ICTs and Education Indicators

:
(Suggested core indicators based on meta-analysis of selected International School Surveys)

2006

by Communication Statistics Unit UUNESCO Institute for Statistics CP6128 Succursale Centreville Montreal H3C 3J7, Québec, Canada

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This paper was initially prepared as a discussion document at the second phase of the World Summit on the Information Society, held in Tunis, November 2005. It was part of UIS contribution to the ongoing International Partnership for Measuring the Information society. As one of the outcomes of this process, UIS has recently launched ICT and Education scoping exercise survey to determine the nature of data holdings on this area and to collect some basic data from countries, if any. The results of this survey will be made available in 2007. This paper discusses the information which is available from existing international school surveys with a view to identifying the most commonly used indicators on ICT use in formal education, which will provide the most comparable data to monitor the action plan proposed at the end of the second phase of the World Summit. Using existing surveys will maximise comparability and reliability of results while minimising the data collection burden on countries. The following indicators are proposed Suggested Basic Core of Indicators for ICTs in Education

Basic Core
ED-1 ED-2 ED-3 ED-4 ED-5 ED-6 ED-7 % of schools with electricity (by ISCED 1-3) % of schools with a radio set used for educational purposes (by ISCED level 0 to 4) % of schools with television set used for educational purposes (by ISCED level 0 to 4) Student to computer ratio (by ISCED level 0 to 4) % of schools with basic telecommunication infrastucture or telephone access (by ISCED 1-3) % of schools with an Internet connection (by ISCED 1-3) % of students who use the Internet at school (by ISCED level 0 to 4)

Extended Core
ED-8 ED-9 % of students enrolled by gender at the tertiary level in an ICT-related field (ISCED 5 to 6) % of ICT-qualified teachers in primary and secondary schools (of the total number of teachers) Note: All indicators should be collected by sex, grade, and age

In addition to the core indicators UNESCO is conscious that countries will want to measure the benefits of ICT programmes in schools. The paper identifies a set of common items in the international surveys which could be used to collect data on. • • The frequency and the nature of the use of ICTs in education. It is important that computer are fully embedded in the learning process in schools The role of ICTs in teacher training. It is important that teachers are thoroughly trained in the use of technology

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The adequacy of school resources for ICTs. Inadequate resources for technology will limit the benefits obtained.

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CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 2. CLASSIFYING ICT RELATED SURVEY ITEMS FROM SCHOOL SURVEYS 3. INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL SURVEYS: ANALYSIS OF ICT ITEMS 4. THE STATE OF ICT IN AFRICAN SCHOOLS: SOME RESULTS FROM SACMEQ DATA 5. COMMON INDICATORS FROM THE SCHOOL SURVEYS 6. UN REGIONAL COMMISSIONS: PROPOSALS OF INDICATORS TO MONITOR ICTs IN EDUCATION 7. UNESCO INSTITUTE FOR STATISTICS RECOMMENDATIONS 8. BIBILIOGRAPHY

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Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS). Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). and enhance the provision of education and health. b) The Partnership on Measuring Information and Communication Technologies for Development and the World Summit on the Information Society This paper was initially prepared as a discussion document at the second phase of the World Summit on the Information Society. ICTs are expected to improve efficiency and increase access to knowledge and expertise. enhance their overall economic performance. the ICT Task Force of st UIS Page 5 . In other words. The Partnership which was formally launched during the eleventh session of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD XI) in 2004. the United Nations Educational. the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). it assumes that ICTs will contribute to improvements in the provision of basic social services. It was part of UIS contribution to the ongoing International Partnership for Measuring the Information Society where UIS has played a key role in working on core indicators for measuring ICTs in Education. INTRODUCTION: a) ICTs and Information Society: The perception of ICTs as fundamental development tools of the 21 Century rests on several assumptions. held at Tunis. The use of ICTs in the context of information society hinges largely upon having a population that can use them. held at Geneva in December 2003. and empower populations who might have been left out of the development process. and Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA)). Following the first phase of the World Summit on the Information Society.1. help to disseminate valuable information on production and conservation. there are large pockets of population that are as yet untouched by the computers. Thus it would appear that an inclusive information society will strengthen democracy. That is. include the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). remove barriers to modernization. the Internet and other modern ICTs. which implies that all will need to acquire the skills needed to use them. they should be educated and computer-literate. However. improve the efficiency of governments. At the micro level. and strengthen their competitive capacities in the global market. increase social participation. At the macro level. Even in the contexts of some developing countries where there has been remarkable growth in the IT industry. this poses a great challenge in the context of developing countries. it assumes that the introduction and use of ICTs will improve the efficiency of developing countries' industrial infrastructure. November 2005. Economic Commission for Latin America and Caribbean (ECLAC). four regional commissions (Economic Commission for Africa (ECA). a number of key international stakeholders involved in the statistical measurement of information and communication technologies decided to create a global Partnership on Measuring Information and Communication Technologies for Development.

poor school meal programmes. (b) to enhance the capacities of national statistical offices in developing countries and build competence to develop statistical compilation programmes on the information society.int/dms_pub/itu-s/md/ 03/wsis/doc/S03-WSIS-DOC-0005!!PDF-E. can be facilitated by emerging technologies. identified two targets which are directly related to education. and (c) to develop a global database on ICT indicators and make it available on the Internet.pdf UIS Page 6 . The main barriers to achieving universal primary education are issues such as lack of proper transport facilities. as well as the old ICTs such as radio and television. colleges. National Statistical Offices in statistically advanced countries are invited to contribute to Partnership activities and provide expertise and advice to offices in developing countries as well as transfer knowledge in such areas as methodologies and survey programmes. but the introduction of ICTs can improve education provision. There is a growing need for cross-nationally comparable indicators in the area of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in education. The objectives of the Partnership are (a) to achieve a common set of core ICT indicators.itu. based on internationally agreed indicators. secondary schools and primary schools with ICTs to adapt all primary and secondary school curricula to meet the challenges of the Information Society. which will constitute the basis for a database on ICT statistics. which is one of the basic Millennium Development Goals. • • to connect universities. ICTs can be used in education to: • improve administrative efficiency • disseminate teaching and learning materials to teachers and students • improve the ICT skills of teachers and students • allow teachers and students access to sources of information from around the world • share ideas on education and learning • collaborate on joint projects • conduct lessons from a remote location 1 See: www. to be harmonized and agreed upon internationally.the United Nations System Chief Executives Board (CEB) and the World Bank. c) ICTs in Education Achievement of universal primary education. The usage and impact of ICTs needs to be carefully monitored to ensure that they are used effectively. lack of adequate teachers and gender sensitive education. The Plan of Action that was decided at the Geneva phase of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS)1 in 2003. taking into account national circumstances The development of indicators that monitor such targets can facilitate policy makers to design and monitor need-based programmes targeted at improving the economic and social development of the country.

each of which collect some limited information on ICTs within schools and provide a preliminary overview of the situation for many countries. where a country has high levels of ICT skills and expertise. While indicators of access to relatively newer forms of ICTs (personal computers. etc. UIS Page 7 . which can to some degree be found in sources listed in the bibliography. This report identifies indicators and model survey questions that countries might use to measure progress within the school. and if used in well designed surveys will in turn produce figures that may be compared with those in the original study (allowing for methodological differences and different years of administration). In addition countries have committed themselves to international goals such as Education for All. access to the “older” technologies such as transistor radios or analogue television cannot be ignored. Although many countries do not conduct dedicated national school surveys. Internet. there is a paucity of systematically collected data on the availability. within the locality. society will be better placed to combat social exclusion and the information divide. use and impact of ICT in education at the national level.) will be important. at national and above all at the international level. Achieving these aims requires consistent strategy of integrating ICTs into all sections of the education system. The report does not set out to analyze the results of these surveys. The access and use of technologies for education can be seen in various aspects of the education system and can be represented by the following diagram (Figure 1). There exist a number of internationally sponsored and periodically administered surveys. most national ministries of education or national statistical offices do collect some basic administrative data related to infrastructure and availability of ICTs within schools from which a core set of indicators can be built and analysed. However. When countries take part in international school assessments they can be assured that the items concerned come from reliable studies. With increased access to information. mobile telephony.To the extent that countries aim to achieve these goals they need to measure their progress. individuals are able to make more informed decisions. In many developing countries these technologies still play a vital role such as providing access to education in remote areas. access to certain forms of ICTs may increase the choices available to individuals. From the individual standpoint. successes and problems. as well as to identify opportunities for economic growth. Ultimately. This is the very essence of empowerment. the Millennium Development Goals and the WSIS Plan of Action which require international measures of progress. access.

Internet. Radio. Computers Enhancing the quality of education and student outcomes UIS Page 8 . TV New: ie.Figure 1: The Place of ICTs in the School System Access to ICTs School Policy ICT Training of Teachers Teacher usage in curriculum Student usage of ICTs OLD: ie.

Some surveys focus exclusively on monitoring the presence of ICTs in schools or classrooms.) • Parent/guardian survey In order to summarize the school surveys from the perspective of ICTs in education. others focus on other aspects of formal education. administrator. and survey questions for measuring ICTs in education which could be adopted by developing countries. As many of the school surveys are based on student samples. there are few items devoted to the presence or use of ICTs in education. Ten international school surveys have been used to: • summarize ICT related survey items. SITES-M2 1999-2002.2 In those surveys that only cover developing countries. principal.Survey of Primary Schools (WEI-SPS 2004) UNESCO Bangkok: Asia-Pacific Regional Survey (UAPRS 2004) Second Information Technology in Education Study (SITES-M1 1997-1999.2. Many of the school surveys vary in terms of the year of collection. etc. Although certain school survey instruments are identified as background questionnaires. CLASSIFYING ICT RELATED SURVEY ITEMS FROM SCHOOL SURVEYS: This paper examines the measurement of ICTs within schools. the classification is very much student-centred. The international school surveys used in this paper are: • • • • • • • • • • Latin American Laboratory for the Assessment of Quality in Education (LABORATORIO 1997) Monitoring Learning Achievement (MLA 1992-2003) Programme d’Analyse des Systèmes Educatifs des pays de la CONFEMEN (PASEC 19931998) Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS 2001) Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA 2003) Southern and East Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ 20002003) Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS 2003) World Education Indicators . 4 The UAPRS Ministry survey has not been included. target population and country coverage. The Second Information Technology in Education Study (SITES) and the UNESCO Asia Pacific Regional Survey (UAPRS) are the only international surveys that are specifically designed for the measurement of ICTs in Education. 5 Only in SITES-1 3 2 UIS Page 9 . a classification system was used to classify survey items that were directly related to ICTs. SITES-M3 2006) The school surveys3 examined contained one or more of the following types of background survey components4: • Student survey • Teacher survey • IT Coordinator survey5 • School survey (head of school. The PISA has an Information and Communication Technology survey component The actual student assessment instruments are not discussed in this paper. they will be uniformly characterized as surveys throughout this paper. • identify synergies at the international level with questions or items in these surveys and the recent propositions of core lists of indicators by the international partnership • propose a set of core indicators.

location of usage. teacher use of ICTs. Since many of these school surveys cover primary or secondary education.classification covers two student contexts. etc. the students. Whereas the former addresses aspects of the school environment such as infrastructure. the student’s school environment and the student’s external environment. Table 1: The Classification of ICT Related Items in International School Surveys Contextual Category School Environment Main Categories Infrastructure and Access Subcategories ▪ Electricity Access ▪ Radio Access ▪ Television Access ▪ Telephone Access ▪ Computer Access ▪ Internet Access ▪ Access to other ICTs (overhead projector. etc.) ▪ Student perceptions toward ICTs (behavioural) Teachers ▪ ICT usage in classroom or as part of the curriculum ▪ Teacher training in ICTs School Administration ▪ Financing or allocation of ICT resources ▪ Curriculum policy (ICTs) External Environment Household Environment ▪ Electricity Access ▪ Radio Access ▪ Television Access ▪ Telephone Access ▪ Computer Access ▪ Internet Access ▪ Access to other ICTs (overhead projector. facilitates the comparison of indicators across countries. etc. multimedia equipment. multimedia equipment.) UIS Page 10 . etc. direct test assessments. The categories are depicted in Table 1.) Outside School/Home Environment ▪ Electricity Access ▪ Radio Access ▪ Television Access ▪ Telephone Access ▪ Computer Access ▪ Internet Access ▪ Access to other ICTs (overhead projector. fax machine. which.) ▪ ICT usage (frequency of usage at school. fax machine. etc) ▪ Student ICT usage (frequency of usage. Each of these categories is examined from the perspective of access to ICTs and the use of ICTs by students and teachers. etc) ▪ Location of ICTs ▪ ICT Support (facilities.) Students ▪ ICT skills (self assement. etc. type of usage. the school administrators and. the various student populations should be taken into account. multimedia equipment. type/content of usage. in turn. type of usage. fax machine. the latter describes the home setting or a location other than home or school. etc) ▪ Student ICT usage (frequency of usage at home. ICT coordinators. The classification of survey items assists the comparison of items across school surveys. most importantly.

Paraguay. Table 2: LABORATORIO (1997) ICT Survey Items Contextual Category Main Categories School Environment Infrastructure & Access Subcategories Survey Items / Questions* The administration has the following equipment to its disposal: Telephone Access ▪ Telephone Other ICTs ▪ Fax Survey / Respondent School Survey Computer Access ▪ Computer ICT Support ▪ Computer room What didactic materials are available in the school ? Computer Access ▪ Computer Television Access ▪ Television Other ICTs ▪ Video ▪ Retroprojector ▪ Overhead projector What didactic materials are available or accessible for use Teacher Survey in your class ? Computer Access ▪ Computer Television Access ▪ Television Other ICTs ▪ Video ▪ Retroprojector ▪ Overhead projector Teachers ICT Usage If you are the main teacher of this language course. Costa Rica. answer the fllowing questions: (should refer to the last teaching class): What material did you use ? ▪ Computer Teacher Survey *Translated from Spanish to English by UIS 6 It is important to note that many questions asked in these surveys may be regarded as copyright items. and Venezuela. The study is coordinated by the UNESCO Regional Office of Education for 13 countries in the Latin America and the Caribbean region. UIS Page 11 . the Dominican Republic. Any agency wishing to follow closely one of the surveys described in this section would be well advised to contact the relevant test designer. parents or guardians. 2002).3. Chile. data was collected from students. regardless of its low preponderance for ICT related items. Brazil. LABORATORIO also has a parent/guardian survey. The first study was carried out in 1997. Colombia. Peru. Based on these target populations. teachers and school administrators through the background surveys. answer the fllowing questions: (should refer to the last teaching class): What material did you use ? ▪ Computer If you are the main teacher of this course of mathematics. Mexico. ICT ITEMS IN INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL SURVEYS6 a) The Latin American Laboratory for the Assessment of Quality in Education (LABORATORIO): LABORATORIO is an internationally comparative assessment of grade 3 and 4 primary education students in the area of Language and Mathematics (UNESCO. The 1997 target population consisted of all boys and girls enrolled in the third and fourth grades of primary schools in Argentina. LABORATORIO possesses some basic survey items related to the general presence of infrastructure and ICTs in schools that have grade 3 and 4 students in Table 2. Honduras. Cuba.

Besides the contextual information that was collected through the school surveys. The ICT related items from the MLA-2 survey contain information that describes access to ICTs both at the school environment level as well as the external environment (ie. Table 3: MLA-2 ICT Survey Items Contextual Category Main Categories School Environment Infrastructure & Access Subcategories Electricity Access Computer Access Survey Items / Questions* Do you have electricity produced by a generator or solar power in your classrooms? What is the number of computers used by students for academic activities? What is the number of computers reserved for 8th grade mathematics and science teachers for pedagogical activities? Is your establishment connected to the internet? If yes. the project measured life skills and basic competencies in literacy and numeracy in MLA-1. 2003). The first phase (MLA-1) targeted students at the grade 4 and 5 level of primary education whereas the second phase (MLA .Table 2 continued Contextual Category Main Categories External Environment Household Environment Subcategories ICT Usage Survey Items / Questions* Do you watch TV or videos when you are out of school ? ▪ Always ▪ Sometimes ▪ Hardly ever What is your son/daughter doing when he comes back from school ? ▪ He/She is watching TV ▪ He/She helps around the house ▪ He/She performs various tasks ▪ He/She plays alone or with a compnanion inside or outside the house Survey / Respondent Student Survey Parent Survey *Translated from Spanish to English by UIS b) Monitoring Learning Achievement (MLA): The joint UNESCO-UNICEF Monitoring Learning Achievement (MLA) project was made up of two phases of data collections between 1992 and 2003 in 72 countries (Chinapah. student surveys. Life skills and student competencies in mathematics and science were measured in MLA-2. is the connection used to achieve pedagogical objectives? Do you have the following amenities or appliances in the home you live in? Survey / Respondent School Survey Internet Access External Environment Household Environment Parent Survey Electricity Access ▪ Electric supply Telephone Access ▪ Telephone TV Access Other ICTs ▪ TV ▪ Video *Translated from French to English by UIS UIS Page 12 .2) targeted students in grade 8 of junior secondary. Most of the countries covered in MLA are from the developing world. as is the case in PISA and TIMSS. teacher surveys and the parent/guardian surveys. The MLA-2 school survey asked school administrators to make the distinction between the number of computers available to all students and the number of computers available for grade 8 mathematics and science students. household level) in Table 3. The MLA-2 items make for a more comprehensive depiction of ICT access.

Table 4: PASEC ICT Survey Items Contextual Category Main Categories School Environment Subcategories Survey Items / Questions* Survey / Respondent School Survey Does your school have? Infrastructure and Electricity Access Access ▪ Electricity in the classrooms ▪ Electricity in the offices School Financing / If you suddenly received alot of money for your school. Administration Resources what priority areas would you address first? ▪ Provide electrical access ▪ Purchase audio visual materials ▪ Purchase Information technology equipment If you suddenly received alot of money for your school. Although items related to ICT access are minimal in Table 4. what priority areas would you address first? ▪ Provide electrical access ▪ Purchase audio visual materials ▪ Purchase Information technology equipment Do you have the following at home? Household Electricity Access Environment ▪ electricity Television Access ▪ television Radio Acess Other ICTs ▪ radio ▪ video casette Teacher Survey External Environment Student Survey *Translated from French to English by UIS UIS Page 13 . 2005). the hypothetical questions related to expenditure preferences and resource allocation asked of both the main school administrator and of teachers provides a quantifiable sense of priorities across schools for the target population in this region. There are presently 17 countries involved in PASEC. The programme has consisted of four phases that includes data collection in primary schools with students in grade 2 and grade 5 for between 1993 and 1998.Table 3 continued Contextual Category Main Categories External Environment Household Environment Subcategories Survey Items / Questions* Do you have the following amenities or appliances in the home you live in? Electricity Access ▪ Electricity Telephone Access ▪ Telephone Radio Access TV Access Other ICTs ▪ Radio ▪ TV ▪ Video Survey / Respondent Student Survey Computer Access ▪ Computer *Translated from French to English by UIS c) Programme d’Analyse des Systèmes Educatifs des pays de la CONFEMEN (PASEC): The Programme d’Analyse des Systèmes Educatifs des pays de la CONFEMEN is the culmination of a partnership across countries in Francophone Africa that aims to identify models of efficient schooling and to develop sustainable mechanisms for the evaluation of educational systems (CONFEMEN.

Once or twice a month. a teacher survey. Never or almost never) When you have reading instruction and/or do reading activities with the students. The instruments used in the study consist of a school survey.g.CD-ROM)? (Every day or almost everyday. The surveys have several items that relate to the access and use of ICTs in both the school environment as well as the student’s external environment in Table 5. Of the 35 countries. Never or almost never) How often do you have students use computer technology Teacher Survey to find information? (Every day or almost evey day. Once or twice a week. Never or almost never) How often do you use the computer to write reports or stories? (Every day or almost everyday. CD-ROM)? (Every day or almost everyday. The second cycle of PIRLS will occur in 2006. Once or twice a week. Never or almost never) How often do you play games on the computer? (Every day or almost everyday. Once or twice a month. Once or twice a month. Once or twice a month. Never or almost never) How often do you use the computer to look up information (internet. Never or almost never) How often do you have students watch movies. Once or twice a week. Once or twice a week. 5 are transition countries while 7 are developing countries. Never or almost never) How often do you have students use instructional software to develop reading skills and strategies? (Every day or almost everyday. Once or twice a month. Once or twice a week. Once or twice a month. videos. Never or almost never) Teachers ICT Usage When you have reading instruction and/or do reading activities with the students. the parent/guardian survey provides useful socio-economic information for the analysis of student access to ICTs and student usage of ICTs. In addition. how often do you use computer software for reading instruction (e. Once or twice a week. Once or twice a week. Once or twice a month. a student survey and a parent/guardian survey that all measure aspects of educational achievement and learning. Once or twice a month. Once or twice a month. Table 5: PIRLS (2001) ICT Survey Items Contextual Category Main Categories School Environment Infrastructure & Access Subcategories Computer access Are computers available for use by your class? Survey Items / Questions Survey / Respondent Teacher Survey Are one or more computers available in your classroom? Are computers available elsewhere in the school? What is the total number of computers that can be used for instructional purposes by <fourth-grade> students? Internet access Do any of the computers have access to the internet (email or World Wide Web)? School Survey Teacher Survey Students ICT Usage How many of the computers (if more than 0) have access School Survey to the internet (e-mail or www) for instructional/educational purposes? How often do you use a computer at school? (Every day Student Survey or almost everyday. or television to obtain information? (Every day or almost everyday. how often do you use reading material on the Internet (Web pages)? (Every day or almost everyday. Once or twice a week.d) The Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS): PIRLS (2001) is an assessment of grade 4 primary school students conducted by the IEA in 35 countries (2005a). Once or twice a week. Never or almost never) UIS Page 14 .

Once or twice a month. Once or twice a month. UIS Page 15 . how often did you or someone else in your home do reading activities on the computer? Before your child began <ISCED Level 1>. Never or almost never) Student Survey Survey / Respondent Teacher Survey School Administration Financing / resources External Environment Household Environment Computer access Student Survey e) The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA): PISA is an internationally standardised assessment that was jointly developed by participating countries and administered to 15-year-olds in schools (OECD. how often did you or someone else in your home watch television programs that teach reading? Outside School ICT Usage How often do you use a computer at some other places? (Every day or almost everyday. Never or almost never) How often do you have students use the computer to write stories or other texts? (Every day or almost everyday. Once or twice a week. Once or twice a month. Of the 41 countries in the 2003 assessment. computer support staff. a school survey. Once or twice a week. Once or twice a week. Never or almost never) How much is your school's capacity to provide instruction School Survey affected by a shortage or inadequacy of the following (computers. Once or twice a week. Once or twice a month. Once or twice a month. Never or almost never) How often do you or someone else in your home play or Parent Survey work on the computer with your child? Before your child began <ISCED Level 1>. Once or twice a month. This includes a student survey. Never or almost never) How often do you use a computer at home? (Every day or almost everyday. and an information and communication technology survey and an educational career survey. Never or almost never) How often do you read subtitles on the television outside of school? (Every day or almost everyday. audio-visual resources)? Do you have a computer in your home? ICT Usage How often do you watch television or videos outside of school? (Every day or almost everyday. Once or twice a month.Table 5 continued Contextual Category Main Categories School Environment Teachers Subcategories ICT Usage Survey Items / Questions How often do you have students compare material presented in different media? (Every day or almost everyday. Once or twice a month. PISA (2003) has numerous survey items that relate to frequency of student ICT usage as well as self assessments (students) of ICT skills in Table 6. Once or twice a week. PISA assesses how far students near the end of compulsory education have acquired some of the knowledge and skills that are essential for full participation in information society. Above and beyond the survey items that relate to the access to ICTs. Once or twice a week. software. Once or twice a week. in 41 countries in the second assessment in 2003 and at least 58 countries will participate in the third assessment in 2006. Once or twice a week. The 2003 assessment consists of 4 background surveys and the student assessment instruments. 2005). Never or almost never) How often do you have students read stories or other texts on the computer? (Every day or almost everyday. The survey was implemented in 43 countries in the first assessment in 2000. Never or almost never) How often do you have students use the computer to communicate with or do projects with students in other schools or countries? (Every day or almost everyday. 10 are non-OECD countries.

A few times a week. Strongly disagree) ▪ It is very important to me to work with a computer ▪ I think playing or working with a computer is fun ▪ I use a computer because I am very interested in this ▪ I lose track of time when I am working with the computer Student ICT Survey UIS Page 16 . about how many computers are connected to a local area network (LAN. About once a month. Between once a week and Survey Once a month. Telephone Access two. about how many computers are connected to the internet /World Wide Web? In your school. Several times a month. do you have educational software? Student ICT Survey ICT Usage Outside School Computer Acess How often do you use a computer at home? Is there a computer for you to use at other places? ICT Usage School Environment / External Environment Students Behavioural How often do you use a computer at other places? To what extent do you agree with the following statements? (Strongly agree. Never) How long have you been using computers? (Less than one year. about how often do you use computers? (Never or hardly ever. One to three years. More than five years) Is there a computer for you to use at school? At your school. Agree.Table 6: PISA (2003) ICT Survey Items Contextual Category Main Categories School Environment Infrastructure & Access Subcategories Computer Access Survey Items / Questions In your school. Intranet)? Students ICT Usage How often do you use a computer at school? (Almost Student ICT everyday. A few times a year. three or more)? ▪ Cellular phone Television Acess ▪ Television Computer Access ▪ Computer Is there a computer for you to use at home? Software Aceess In your home. do you have a link to internet? Student Survey Survey / Respondent School Survey How many of these do you have at your home (None. about how many computers are available to 15-year-old students? In your school about how many computers are available only to teachers? In your school. Several times a week) School Administration Financing / Resources Is your school's capacity to provide instruction hindered by School Survey a shortage or inadequacy of computers for instruction? Is your school's capacity to provide instruction hindered by a shortage or inadequacy of computer software for instruction? Is your school's capacity to provide instruction hindered by a shortage or inadequacy of audio-visual resources for instruction? External Environment Household Environment Internet Access In your home. one. Three to five years. about how many computers are available only to administrative staff? In your school about how many computers are available altogether? Internet Access In your school. Disagree. Less than once a month.

<Lotus 1 2 3 ® or Microsoft Excel®>)? How often do you use the Internet to download software (including games)? How often do you use drawing. Others) ICT Usage Have you ever used a computer? How often do you use the Internet to look up information about people.g. Never) How often do you use games on a computer? How often do you use word processing (e. Between once a week and once a month. Several times a week) ? Subcategories Survey Items / Questions Survey / Respondent Student ICT Survey Student Survey UIS Page 17 .g. I taught myself. painting or graphics programs on a computer? How often do you use educational software such as Mathematics programs? How often do you use the computer to help you learn school material? How often do you use the Internet to down-load music? How often do you use the computer for programming? How often do you use a computer for electronic communication (e.g. A few times each week. e-mail or “chat rooms”)? How often do you read e-mails and web pages because you want to (Never or hardly ever.g. things. in <Logo. My friends. A few times a year. Several times a month. pictures. using <PowerPoint> ▪ Play computer games ▪ Download music from the Internet ▪ Create a multi-media presentation (with sound. <Word ® or WordPerfect®>)? How often do you use the Internet to collaborate with a group or team? How often do you use spreadsheets (e.g. I taught myself. Less than once a month. Basic> ▪ Use a spreadsheet to plot a graph ▪ Create a presentation (e. Pascal. About once a month. My friends. or ideas? (Almost every day. My family. My family. video) ▪ Draw pictures using a mouse ▪ Write and send e-mails ▪ Construct a web page Who taught you most about how to use computers? (My school. Others) Who taught you most about how to use the Internet? (My school.Table 6 continued: Contextual Category Main Categories School Environment / External Environment Students ICT skills How well can you do each of these tasks on a computer? ▪ Start a computer game ▪ Use software to find and get rid of computer viruses ▪ Open a file ▪ Create/edit a document ▪ Scroll a document up and down a screen ▪ Use a database to produce a list of addresses ▪ Copy a file from a floppy disk ▪ Save a computer document or file ▪ Print a computer document or file ▪ Delete a computer document or file ▪ Move files from one place to another on a computer ▪ Get on to the Internet ▪ Copy or download files from the Internet ▪ Attach a file to an e-mail message ▪ Create a computer program (e.

2005). it does not ask availability of internet connection at school. The SACMEQ II Project (2000-2003) was completed by fourteen Ministries of Education (Botswana. The major focus of the SACMEQ study is pupils’ (and teachers’) achievements in literacy and numeracy (SACMEQ. Namibia. Malawi. SACMEQ also provides data on the availability of various ICTs such as radio. The sample target population in the studies is comprised of pupils (students) at the grade 6 primary level . teacher and the school administrator. Table 7: SACMEQ II ICT Survey Items Contextual Category Main Categories School Environment Infrastructure & Access Electricity Access Telephone Access Radio Access Television Access Computer Access Other ICTs Subcategories Survey Items / Questions Which of the following does your school have? ▪ Electricity ▪ Telephone ▪ Radio ▪ TV set ▪ Computer ▪ Fax Machine ▪ Tape Recorder ▪ Overhead projector ▪ Film Projector External Environment Household Environment Electricity Access (Students) Telephone Access (Students) Radio Access (Students) Television Access (Students) Other ICTs (Students) ▪ Video casrtte recorder (VCR) Which of the following things can be found in the place where you stay during the school week? ▪ Electricity ▪ Telephone ▪ Radio ▪ TV set ▪ Casette player ▪ Video casette recorder (VCR) Which of the following do you have at home? Electricity Access (Teachers) Telephone Access (Teachers) Radio Access (Teachers) Television Access (Teachers) ▪ Electricity ▪ Telephone ▪ Radio ▪ TV set Teacher Survey Student Survey Survey / Respondent School Survey Other ICTs (Teachers) ▪ Casette player ▪ Video casette recorder (VCR) UIS Page 18 . Mauritius. VCR. The SACMEQ I Project (19951999) was completed by seven Ministries of Education (Kenya. Malawi. and Zimbabwe). United Republic of Tanzania (Mainland and Zanzibar). Uganda. Lesotho. Zambia. A section on the analysis of SACMEQ data is presented later in the paper which aims to illustrate the indicators that are produced from the ICT related items outlined in Table 7 (See section 4). and Zambia). The SACMEQ network has completed two major cross-national studies of the quality of education in Southern and Eastern Africa. Seychelles. Tanzania (Zanzibar). SACMEQ data are useful to understand the availability of basic infrastructure needed for introducing information technologies such as telephones and electricity. Mauritius. The SACMEQ background instruments include 3 surveys . cassette player and computer. Kenya. Swaziland. South Africa.student. Mozambique. However.f) The Southern and East Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ): The Southern and East Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ) is a network of fifteen Ministries of Education that monitor and evaluate the quality of educational systems on a cross national basis. television. Namibia.

Most. a teacher survey (general survey for grade 4 teachers and separate surveys for grade 8 mathematics and science teachers). At least once a week. None) Finance / Is your school’s capacity to provide instruction affected by Resources a shortage or inadequacy of any of the following? (Non. to what extent do the following limit how you teach the TIMSS class? (Not applicable. an instrument is adapted for both the grade 4 and grade 8 levels. In teaching mathematics/science to the TIMSS class.g) The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS): TIMSS (2003) is another study produced by IEA that measures student performance at the fourth and eighth grade levels of primary school in mathematics and science (IEA. A few Student Survey times a year. a little. TIMSS and PIRLS survey items that relate to students’ activities outside of the school context provide a comprehensive portrait of student access to ICTs and student use of ICTs. a lot) ▪ Shortage of computer hardware ▪ Shortage of computer software ▪ Shortage of support for using computers Curriculum Policy Does the national curriculum contain statements/policies about the use of computers in <grade 8> mathematics? ICT Usage School Survey Teacher Survey School Survey School Administration Teacher Survey Curriculum Survey* Students Teachers ICT Usage If YES. For each of the TIMSS contextual background surveys. both TIMSS and PIRLS possess several elements that examine ICT usage by teachers in the classroom as well as ICT related training of teachers in Table 8. Furthermore. Table 8: TIMSS ( 2003) ICT Survey Items Contextual Category Main Categories School Environment Infrastructure & Access Subcategories Survey Items / Questions Survey / Respondent Teacher Survey Computer Access Do the students in the TIMSS class have computers available to use during their mathematics/science lessons? What is the total number of computers in your school that can be used for educational purposes by <eighth-grade> students? Internet Access Do any of the computers have access to the Internet? How many of these computers have access to the Internet (e-mail or World Wide Web) for educational purposes? (All. They include a student survey. a little. what are the statements/policies? How often do you do these things with a computer (Every day. XBox®. some. once or twice a month. In contrast to other student assessments such as PISA. or other TV/video game computers). a school survey and a curriculum survey. Never) ? ▪ I look up ideas and information for mathematics ▪ I look up ideas and information for science ▪ I write reports for school ▪ I process and analyze data Do you ever use a computer? (Do not include PlayStation®. how often do you have students use a computer for the Teacher Survey following activities? ▪ Do scientific procedures or experiments ▪ Study natural phenomena through simulations ▪ Practice skills and procedures ▪ Look up ideas and information *This item is responded by the National Research Coordinator UIS Page 19 . Approximately 50 countries have participated in this study. some. GameCube®. 2005b). Some. a lot) ▪ Computers for mathematics instruction ▪ Computers for science instruction ▪ Computer software for science instruction ▪ Computer support staff In your view. not at all.

XBox®. how much time do you spend before or after school doing each of these things? (No time. and of all teachers within these schools that are responsible for a grade 4 class.Survey of Primary Schools (WEI-SPS): WEI-SPS is the outcome of collaboration between the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS). what kinds of learning conditions students and teachers face and what kind of support is available to them from within the education system. how often have your <eigthgrade> teachers been involved in professional development opportunities for mathematics and science targeted at the following (by frequency: never. the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). more than 10 times) ? ▪ Using information and communication technology for educational purposes In the past two years. 1 to 2 times. However. or other TV/video game computers) Student Survey at your home? ICT Usage On a normal school day. there are similarities with SACMEQ items concerning general accessibility to infrastructure in the school context. 6 to 10 times. In terms of the design of ICT related survey items in Table 9. The target population consists of all primary schools with students enrolled in grades 1 through 6. more than 2 but less than 4 hours) ▪ I watch television and videos ▪ I play computer games ▪ I use the Internet Where do you use a computer? ▪ At home ▪ At school (include under School Environment) ▪ At a library ▪ At a friend’s home ▪ At an Internet café ▪ Elsewhere External Environment Household Environment Outside School h) The World Education Indicators . The main objectives of WEI-SPS include examining how schools function. have you participated in professional development in for the Integration of Teacher Survey information technology into science? Computer Access Do you have a computer (do not include PlayStation®. 2005). UIS Page 20 . the governments of 13 participating countries and a panel of international education and methodology experts (UIS. 1-2 hours. The survey results will be published in global. GameCube®.Table 8 continued: Contextual Category Main Categories School Environment Teachers Subcategories Training Survey Items / Questions Survey / Respondent Is anyone available to help your teachers use information School Survey and communication technology for teaching and learning? Which of the following statements best describes the person at this school who helps teachers use information and communication technology for teaching and learning? ▪ A full-time school level coordinator (who has no other job responsibility) ▪ A library media specialist who also serves as computer coordinator ▪ A teacher who also has the title of this type of coordinator ▪ A teacher who provides leadership informally to other teachers ▪ A district-level coordinator ▪ The principal or another school administrator ▪ Other person During this school year. less than one hour. 3 to 5 times. how teachers teach. the WEISPS school survey distinguishes between the availability of computers with internet access. thematic and national reports in 2006.

Did any of the personnel classified as <classroom teachers> in <primary grades> School Survey participate in the following kinds of professional development activities? ▪ Course/workshops on Information and Communication Technology . slides. computers) Consider the last school year. In most lessons) ▪ I use teaching aids in my teaching (overhead projector. A problem. did you participate in any of the following kinds of professional development activities? Teacher Survey (Please circle one answer for each type of professional development. In some lessons. Not a serious problem.ICT Internet Access Other ICTs Training UIS Page 21 .ICT During the last school year. shortage or inadequacy of computers for instruction ▪ Lack of or inadequate computer software for instruction ▪ Insufficient audio-visual resources Teachers ICT Usage How often do you perform each of the following activities in your lessons? Please circle one answer for each Teacher Survey activity. In addition to the school survey. Table 9: WEI-SPS ICT-related Survey Items Contextual Category Main Categories School Environment Infrastructure & Access Electricity Access Subcategories Survey Items / Questions Survey / Respondent Which of the following resources does your school have? School Survey (Yes but not always in working order OR Yes and in working order) ▪ Electricity Telephone Access ▪ Telephone Radio Access Television Access Computer Access ▪ Radio ▪ TV set ▪ Computer for administrative use ▪ Computers for students to use without access to the Internet ▪ Computers for students to use with access to the Internet ▪ Audio-visual room ▪ Tape recorder ▪ Overhead projector ▪ Video Cassette Recorder (VCR) ▪ Fax machine ▪ Duplicator or Photocopier School Administration Financing / Resources In your school.computers without internet access and computers solely for administrative use. A serious problem) ▪ Lack. the teacher survey contains some items that give us a general sense of ICT usage by teachers and ICT training of teachers.) ▪ Course/workshops on Information and Communication Technology . are there shortages or inadequacies in any School Survey of the following domains? (Not at all a problem. (Never or almost never.

Unlike several of the other surveys reviewed in this paper. 2005). United Kingdom’s Advisory Unit: Computers in Education. the ICT skills of students and the training of teachers.i) UNESCO Asia-Pacific Regional Survey: The Asia-Pacific Regional Survey (UAPRS) is an initiative that aims to develop performance indicators on ICTs in education. The following levels of education are included in the UAPRS framework: • Primary • Lower secondary • Upper secondary • Post-secondary non-tertiary • First stage of tertiary j) The Second Information Technology in Education Study (SITES): Like the Asia Pacific Regional Survey. Although the UAPRS has only had a pilot phase. The project covers four surveys (student survey. the ICT related survey items are extremely exhaustive and cover such valuable areas as the quality of a school’s ICT infrastructure.iea. etc. The UAPRS serves as a model for other school surveys wishing to specialize in ICTs. The project was developed by UNESCO (Bangkok) in consultation with experts from the UNESCO Institute for Information Technology in Education based in Moscow. ministry survey) with several target populations.unescobkk. including school policies and the perceptions of principals concerning the role of ICTs. Australia’s NSW Department of Education and Training. SITES is a specialized survey that is very comprehensive in its treatment of ICTs in education.). India. The aim of the first module (SITES–M18) was to examine the relative position of countries in the educational use of ICTs. Philippines.php?id=1109 See: http://www. internet connectivity. teacher survey. The survey examined aspects of overall penetration of ICTs in schools (student to computer ratio.nl/sites-m1. Respondents to the surveys consisted of school administrators/principals and technology coordinators. 2005c).html 9 See: http://www. SITES-M39 represents one of the most advanced school surveys specializing in ICTs in education. Viet Nam and Uzbekistan (UNESCO.org/index. 2005d). Malaysia. Thailand. ESCAP’s Social Development Division and the World Bank’s World Links and e-readiness project. Republic of Korea. SITES comprised three modules. the UAPRS is a specialized survey in the area of ICTs in education7. The sample for this survey was drawn from computer-using or ICT-using schools (IEA.net/exponent/index. SITES-M2 took place during 1999-2002 and it was qualitative study of innovative pedagogical practices that use ICTs.php?section=1 UIS Page 22 . The survey tries to address the following research questions: • • What are the pedagogical practices adopted in schools and how is ICT used in them? What and how is ICT used in specific situations where ICT has been used relatively extensively within the pedagogical practice? 7 8 See survey items: http://www. Many case studies were collected across the several participating countries (IEA. Indonesia. The countries represented in the project include Australia.sites2006. school survey.

community and system factors that are associated with different pedagogical approaches and ICT use. 2005e). The SITES-M3 surveys include questions (survey items) that elicit the perception of respondents concerning appropriate pedagogical practices and the current role of ICT.• What are the teacher. UIS Page 23 . Data collection will commence in 2006 (IEA. and can an explanatory model be identified? The survey sample is based on a target population of schools with grade 8 students. school.

Malawi. In many economically developed countries. lack of transport act as a barrier to access schools especially by children attending primary school. Namibia. the executive director of SchoolNet Africa notes that “One of the biggest obstacles to bringing technology to schools in Africa is a lack of sufficient infrastructure. This is synonymous with students as seen previously in this paper. Whilst there are calls for a new kind of learning in which students deal with knowledge in an active and self directed way through use of computers and Internet. Radio and television are still more widespread in many developing countries compared to modern ICTs due to the mass communication potential of these older media. THE STATE OF ICT IN AFRICAN SCHOOLS: SOME RESULTS FROM SACMEQ DATA The objective of this section is to briefly describe the presence of ICTs in a school setting for several African countries with indicators that are produced from the SACMEQ data archive (SACMEQ. Seychelles. computers have been a compulsory component of the school curriculum since the late 1980s. Swaziland. 2004). the introduction of computers into primary and secondary education is a recent phenomenon. The countries from SACMEQ-II include Botswana. Furthermore. and Zambia. Lesotho (60%) and Zanzibar (55%) over half of the schools are located in rural areas. such as phone lines and electricity. In Africa. The figure shows that in many countries such as Uganda (77%). the limited scope of the data should be taken into account. Swaziland (65%). The data reveals the poor access to electricity and telephones in many SACMEQ countries in schools located in rural areas. a) ICTs in Southern and Eastern African Schools: what does the SACMEQ data reveal? In reading this section. the data only covers schools with grade 6 pupils10. it must be noted that that the older technologies such as radio and television play a significant role in education especially in many LDCs. On average. United Republic of Tanzania (Mainland and Zanzibar). Malawi (60%). the indicators in this section demonstrate no link to the nature of use of ICTs in a school setting.4. South Africa. it is useful to highlight the presence of ICTs in schools for these regions. SACMEQ also demonstrates that radio can be effective in rural and remote schools where there is no access to electricity or acute power shortages. Uganda. Figure 2 describes the breakdown of all schools by location attended by grade 6 pupils. Since there are very few international school surveys that exist for African countries. Mozambique. That is. Lesotho. The high subscription and ICT infrastructure costs coupled with the poor quality of service by service providers and the lack of basic infrastructure such as electricity can act as barriers to the use of ICT in education in many African countries. 11 10 UIS Page 24 . Tanzania (68%). The location of a school can be an important issue in a developing country context where poor communication such as bad roads. Data collection for these countries occurred between 2000 and 2003.” (Education Week. 55% of all schools that grade 6 pupils attend are located in rural areas. Mauritius. Kenya. 2004). The SACMEQ-II study uses pupil as terminology. Namibia (61%). Shafika Isaacs. The SACMEQ data on ICTs demonstrates that basic infrastructure is one of the major hurdles in bringing ICTs into education in Africa11.

O’Sullivan. 12 UIS Page 25 SWAZILAND MAURITIUS LESOTHO UGANDA SOUTH AFRICA NAMIBIA ZAMBIA MALAWI KENYA . K.Figure 2: Grade 6 Pupils by School Location 4% 13% 37% 34% 30% 29% 24% 33% 40% 22% 17% 26% 41% 47% 55% 46% 47% 60% 60% 61% 65% 65% 77% 68% 22% 19% 20% 19% 13% 17% 14% 17% 15% 16% 19% 13% 14% 12% 42% 42% 18% 16% 8% 2% 7% 2% 1% 4% 5% 7% 3% 2% 5% 3% 2% *ZANZIBAR *TANZANIA BOTSWANA SEYCHELLES MOZAMBIQUE isolated *United Republic of Tanzania rural small town large town or city Source: SACMEQ (2004) b) Access to Electricity in Rural Schools In many developing countries. only 7% of pupils attended rural schools with electricity. South Africa and Zimbabwe. Kenya. Zanzibar and Seychelles) do not feature in this study. Considering that 60% of pupils attended schools in rural areas. While a large proportion (77%) of all Ugandan grade 6 pupils attended schools in rural areas. (2001) in Calculation Sheet of Access to Electricity by count. schools located in rural areas suffer from poor infrastructure ranging from access to water. Note that four SACMEQ countries (Uganda. this translates into a large overall proportion of pupils in schools without electricity. World Bank.. and Hamaide. furniture or electricity. notes that only 3 of the 14 countries studied have access to electricity significantly above the average for Sub Saharan Africa which is 17%. M. which is almost a given factor in schools for many developed and transition countries is still lacking in many African schools making it almost impossible to use ICTs in schools particularly located in rural areas12. Only a small proportion of grade 6 pupils attend rural schools with electricity (Figure 3). lack of building. Electricity. Washington DC. Mauritius. In Malawi only 1% of rural grade 6 pupils were in schools that had access to electricity.

Zambia (3%). Malawi (3%). Kenya (5%) and Mozambique (3%) have poor telephone access in schools located in rural areas (Figure 4). Less that 5% of all pupils who attended rural schools had access to a telephone.Figure 3: Do rural schools have electricity? % of grade 6 rural pupils who have access to electricity at school 100% 100% 100% 80% 60% 54% 40% 30% 22% 33% 35% 36% 20% 6% 1% 7% 7% 7% 11% 0% *TANZANIA SOUTH AFRICA *ZANZIBAR UGANDA SWAZILAND BOTSWANA NAMIBIA MALAWI ZAMBIA KENYA MAURITIUS *United Republic of Tanzania Source: SACMEQ (2004) c) Access to Telephone in Rural Schools: Countries such as Tanzania (1%). Uganda (2%). UIS MOZAMBIQUE Page 26 SEYCHELLES LESOTHO . Zanzibar (6%). Lesotho (3%). Lack of access to a telephone is both a problem for telecommunications and a barrier in the use of the Internet.

Figure 4: Do rural schools have a telephone? % of grade 6 rural pupils who have access to a telephone at school 100% 100% 100% 80% 61% 60% 42% 42% 40% 23% 20% 1% 2% 3% 3% 3% 3% 5% 6% 0% *TANZANIA SOUTH AFRICA *ZANZIBAR UGANDA SWAZILAND BOTSWANA NAMIBIA ZAMBIA MALAWI KENYA MAURITIUS *United Republic of Tanzania Source: SACMEQ (2004) d) Role of Radio and Television in Schools in Africa: Radio is particularly attractive for many of the Least Developed countries because it can reach a large number of learners over distance and cheaply without the need for infrastructure such as electricity. only 1 in 5 pupils attend a school with television. and the lack of visuals significantly limit the instructional support that can be provided to students. especially to provide education in remote rural areas. Radio has an added advantage of mobility and facility if operation when alternate sources such as battery power is used. UIS MOZAMBIQUE Page 27 SEYCHELLES LESOTHO . particularly in the case of radio. the lack of interactivity. as it can be used in any separate space/room within a school. However. figure 5 on the availability of radio and television in rural schools illustrates the greater prevalence of radio than television. While almost half of all (both urban and rural) pupils attend schools (on average) that have radio. In contrast to previous figures. The rarity of electricity and telephone in rural schools makes alternative communication technologies more attractive.

99% TV) seem to have full access to both radio and television in their schools. countries such as South Africa have a more equal distribution in access to radio (48%) and television (37%) in schools.Figure 5: Proportion of all Grade 6 Pupils in all Schools that have Access to Radio or Television 100% 92% 95% 99% 100% 100% 95% % of all grade 6 pupils for all schools 80% 63% 60% 48% 49% 40% 34% 37% 20% 8% 10% 1% 0% 11% 3% 11% 6% 14% 3% 15% 1% 19% 10% 4% 4% 0% 0% *ZANZIBAR SWAZILAND *TANZANIA BOTSWANA SOUTH AFRICA UGANDA MALAWI NAMIBIA ZAMBIA KENYA MOZAMBIQUE MAURITIUS % of grade 6 pupils in schools with a radio % of grade 6 pupils in schools with a television set *United Republic of Tanzania Source: SACMEQ (2004) The relative predominance of radio over other selected ICTs such as televisions and computers is evident in all schools. It is interesting to note that the two small island countries of Seychelles (100%. There are no specific questions regarding the use of computers in the student survey or the teacher survey. Seychelles and Mauritius had full access to electricity and computers in their schools. 0% TV). 4%) and Uganda (49%. electricity may be regarded as an obvious determinant for overall access to conventional ICTs in the context of SACMEQ countries. but it does collect the availability of computers. 4%) have a significant disparity in access between radio and television in schools. UIS Page 28 SEYCHELLES LESOTHO . e) Computers in Schools: SACMEQ does not collect data on the access to the Internet at school. In general. 100%) and Mauritius (95% radio. This is evident for countries such as South Africa where 40% of all grade 6 pupils attended schools that had a computer and 77% of all grade 6 pupils attended schools which had electricity. On the other hand. An increase in computer accessibility can be observed as access to electricity intensifies in schools for certain countries. while countries such as Lesotho (92% radio. Malawi (8%) and Lesotho (11%) with low percentage of electricity available in schools also had virtually no computer availability (Malawi 0% and Lesotho 1%) in their schools. Figure 6 describes the relationship between the presence of electricity and the presence of computers in all schools. Kenya (63%.

However. the availability of computer in schools is generally higher in urban areas (small town. Uganda and Namibia all had 2% of their pupils in schools located in rural areas with computer. 26% large town/city) and Namibia (7 % small town. 14 % large town/city) had over 20% of pupils in schools that had computers. 1 in 10 of all pupils attended a school that had a computer. Figure 7 illustrates that only South Africa (13% small town. followed by Tanzania (Mainland). It is interesting to note that Swaziland (3%) had the highest percentage of pupils in schools located in rural areas and with computer. UIS Page 29 . large town or city) than rural or isolated areas.Figure 6: Access to Electricity and Computers in All Schools 100% % of grade 6 pupils in schools that have a computer SEYCHELLES MAURITIUS 80% 60% 40% SOUTH AFRICA 20% SWAZILAND UGANDA KENYA *TANZANIA LESOTHO NAMIBIA BOTSWANA MOZAMBIQUE 0% 0% MALAWI *ZANZIBAR ZAMBIA 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% % of grade 6 pupils in schools that have electricity *United Republic of Tanzania Source: SACMEQ (2004) On average13. 13 This approximated average does not include the island countries of Seychelles and Mauritius.

Figure 7: Grade 6 Pupils in Schools that Have a Computer (by Location) % of grade 6 pupils in schools that have a computer 40% 30% 26% 20% 14% 10% 7% 1% 2% 2% 2% 3% 5% 3% 3% 6% 7% 5% 2% 13% 0% 1% *ZANZIBAR *TANZANIA UGANDA SWAZILAND BOTSWANA isolated *United Republic of Tanzania rural small town large town or city Source: SACMEQ (2004) UIS MOZAMBIQUE LESOTHO Page 30 NAMIBIA ZAMBIA MALAWI SOUTH AFRICA KENYA .

LABORATORIO. it is important to minimize the burden of data collection on countries by using the most common ICT survey items.e. the target population. teacher. responses to this type of item provide no indication of the number of computers in schools or their overall availability to students.e.5. the development of survey items is conducted in tandem with national governments. a) Common Indicators on Access and Use of ICTs in Education In the broadest sense. MLA-2. etc. countries may compare themselves in a wider context.) As discussed earlier. etc. COMMON INDICATORS FROM THE SCHOOL SURVEYS The reasons for identifying commonalities in survey items and indicators are: 1. these types of questions reduce the burden on respondents (in contrast to tallied responses) and represent a step forward in terms of measuring computer access in schools (in the developing world). • • • • Commonalities in items across surveys Commonalities across target populations Commonalities in the year of collection Commonalities in the type of respondent (i. Surveys that ask school administrators about the existence of computers in their schools give some sense of access. Nevertheless. the identification of commonalities between school surveys is based on four criteria. Although the school surveys are administered at the international level by international organizations. the school surveys that are not specialized in ICTs display no indication of the quality of a school’s infrastructure. SACMEQ and the resulting indicator would be percentage of students in schools with a computer(s) (percentage of schools with a computer(s)). Several surveys have items that ask for the number of computers devoted to a specific age range or grade (i. However. MLA-2 and TIMSS. there are several differences across school surveys. However. In achieving international comparability. Computer Access: School surveys that ask for the number of computers in use allow for the construction of indicators such as the student to pc ratio as seen in PISA. the first criterion (commonalities in items across surveys) is of primary importance. Searching for common items permits the development and analysis of indicators from different international school surveys on a more extensive scale. A school administrator who has one computer in his/her school responds in the same way as an administrator who has several computers. this entails the analysis of comparable indicators across a wide range of countries and regions. student. and benchmark themselves against the relevant studies (having in mind that the original studies are several years old and may use specific methodologies). percentage of grade 8 students with access to a computer). 3. which include the overall coverage of ICT survey items. These surveys include WEI-SPS. However. 2. UIS Page 31 . By integrating items from international surveys into national surveys. More specifically. the number of audiovisual materials. the year of collection or the type of respondents. UAPRS and SITES-1 surveys irrespective of target populations. These surveys include PISA. school administrator. For the most part. ICT items related to infrastructure and access display the greatest degree of commonality. The respondent to these types of items are usually school administrators and involve headcounts or tallies of such physical assets as the number of computers in use.

Never) How often do you do these things with a computer? ▪ I look up ideas and information for mathematics ▪ I look up ideas and information for science ▪ I write reports for school ▪ I process and analyze data If you are using computers and related ICTs. it does not indicate the extent that pupils and teachers use the Internet or what they use it for. PASEC and MLA-2 ask whether students have access to a radio and television at home. ICT survey items that relate to student or teacher usage of ICTs display less harmony. Although surveys such as TIMSS or PIRLS have survey items related to television usage. This is because the diction used for the frequency of ICT usage (i. This type of item can be found in PIRLS. requests the total number of television sets in a student’s home in the student survey. Furthermore. WEI-SPS. there are no ICT usage survey items in MLA-2. how many hours on the average per week of normal school hours are you able to use these computers and related ICTs to do your studies? Almost everyday Less than once a month Never TIMSS Every day At least once a week once or twice a month A few times a year Never UAPRS Specify number of hours SITES-1 Specify number of hours UIS Page 32 . time spent on a computer) and the purpose of ICT usage vary across certain school surveys. Survey items that enable the development of these types of indicators go beyond the basic core and will be described later in section 7. these types of indicators are among the most important in understanding the full impact of ICTs in an educational setting. there are no items directly related to the access (or the number) to television and radio. The indicators on the ratio of students to computers with Internet access or percentage of computers with Internet access can be calculated. Table 10: Student ICT Usage Items School Surveys PIRLS How often do you use a computer at school? Survey Items / Questions Every day or almost evey day Frequency Items Once or twice a week A few times a week Once or twice a month Between once a week and Once a month Never or almost never PISA How often do you use a computer at school? (Almost everyday. LABORATORIO. Between once a week and Once a month. TIMSS and PIRLS. SITES-1. on the other hand. A few times a week. Less than once a month. Likewise. MLA-2. Access to old ICTs (Radio and Television): Only UAPRS asks for the total number of radios and televisions in schools. Like percentage of schools with a computer(s). the indicator percentage of schools (or percentage of students) with Internet access can be calculated from many school surveys including PISA. UAPRS and PISA. these items serve as benchmarks that will permit national governments to define their national collections in these areas. However.Internet Access: Items that go beyond a tally of computers in a school ask for the number of computers that have internet access.e. LABORATORIO and PASEC. PISA. The different types of survey question/item are outlined in Table 10. APRS. how many hours on the average per week of normal school hours are you able to use these computers and related ICTs to do your studies? If you are using computers and related ICTs. SACMEQ. SACMEQ and WEI-SPS possess items that permit the construction of: percentage of schools (or students in schools) with radio(s) or television(s). ICT Usage Indicators: In contrast to items related to Infrastructure and Access. SITES-1. Nevertheless. As stated.

as well as ICT training of teachers. There are many ICT-related items that go beyond the basic core of infrastructure and access items. the survey has comprehensive coverage of geographical regions across the world with a substantial number of countries representing the developing countries or transition countries. Among all the school surveys. Several of these countries are listed in Table 11: Table 11: TIMSS 2003 Coverage of Selected Transition Countries and Developing Countries CONTINENT Africa UN REGIONAL GROUPING Northern Africa Egypt COUNTRIES * Morocco Tunisia Southern Africa Botswana South Africa Western Africa Asia Eastern Asia South-Eastern Asia Ghana Republic of Korea Indonesia Malaysia Philippines Singapore Southern Asia Western Asia Iran (Islamic Republic of) Armenia Bahrain Cyprus Israel Jordan Lebanon Palestinian Autonomous Territories Saudi Arabia Syrian Arab Republic Yemen Europe Eastern Europe Bulgaria Republic of Moldova Romania Russian Federation Southern Europe Serbia and Montenegro The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Latin America and the Caribbean South America Argentina Chile * * * * * * * * * * * * * ** * * * * * * *only grade 8. Other items address the issue of ICT usage by students and teachers. frequency and content used.b) Regional Perspectives on Selected School Surveys TIMSS 2003: Although surveys such as PISA and SITES offer some of the most innovative survey items and questions that measure aspects of ICT usage. TIMSS has the most potential for developing countries. the coverage of developing countries or developing regions in these surveys is limited. **only grade 4 UIS Page 33 . In addition.

Surveys that are specialized in a specific region such as SACMEQ (Southern and Eastern Africa) or LABORATORIO (South America) have a limited number of ICT-related items. MLA-2 leads the surveys in terms of African coverage with over 40 countries. SACMEQ. none of these studies measure ICT penetration or usage in schools as a primary focus. However.MLA-2. UIS Page 34 . Both surveys display some similarities in items that relate to basic infrastructure. In terms of the types of ICTrelated items. LABORATORIO and PASEC: In comparison to TIMSS. as we have noted earlier. Although the survey is confined to items such as the number of computers available to grade 8 students or the number of computers connected to the Internet. the same may be said of PASEC which covers a number of CONFEMEN countries. a survey such as MLA-2 has some of the greatest coverage of the African continent.

“for what purpose do students/teachers use computers/internet” is one of the most illuminating and useful indicators. ECLAC. ESCAP. “Infrastructure and Access” indicators are likely to be the easiest statistics to collect from national administrative sources such as a Ministry of Education. teacher survey and UIS Page 35 . secondary schools and tertiary education) Enrolled Student to PC ratio in primary and secondary schools Internet Access Percentage of primary and secondary Percentage of primary and secondary schools having Internet access for schools having Internet access for students for study purposes students for study purposes Percentage of students enrolled in tertiary education having Internet access for students for study purposes Students/Teachers ICT Usage For what purpose do students/teachers use computers/Internet (% for E-mail. etc. Table 12: Regional Lists of Core Indicators ICTs in Education: Regional lists of core indicators Categories Subcategories Africa (indicators) Western Asia (indicators) Infrastructure and Access Computer Access Enrolled Student to PC ratio (in primary. there is also a need to collect data on the quality of access (dial-up. Although these types of indicators (i. The indicators proposed by the two UN regional commissions broaden the scope of access to ICTs to all levels of education. percentage of schools with internet access) represent a first step in measuring ICT access in education on a cross national basis.e.dominated field (of the total number of students) (by gender) Percentage of ICT-qualified teachers in primary and secondary schools (of the total number of teachers) Percentage of tertiary education institutions with e-learning courses (of the total number of tertiary education institutions) *Percentage of students enrolled in tertiary education in an ICT field or an ICT. broadband). research. ESCWA and UNCTAD (on behalf of ECE)) within the context of the “Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development”. Africa (ECA) and Western Asia (ESCWA) are two of the regions that have included education in their core list of ICT indicators in Table 12. UN REGIONAL COMMISSIONS: PROPOSALS OF INDICATORS TO MONITOR ICTs IN EDUCATION Lists of core indicators have been proposed as a result of the stocktaking exercise that was carried out in 2004 by the UN Regional Commissions (ECA. It is also one of the most difficult to collect through administrative sources at the international level. The indicators summarized in this section are complementary to those indicators we have reviewed in the sections related to school surveys. Students/Teachers: ICT Usage In the proposed African list of core indicators.dominated field (of the total number of students by gender) Teachers Training School Administration Curriculum Policy *This indicator may also fall under the category “Students” Infrastructure and Access: The “Infrastructure and Access” indicators suggested resemble the types of indicators discussed earlier. Such data would have to be collected through two types of sample surveys at the national level (i.) Percentage of ICT-qualified teachers in primary and secondary schools (of the total number of teachers) Percentage of tertiary education institutions with e-learning courses (of the total number of tertiary education institutions) *Percentage of students enrolled in tertiary education in an ICT field or an ICT. 2005). employment opportunities. application software.e. (UNCTAD.6.

Percentage of tertiary education institutions with e-learning courses: Similarly to the “teacher training” category (ICT qualifications). Percentage of students enrolled in tertiary education in an ICT-related field: This indicator already exists at the international level. while education institutions do not necessarily hold records of a distance student’s residential status. definitions should be able to capture this as well. the term e-learning should be broadened to include other technological solutions for distance education programmes. Hence. networks. Since “older” technologies (such as audiovisual cassettes) still play an important role in the delivery of educational programmes in the developing world. computer programming. Teachers: Training Under this category. While such an indicator is deemed as instrumental in understanding the nature of use within an educational setting. Despite its usefulness as a proxy for ICT skills. methodological development is needed in defining what constitutes an e-learning course. methodological work in defining ICT qualifications (internationally comparable) warrant further methodological work.14 14 Computing is defined as: Computer sciences: system design. Discussions on the joint UNESCO/OECD/Eurostat education survey have also discussed issues surrounding the collection of data. operating systems – software development only (hardware development should be classified with engineering fields) UIS Page 36 . a cross-national consensus still needs to be reached on the issue of what constitutes appropriate items for “purpose of use”. National Ministries of Education are required to comply with international classifications in the questionnaire. Data on education is normally collected from the country in which the student is resident. This provides some difficulties for international distance learning. the African and Western Asian regional commissions propose the indicator “percentage of ICT-qualified teachers”. The UIS already collects data on Enrolment by fields of education (by gender) and Graduates by fields of education (by gender) through their annual Questionnaire on Statistics of Tertiary Education. The fields of study include ‘Computing’ though this category does not cover all ICT-related studies. data processing.student survey). as a student’s country of residence may not be aware that he is registered with an education institution.

UNESCO INSTITUTE FOR STATISTICS RECOMMENDATIONS a) Recommendations for a Basic Core of Indicators In order to propose a basic core of indicators for measuring the use and impact of ICTs in education effectively across developing countries. The following recommendation for “basic set of core” indicators in Table 13 is an attempt to encapsulate the points that have been discussed above based on various proposals and existing international school surveys. Further work is still required to define an appropriate methodology for the collection of internationally comparable data in this highly complex and challenging area of ICTs and Education. Since. While precise comparison with past international work may prove difficult. Adapting survey items at international level: This paper forms an important resource of survey topics and questions that have been tried and tested in international research. data collection represent a substantial financial burden for developing countries. Such alternatives can deliver information effectively and in a cost-effective manner. Indicators that describe the presence of “older” technologies must be given serious consideration. television or other audio visual technologies. simple efforts such as embedding items in already existing instruments can be effective. but may have a radio. Surveys like SACMEQ reveal that a school may not have computers with internet connections. National circumstances: A country’s educational infrastructure is crucial. Monitoring and evaluation are needed to understand how countries are performing in order to achieve the goals outlined in the WSIS plan of action. Adapting such questions in national surveys can allow comparison for better understanding of how countries progress towards their goal of becoming an information rich society.national circumstances. UIS Page 37 . Such approach towards using international survey items can allow some benchmarking to major international studies. in the context of the WSIS Plan of Action. that address the issue at hand and that cover the largest spectrum of countries should be the underlying logic behind any proposal of any indicator development. successful adaptation to national contexts will depend on careful adoption to suit local contexts.7. the following three areas must be taken into consideration. especially from a developing country perspective. survey items that are internationally comparable and the most commonly used indicators. The most commonly used indicators: The goal of many international efforts on measuring information society is to achieve cross-national comparisons. Internationally comparable indicators that are easy to collect. Information on the availability of electricity or the presence of basic infrastructure can be vital to understand the extent to which ICTs are being utilised among the socio-economic groups and across geographical locations within a country.

the frequency of ICT use and the nature of ICT use from the perspective of both teachers and students (Table 14). They examine the financial resources spent on ICTs to help judge whether such resources have been used effectively (Table 16).Table 13: The Basic Core of Indicators for ICTs in Education Basic Core ED-1 ED-2 ED-3 ED-4 ED-5 ED-6 ED-7 % of schools with electricity (by ISCED 1-3) % of schools with a radio set used for educational purposes (by ISCED level 0 to 4) % of schools with television set used for educational purposes (by ISCED level 0 to 4) Student to computer ratio (by ISCED level 0 to 4) % of schools with basic telecommunication infrastucture or telephone access (by ISCED 1-3) % of schools with an Internet connection (by ISCED 1-3) % of students who use the Internet at school (by ISCED level 0 to 4) Extended Core ED-8 ED-9 % of students enrolled by gender at the tertiary level in an ICT-related field (ISCED 5 to 6) % of ICT-qualified teachers in primary and secondary schools (of the total number of teachers) Note: All indicators should be collected by sex.e. UIS Page 38 . web sites). They relate to the use of content (i. They will require adaptations to national circumstances. In this section. and age b) Recommendations for survey items on Student and Teacher Usage of ICTs and ICT Finance In the previous section the goal was to recommend a common set of core indicators that are comparable across the largest spectrum of countries. but should ensure some comparability with existing data sets. these questions have been identified on the basis of commonalities in existing school surveys. instead of indicators we outline potential survey questions that countries might use to go beyond the basic core. They measure the critical part that teacher training has to play in ensuring that ICTS are effectively used in schools (Table 15). As in the case of the recommended core indicator set. grade.

Simulations. UAPRS TIMSS UAPRS UAPRS. ▪ Experiments. Creating ▪ Use email to work with students in other schools ▪ Do students use video conference? Source PISA. PIRLS. Procedures research ▪ Functional. TIMSS PISA. TIMSS TIMSS. Are computers used in… ▪ Earth science ▪ Biology ▪ Chemistry ▪ Physics ▪ Maths etc. TIMSS PIRLS. SITES SITES UIS Page 39 .Table 14: ICT Use by Students and Teachers Survey Items / Questions How often do you use computers/Internet? Do you use computer/Internet at home? What types of software are used and what is the frequency of use? Are computers used to… ▪ write stories ▪ read stories ▪ look up information on the internet etc. Are computers used in…. PIRLS. SITES PISA. Communications. Practical.

Please rate your (teachers) expertise in the use of the following …. website design) ▪ Courses on Didactical/pedagogical principles of computer use etc.Table 15: ICT Training for Teachers Survey Items / Questions During the school year how often have your teachers been involved in professional development opportunities related to the use of information and communication technology for educational purposes? Source TIMSS Did you receive any training on ICTs before you joined the UAPRS teaching profession. in the past few years.? ▪ Title of training ▪ Level of training ▪ Number of hours What are your reasons for attending computer training? ▪ Financial ▪ Prestige ▪ Career enhancement ▪ Personal growth ▪ Training is required etc. software. ▪ Word processing ▪ Spreadsheets ▪ Internet browsing ▪ Presentation tools (powerpoint) ▪ Programming etc. Which of the following training courses are available for teachers… ▪ Introductory courses (hardware. applications development. SITES UAPRS UAPRS UIS Page 40 . Internet use) ▪ Advanced courses (Technical maintenance. etc.

Table 15 continued Survey Items / Questions Is it obligatory for: ▪ All teachers to take at least some basic computer courses ▪ All teachers to regularly take courses to update their ICT-knowledge and skills ▪ Have a substantial number of teachers… ▪ Attend at least some basic computer courses ▪ Regularly attend courses to update their ICT-knowledge and skills Source SITES Table 16: ICT Resources and Finance Survey Items / Questions Source Is your school's capacity to provide instruction affected by PIRLS. PISA. a shortage or inadequacy of any of the following…. TIMSS. SITES ▪ computers for instruction ▪ software (ie. how much? ▪ If no. Is there a school budget for the implementation of the school ICT plan? ▪ If yes. what are the other sources of funds? Do you (school administration) collect fees for: ▪ Computer fee in general ▪ Computer courses ▪ Use of computers after class by students? ▪ Use of Internet after class by students? ▪ Use of computers by non-formal classes? UAPRS UAPRS UIS Page 41 . language of software) ▪ Internet (unreliable network performance) ▪ ICT support services etc.

Table 16 continued Survey Items / Questions Who pays for the Internet connection in your school? ▪ the school via tuition fee collections ▪ local government units through the school board ▪ the national government as included in the budget appropriations ▪ Parent-teacher association ▪ others (please specify) Source UAPRS UIS Page 42 .

V. A Propos du PASEC.cl/medios/biblioteca/documentos/informe_laboratorio_2_ingles. K. Available at: http://www.net/exponent/index.0.nl/pirls2001. Available at: http://www. “Global links.org/history. Mathematics. Available at: http://www.pisa. Data Archive for the SACMEQ I and SACMEQ II Projects Version 4.html OECD 2005. UNESCO –IIEP. 2001 Calculation Sheet of Access to Electricity by count.adeanet.nl/sites-m2. Available at : http://www. Available at: http://www. Available at: http://www. and Hamaide. World Education Indicators – Survey of Primary Schools (WEI-SPS).php?ID=6003_201&ID2=DO_TOPIC UNCTAD 2005 Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development. Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA) Biennial Meeting.edweek. “First International Comparative Study of Language. Trends in Mathematics and Science Study 2001. Washington DC SACMEQ 2005.unctad. Progress in International Reading Literacy Study 2001.2966. Available at: http://www. 2004. New York/Geneva. Lessons from the world. Second Information Technology in Education Study 2006 http://www. World Summit on the Information Society: Plan of Action.pdf UIS Page 43 .nl/timss2003.html IEA 2005b. Second Information Technology in Education Study Module 2.confemen. 2003.html O’Sullivan.sacmeq.org/pages/0. Available at: http://www.iea. Latin American Laboratory for Assessment of Quality in Education.org/sreports/tc04 IEA 2005a.int/wsis/docs/geneva/official/poa. Second Information Technology in Education Study Module 1.iea. Measuring ICT: The Global Status of ICT Indicators.00. World Bank. UNESCO-SANTIAGO. UNESCO 2002.org/article.itu. http://measuring-ict. and Associated Factors for Students in the Third and Fourth years of Primary School”.oecd.iea.unesco. UIS 2005. M.htm SACMEQ 2004.pdf CONFEMEN 2005.php3?id_article=178 Education Week. Available at : http://www. Monitoring Learning Achievement (MLA) Project in Africa”.uis. Paris.unesco.html IEA 2005c.sites2006.org/biennial2003/papers/2Ac_MLA_ENG_final.html IEA 2005e.php?section=1 ITU 2003.org.nl/sites-m1. Available at: http://www.en_32252351_32235907_1_1_1_1_1.” http://counts.org/ev. Programme for International Students Assesment 2003.Bibliography Chinapah..html IEA 2005d. Available at : http://www. South African Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality.iea.

org/index. UNESCO Bangkok: Indicators Database: Asia-Pacific Regional Survey http://www.unescobkk.php?id=981 UIS Page 44 .UNESCO 2005.

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