . 2006 Feb-, 148(2):241-6 . PMID : 16492436 [PubMed - in process]

0

E. 10 : Ellegard L, Anderson S, Normen L, Anderson H. 9J

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[Plant sterols in common food-stuffs reduce serum cholesterol]

Lakartidningen . 2006 Jan 11-17 ;103(1-2) :28-30, 33 . Review_ Swedish. No abstract available. PMID : 16465842 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Related Articles, Links

E 11' Saito S, Takeshita M, Tomonobu K, Kudo N, Shiiba D, Hase T, ~ Tokimitsu 1, Yasukawa T .

Dose-dependent cholesterol-lowering effect of a mayonnaise-type product with a main component of diacylglycerol-containing plant sterol esters . Nutrition. 2006 Feb;22(2) :174-8 .
PMID : 16459230 [PubMed - in process]

~ 12 . Goldberg AC, Ostlund RE Jr, Bateman JH, Schimmoeller L, ~ McPherson TB Spilbur CA.

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Effect of plant stanol tablets on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering in patients on statin drugs.
Am J Cardiol . 2006 Feb 1 ;97(3)376-9 . PM1D : 16442399 [PubMed - in process] FJ 13' Moghadasian MH,

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Dietary phytosterols reduce cyclosporine-induced hypercholesterolemia in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice .
Transplantation . 2006 Jan 27 ;81(2) :207-13 . PMID : 16436964 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] ~;14 : Ebine N-Demonty_l Jia X, Jones _PJ.

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Plant stanol ascorbate esters reduce body weight gain through decreased energy absorption in hamsters.
Int J Obes (Lond) . 2006 Jan 24 ; [Epub ahead of print] PMID : 16432551 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

~ 15 : Marinangeli CP, Varady KA, Jones PJ_

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Plant sterols combined with exercise for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia : overview of independent and synergistic mechanisms of action .
J Nutr Biochem . 2006 Apr;17(4) :217-24. Epub 2005 Oct 10. PMID : 16410048 [PubMed - in process]

J ~ 16' Korpela R Tuomileht o Ho stg rom V_ e~~o L . Piironen V ~ Salo-Vaananen P,_Toivo J,_Lamberg-Allardt C, Karkkainen_M,

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Outila T, Sundvall J, Vilkkila S, Tikkanen MJ .

Safety aspects and cholesterol-lowering efficacy of low fat dairy products containing plant sterols.
Eur J Clin Nutr . 2006 Jan 11 ; [Epub ahead of print] PMID : 16404415 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

F 17 : Looije NA, Risovic V, Stewart DJ, Debeyer D, Kutney J, Wasan KM .

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Ift

Disodium Ascorbyl Phytostanyl Phosphates (FM-VP4) reduces plasma cholesterol concentration, body weight and abdominal fat gain within a dietary-induced obese mouse model .
J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2005 Aug 24 ;8(3):400-8 . PM1D : 16401390 [PubMed - in process]

'

F 1$ ; Moghadasian MH .

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~

Dietary phytosterols reduce probucol-induced atherogenesis in apo E-KO mice.
Atherosclerosis . 2005 Nov 30; [Epub ahead of print] PMID : 16325824 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

F_, 19 : Gylling H, Miettinen TA .

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Cholesterol absorption : influence of body weight and the role of plant sterols.
Curr Atheroscler Rep . 2005 Nov ;7(6) :466-71 . PMID : 16256005 [PubMed - in process]

~ 20 : Doornbos AM, Meynen EM, Duchateau GS, van der Knaap HC, Trautwein EA_

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Intake occasion affects the serum cholesterol lowering of a plant sterolenriched single-dose yoghurt drink in mildly hypercholesterolaemic subjects.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006 Mar ;60(3) :325-33 . PMID : 16234829 [PubMed - in process] E21 : [No-authors listed]

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If partially hydrogenated fats contain trans fat--a bad fat--how can the cholesterol-lowering spreads Benecol and Take Control both contain partially hydrogenated soybean oil and still be good for you? I'm confused .
0
Mayo Clin Health Lett. 2005 Aug ;23(8) :8 . No abstract available. PMID: 16231405 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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~ 22 : Skeaff C .M, Thoma C, Mann J, Chisholm A, Williams S, Richmond K .

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Isocaloric substitution of plant sterol-enriched fat spread for carbohydrate-rich foods in a low-fat, fibre-rich diet decreases plasma lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol and increases high-density lipoprotein concentrations .
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2005 Oct; 15(5):337-44. Epub 2005 Jul 28 . PMID : 16216719 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
~' 23 : Telford DE, Lipson SM, Barrett PH, Sutherland BG, Edwards JY, Aebi JD, Dehmlow H, Morand OH, Huff MW .

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A novel inhibitor of oxidosqualene :lanosterol cyclase inhibits very lowdensity lipoprotein apolipoprotein B 100 (apoB 100) production and enhances low-density lipoprotein apoB 100 catabolism through marked reduction in hepatic cholesterol content .
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Bioi . 2005 Dec;25(12)2608-14. Epub 2005 Oct 6. PMID : 16210564 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE)
~ 24 : Conchilio_A, Cercaci L, Ansorena_D, Rodriguez-Estrada MT, Lercker G, Astiasaran I .

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Levels of phytosterol oxides in enriched and nonenriched spreads: application of a thin-layer chromatography-gas chromatography methodology .
J Agric Food Chem_ 2005 Oct 5 ;53(20):7844-50 .
PMID: 16190640 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] ~ 25 ; Nashed B, Yeganeh B, HayGlass KT, Moghadasian MH, Related Articles, Links

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~

Antiatherogenic effects of dietary plant sterols are associated with inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production in Apo E-KO mice_
J Nutr . 2005 Oct135(10) :2438-44.
PMID : 16177209 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Related Articles, Links

F 2( ; Ryan E, Chopra 1, McCarthy F, Maguire AR, O'Brien NM_

Qualitative and quantitative comparison of the cytotoxic and apoptotic potential of phytosterol oxidation products with their corresponding cholesterol oxidation products.
Br J Nutr. 2005 Sep;94(3) :443-51 . PMID: 16176617 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

27 . Jakulj L, Trip MD, Sudhop T, von Bergmann K, Kastelein JJ, ~ Vissers MN .

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19

Inhibition of cholesterol absorption by the combination of dietary plant sterols and ezetimibe : effects on plasma lipid levels .
J Lipid Res . 2005 Dec ;46(12)2692-8 . Epub 2005 Sep 14 . PMID : 16162943 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

~" 28 : Carr TP, Weller CL, Schlegel VL, Cuppett SL, Guderian DM Jr, Johnson KR_

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Grain sorghum lipid extract reduces cholesterol absorption and plasma non-HDL cholesterol concentration in hamsters .
J Nutr_ 2005 Sep ;135(9) :2236-40 . PMID : 16140904 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] ~ 29 . Shin MJ, Lee JH, Jang Y, Lee-Kim YC, Park E, Kim KM, Chung Related Articles, Links ~ BCChung_N .

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~

Micellar phytosterols effectively reduce cholesterol absorption at low doses.
Ann Nutr Metab. 2005 Sep-Oct ;49(5)346-51 . Epub 2005 Aug 26 . PMID : 16127299 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

F-30 : Ho SS Pal S.

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Margarine phytosterols decrease the secretion of atherogenic lipoproteins from HepG2 liver and Caco2 intestinal cells.
Atherosclerosis . 2005 Sep ;182(l) :29-36 . Epub 2005 Feb 23 . PM1D : 16115472 (PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] A 1-31 : Matsuura F Hirano K . Koseki M Ohama T Matsqyama Tsuju K, Komuro R, Nishida M, Sakai N, Hiraoka H, Nakamura T,_Yamashita S .

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Familial massive tendon xanthomatosis with decreased high-density lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol efflux .
Metabolism . 2005 Aug;54(8) :1Q95-101 . PMID : 16092061 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] ~ 32 ; Varady KA, Jones Pi .

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Combination diet and exercise interventions for the treatment of dyslipidemia : an effective preliminary strategy to lower cholesterol levels?
.l Nutr . 2005 Aug-, 135(8):1829-35 . Review . PMID : 16046704 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

[7 33 : Thuluya SC, Igel M, Giesa U, Lutjohann D, Sudhop T, von Bergmann K .

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Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Ju1;43(7) :305-10. PMID : 16035372 [PubMed - in process]

Ratio of lathosterol to campesterol in serum predicts the cholesterollowering effect of sitostanol-supplemented margarine.

~ 34 : Paiva H, Thelen KM, Van Coster R, Smet J, De Paepe B, Mattila Related Articles, Links KM, Laakso J, Lehtimaki T von Bere mann K Luiohan_n D Laaksonen R.

High-dose statins and skeletal muscle metabolism in humans : a randomized, controlled trial.
Clin Pharmaco! Ther. 2005 Ju1;78(1) :60-8 . E'3$ ; Castro IA, Barroso_LP, Sinnecker P.
PMID : 16003294 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINEJ

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Functional foods for coronary heart disease risk reduction: a metaanalysis using a multivariate approach .
Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Ju1 ;82(1) :32-40. Review . PMID : 16002797 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLIN£]

~ 36 : Salo P, Wester I. Low-fat formulations of plant stanols and sterols.
Am J Cardiol . 2005 Jul 4 ;96(lA):S1D-54D . PM1D : 15992517 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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~3'J; Miettinen TA, Gylling H.

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Effect of statins on noncholesterol sterol levels : implications for use of plant stanols and sterols.

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Am J Cardiol . 2005 Jul 4 ;96(lA) :40D-46D. Review . PMID: 15992515 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

~; 3$ ; O'NeilJ FH, Sanders TA, Thomp.son GR . =

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Comparison of efficacy of plant stanol ester and sterol ester: short-term and longer-term studies. Am J Cardiol. 2005 Jul 4;96(lA) :29D-36D . PMID : 15992513 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Related Articles, Links

('_' 39 ; Cater NB, Garcia-Garcia AB, Vega GL, Grundy SM .

Responsiveness of plasma lipids and lipoproteins to plant stanol esters . Am J Cardiol. 2005 Jul 4;96(lA):23D-28D.
PMID : 15992512 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINEI

~40: Plat J, Mensink RP.

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Plant stanol and sterol esters in the control of blood cholesterol levels : mechanism and safety aspects.
Am J CardioL 2005 Jul 4 ;96(lA):ISD-22D . Review . PM1D : 15992511 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINEI

741 : von Bergmann K, Sudhop T, Lutjohann D. Cholesterol and plant sterol absorption : recent insights .
Am J Cardiol . 2005 Jul 4 ;96(lA) :IOD-14D . Review . PMID : 159925 10 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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[~42 ; Thompson GR, Grundy SM .

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History and development of plant sterol and stanol esters for cholesterollowering purposes. Am J Cardiol. 2005 Jul 4;96(lA)_3D-9D.
PMID : 15992509 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

~43: Gylling H, Miettinen TA .

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The effect of plant stanol- and sterol-enriched foods on lipid metabolism, serum lipids and coronary heart disease. Ann Clin Biochem. 2005 Ju1 ;42(Pt 4)254-63 . Review . PMID : 15989725 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINEI ~44 : McPherson TB, Ostlund RE, Goldberg AC, Bateman JH, Schimmoeller_L, Spilburg CA . Phytostanol tablets reduce human LDL-cholesterol . J Pharm Pharmacol. 2005 Ju1;57(7) :889-96.
PMID : 15969949 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINEI

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F_ 45 : Lau VW Journoud M, Jone s PJ,

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Plant sterols are efficacious in lowering plasma LDL and non-HDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic type 2 diabetic and nondiabetic persons. Am J CGn Nutc 2005 Jun;81(6) :1351-8.
PMID : 15941886 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] E: 46 " Calpe-Berdiel_L Escola-Gil JC,_Ribas V, Navarro-Sastre A . ~ Garces-Garces J, Blanco-Vaca F . Related Articles, Links

Changes in intestinal and liver global gene expression in response to a phytosterol-enriched diet.
Atherosclerosis_ 2005 Jul ; 181(l):75-85 . Epub 2005 Feb 12 .

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PMID : 15939057 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
1-47 . Simojoki M, Luoto R, Uutela A, Rita H, Boice JD Jr, ~ McLaug}ilin JK, Puska P . Related Articles, Links

=

Use of plant stanol ester margarine among persons with and without cardiovascular disease : early phases of the adoption of a functional food in Finland .
NutrJ. 2005 Jun 1 ;4(1):20. PMID : 15929790 [PubMed - in process]

(-` 4g : Jenkins DJ, Kendail CW, Marchie A, Faulkner DA, Josse AR, Wong JM de Souza R , Emam A, P arker TL Li TJ Josse RG Leiter LA, Singer W, Connelly PW .

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4-I

Direct comparison of dietary portfolio vs statin on C-reactive protein. Eur J Clin Nutc 2005 Ju1;59(7) :851-60.
PMID : 15900306 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Related Articles, Links

~ 49 : von Bonsdorff-Nikander A,_Christiansen L, Huikko_L, Lampi AM, Piironen V, Yliruusi J, Kaukonen AM .

A comparison of the effect of medium- vs. long-chain triglycerides on the in vitro solubilization of cholesterol and/or phytosterol into mixed micelles.
Lipids . 2005 Feb ;40(2) :181-90. PMID : 15884767 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

E 50 : Jones PJ, Raeini-Sarjaz M, Jenkins D), Kendall CW, Vidgen E, Trautwein EA, Lapsley KG, Marchie A, Cunnane SC, Connelly

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PW .

Effects of a diet high in plant sterols, vegetable proteins, and viscous fibers (dietary portfolio) on circulating sterol levels and red cell fragility in hypercholesterolemic subjects . Lipids . 2005 Feb;40(2) :169-74.
PMID : 15884765 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] E 51 : Kuhlmann K, Lindtner O, Bauch A, Ritter G, Woerner B, Niemann B . Related Articles, Links

Simulation of prospective phytosterol intake in Germany by novel functional foods.
Br J Nutr . 2005 Mar;93(3) :377-85. PMID: 15877878 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] ~$2; Femandez ML, VeQa-Lop ez S.

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Efficacy and safety of sitosterol in the management of blood cholesterol levels .
Cardiovasc Drug Rev . 2005 Spring ;23(1) :57-70. Review . PMID : 15867948 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Beer MF 53 " Hayes KCPronczuk A, Wiiendran V

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Free phytosterols facilitate excretion of endogenous cholesterol in gerbils . J Nutr Biochem. 2005 May; 16(5):305-11 .
PMID : 15866231 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] [7 54 : Martins JM Riottot M . de AbreuMC~_Vi_egas-Cres_P_0 AM_Lanca Related Articles, Links MJ, Almeida JA, Freire JB, Bento OP .

Cholesterol-lowering effects of dietary blue lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) in intact and ileorectal anastomosed pigs.

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J Lipid Res . 2005 Ju1 ;46(7) :1539-47 . Epub 2005 Apr 16 . PM1D: 15834122 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINEI ~ 55 " Miwa K, Inazu A, Kobaxashi _1, Higashikata T, Nohara A ~ Kawashiri M, Katsuda S,_Takata M, Koizumi J, Mabuchi H . Related Articles, Links

19

ATP-binding cassette transporter G8 M429V polymorphism as a novel genetic marker of higher cholesterol absorption in hypercholesterolaemic Japanese subjects .
Clin Sci (Lond) . 2005 Aug;109(2):183-8 . PMtD : 15816807 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINEI

~ 56 : Normen L, Holmes D, Frohlich J. Cuff Opin Investig Drugs . 2005 Mar ;6(3) :307-16 . Review . PMID: 15816508 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Plant sterols and their role in combined use with statins for lipid lowering .

~: 57:

Yeganeh B, Moshtaghi-Kashanian GR, Dec(ercq V, Moghadasian MH .

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Combination of dietary phytosterols plus niacin or fenofibrate : effects on lipid profile and atherosclerosis in apo E-KO mice.
J Nutr Biochem. 2005 Apr;16(4) :222-8 .
PMID : 15808326 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] ~58 : Vogelvang TE, Mijatovic V, van der Mooren MJ, Pinsdorf U, von Bergmann K, Netelenbos JC, Lutjohann D . Related Articles, Links

Effect of raloxifene and hormone therapy on serum markers of brain and whole-body cholesterol metabolism in postmenopausal women.
Maturitas . 2005 Apr 11 ;50(4):312-20 . PMID : 15780532 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINEI

~ 59 : Chen JT, Wesley R, Shamburek RD, Pucino F, Csako G .

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Meta-analysis of natural therapies for hyperlipidemia : plant sterols and stanols versus policosanol .
Pharmacotherapy. 2005 Feb;25(2) :171-83. Review . PMID : 15767233 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINEI

~ 60 : Jenkins D1, Kendall CW, Marchie A, Faulkner DA, Wong JM, de Souza R Ema m A Parker TL Vidgen E Trautwein EA Lapsley KG, Josse RG, Leiter LA,_Singer W, Connelly_PW .

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Direct comparison of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods with a statin in hypercholesterolemic participants .
Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Feb;81(2) :380-7 .
PMID : 15699225 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] F 61 : Oyesna Z, Vachalkova A, Horvathova K . Related Articles, Links

Taraxasterol and beta-sitosterol : new naturally compounds with chemoprotective/chemopreventive effects .
Neoplasma . 2004 ;51(6):407-14 . Review . ~ (2 ; Moreau RA, Hicks KB .

PMID: 15640948 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINEI
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The in vitro hydrolysis of phytosterol conjugates in food matrices by mammalian digestive enzymes .
_ Lipids . 2004 Aug ;39(S) :769-76. PMID : 15638245 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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E 63 : Patch CS, Tapsell. LC, Williams PG.

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Plant steroUstanol prescription is an effective treatment strategy for managing hypercholesterolemia in outpatient clinical practice .
J Am Diet Assoc . 2005 Jan ; 105(l) :46-52 . PMID : 15635344 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

C 64 : Shin J, Kim YJ, Choi MS, Woo DH, Park T.

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Phytosterols and lecithin do not have an additive effect in lowering plasma and hepatic cholesterol levels in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats . Biofactors . 2004 ;22(1-4):173-5 .
PMID : 15630277 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

F1 65 : Apprich S, Ulberth F.

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Gas chromatographic properties of common cholesterol and phytosterol oxidation products .
J Chromatogr A . 2004 Nov 5 ;1055(I-2) :169-76 . PMID : 15560493 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

(T 6( ; Haidar, Soeatmadji DW_ The role of phytosterols as cholesterol lowering agents .

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Acta Med Indones . 2004 Jul-Sep ;36(3) :163-8 . Review . No abstract available . PMID : 15557687 [PubMed - indexed for MEDUNE]

~ (7 ; Murdoch D, Scott LJ .

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EzetimibelSimvastatin : a review of its use in the management of hypercholesterolemia.
Am J Cardiovasc Drugs . 2004 ;4(6) :405-22 . Review . PMID : 15554726 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

~ 6g . Roussi S, Winter A, Gosse F, Werner D, Zhang X, Marchioni E, ~ Geoffroy P, Miesch MRaul F .

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OiQL

Different apoptotic mechanisms are involved in the antiproliferative effects of 7beta-hydroxysitosterol and 7beta-hydroxycholesterol in human colon cancer cells .
Cell Death Differ . 2005 Feb; 12(2):128-35.
PMID : 15550935 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

~(9 ; Colg_an HAFloy d S Noone EJ Gibney_ MJ Roche HM .

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Increased intake of fruit and vegetables and a low-fat diet, with and without low-fat plant sterol-enriched spread consumption: effects on plasma lipoprotein and carotenoid metabolism .
J Hum Nutr Diet. 2004 Dec; 17(6) :561-9 ; quiz 571-4. PMID: 15546434 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

F 'J0; Varady KA Ebine N. Vanstone CA Parsons_ WE, Jones PJ . it

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Plant sterols and endurance training combine to favorably alter plasma lipid profiles in previously sedentary hypercholesterolemic adults after 8 wk. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Nov;80(5) :1159-66 .
PMID : 15531661 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLWE] Related Articles, Links

~71' Lamarche B, Desroches S, Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Marchie .A, Faulkner D, Vidgen E, Lapsley KG, Trautwein EA, Parker TL,

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Josse RG,_Leiter LA, Connelly PW.

Combined effects of a dietary portfolio of plant sterols, vegetable protein, viscous fibre and almonds on LDL particle size.
Br J Nutr. 2004 Oct;92(4) :657-63.
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Common sequence variations in ABCG8 are related to plant sterol metabolism in healthy volunteers .
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Final report of the amended safety assessment of PEG-5, -10, -16, -25, 30, and -40 soy sterol.
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Ezetimibe: new preparation. A cholesterol-lowering drug with no clinical advantage.
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Ezetimibe : a novel cholesterol-lowering agent that highlights novel physiologic pathways.
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A dietary portfolio : maximal reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with diet.
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Evidence of hypolipemiant and antioxidant properties of argan oil derived from the argan tree (Argania spinosa) .

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Disruption of cholesterol homeostasis by plant sterols.
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J Lipid Res . 2004 Dec ;45(12) :2252-9_ Epub 2004 Sep 1 . PMID : 15342687 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Stanol esters decrease plasma cholesterol independently of intestinal ABC sterol transporters and Niemann-Pick Cl-like 1 protein gene expression .

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Comparison of the effects of dietary plant sterol and stanol esters on lipid metabolism . Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2004 Jun; 14(3):133-42 . PMID : 15330272 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Related Articles, Links

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Membrane properties of plant sterols in phospholipid bilayers as determined by differential scanning calorimetry, resonance energy transfer and detergent-induced solubilization .
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Combination of phytosterols and omega-3 fatty acids: a potential strategy to promote cardiovascular health.
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Plant sterol ester-enriched milk and yoghurt effectively reduce serum cholesterol in modestly hypercholesterolemic subjects .
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Similar cholesterol-lowering properties of rice bran oil, with varied gamma-oryzanol, in mildly hypercholesterolemic men*.
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Effects on plasma lipids when plant sterol enriched fat spread or carbohydrate provide replacement energy for saturated fatty acids.
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Familial hypercholesterolemia in children . Curr Opin Lipidol_ 2004 Aug; 15(4):405-11 . Review . PMID : 15243213 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] ~ $'7; Clark LT .
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Optimizing lipid lowering in patients at risk .

Phytosterol oxidation products are absorbed in the intestinal lymphatics in rats but do not accelerate atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

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Effects of a medium chain triglyceride oil mixture and alpha-lipoic acid diet on body composition, antioxidant status, and plasma lipid levels in the Golden Syrian hamster.
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Both free and esterified plant sterols reduce cholesterol absorption and the bioavailability of beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol in normochotesterolemic humans .
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Long-term compliance and changes in plasma lipids, plant sterols and carotenoids in children and parents with FH consuming plant sterol esterenriched spread .
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Nonesterified phytosterols dissolved and recrystallized in oil reduce plasma cholesterol in gerbils and humans . J Nutr. 2004 Jun; 134(6) :1395-9. PMID : 15173402 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINEI Related Articles, Links

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Accurate and reproducible methods for analysis of sterol oxidation products in foods: an overview .
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Effect of free plant sterols in low-fat milk on serum lipid profile in hypercholesteroIemic subjects .
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Comparison of cholesterol-lowering efficacy and anti-atherogenic properties of hydrogenated versus non-hydrogenated (Phytrol) tall oilderived phytosterols in apo E-deficient mice.
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Safety evaluation of phytosterol esters . Part 8. Lack of genotoxicity and subchronic toxicity with phytosterol oxides . Food Chem Toxicol. 2004 May;42(5) :771-83. PMID : 15046823 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] L 103: Micelli S, Meleleo D, Picciarelli V, Gallucci E. = Related Articles, Links

Effect of sterols on beta-amyloid peptide (AbetaP 1-40) channel formation and their properties in planar lipid membranes. Biophys J. 2004 Apr;86(4)2231-7 . PMID : 15041662 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Related Articles, Links Unesterified plant sterols and stanols do not affect LDL electrophoretic characteristics in hypercholesterolemic subjects .
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Cholesterol-lowering effects of plant sterol esters differ in milk, yoghurt, bread and cereal .
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Ezetimibe effectively reduces plasma plant sterols in patients with sitosterolemia .
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[2H/H] Isotope ratio analyses of [21-15 ]cholesterol using hightemperature conversion elemental analyser isotope-ratio mass spectrometry : determination of cholesterol absorption in normocholesterolemic volunteers .
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Sterol autoxidation : from phytosterols to oxyphytosterols . Br J Nutr . 2004 Jan;91(1)3-4. No abstract available. PMID : 14748933 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Related Articles, Links

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Phytosterols : lack of cytotoxicity but interference with beta-carotene uptake in Caco-2 cells in culture. Food Addit Contam_ 2004 Jan;2I (1):42-51 .
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Effects of microcrystalline plant sterol suspension and a powdered plant sterol supplement on hypercholesterolemia in genetically obese Zucker rats.
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Effect of phytosterols and phytostanols on the solubilization of cholesterol by dietary mixed micelles : an in vitro study.
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Preparation and mass spectrometry of 14 pure and 180(2)-labeled oxidation products from the phytosterols beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol .
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Can cholesterol absorption be reduced by phytosterols and phytostanols via a cocrystallization mechanism?
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Selective sterol accumulation in ABCGS/ABCG8-deficient mice. J Lipid Res. 2004 Fe6;45(2) :301-7 . Epub 2003 Dec 1 . PMID : 14657202 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE)

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Comparison of the effects of sitostanol, sitostanol acetate, and sitostanol oleate on the inhibition of cholesterol absorption in normolipemic healthy male volunteers. A placebo controlled randomized cross-over study.
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Impact of margarine enriched with plant sterols on blood lipids, platelet function, and fibrinogen level in young men .
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Overview of pharmacologic therapy for the treatment of dyslipidemia . J Manag Care Pharm. 2003 Jan-Feb;9(1 Suppl) :9-12. Review . PMID : 14613353 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE) ~ 119: Yoshida Y, Niki E. Antioxidant effects of phytosterol and its components_ J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2003 Aug;49(4) :277-80_ PMID : 14598915 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE) ~ 120: Moreau RA, Powell MJ, Hicks KB . Related Articles, Links Related Articles, Links

Evaluation of a commercial enzyme-based serum cholesterol test kit for analysis of phytosterol and phytostanol products .
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[The impact of plant-sterol supplemented diet on the LDL and oxidizedLDL levels in young men]
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cholesterol and its implications for heart disease in the 21 st century . Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol . 2003 Sep ;l36(I ) :141-51 . Review . PMID : 14527636 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Effect of structure and form on the ability of plant sterols to inhibit cholesterol absorption in hamsters . Lipids . 2003 Ju1 ;38(7) :713-21 .
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Comparison of the cytotoxic effects of beta-sitosterol oxides and a cholesterol oxide, 7beta-hydroxycholesterol, in cultured mammalian cells.
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Plant sterols lower LDL cholesterol without improving endothelial function in prepubertal children with familial hypercholesterolaemia . J Inherit Metab Dis . 2003 ;26(4) :343-51. PMID : 12971422 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Regular use of margarine-containing stanoUsterol esters reduces total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and allows reduction of statin therapy after cardiac transplantation : preliminary observations.
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Analysis of plant sterol and stanol esters in cholesterol-lowering spreads and beverages using high-performance liquid chromatographyatmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectroscopy .

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Changes in serum concentrations of noncholesterol sterols and J Nutr . 2003 Sep;133(9):2741-7.

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Development of novel water-soluble phytostanol analogs: disodium ascorbyl phytostanyl phosphates (FM-VP4) : preclinical pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and toxicology. Cardiovasc Drug Rev. 2003 Fall ;21(3) :151-68. Review . PMID : 12931251 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] ~ 133 : de Jong A, Plat J, Mensink RP . Related Articles, Links

Metabolic effects of plant sterols and stanols (Review) . J Nutr Biochem. 2003 Jul; 14(7):362-9 . Review . PMID : 12915216 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Efficacy and safety of plant stanols and sterols in the management of blood cholesterol levels .
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Physical stability of a microcrystalline beta-sitosterol suspension in oil. Eur J Pharm Sci . 2003 Jul; 19(4):173-9 .
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Potential uses and benefits of phytosterols in diet : present situation and future directions . Clin Nutr. 2003 Aug;22(4) :343-SI . Review . PMID : 12880600 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Effects of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods vs lovastatin
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Cholesterol synthesis and absorption in coronary patients with lipid triad and isolated high LDL cholesterol in a 4S subgroup . Atherosclerosis . 2003 Jun; I68(2) :343-9.
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Consumption of an oil composed of medium chain triacyglycerols, phytosterols, and N-3 fatty acids improves cardiovascular risk profile in overweight women.
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Effects of trace components of dietary fat on cholesterol metabolism : phytosterols, oxysterols, and squalene. Nutr Rev. 2003 Apr;bl(4) :152-3 . No abstract available. PMID : 12795450 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Related Articles, Links ~ 145: Ostlund RE Jr, Racette SB, Stenson WF . IML Inhibition of cholesterol absorption by phytosterol-replete wheat germ ff_=7 compared with phytosterol-depleted wheat germ . Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Jun;77(6) :1385-9. PMID: 12791614 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] C 146: Cheng WF, Yuen YP, Chow CB, Au KM, Chan YW, Tam SC . Related Articles, Links ~.___I Sitosterolaemia and xanthomatosis in a child. Hong Kong Med J. 2003 Jun;9(3):206-9 .
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Endotoxin down-regulates ABCGS and ABCG8 in mouse liver and ABCA 1 and ABCG 1 in J774 murine macrophages : differential role of LXR .
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Consumption of a functional oil rich in phytosterols and medium-chain triglyceride oil improves plasma lipid profiles in men. J Nutr . 2003 Jun ;133(6):1815-20 .
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Whole grains protect against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease .
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Phytosterols in low- and nonfat beverages as part of a controlled diet fail to lower plasma lipid levels .
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Decrease in plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, cholesteryl ester transfer protein, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein by plant stanol ester-containing spread : a randomized, placebo-controlled trial .
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Effect of phytosterols on cholesterol metabolism and MAP kinase in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells .
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A dietary portfolio approach to cholesterol reduction : combined effects of plant sterols, vegetable proteins, and viscous fibers in hypercholesterolemia.
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Effects of gender, apolipoprotein E phenotype and cholesterol-lowering by plant stanol esters in children: the STRIP study. Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project .
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Phytosterols, phytostanols, and their conjugates in foods: structural diversity, quantitative analysis, and health-promoting uses.
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A single daily dose of soybean phytosterols in ground beef decreases serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in young, mildly hypercholesterolemic men.
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Effect of esterified 4-desmethylsterols and -stanols or 4,4'dimethylsterols on cholesterol and bile acid metabolism in hamsters . Br J Nutr. 2002 Mar;87(3) :227-37.

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A healthy diet rich in carotenoids is effective in maintaining normal blood carotenoid levels during the daily use of plant sterol-enriched spreads .
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A review of clinical trials in dietary interventions to decrease the incidence of coronary artery disease .
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An increase in dietary carotenoids when consuming plant sterols or stanols is effective in maintaining plasma carotenoid concentrations .
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Effect of a diet based on low-fat foods enriched with nonesterified plant sterols and mineral nutrients on serum cholesterol_
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[Use of margarine fortified with phytosterols as a therapeutic food] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd . 2000 May 13 ;144(20) :918-21 . Review . Dutch.
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Noncholesterol sterols and cholesterol lowering by long-term
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Modulation of plasma lipid levels and cholesterol kinetics by phytosterol versus phytostanol esters .
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Soy sterol esters and beta-sitostanol ester as inhibitors of cholesterol absorption in human small bowel .
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Cholesterol-lowering margarines.

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Diet, nutrition intake, and metabolism in populations at high and low risk for colon cancer. Dietary cholesterol, beta-sitosterol, and stigmasterol .
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Role of hydrophilic bile acids and of sterols on cholelithiasis in the hamster .
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A spectroscopic technique for evaluating sterol-aponin interactions and implications for management of Ptychodiscus brevis red tides. Microbios. 1984 ;41(163) :23-9.
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A facile synthesis of [3 alpha-3 H]beta -sitosterol .
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Some aspects of mechanism of inhibition of cholesterol absorption by beta-sitosterol .
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Effect of the purified unsaponifiable fraction of soybean on primary type II hyperlipoproteinemia . Artery . 1983 ;12(3) :199-211 . PMID : 6687319 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] F71411 : Mattson FH, Grundy SM, Crouse_JR.
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Optimizing the effect of plant sterols on cholesterol absorption in man. Am J Clin Nutr . 1982 Apr;35(4) :697-700 . PMID : 7072622 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Metabolism of sterols by anaerobic Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Lipids. 1981 Mar,16(3):195-8 . PMID : 7412521 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINEI 0 ~' 414 : Aringer L.
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Oxidation of 3-oxygenated delta 4 and delta 5 - C27 steroids by soybean lipoxygenase and rat liver microsomes .
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Effect of dietary oil, cholesterol, and soysterols on the lipid concentration and fatty acid composition of egg yolk, liver and serum of laying hens.
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ok HYLees RSMcCluskey MA GrundySM .

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Plant sterols as cholesterol-lowering agents : clinical trials in patients with hypercholesterolemia and studies of sterol balance. Atherosclerosis . 1977 Nov;28(3) :325-38.
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Effects of acute caloric restriction on cholesterol metabolism in man .
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Colestipol, clofibrate, and phytosterols in combined therapy of hyperlipidemia.
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Oxidation of cholesterol and cholesterol analogues by mitochondrial preparations of steroid-hormone-producing tissue_
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Side chain hydroxylation of cholesterol, campesterol and beta-sitosterol in rat liver mitochondria .
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Conversion of beta-sitosterol to steroid hormones by rat testes in vitro.
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[Substrate specifity of "cholesteroloxidase" for the enzymatic determination of cholesterol]
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Fat characteristics and stability of nondairy and dairy powdered creamers.
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ffm

Regulatory effects of dietary sterols and bile acids on rat intestinal HMG

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Reduction and esterification of cholesterol and sitosterol by homogenates of feces.
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