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Training and Development

Q. 1 How does training different from education? What is the role of training and development in learning? Difference between Training and development: 1. Training is meant for operatives and development is meant for managers improving a specific skill relating to a job whereas development aims to improving the total personality of an individual. 2. Training is a one shot deal whereas development is an ongoing continuous process and a result of initiatives taken by the management. It is the result of some outside motivation. 3. Development is mostly the result of internal motivation. Training seeks to meet the current, requirement of the job and the individual whereas development aims at meeting the future needs of the job and the individual whereas development is proactive process. 4. Development is future oriented training, focusing on the personal growth of the employee. Difference between training and education: 1. The term education is wider in scope and more general in purpose when compared to training. 2. Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee while doing a job. 3. It is a job oriented (skill learning) 4. Education on the other hand, is the process of increasing the general knowledge and understanding of employees. 5. It is a person oriented, theory based knowledge whose main purpose is to improve the understanding of a particular subject or theme (conceptual learning). 6. Its primary focus is not the job of an operative. 7. Education is imparted through schools or colleges and the contents of such a programme generally aim at improving the talents, of a person. 8. Training is practice-based and company-specific. 9. However, both have to be viewed as programmes that are complimentary and mutually supportive aiming at harnessing the true potential of a person/employee. The role of training and development in teaching.


1. Modelling Modelling is simply coping someone elses behaviour. Videotapes can be used as exemplars. 2. Motivation For learning to happen, the intention to learn is important. When the employee is motivated, he pays attention to what is being said, done and presented. 3. Reinforcement If behaviour is rewarded, it probably will be repeated. Positive reinforcement consists rewarding desired behaviour. 4. Feedback People learned best if reinforcement is given as son as possible after training as employee wants to know what is expected of him and how well he is doing. Positive feedback is preferred to negative feedback. 5. Spaced practice Learning takes place easily if the practice sessions are spread over a period of time. New employees learn better if the training programme is spaced out over a two or three day period. 6. Whole learning The concept of whole learning suggests that employees learn better if the job information is explained as an entire logical process, so that they can see how the various actions fit into the big picture. 7. Active practice Learning is enhanced when the trainee are provided ample opportunities to repeat the task. For maximum benefit, practice sessions should be distributed over time. 8. Applicability of training Training should be as real as possible so that trainees can successfully transfer the new knowledge to their jobs. 9. Environment - Environment plays an important role in training. It is natural that workers who are exposed to training in comfortable environments with adequate, well spaced rest periods are more likely to learn than employees whose training needs are less than ideal.

Q. 2

How you will evaluate the effectiveness of training programmes? If there are shortcomings in training, what steps will u take to overcome these? Immediate level evaluation answers questions of the extent to which delegates have learnt from the training. The training objectives are set and then and the assessment is made against these objectives. It is critical that the training objectives cover the span of the learning required and are expressed in such a way that their achievement can be measured. The two types of immediate level evaluation are: a. The first measures whether the training objectives have been achieved e.g. whether the delegates have reached the requirement standard or level of competence, and assessment takes place only at the end of the training.


b. The second measures the gain in learning and therefore assessment is required both before and after the training. Immediate level evaluations take place in the training environment and give a feedback on the training delivery process itself and on the training need analysis. Poor results will indicate that the course has been ineffective in meeting the training objectives. There are basically two types of poor results: a. The results are poor for only a small number of delegates. b. The results are generally poor for all delegates. If the results are poor for only 1 or 2 delegates then the course was inappropriate for them, maybe the trainer and the trainees did not connect, or they did not approach the training in an appropriate way, however if the results were generally poor then the possibilities could be with the performance of the trainer, the training methods used, the content/level of the course or any combination of these. How we tackle immediate level evaluation usually depends on the nature of the learning that is taking place. Hence learning involves 1. Knowledge: knowledge learning is most often assessed using self-complete questionnaires which are of three types: a. A simple questionnaire that requires the delegates to answer either yes/no/dont know or true/false/dont know to a list of questions. b. A multiple choice questionnaire which may offer the delegates a number or choices of answer. c. An open ended questionnaire which requires free form essay type questions. Assessing knowledge can be carried out for the two purposes a. Ensuring a required standard or level of competence has been reached this will often be expressed in terms of achieving of minimum marks of say 80%. b. Assessing gain in learning which is often expressed in terms of a gain ratio. 2. Skills Skill based learning is assessed by observation. Successful skill assessment is based on two key factors a. The design of the assessment/observation process and form b. The use of trained observers. The assessment of skills can be carried out for the two purposes of

a. Ensuring that a required standard of competence is achieved e.g. passing the driving test, gaining a certificate/ license in welding b. Assessing gain in skills 3. Attitudes Assessing attitudes is very difficult. Often delegates are aware of the right answers. It is very difficult to change attitudes an you are aiming at changing the way people actually behave. This can be both a long process and one where the results are best measured where the behaviors will operate.