Notes on Long Weapons: Spear and Staff

长兵器:枪与棍
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Joseph P. Lau

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Notes on Long Weapons (长兵器): Spear and Staff
Spear and staff were formidable long cold weapons of war (Leng Bing Qi, 冷兵器). With the invention of firearms, their importance as weapons is greatly diminished. Today, we study and use these long weapons (Chang Bing Qi, 长兵器) as supplemental training and conditioning apparatuses for martial arts. This manuscript is our research notes. The maneuvers/techniques are synthesized from various styles and organized into logical categories. As researchers and practitioners of Yiquan (意拳), we treat the spear and staff practices as supplemental training and conditioning exercises. And our study, opinion, and discussion have heavy Yiquan bias. We assume that the reader is grounded in the fundamentals of Yiquan basic skills, has mastered proper “body mechanics” i.e., proper connected-ness (Zheng Ti Lian Tong Yi Guan, 整体连通一贯) and optimal alignment (Gu Ge Zhi Cheng, 骨骼支撑), and has achieved whole-body harmony unity (Zheng Ti Xie Tiao, 整体谐调) to “take up power from the ground” using whole-body movement (Yi Dong Wu Bu Dong, 一动无不动). (For details, see YIQUAN BEGINNERS’ GUIDE: BASIC SKILLS by J. P. Lau.) 诀 曰: 拳 成 兵 器 就, 莫 专 习 刀 枪。 Oral Tradition: Human skill is more important than the weapon. It is easier to learn to use a (cold) weapon after you have mastered the basic skills of empty hand fighting. Do not train exclusively with swords and spears. We use the spear (Qiang, 枪) or the staff (Gan, 杆; Gun, 棍; Zhang, 杖; Bang, 棒) training and conditioning: 1. To develop/nurture your balanced-force (Hun Yuan Li, 浑元力), to cultivate your whole-body harmony unity (Ji Rou Ru Yi, 肌肉如一), To observe/develop force propagation pathways (Xun Zhao Jing Lu, 寻找劲路), to merge all force components as one (Quan Shen Li Yi, 全身力一), and To train for self-defense/combat with a (cold) weapon.

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Basically, self-defense with a (cold) weapon is the use of the weapon as an extension of your arms/hands to discharge/release your balanced-force (Hun Yuan Li, 浑元力) onto your opponent. Even though we do not place too much emphasis on the use of (cold) weapon for selfdefense/fighting, you must not waste your time on flowery solo sequences or patterns (Tao Lu, 套路). You must never fall into the trap of developing sequential patterns (“if this than that” patterns) as responses and solutions to the dynamic changing problem of fighting. Instead, you should develop un-conscious decision-making references for your spontaneous instinctive fighting reflexes through mental visualization (crises rehearsal; Jia Xiang Di, 假想敌).

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诀 曰: 花 法 不 可 学 也。 Oral Tradition: You must not waste your time on flowery solo sequences or patterns. Compared to other cold weapons, the spear and staff have tremendous “reach” and leverage. Therefore, against all other cold weapons, the best defense for spear and staff is offense. Thus, traditional studies of the spear and staff dealt mainly with spear-verses-spear or staff-verses-staff maneuvers. Since 70% of staff maneuvers/techniques are from the spear, we will start with a detailed exploration of the spear in Section I: Spear (Ji Ben Qiang Fa, 基本枪法). Staff maneuvers/techniques not from the spear are covered in Section II: Staff (Ji Ben Gun Fa, 基本 棍法). This is not intended to be an instruction manual. No effort is made to teach the use of the spear and the staff. Use the information as you feel inclined.

J. P. Lau Jan. 22, 2009

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Notes on Long Weapons: Spear and Staff

Section I: Spear (Ji Ben Qiang Fa, 基本枪法)

基本枪法
The spear is the king of all “cold” weapons (Leng Bing Qi Zhi Wang, 冷兵器之王). In this section, methods and procedures for practicing spear basic skills are covered. We will use the traditional terminology: With your left foot leading, the part of your body left of your central line is called “outside” the circle (Quan Wai, 圈外); the part of your body right of your central line is called “inside” the circle (Quan Li, 圈里). We will only describe spear training and conditioning with the “left-lead”, you should train with both “left-lead” and “right-lead”; being able to smoothly switching lead is a necessary primary skill.

1. Principles
It is said that the spear is the king of all cold weapons (Leng Bing Qi Zhi Wang, 冷兵器之王) and this is clear when we consider its attributes. A spear is a short sharp blade attached to the end of a 6-7 foot long staff (Qiang Gan, 枪杆). The sharp end of the spear is the “point” (Qiang Tou, 枪头; Qiang Jian, 枪尖), the other end of the shaft is the “butt” (Qiang Ba, 枪把; Qiang Gen, 枪根), and the balance point of the staff is the center of gravity (Qiang Xin, 枪心). Due to this construction, the spear has a tremendous “reach” and leverage when compared to other cold weapons. Against all other weapons, the best defense for a spearman is offense. Therefore, traditional studies of the spear are heavily concentrated on spear-verses-spear maneuvers. Spear practice should follow the training and conditioning theories and principles of Yiquan: Understand the theories and principles involved; use the interactions with the external/internal “isometric-opposing-force-pairs” (Mao Dun Zheng Li, 矛盾争力) to harmonize, synthesize, and ingrain your maneuvers/techniques (in both fixed-step and free-step) into “habit” (e.g., Mo Gan Shi Li, 磨杆试力; Hua Gan Shi Li, 滑杆试力; Hua Gan Fa Li, 滑杆发力, etc.), and learn distance, timing, angle, accuracy, and agility (the ability to adapt and change according to your

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.opponent) with real experience gained from sparring with real partners (e. 截. covering the shortest distance. 诀 曰: 应 机 而 发. Jie. corkscrew) paths when you parry. Mindset and Tactics Proper footwork and body mechanics are essential. 双人对滑对扎). 后 方 可 随 意 应 敌. chops.g. it is the hardest to see and parry. 中). two-handed overhand thrust. (see section below on maneuvers/techniques) but the spirit of the spear is the circle. Mental conditioning (visualization and crises rehearsal) and physical training are equally important. Helical Spiral (corkscrew) The motion of your spear point in space describes circular (spiral. 莫 知 为 而 为。 Line and Point The strongest attack with a spear is a straight. 乃 为 成 艺. 切 磋 堋 挤 着. 6 . repetition is the mother of all skills. There are many other techniques for using the spear point and butt. 刺) with the point (Zhong Ping Qiang. becomes “formless”. 扎. helical. 因 敌 制 胜 也。 A. 因 势 而 变。 诀 曰: 不 加 思 索. Circle. it becomes useful only when it becomes “habit”. 中平 抢). center (Zhong. 平). Shuang Ren Dui Hua Dui Za. slash. 一 照 批 迎. 按 一 字 对 戳 一 枪. becomes un-conscious spontaneous reflex. 每 一 字 经 过 万 遍 不 失. etc. 诀 曰: 枪 的 元 神 只 有 一 圈。 Oral Tradition: The spirit of the spear is the circle. 诀 曰: 中 平 一 点 是 枪 王。 诀 曰: 中 平 六 路 总。 The underhand and overhand stabbing slip thrusts are quintessential basic spear skills. 字 字 对 得 过. 不 期 然 而 然. 诀 曰: 须 两 枪 对 较. underhand forward stabbing slip thrust (Za. Cone. and because of the angle of attack. Ci. level (Ping. A maneuver must be ingrained. such as: one-handed stab. 拿 大 小 门 圈 穿. cut. It is the fastest and most direct stabbing attack..

and/or chopping him first. and willingness to win. cutting. When you use your right rear hand as the fulcrum. 空 自 眼 明 手 便。 The basic spear self-defensive tactics against other weapons are: 1. Circle: However. the spear shaft also moves on a conical surface. use attack as defense. a vicious counter interrupting or intercepting your opponent’s attack (Jie Da. be the aggressor. 卷枪). You must have the confidence. the base of your spear point cone (the spear point circle) is approximately 2 feet in diameter. attack your opponent’s central line. Have an aggressive mindset. no lower than your knee. slashing. 回 手 似 钩 杆。 Oral Tradition: Twisting helical (corkscrew) spiral motions are instinctive and natural. Keep your spear point within the following region: no higher than your head. 诀 曰: 对 敌 无 胆 向 先. your best defense is offense. seize the initiative and engagement opportunities. laterally not wider than your shoulders. fighting is never static. resolve. 诀 曰: 起 手 如 钢 锉. Helical Spiral (corkscrew): The thrust (Za. If you try to combine the circular parry and the linear thrust to unify defense and offense.) Tactics: Against Other Weapons With its superior attributes. Example (g) Helical Parry Thrust. This is a very difficult and advanced maneuver/technique. 扎) is linear and straight. the resulting movement of the spear point will describe helical spiral (corkscrew) paths (Juan Qiang. Concentrate on the vertical.诀 曰: 先 有 圈 枪 为 母。 Oral Tradition: The circle is the source (mother) of all (parry) techniques. you must have an aggressive combat mindset because the best defense against other cold weapons is a “stop hit”. Protect and guard your central line. Cone: Consider your left front hand as the fulcrum. In using the spear. The whole circle is almost never used. 截打) by stabbing. you must break up the circle (corkscrew movement) and use only segments of the arc at various times. (See below: Slip Spear Drills. One cone has its base described by the spear point and its point ends in your left front hand. The other cone has its base described by your right rear hand and its point ends in your left front hand. when fighting with a spear against other cold weapons. the shaft of your spear moves on a conical surface. 2. always keep your spear point between you and your 7 . Action beats reaction. the point of the cone now ends in your right rear hand.

Watch for the point of his weapon to move past the central line. we will discuss spear offense/defense of spear-versus-spear. inertia. an opponent who slipped past your spear point). keep your opponent in front of your spear point. 变 化 形 无 形. Change and adapt according to your opponent. left/right. however.. 拦) and/or use footwork to 8 . be in his face. Avoid using muscles against momentum. Use gravity. Attack the nearest target. and momentum as your allies. 周 旋 意 无 意。 5. the most difficult weapon to defense against is the spear. and then switch to use the full reach to attack.. 平来枪) because of the small weapons crossing angle. Have a secondary weapon (a short knife) ready to be used against an opponent grabbing your spear or for fighting at extreme close range (e. 6. Hide the length of your “reach” by choking up on your spear to accustom your opponent to one fighting measure (distance). 诀 曰: 因 敌 制 胜。 诀 曰: 不 期 自 然 至. Be “agile”. 诀 曰: 守 中 用 中。 3. Next. You must make optimal use of the intrinsic helical spiral (corkscrew) movement of your spear shaft to slip your opponent’s thrust off it’s line with the inside the circle parry (Na.opponent and threaten his throat/mouth area. When fighting other cold weapons. 7. 拿) or the outside the circle parry (Lan.g. The spear is superior to all other cold weapons for “out-fighting”.g. 8. Avoid lateral movement that brings your spear point off the central line. high/low. close proximity “infighting” negates your spear skills. thrust into the opening as soon as this happens. etc. 4. get inside your opponent’s OODA cycle. stab/slash. “beat” your opponent’s weapon out of the way to open a line instead of attacking an opening. Use leverage and length. use various combinations e. compress his time scale by switching maneuvers at a tempo that he cannot follow. And the spear thrusts most difficult to parry are the mid-level thrusts (Ping Lai Qiang. use fast lightning slash and stab to hand and face to weaken him to setup the final blow. Continuous curved motions require less effort than straight-line motions involving sudden sharp changes in direction. this slows down your recovery to the on-guard posture. Tactics: Spear-versus-Spear When using a spear.

initiate change. 调枪). In general. shift your target and end your thrust on his outside the circle (Quan Wai. 枪头) of your own spear by controlling its butt (Qiang Gen. when the center of gravity (Qiang Xin. use the middle section of your spear to make initial contact with the front section of your opponent's spear. 诀 曰: 守 则 见 肉 分 枪。 诀 曰: 旧 力 略 过. You manipulate the point (Qiang Tou.e. Keep your spear close to your opponent's spear. Rou Li. 滑) your spear along his spear to parry (circular lateral soft force. Qiang Yan. 拍位) about a foot in front of his leading front hand near the center of gravity of his spear (Qiang Xin. Here. 颠提): large disengagement from inside to outside or vice versa. you control the butt of your opponent's spear with your spear point. 诀 曰: 未 进 关 手 宜 轻 虚. 柔力). we shall explore some useful concepts related to offense/defense of spear-versus-spear. 枪眼) from the incoming line of force. By keeping the spears close together. seize the initiative. i. In use. 调枪): Start your thrust towards your opponent’s inside the circle (Quan Li. 抖) your spear sideways off its line of attack. 枪心) of your opponent's spear has moved far forward of his front hand and it is difficult for him to control. Before your spear point reaches your opponent's front hand (Jin Guan. (Dian Ti. 闪赚): small disengagement from inside to outside or vice versa. 进关). your opponent's spear will not gain much momentum to beat (Da. You must wait until your opponent's rear hand is close to his front hand. 9 . 圈里) target. parry late and fast using the difference in movement time to your advantage. 已 进 关 手 宜 重 实。 诀 曰: 攻 则 贴 杆 深 入。 When parrying a spear thrust. 枪根). 枪心). and control the engagement opportunities. after your spear point passed your opponent's front hand. use light relaxed movement. This will minimize the angle between the spears and increase the difficulty of parrying. then “slip” (Hua. thrust straight in with full power. 新 力 未 生 时 进 行 防 守。 Change target during an attack (Tiao Qiang.. 圈外) target or vice versa is call “changing target attack” (Tiao Qiang. ending with the front section of your spear at the “sweet spot” (Pai Wei. 打) or shake (Dou.remove your body (target. b. (Shan Zhuan. a. You must initiate this change long before your rear hand gets close to your front hand to maintain absolute control.

C. your left hand should hold the spear firmly. improving agility and footwork maneuvers. spear. 10 . holding the spear at or just behind its center of gravity (Qiang Xin. this lines up your right forearm behind the shaft of the spear for thrusting. 头虚领. The grip must be relaxed and firm. This is the natural grip for an overhand thrust. 丁八步). the section of the spear between the hands must contact the waist or body at navel level (on your right hip) most of the time (Qiang Shi Chan Yao Suo. It must be relaxed so you can actively maneuver your spear. not too tight and not too loose. It must be firm otherwise your can not transmit your power/force to the spear. Your right rear hand grips the shaft with the base of the thumb opposite your four fingers halfway around the circumference of the shaft with the butt in your palm. Fourlevel (Si Ping. the section of the spear between the hands must contact the waist or body at navel level most of the time.B. The right thumb may lie along the length of the shaft pointing towards the point or wrap around the circumference. Here. and middle fingers. Grip A: The left front hand forms a tube with the thumb. 1. ring. When not thrusting. bend both knees and do not have much weight on your heels (Zu Gen Wei Xu. On-Guard Stance: Four-Level Posture (Si Ping Qiang Shi. the grip is of vital importance. and little fingers on opposite sides half way around the circumference of the shaft. Jiao Xia Cai. 阴把) is accomplished by reversing your left front hand. Do not tense the muscles in your arms. With the weight bias towards the balls of your feet. with your left thumb facing towards the butt of the shaft. 似曲非直). Again. you may grip the spear with your left hand or allow the spear to slide in the left hand (but never open your left hand). 半握) is used to remove your fingers from being hit by your opponent’s spear sliding down the spear shaft (Shun Gan Hua Da. 枪是缠腰锁). 脚下踩). 顺杆滑打). shoulder. Grip C: The reverse grip (Yin Ba. 四平枪势) This is the on-guard ready stance (Ding Ba Bu. visualize a string pulling the top of your head upwards (Tou Xu Ling. The right rear hand firmly holds the butt in its palm. Grip B: The half-grip (Ban Wo. 足跟为虚). Grip (Wo Fa. 四平) implies: Head. flex both arms and legs (Si Qu Fei Zhi. The posture and body mechanics are similar to Hun Yuan Zhuang (浑元桩). and feet must all be level (Ping. When parrying. When thrusting. index. 浑元力) to the point of the spear. place your right hand near your waist with the spear shaft (the section between your hands) resting in front of your right hip. your legs act as springs. with your thumb and index finger lying along the length of the shaft pointing towards the point. do not crouch or lean your torso forward (腰脊骨垂线 成直). 握法) To transmit your balanced-force (Hun Yuan Li. Keep your head level and neck erect. your left front hand grips the spear shaft with the base of your thumb and your middle. 枪心). 平).

中四平枪势) This is the left-lead small step on-guard posture. 内螺 旋) compressing the imaginary spring between your knees (Jia Xi Fa Li. keep the spear between you and your opponent. The front hand. Before the thrust. High Four-level Posture (Gao Si Ping Qiang Shi. and relaxed. 3. 中四平枪势). 高四平枪势) From the Center Four-level Posture (Zhong Si Ping Qiang Shi. 伏虎桩) and lower your spear to just below your waist/hip level. Keep the point and the butt of your spear level and the section of the spear between your hands in contact with your torso (waist) above your hip. Keep your shoulders down. The rear hand is touching your waist. shoot your arms out. always threatening your opponent’s mouth/nose area. keeps the spear level with the point centered at the central line. use a large step posture (Fu Hu Zhuang. This is mainly used as a faint to draw your opponent from his Center Four-level Posture so you can return to yours. The spear may or may not contact your torso. The spear point. 4. level. maintaining this horizontal level reduces the angle of interception between your spear and your opponent’s spear. Low Four-level Posture (Di Si Ping Qiang Shi. Keep the point laterally centered on your central line. blade your body (torso) to the front (3/4 stance) to reduce your target. push your shoulder forward. Keep the point and the butt of the spear level. Keep both feet level on the ground so you can use the “ground-path”. Center Four-level Posture (Zhong Si Ping Qiang Shi. your nose and your front foot are on the same vertical plane. 中四平枪势). 11 .2. keep relaxed with more weight on your rear leg. mildly opposing by drilling your front foot (Nei Luo Xuan. When thrusting. 低四平枪势) From the Center Four-level Posture (Zhong Si Ping Qiang Shi. When thrusting forward. Keep the spear level with the ground. torque your torso. making the thrust harder to parry. 内螺旋). take up power from the ground. holding the spear level in contact with your waist just above your hip. and use your whole-body balanced-force to deliver a powerful thrust. “transmitting the ground force” to the tip of your spear. lift your spear to chest level. drill your rear foot into the ground (Nei Luo Xuan. 夹膝发 力). shift your weight forward. slightly flexed and bent. Always threaten your opponent with the spear point. This is mainly used as a faint to draw your opponent from his Center Four-level Posture so you can return to yours.

12 . 四平六直): Point. 拦). 活把枪) The left front hand acts mainly as a fulcrum. Example: When doing the mid-level outside parry (Lan. The front hand remains essentially as a stationary fulcrum with palm facing downward (applying slight downward pressure). Different Styles (Ba Fa. 拿). the right rear hand moves as in Style 1. The left front hand turns palm facing upwards to augment the rear hand. Example: When executing the mid-level outside parry (Lan. and the front foot and rear foot must be level and on one vertical plane. rear shoulder. The spear shaft may roll and slide forwards/backwards on your torso during the execution of each parry. 三尖对). When doing the mid-level inside parry (Na. You must be able to use whole-body harmony of action in this style. the rear hand moves from palm facing backward inward towards your body at the waist level to palm facing forward outward from your body at the chest level. the right rear hand directs the majority of the movement. It is easier to coordinate waist/body/core movement with this style. The following three are dominant. the right rear hand moves as in Style 1. 拿). 把法) There are many “action styles” (Ba Fa. 后把枪) The left front hand acts as fulcrum. Style 2: Both Hands Active Style (Liang Ba Qiang. When doing the midlevel inside parry (Na. we will use the mid-level parry (Na. The point and the butt of the spear must be level and on one vertical plane. Style 3: Rear Hand Control Style (Hou Ba Qiang. Lan.Spear on-guard posture requires (Si Ping Liu Zhi. otherwise you cannot do any parry correctly. 拦). the nose and lead foot must be on one vertical plane (San Jian Dui. The stance is the basic Hun Yuan Zhuang ( 浑元桩) posture with weight bias towards the balls of your feet for spring-like whole-body harmony. 拿. D. 两把枪) Both hands move simultaneously to execute a parry. front shoulder. The point of the spear. The left front hand turns palm facing downwards to assist. butt. front foot. 把法) in using the spear. and rear foot must be maintained in harmony (Qiang Fa Liu Zhi. the front shoulder and rear shoulder must be level and on one vertical plane. the right rear hand rotates but remains essentially at waist level. 枪法六 直). 拦) to illustrate their differences: Style 1: Rear Hand Active Style (Huo Ba Qiang. the rear hand moves from palm facing forward outward at the chest level to palm facing backward inward at the waist level while the front hand remains as a stationary fulcrum with palm facing downward.

changing into a rightlead posture. Push off your front foot to shuffle backward. circle left): From a left-lead posture. pivot and wheel to your right bringing your left foot forward into a left-lead. the left front hand essentially remains stationary. and diagonal backward. Zou Bu. 拦). 13 . Footwork is used for attack. then the left foot follows a half step to your right. push off your right foot. Forward/backward Passover step: This should be as easy as walking forward or backward. and then your front foot follows. there is no inherent advantage to each style. To move left. Train with the style that works best for you. for defense. move your right foot diagonally right and forward. 拿) and rotates outwards (Wai Luo Xuan. only the left palm rotates inwards (Nei Luo Xuan. for proper positioning. The wading step (Mo Ca Bu. 拦). then the right foot follows a half step left to maintain a shoulder’s width in your stance. While Style 3 is the most elegant. To circle left from a left-lead. 内螺旋) to facing downwards for inside parry (Na. move your right foot diagonally right and forward. and for conserving energy. to circle forward right. your lead foot advance first. Examples: Forward/backward shuffle (Fencing steps): Push off your rear foot to shuffle forward. backward. 走步) No one fights while standing and/or holding still. Forward diagonal (circle right. Do not retreat your rear foot and then drag your front foot backwards. Footwork (Zou Bu. move your left foot diagonally left and forward. rotating clockwise for inside parry (Na. Or. The right rear hand remains at waist level. then your rear foot follows. move the left foot one step left. lateral right. lateral left. 摩擦步) is the foundation for all Yiquan footwork (see BASIC SKILLS on Footwork. for deception. move the right foot one step to your right. 外螺旋) to facing upwards for outside parry (Lan. 走步). your rear foot retreat first. for evasion. Do not advance your lead foot and then drag your rear foot forwards. Practice as you feel inclined. push of your left foot. E. To move right. and you may mix and use the different styles. All footwork steps are included in stepping forward. diagonal forward. pivot and wheel left to bring your left foot behind your right foot (swing step). The spear shaft may roll and slide forward/backward on your waist/torso.Example: When doing the mid-level parry. 拿) and counter-clockwise for outside parry (Lan. Lateral sidestep: Move first the foot closest to the direction you intend to move while pushing off with the other leg. with the smallest movement.

Tui. proper connected-ness (Shu Zhan Lian Tong. and keep the spear between you and your opponent. 截. For example. Optimal alignment (Gu Ge Zhi Cheng. 推. simply shuffle diagonally to your right rear. Jie. 诀 曰: 枪 扎 一 条 线。 诀 曰: 去 如 箭. The underhand slip thrust is an essential basic skill of the spear. push it straight forward with your natural inward/outward spiral movement (Nei/Wai Luo Xuan. 来 如 线。 诀 曰: 扎. you use your whole-body harmony action to move the point in circular or helical spiral (corkscrew) patterns to deliver power laterally. you line up your right rear forearm with the length of the spear. in an underhand slip thrust. 内/外螺旋) to stab forward and immediately withdraw/retract after releasing your balanced-force (power). and harmony of whole-body action and force (Quan Shen Li Yi. 内/外螺旋) on your torso. 舒展连通). You thrust the spear forward as in the rear hand straight punch forward power release. F. 环绕 步) into a left-lead posture. 刺。 2. Thrusting (Za. on balance. The typical categories of power discharge/release maneuvers in spear training are: 1. The spear shaft may slide forward/backward and twist with inward/outward rotation (Nei/Wai Luo Xuan. Types of Power Discharges/Releases We use the spear training primarily as a supplemental conditioning apparatus to develop crisp clean power releases. No matter how your footwork carries you. step left foot diagonally left and back first. Circular Lateral Parrying: Keeping the spear shaft in contact with your waist/torso. 截. Ci. then step right foot behind left foot into a left-lead posture or in front of left foot into a right-lead posture. 全身力一) are prerequisites. threaten him with the point directed towards his mouth/nose area. 中四平枪势). 刺): This is a forward linear power discharge/release. 浑元力) and/or as an extension of your arms/hands to deliver the balanced-force through the spear onto your opponent in combat. 14 . to cultivate the balanced-force (Hun Yuan Li. To move diagonally left and back. always attempt to end up in your on-guard Center Four-level posture (Zhong Si Ping Qiang Shi. to move diagonally right and back. You make use of the difference in movement time to your advantage in these lateral parry techniques. Backward diagonal (back triangle): From a left-lead posture.pivot and wheel to your right to bring your right foot behind your left foot (Huan Rao Bu. 推. 骨骼支撑). 扎.

horizontal. Gun. 劈) combination or pull (Dai. 棒.诀 曰: 枪 的 元 神 只 有 一 圈。 诀 曰: 先 有 圈 枪 为 母。 诀 曰: 拦 拿 革 中.g. Zhang. Example: push (Tui. or inclined diagonal chop. snappy. or pulling backward to defend (to cut or parry). or to slash your opponent with the leading half of the blade edge of your spearhead. 扫。 5. 崩。 4. sharp. the shaft of the spear sweep out a large "fan" like pattern (Shan Mian. 寻找劲路). 压. 诀 曰: 横 抖. 摇. explore. Pi. observe the sensation of the propagation of force through the elements of your whole-body to cultivate pathways of force propagation (Xun Zhao Jing Lu. 打. 带。 While we identify these as separate categories. 劈) to strike at your target. and experience the concurrent sequential overlapping body movement. 勾 捉 革 上. 扇面) in a plane (vertical. clean. Push/pull power release is combined with the other type of power releases in normal use. 挑. They are used to “shake” or “beat” your opponent’s weapon “off it’s line of attack” to create an opening or to slash (with the first half of the blade edge) and cut (with the whole blade edge) with circular pulling back motions of the spearhead. striking chop with the shaft or cut with the whole edge of the spearhead. Bang. 杆. etc. 点. 滑杆试力) exercises to sense. 15 . in practical use they are often combined and inseparable. 杖) and are used only very sparingly in the spear e. 拿。 3. You must use “trial-andfeel” (Hua Gan Shi Li. 带) and lift (Beng.. Example: parrying and simultaneously thrusting. experiment. 棍. 提 掳 革 下。 诀 曰: 缠. and fast powerful releases to the lateral (left/right sides) or the vertical (up/down) directions (Tan Dou Li. to ingrain the maneuver into muscle memory. Pushing/pulling: Keep the spear in a vertical plane while pushing forward (to stab or parry). 崩) combination. Striking (Sweeping): In striking. These are used mostly in the staff techniques (Gan. Shaking (lateral/vertical): These are short. 撩. 推) and chop (Pi. 弹抖力). 诀 曰: 劈. 诀 曰: 推. 拦.

middle inside. and hands forward. 截. Thrust (Za. 一动全身转). Ci. start by drilling (Zuan. 来 如 线。 16 . 内螺旋). only tense and focus at the very last instance of your power release. A. the shaft sliding in the tube formed by your left thumb. 诀 曰: 中 平 一 点 是 枪 王。 诀 曰: 中 平 六 路 总。 You must use your whole-body balanced-force and neuromuscular coordination to deliver your thrust. the whole-body must move as one (Yi Dong Wu Bu Dong.. Tui. i. high outside. “Shoot” the spear out straight. Visualize thrusting your spear through a wall. the shoulders drive the elbows. throat. Withdraw/retract must be fast and straight (来如线). 中平枪) because the angle between the crossing spears are smaller than in the high or low thrusts. shins and feet. ribs. centered. shooting the spear forward. hands. make full use of the intrinsic helical spiral nature of your musculature with appropriate twisting of your torso and limbs (Yi Dong Quan Shen Zhuan. With relaxed initiation. middle outside.2. Jie.e. knees. 一动无不动). 内螺旋). Remember: the torso/core drives the shoulders. arms. 中四平枪势). The main targets for spear attack (Qiang Yan. Za. Thrust your spear forward with your relaxed whole-body (tension will slow you down). and level while twisting your right forearm inwards (Nei Luo Xuan. All linear attacks are included in the following six thrusts (Shang Zhong Xia Liu Lu Chu Qiang. push your whole-body forward. return to your Center Four-level Posture (Zhong Si Ping Qiang Shi. 推) We shall include most forward/backward maneuvers here. we will briefly describe some important basic spear maneuvers/techniques. 中平枪) The most difficult thrust to parry is the center mid-level thrust (Zhong Ping Qiang. 扎). The front hand is mainly used to control the spear's angle and direction. when your right hand “smash” into your left hand. 刺. 扎. Center Mid-level Thrust (Zhong Ping Qiang. immediately withdraw/retract your spear to your waist. index and middle fingers (underhand slip thrust. heart. and drive your right shoulder. Forward thrust must be fast and must have acceleration (去如箭). arms. low inside and low outside. 枪眼) are: head. Remain relaxed except at the focus of the power release. When thrusting from a left-lead posture. 诀 曰: 去 如 箭. Basic Spear Skills (Qiang Fa. After your power release. the elbows drive the hands. pivot your torso to your left. this concurrent sequential overlapping action thrusts your right hand forward towards your left hand. 钻) your right rear leg to take up power from the ground (Nei Luo Xuan. 上中下六路出抢): high inside. 枪法) Next. navel.

Oral Tradition: Thrust your spear forward like an arrow. 滑枪) with a circular movement while sliding your spear forward and downward along your opponent’s spear shaft toward his leading front hand (Shun Gan Hua Da. Then “slip” your opponent’s spear aside (Hua Qiang. B. Tui. Overhand Thrust: By reversing your left hand hold so your thumbs face each other (Yin Ba. 截. you may execute a powerful forward. withdraw it immediately just as fast and straight. you can execute fast one handed overhand stabbing motions thrusting forward and downward (Cha. you want to push your shaft forward into the path of your opponent’s spear. 插). This results in the single hand forward thrust (one-handed underhand slip thrust. You may increase stability by twisting both hands in synch (Fan Wan. In general. 圈枪) The “circle movement” maneuver of the point (Quan Qiang. explore the up/down (vertical). Underhand Thrust: By not allowing the spear to slip in your left hand. 插). 内外螺旋). with the center of gravity of the spear far forward. and forward/backward principal directional forces as you do the circles clockwise and counter-clockwise. Qiang Xin. 截把). It makes use of the difference in movement time: a linear thrust attack from your opponent must travel over a longer distance than your circular lateral parry movement. Make sure you are using whole-body harmony action (Zheng Ti Xie Tiao. Dan Shou Za. intercept the end section of your opponent’s spear shaft with the mid section of your spear shaft and “stick” to his weapon. Cha. you may execute an underhand forward thrust using both hands (Ci. left/right (lateral). One Handed Underhand Slip Thrust: In special situations. It is a dangerous move because you do not have much control. downward overhand thrust (Jie. you need only parry his point a couple of feet laterally from your central line to defeat it. 阴把) on the spear shaft. 单手扎). 刺. it is easy to parry. Fang Liu Lu Qiang. Keep the spear shaft touching your torso. 诀 曰: 先 有 圈 枪 为 母。 The square movement is within the circle movement. 枪心). 圈枪) is the mother of all parrying techniques (mainly for spear-versus-spear. Similar overhand thrust with the butt does not require changing your grip (Jie Ba. One Handed Overhand Thrust: By holding the spear in a reverse grip (ice pick grip) at its center of gravity (balance point. 推). 翻腕) to rotate the spear on an axis coaxial with its shaft in its forward and backward movement (Nei Wai Luo Xuan. 防六路枪). you may increase your reach by releasing your left hand hold. Circle (Quan Qiang. direct the point to move in a circle (square) in a vertical plane with an approximate 2-foot diameter. 整体协调) and not just moving your arms 17 . 顺杆滑打).

then down right (clockwise from 9 o'clock through 12 o'clock to 3 o'clock) to intercept your opponent’s spear. 防六路枪) 诀 曰: 拦 拿 革 中. then down left (counter-clockwise from 3 o'clock through 12 o'clock to 9 o'clock) to intercept your opponent’s spear. Parry thrust to mid-level outside (Lan. using your whole-body (torso). your spear shaft may slide slightly backwards on your torso. take up power from the ground. lower your right hand slightly to increase the angle between the spears. Parrying Mid-level Thrusts (平来枪): Inside (Na. 压) use smaller circular motion. Examples: Parries for the six standard thrusts (Fang Liu Lu Qiang. Alternate: Downward press parry (Ya. 拿) and Outside (Lan. make the point of your spear describe a semi-circle with the open side facing down by simultaneously rotating your front hand to palm facing down and your rear hand to palm facing up. 提 掳 革 下。 Coordinate your whole-body harmony movement (Zheng Ti Xie Tiao. 拿): From the left lead on-guard posture. 18 . Alternate: Downward press parry (Ya. the spear rotates on an axis coaxial with the shaft. 拦): From the left lead on-guard posture. push hands forward and downward. Alternatively. Drill your right foot inwards (Nei Luo Xuan. For more advance practice. slide your spear shaft backwards on your torso with the right hand remaining on the spear butt behind your right hip. 吞). 整体协调) to take up power from the ground to execute these six standard parries. you may rotate your front hand to palm facing up and rear hand to palm facing down while withdrawing both hands rearward. Withdraw both hands slightly rearward and shift your weight rearwards (Tun. the spear shaft may slide forward/backward and rotate on your torso to provide natural helical spiral (corkscrew) three-dimensional motions as necessary. torque your torso to your left. 内螺旋). The spear point moves from left up. torque your torso to your right. take up power from the ground. We will now describe how to use different sections of the circle movement of the point to parry the spear thrust. lower your right hand slightly to increase the angle between the spears. 内螺旋). 勾 捉 革 上. Drill your left foot inwards (Nei Luo Xuan. 局部). The spear point moves from right up. 压) use smaller circular motion. 拦) Parry thrust to mid-level inside (Na. push hands forward and downward. using your whole-body make the point of your spear describe a semi-circle with open side facing down by simultaneously rotate your front hand to palm facing up and bring your rear hand (from your waist to your chest) with palm facing front.locally (Ju Bu. shifting your weight rearward slightly.

点. 带) Downward Strike (Chop. slash or cut his hand or forearm. Parrying Low-level Thrusts (低来枪): Inside (Ti. 随棍打手). 提) and Outside (Lu. High-level outside parry (Gou. lower your left hand slightly and push it to the front and right. Drill your rear foot inwards (Nei Luo Xuan. Pi. 捉) and Outside (Gou. 掳) Low-level inside parry (Ti. palm facing upwards. The spear point describes a semi-circle with the open side facing your left (clockwise from 12 o'clock through 3 o'clock to 6 o'clock) to intercept your opponent’s spear. chop down with the spear (left hand should slide back towards the butt while the right hand may lift upwards slightly during the downward chop). shift your weight either backward or forward slightly. The left hand is brought up high to in front of the left shoulder with the back of the hand facing upwards. lift your left front hand about 5 inches (left hand may slide towards the point). take up power from the ground. Dian. The rear hand is lowered slightly to raise the point to increase the angle between the spears to intercept your opponent’s spear. twist (pivot) your body to drive your left shoulder back and your right shoulder forward. 劈. lift your right hand up to chest level rotating your right palm to face the right front. of your opponent's spear to knock it off his hand. Simultaneously. about a foot in front of your opponent's lead hand). 拍位. Practical technique: Extend your hands forward as you chop downward. 掳): Similar to low-level inside parry. The rear hand is lowered slightly to increase the angle between the spears to intercept your opponent’s spear. 内螺旋).Parrying High-level Thrusts (高来枪): Inside (Zhuo. 拦). Low-level outside parry (Lu. use your opponent's spear as a guide and follow it down to strike his lead hand (Sui Gun Da Shou. 内螺 旋) to take up power from the ground. Simultaneously. 捉) is the same as mid-level inside parry (Na. C. 内螺旋). Or strike at the “sweet spot” (Pai Wei. take up power from the ground. ending in the Center Four-level posture. 提): Drill your leading left foot inwards (Nei Luo Xuan. Downward Strike – Chop (Pi. Using whole-body balanced-force. Keep your right rear hand on your waist. 劈) may be used to parry high-level and mid-level thrusts. 勾) High-level inside parry (Zhuo. 勾) is the same as mid-level outside parry (Lan. torque torso left. Dai. 拿). drill legs inwards (Nei Luo Xuan. lower and withdraw your left hand to the rear and left while rotating left hand to left palm facing down and right palm facing up. 19 . The spear should be centered and level after the chop. torque your torso to your right. The point of your spear describes a semi-circle with the open side facing your right (counter-clockwise from 12 o'clock through 9 o'clock to 6 o'clock) to intercept your opponent’s spear thrust.

挑) as a direct attack or riposte after a low-level parry (Ti. 带). 劈. lift up your left front hand. Soft Upward Strike or Lift Parry (Rou. 摇). push down with your right rear hand. Hard Upward Strike or Lift Parry (Gang. Spear thrusts are much too fast for these staff techniques (Gun Fa. In order to guard your central line. Yao. immediately follow through with a “chop” attack (Tiao Da Qiang. shift your weight slightly backwards (Tun.Lift (Beng. Move the shaft slightly to your right to parry an inside (Quan Li. Lu. Tiao. Pi. Dai. Caution: Large sweeping “fan like” (Shan Mian. 挑打枪). Note: Chopping (Pi. 刚): When your spear is below your opponent's spear shaft. 挑. 带) or as an attack (Beng. with a forceful upward strike (lift). do not slide your hands together because that will slow your recovery to your on-guard posture. lift your right rear hand palm upwards to a point higher than the front hand causing the spear point to snap downwards sharply to strike downward on your opponent’s lead forearm or hand. 挑. this is the upward shake (Beng. 摇. extending your arms forward. follow your opponent’s spear shaft towards your target. 打. use your whole-body coordination to guide your spear point upwards and backwards (Tiao. Your front hand moves upwards while your rear hand moves downwards. horizontal. in “large motion”. 柔): Drill your legs to take up power from the ground. do not lean backwards). 掳). 棍法). Da. 圈里) thrust or slightly to your left to parry an outside (Quan Wai. Upward Strike . Note: Lightning fast downward slashing with the first half of the blade is usually accompanied with slightly circular pulling back (Dai. 崩). 撩). Liao. 扇面) chops (vertical. When using diagonal chops. 提. Practical technique: After using “lift” to parry. 挑. Practical technique: Use the upward lift (Tiao. Visualize throwing a shovel of sand backwards over your left shoulder. it is the upward strikes (Tiao. Or remove your body from the line of attack (thrust) by side stepping or diagonal stepping and use the upward 20 . 挑. Sao. Liao. 带) of your spear while cutting with the full blade may require moving the spear forward or backward. Tiao. 带) Upward Lift can be used to parry high-level thrusts (Tiao. 劈) uses large motion to drive the full blade through your target. D. 扫) should never be used against spear thrusts because of the slow recovery time. 撩. Dai. 崩. Dai. knock your opponent’s spear upwards to create an opening or cut your opponent’s forearm. you should minimize the departure of the spear point from the central line by chopping straight down using the full edge with minimal pull back.Dian (点): Use the left front hand as fulcrum. 圈 外) thrust. 崩. Liao. 吞. 挑. In “small motion”. diagonal. Yao. 撩.

崩): This is similar to the upward lift strike. twisting your right hand to palm facing upward (Wai Luo Xuan. 外螺旋) while pulling outwards and backwards. Da. In order to succeed. 内螺旋) while pulling inwards and backwards. Tiao. 摇) to attack your opponent’s leading arm (Shan Bu Yi Tiao. 闪步一挑). torque your torso to your right while shifting your weight slightly backwards. 带) in a circular motion when slashing or cutting with the upper edge of the blade. This is a short snappy fast lateral move to bounce (or beat) your opponent's spear to your outside or to slash and cut backhand. Thus. to shake (Dou. Shake (Dou. Lower the spear point and extend it slightly forward. 抖. torque your torso to your left while shifting your weight slightly backwards. 崩. Riposte immediately. create an opening for your counter attack. Beng. 矛盾争力) and the helical spiral (corkscrew) twisting forces (Luo Xuan Li Wu Xing. Move your spear shaft on top of your opponent's spear shaft during the defensive shake. 抖) to “bounce” or “beat” his spear laterally or vertically off his line of attack. Left Shake (Zuo Dou. to shake (Dou. 撩. 抖) laterally towards your left and rear. Pull backward slightly (Dai. shift your weight backwards simultaneously lift your front hand upwards while pushing your rear hand downwards to snap the point sharply upwards ending in Center Four-level on-guard posture. 点. Riposte immediately. Upward Shake (Beng. 挑. 外螺旋) while pulling inwards and backwards. your may execute forehand and backhand lateral/vertical shakes with circular pull back to slash or with forward/backward motions to cut your opponent with the blade of your spear. 抖) laterally towards your right rear. 右抖): From the left lead Center Four-level posture. Keep your spear in contact with your waist. Yao. This will help you to learn to use your whole-body. Right Shake (You Dou. Liao. Drill your legs to take up power from the ground. It works better if you can end up with your spear shaft on top of your opponent's spear shaft during the defensive shake. simultaneously rotate your left hands to palm facing upward (Wai Luo Xuan. 内螺旋) while pushing outwards and forwards. E. do not lean backwards. shift your weight backwards at the hip (Tun. Also. For lightning fast slashes. twisting your right hand to palm facing downward (Nei Luo Xuan. 打. Use this as riposte to slash or cut 21 . you may use shake (Dou. push off your right foot. 崩) When your thrust is parried from your central line and your opponent is counter thrusting while “sticking” to your spear shaft (Tie Gan Shen Ru. 弹抖力) cultivated from nurturing the isometric-opposite-force-pairs (Mao Dun Zheng Li. Use the whole blade with either forward or backward motions to cut. you must be able to rapidly deploy a crisp springlike force (Tan Dou Li.strike “lift” (Beng. Dian. 螺旋力无形). This is a short snappy fast lateral move to bounce (or beat) your opponent's spear to your inside or to slash and cut backhand. simultaneously rotate your left hands to palm facing downward (Nei Luo Xuan. use only the leading half of the blade edge with circular pull back motion. 贴杆深入). 吞). push off your left foot. 左抖): From the left lead Center Four-level posture.

基本棍法). thumb along the shaft pointing towards the butt. 顺杆滑打) forwards and downwards to execute Dian (点) on his leading forearm/hand. 实作). follow your opponent’s spear shaft (Shun Gan Hua Da. Jia. Drill your legs to take up power from the ground. 滑杆发力). Ge. and arm throw your spear at your target. 格。 They are too dangerous to use when engaged in a spear-versus-spear confrontation because of their slow recovery time. Downward Shake (Dian. Practice and learn the trajectory of your throw. 扫. and free sparring (Shi Zuo.your opponent’s lead arm or beat at the sweet spot on your opponent’s spear shaft about a foot in front of your opponent’s front grip (Pai Wei. pivot and rotate your torso forward. Do this short sharp snappy downward chop using your whole-body. Press Down (Ya. pull backwards to slash. However. 滑杆试力).. 双人对滑对扎). 插. 磨杆试力). feet shoulder width apart. 拍位) to knock you opponent’s spear off his line of attack. 架. As riposte for a pushing parry (Tui. Others Some secondary parrying techniques such as Wrapping (Chan. F. 点): This is similar to the downward chop strike. Keep your spear in contact with your waist. they can be used quite effectively against other weapons and will be included in the Section II: Staff (Ji Ben Gun Fa. thumb almost touching your chin. trial-and-feel (Hua Gan Shi Li. to increase range. or “beat” at the “sweet spot” (Pai Wei. are just variations of the basic skills already described. simultaneously push your left front hand downwards while lifting your right rear hand upwards to snap the point sharply downwards ending in Center Four-level on-guard posture. 推劈) etc. you do throw away your weapon.. Extend your throwing arm as far forward as possible before releasing. 拍位) to open a line. Face your target squarely. Methods and Procedures We will explore/discuss basic spear training in five overlapping categories: resistance drills (Mo Gan Shi Li. 压). Drill inwards (Nei Luo Xuan. 推). 勾. 缠). hold your spear at the balance point (Qiang Xin. 内螺旋) and push off with your rear foot. Spear Throwing: While throwing your spear increase your effective “reach” enormously. power release (Hua Gan Fa Li. keep the shaft and point in a straight line pointing at your target. 打. shoulder. using your back.e. hold your spear over your throwing arm shoulder. open all your joints in a concurrent sequential overlapping motion. To Throw. step forward with your front foot. Push Chop (Tui Pi. Gou. the other four fingers half way around on the opposite side of the shaft. Cha. 22 . Sao. 3. The following maneuvers/techniques contain large physical movements: Da. two-man slip spears drills (Shuang Ren Dui Hua Dui Za. extend arms forward to cut. 枪心) with a reverse half grip i. raise your throwing arm.

Lateral left/right: Repeat this exercise using different angled tree branches to explore and experience the dominant lateral leftward forward (or leftward backward) forces with rotating your left leading hand counter-clockwise outwards (Wai Luo Xuan. 内螺旋). and experience the interaction of frictional resistance forces (Zheng Li. explore. This exercise trains lateral left/right spring-like “shaking” forces (Heng Dou Tan Li. 内螺旋). 六 面摸力). mix up the sequence for sensing and exploring the resistance forces in all the six principal directions (Liu Mian Mo Li. In these exercises. 中四平枪势). 相争相连). take up power from the ground. sense. rotating your left leading hand clockwise inwards (Nei Luo Xuan. Upward/downward: Repeat this exercise using different angled tree branches to explore and experience the dominant downward and forward force (or upward and forward) force while pushing forward. Feel for the dominant forward/backward force against the light frictional resistance as the spear shaft is “rubbed” on the tree branch. lateral left/right (Liu Mian Mo Li. 外螺旋). push your spear forward and downward while rotating your lead left hand clockwise to palm facing down (Nei Luo Xuan. mildly opposing with the front leg by drilling inwards. Forward/backward: Start with the left lead Center Four-level posture (Zhong Si Ping Qiang Shi. When you have master whole-body harmony of action with these. with the front section of the spear shaft resting on a tree branch at throat level to provide friction/resistance. 外螺旋). be aware of. 滑杆试力) with any of the spear maneuvers/techniques described to ingrain whole-body harmony of action of each of the 23 . With whole-body harmony effort. upward/downward. drill your right rear leg inwards (Nei Luo Xuan. pull your spear backward and downward while rotating your lead hand counter-clockwise to palm facing up (Wai Luo Xuan. and experience the dominant forward/backward friction forces as if trying to “saw” off the tree branch. and the dominant upward and backward force (or downward and backward) force while pulling backward rotating your left leading hand counter-clockwise outwards (Wai Luo Xuan. 内螺旋). mildly opposing with the rear leg. then push off your left front leg (drill outwards.A. 横抖弹力). stretching the imaginary spring connecting your knees (Xiang Zheng Xiang Lian. explore. 磨杆试力) Objective: Seek. Trial-and-feel (Hua Gan Shi Li. 六面摸力). Wai Luo Xuan. 外螺旋). 滑杆试力) Use solo trial-and-feel exercise (Hua Gan Shi Li. you may also reverse the rotational direction along the axis of the spear as you feel inclined. This exercise trains the use of forces in your “upward lift” and “downward chop” maneuvers. B. 夹膝发 力). 争力) in the six principal directions: forward/backward. compressing the imaginary spring between your knees (Jia Xi Fa Li. Sense. perceive. 内螺旋). 外螺旋). Resistance Drills (Mo Gan Shi Li. and the dominant rightward forward (or rightward backward) forces with rotating your left leading hand clockwise inwards (Nei Luo Xuan.

Practice soft power discharge/release (Song De Fa Li. 字 字 对 得 过. 滑杆发力) Use any of the maneuver/technique as solo power discharge/release exercise (Hua Gan Fa Li. 按 一 字 对 戳 一 枪. Two-man Slip Spears Drills (Shuang Ren Dui Hua Dui Za. In modeling the student mimics the movement of the teacher and in imaging the student think through the movement to "ingrain" the skill. angle. smooth is fast. Power (Hua Gan Fa Li. 压). 内外争力). Jie. 松的发力) intersperse with a few hard focus ones (Jin De Fa Li. Sense. 紧的发力). 崩. 劈. lateral left/right parry. Ya. 因 敌 制 胜 也。 Timing. Both mental and physical exercises are necessary. and experience the internal/external isometricopposite-forces (Nei Wai Zheng Li. lateral right (Na. 滑杆发力) to practice power discharge/release (Fa Li. Do it correctly every time will reinforce your automatic response and un-conscious competence. Tui. 截. 定步). 诀 曰: 须 两 枪 对 较. and refine to achieve whole-body harmony of action and force. 双人对滑对扎) Repetition is the mother of all skills. Initially train in fixed-step (Ding Bu. etc. And wear appropriate protective equipment. Heng Dou. 活步). D. 每 一 字 经 过 万 遍 不 失. explore. adapt. initially train in fixed-step (Ding Bu. upward lift (Beng. Cooperate with your slip spear training/sparring partner. that will lead to “rigidity” (Jiang. 发力) in the six principal directions: forward thrust (Za. backward pull (Dai. 拦. Dian. 24 . upward lift and downward chop. For safety. then incorporating footwork and use free-step (Huo Bu.techniques. perceive. remove the spear point or blade. use only the blunt spear shaft. Change. Repetition is the mother of all skills. Slow is smooth. 活步). 僵). 横抖). then incorporating footwork and use free-step (Huo Bu. 一 照 批 迎. 切 磋 堋 挤 着. Repetition is the mother of all skills. These exercises are similar to “push-hands” repetitive drills. 扎. Do not practice hard Fa Li exclusively. 乃 为 成 艺. Heng Dou. 浑元力). Let your mindbody experience your intellectual learning by doing these slow motion two persons trial-and-feel exercises. ingrain each maneuver/technique into “habit”. angle. C. Use the spear with whole-body harmony of action and balanced-force (Hun Yuan Li. 拿 大 小 门 圈 穿. Do forward thrust and backward pull. 横抖). 刺). 推. Remember that Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) consists of modeling and imaging. and distance. learn the timing. Ci. Skills must become spontaneous reflexes to be useful. 拿. distance. harmonize and interact with the surrounding. 双人对滑对扎). and accuracy can only be learned from experience with basic two-man slip spear sparring practice (Shuang Ren Dui Hua Dui Za. 点. downward chop (Pi. Tiao. 定步). 后 方 可 随 意 应 敌. and lateral left (Lan. 挑). you must practice both mental and physical training and conditioning. 带).

In these exercises.wrap-around parry (Chan. 25 . A thrusts towards B's front hand from the outside. 缠. 中四平枪势). 中门).We will only list some important examples of two-man slip spear exercises below. b) 1. your spear point will only reach your opponent's front foot. Do not practice parry without a riposte. Use the elastic spring-like property (Tan Xing. 新力未生时). change. adapt. the defender/trainee/student. Initial distance: For safety reasons. face your opponent in the left lead Center Four-level Posture (Zhong Si Ping Qiang Shi. 3. For continue development. you must modify. 拦) and slips B's spear to A's outside. 3. outside indicates “outside the circle” (Quan Wai. 拍位). 2. Examples: a) Mid-Level Outside Parry I (Lan. 拦) and slips A's spear to B's outside. B is the student/trainee. The parry should be executed late and fast (守则见肉分枪). the attacker/trainer/teacher should angle his spear upwards so that it is easier for his partner. Inside indicates “inside the circle” (Quan Nei. use your imagination to refine and invent new ones. 圈外). Mid-Level Outside Parry II . B executes mid-level outside parry and slips A's spear to B's inside. 滑) the spears so that the front section of the defender's spear shaft parries towards the middle section of the attacker's spear shaft (Pai Wei. B executes mid-level outside parry (Lan. B thrusts towards A's front hand from the outside (riposte). 拦) A thrusts to B's front hand from the outside. The defender should use the middle section of his spear shaft to make initial contact with the front section of the attacker's spear shaft. as the attacker’s hands come together shortening the controlling moment arm between his hands and become fully committing to his thrust (旧力略过. 4. and add to what is given to you. A must “nurse” B. 圈内). 拦) 1. Do not “bash” or “knock” the spears together. Lan. 中线) joining your center gates (Zhong Men. A executes mid-level outside parry and slips B's spear to A's inside. In the following examples: A is the teacher/trainer. for training purpose. stand apart so that when you thrust. 弹性) of the spears to slip your opponent's spear to the side. to parry. 4. B thrusts towards A's front hand from the outside (riposte). cooperating and allowing B to execute each technique correctly and completely. your left leading foot stepping on the centerline (Zhong Xian. To begin these exercises. A executes mid-level outside parry (Lan. 2. Then slip (Hua. with your spear pointing at your opponent’s throat.

ends with the front section of the spear shaft at the middle section of A's spear shaft (in a four-level posture).Downward Chop (Pi. B thrusts towards A's face from the outside (inside). A lifts his spear with his front hand. 4. Dai. A thrusts to B's front hand from the inside. 挑. The defender makes initial contact with middle section of his spear shaft then slips the contact point towards the front section of his spear shaft to slip his opponent's spear to the side. slip your spear along your opponent's spear. do not bash or knock the spears apart. 2. After a chopping parry. B lifts left hand (Tiao. A thrusts towards B's face from the outside (inside). 2. 3. When chopping.Upward Lift (Tiao. 4. 3. contacts the front section of B's spear on the inside (outside) with the middle section. B executes mid-level inside parry (Na. 带) to slip A's spear to B's outside (inside). A thrusts towards B's face from the inside (outside). If you move both hands forward when you are chopping. then chops down (Pi. continue to lift the spear upwards and backwards (Dai. 带) 1. 挑). B thrusts towards A's front hand from the inside (riposte). e) High-Level Parry . 劈) along A's spear slightly toward B’s inside (outside). B lifts his spear with his front hand. through 9 o’clock to 6 o’clock. the right hand must hold the butt firmly at the waist. contacts the front section of A's spear on the inside (outside) with the middle section. 拿) and slips B's spear to A's inside. 26 . 拿) and slips A's spear to B's inside. 2. B thrusts towards A's face from the inside (outside). 裹枪) uses a 270 degrees arc instead of the usual 180 degrees arc. The open side of the arc faces to the defender's lower right. ends with the front section of the spear shaft at the middle section of B's spear shaft (in a four-level posture). c) Mid-Level Inside Parry (Na. you will be able to strike (slash or cut) your opponent's front hand. 拿) 1. the spear point moves in a counter-clockwise circular arc from 3 o’clock through 12 o’clock. d) High-Level Parry . 3. then chops down (Pi. uses the front section of the spear to make initial contact with the middle section of A's spear. 挑). A executes mid-level inside parry (Na.The wrap-around parry (Guo Qiang. you may riposte with a forward thrust or an upward blow (Tiao. 劈) along B's spear slightly towards A’s inside (outside). 劈) 1.

After this low-level parry. 掳) B adopts the left lead High Four-level posture (Gao Si Ping Shi. the main force is from front arm. uses the middle section of his spear to make contact with the middle section of A's spear. 粘) and follow your opponent's spear. 托枪). and thrust in a new line or directions. when knocked. 顺杆滑打). 27 . Dai. change. 1. pushing slightly forward (pull backward) and lowers his left hand. “stick” (Nian. lifts his right hand. B thrusts towards A's front knee from the outside (inside). 1. g) Low-Level Inside Parry . Another: place your spear below your opponent's spear and forcefully snap upwards to release power to throw your opponent's spear upwards (see (h) below). the spears are "glued" (Nian Sui. A lifts left hand (Tiao. uses the middle section of his spear to make contact with the middle section of B's spear. 挑. uses the front section of the spear to make initial contact with the middle section of B's spear. continue to lift the spear upwards and backwards (Dai. Whereas in slipping. 4. Lu. 挑). 带) to slip B's spear to A's outside (inside). f) Low-Level Parry (Ti. 提. 卷枪) B adopts the left lead High Four-level posture to begin this exercise. It is important to “slip” (Hua. you can quickly withdraw. combining it with an upward lift to strike your opponent's front hand. 高四平势) leaving the lower lines open to begin this exercise. 3. 2. 带) should be light and soft. There are other upward lifting techniques.Helical Parry/Thrust (Juan Qiang. 黏随) together for better manipulation. B shifts front left leg back slightly to avoid the attack. Upward lift (Tiao. A thrusts towards B's knee from the inside. You may combine upward lift and then riposte with downward chop to strike your opponent's front hand. then slips the spear towards the front section and twist torso left (right) to slip B's attack to the outside (inside). 滑) the spears instead of knocking them. Some move both hands simultaneously while keeping the spear level (Tuo Qiang. then slips the spear towards the front section and twists torso left (right) to slip A's attack to the outside (inside). lifts right hand. you may riposte by slide your spear upward along your opponent's spear (Shun Gan Hua Da.4. A shifts front left leg back slightly to avoid the attack. A thrusts towards B's front knee from the outside (inside). pushing slightly forward (pull backward) and lowers his left hand. In the latter case.

扎. B lifts left leg to avoid the attack. withdraws right hand and lifts up forcefully with left hand. B changes attack target. ends in Center Four-level posture. Be sure to use whole-body movement and balanced-force (Hun Yuan Li. uses the middle section to contact the middle section of A's spear. B executes low outside parry. A thrusts to B's shoulder (Shan Zhuan. A changes attack target. A follows B's move. Basic Multiple Thrust Drill: Thrusts to heart. B executes mid-level inside parry (Na. B slips A's spear aside with outside (inside) parry while “sticking” onto A’s spear. A thrusts to B's face. A thrusts to B's heart. knee and face. 4. In this exercise. 2. your spear point traces out a helical spiral (corkscrew) pattern. 3. uses the middle section to contact the middle section of B's spear. B executes high inside parry. 6. 扎) towards B's front hand from the inside. It must be clean and crisp so your opponent's spear "bounces" upwards. 2. A thrusts (Za. This is an exercise for the downward forward overhand slip thrust. shoulder. 拿). places the spear below A's spear. B executes inside parry. 崩) forcefully with left hand. lifts right hand to chest level and lowers left hand slightly to make contact with spears. A thrusts to B's heart from the outside (inside). 5. 粘杆) 1. 7. 颠提). A executes mid-level inside parry. 弹抖力). By adding the inside parry during the thrust. do not bash or knock the shafts. B thrusts towards A's front hand from the inside. withdraws right hand and lifts up (Beng. The training partners may then reverse the offensive/defensive roles. places his spear below B's spear. 3. h) Basic Two Thrusts Drill (Tiao Qiang. B follows A's move. while pushing forward (to the right) slightly with the left hand (palm facing left). 3. moves the spear and thrusts towards A's shin from the outside. 2. Dian Ti. use an overhand slip thrust to shoot the spear towards A's front knee with the right hand (palm facing right). 浑元力) to back-up every move. the up lift (Beng. Slip the spears. A thrusts to B's knee. j) Basic “Sticking” Spear Drill (Nian Gan. i) 1. 4. 调枪) 1. B executes outside parry. ends in Center Four-level posture. 闪赚).2. 崩) is an upward shake power release (Tan Dou Li. 28 . moves the spear and thrusts towards B's shin from the outside (Za.

4. 推) A's spear to his left (right). Free form “touch sparring” seem to be the appropriate place to start. 4.3. B uses low outside (inside) parry. then with whole-body force lift upwards (Tiao. A thrusts to B's knee from the outside (inside). Explore. 点) at the sweet spot about a foot in front of A's hand (Xia Fa Li. 有意而练). create exercises to train for specific goals (You Yi Er Lian.Training Guidelines The majority of your training and conditioning effort should be on the primary exercises: 29 . Four Power Release Drills A thrusts to B's heart from the outside (inside). then keeping the spears in contact uses forward push (Tui. Full contact sparring with even modified weapons is definitely still dangerous. B sticking to A's spear. A thrusts to B's knee from the outside (inside). A changes target and thrusts to B’s knee from inside (outside). at the sweet spot in front of A's lead hand to throw his spear upwards. Dian. Set up safety rules of engagement. 挑). then chops down (downward shake. Controlled Free Form Sparring Use appropriate protective equipment. B uses low outside (inside) parry. experiment. This drill can be initiated with A thrusting high to B’s face or at mid-level to B’s heart from either inside or outside. Summary . 4. 诀 曰: 有 形 练 到 无 形 处. 3. then with whole-body balanced-force torque torso to his left (right) to shake A's spear to the outside (inside). A thrusts to B's heart from the inside.) 2. 下发力) to knock it downwards. (See section on Slip Spear Exercise. k) 1. A maneuver/technique becomes useful only after it has become “habit” and “form-less”. 推) power release to throw A backwards. 练 到 无 形 是 真 功。 E. B uses inside parry. B uses the mid section of his spear to push (Tui. like throwing a shovel of sand over his shoulder. and refine. follows A's move and executes low inside (outside) parry. Practice as you feel inclined.

3. Training to use the Staff (Gun Fa. 劈) Upward Lift (Beng. 套路) only practice/training is absolutely useless. 崩. Mid-level thrust (Za.1. All flowery techniques are a waste of time. 4. 点. 提. 滑杆) exercises. 掳) Shake (Dou. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2009-01-24 J. solo sequential forms and patterns (Tao Lu. All rights reserved. nothing can replace competent firsthand instructions. practice the secondary exercises: 1. However. Help each other learn. 挑) Low level parry (Ti. Students interested in spear techniques should seek qualified instructions. 拦) When you have mastered the primary exercises. Mid-level outside parry (Lan. 拿) 3. 2. 扎) 2. Lu. 棍法) is more practical than training to use the Spear and will be covered in Section II: Staff (Ji Ben Gun Fa. 抖) Students should use a buddy system to practice the basic “slip spear” (Hua Gan. The above are the fundamentals of the spear. 基本棍法). Mid-level inside parry (Na. P. 30 . Down Chop (Dian. Tiao. Always ask: What is the purpose of this move? Eliminate all extraneous motions. Pi. Lau.

诀 曰: 兼 枪 带 棒. 棍) is used to cover pole. In this exploration. 70% of staff maneuvers/techniques are spear maneuvers/techniques. 棍 借 身 力 。 Staff practice should follow the training and conditioning theories and principles of Yiquan: Understand the theories and principles involved. we assume the reader is familiar with using the spear. 意拳基本功) is prerequisite. 杆. 棍法) is a supplemental training for Yiquan. 杖. 诀 曰: 七 分 枪. 基本棍法) 基本棍法 Staff practice (Gun Fa. the staff must rely on impact to be effective. 双人对滑对扎). 浑元力) and whole-body “explosive” power release (Zheng Ti Bao Fa Li. a firm foundation in the spear training (Qiang Fa. and agility (the ability to adapt and change according to your opponent) with real experience gained from sparring with real partners (Shuang Ren Dui Hua Dui Za. angle. 全身力一). staff or any stick weapon between 4 foot to 7 foot in length and about an inch in diameter (Gan. and ingrain your maneuvers/techniques (in fixed-step and free-step) into “habit” (Mo Gan Shi Li. and learn distance. our emphasis is using this training to further develop the balanced-force (Hun Yuan Li. Bang. accuracy. Foundation in Yiquan basic skills (Yiquan Ji Ben Gong. 矛盾争力) to harmonize. timing.Notes on Long Weapons: Spear and Staff Section II: Staff (Ji Ben Gun Fa. 长棍) is a blunt spear. the term staff (Gun. 枪法) is extremely valuable because a long staff (Chang Gun. Zhang. In learning/practicing the staff. proper whole-body power discharge/release through the staff onto your opponent is absolutely vital. 棒). While the staff can be used as a weapon. Here. use the interactions with the external/internal isometric-opposing-force-pairs (Mao Dun Zheng Li. 整体爆发力). synthesize. merge all force components of your torso/core and limbs as one (Quan Shen Li Yi. 三 分 棍。 Without the sharp point and blade of the spear. Thus. 31 . 磨 杆试力).

subconsciously you would go through the OODA cycle (feedback loop): Observation: Allow your opponent to initiate his move. 守中用中). A. take advantage of any opening to attack. Mindset and Tactics You must have an aggressive attitude. 先 人 至。 When your opponent's force is on your skin. It depends on blunt trauma to damage your opponent. Principles The staff is the shaft of a spear. 诀 曰: 对 敌 无 胆 向 先. You must train to automatically initiate your action on any opening. In a confrontation. and middle sections of the shaft. attack your opponent’s central line (Shou Zhong Yung Zhong. Feint to induce your opponent to react to the attack. If your opponent adopts the above confrontation state and allows you to make the initial move. use attack as defense. start after your opponent's initial move but land your strike before he can complete his.1. Also. Subconsciously decide your reaction. we will introduce the concepts of range and zone. always keep your staff pointed at your opponent and threaten his throat/mouth area. Concentrate on the vertical. 诀 曰: 后 人 发. Let your automatic spontaneous reflexes take the appropriate action. rear. be the aggressor. Action beats reaction. you can strikes with the front. Orientation: Decision: Action: Place yourself at advantageous distance and angle. observe and find his weakness. Time your counter attack in between your opponent's old and new maneuvers (power/forces). And your actions must be spontaneous reflexes. Next. it is an impact weapon. Switch between false and real thrusts to different targets. 空 自 眼 明 手 便。 You must maintain your mental confrontation state. seize the initiative and engagement opportunities. you must disturb his OODA loop. your force would have penetrated his bones. Protect and guard your central line. Avoid lateral movement that brings your staff point off the central line. compress his time scale by switching to a tempo that he cannot follow. Range You may consider a confrontation/fight occurring in three ranges: 32 . You can thrust with the point or the butt.

You should jam or block the strike in this zone. Short Range (close interval): In this range. Medium Range (medium interval): This is the striking distance where most of your techniques can be effectively executed. relying on your spontaneous reflexes to evade and/or attack. Strike Zone: This is the zone where your opponent's staff/weapon has reach critical velocity to be effective and damaging. Use zoning in your attack and defense tactics. You must take advantage of it. Tactics and Characteristics These are the basic staff fighting tactics and characteristics: 1. He attempts to stop or slow down the motion of his staff/weapon. you are too close to use the point. This interface gap (in time and space) between techniques is "between his old and new forces" (旧力略过. Use whole-body balanced-force. pay attention to proper body mechanics (alignment and connected-ness ) and take up power from the ground. Avoid or pass his staff in this zone. He is preparing to switch to another maneuver/technique. Use linear thrusts to attack. Retract to on-guard immediately after thrusting. where maximum force can be delivered. From this out-of-contact range your may briefly evaluate your opponent. There is little or no power. You must make your Decision and subconsciously take Action. You can still fight using the butt and the mid section of your staff.Long Range (far interval): This is the range where you and your opponent can not strike each other with your weapons. You must train to fight effectively in all these ranges. Decelerating Zone: This is the zone where your opponent’s staff/weapon is decelerating. 33 . Zone You may divide your opponent's strike into three zones: Accelerating Zone: This is the zone where your opponent's staff/weapon is accelerating into the strike zone. 2. torque your torso and coordinate your arms to deliver/transmit power to the end of the staff. This is your chance to attack before he can start another attack/strike. Use circular lateral parrying force for defense against thrusting attacks. 新力未生). You may adopt one of the postures (see Postures) and do your Observation and Orientation.

horizontal. Skills can only be acquired with practice. On contact. “stick” (Nian Gan. switch from high level to low level etc. Keep your staff close to your opponent's staff when you attack. use inertia and momentum as allies. decreasing his moment arm and control. Use multiple thrusts: switch from inside the circle (Quan Li. 见肉分枪). Waiting until your opponent's hands are close together. 34 . Use simple direct moves with no extraneous motions. Guard your central line. By minimizing the distance between the staffs. 柔) forces to overcome your opponent's hard (Gang. 黏杆) onto your opponent's staff and initiate change. 圈外). before you parry. 11. swing steps etc. attacks need only be parried a few inches laterally to your side. initiate change. 诀 曰: 后 人 发. 先 人 至。 6. Do not remain in the extended posture for your opponent to exploit. Do not do "stop-and-go" swings. follow along his staff to strike his hands (Sui Gun Da Shou. 5. vertical. 一触即发).3. and inclined at any angle. bounce back to your Center Four-level on-guard posture immediately. 8. 7. initiate attacks. Use soft (Rou. Use wholebody coordination. 刚) forces. Be sure to swing and strike through your target. Use sweeping/swinging strikes with large "fan" sweeps (Shan Mian. your opponent cannot gain speed/momentum in his movement to parry. When parrying allow your opponent's staff to “come in close” (Jian Rou Fen Qiang. 圈里) to outside the circle (Quan Wai. This minimize the angle between the staffs making it harder to parry. Remove your body from your opponent's line of force by using side steps. “explode” into action on contact (Yi Chu Ji Fa. When thrusting or shaking. you have to overcome your weapon's inertia every time you do "stop-and-go". Maneuvers/techniques are useful only when they become spontaneous reflexes. 12. 10. 随棍打手). 9. 诀 曰: 意 守 中 门。 4. 扇面) on various planes.

these six basic pre-contact (far interval) postures are important. there are no fixed postures or fixed feet positions. This is the most important posture. staff and feet level (Si Ping. From this on-guard posture. You may adopt any one of these to Observe and evaluate your opponent. There are two grip variations: Full grip: Wrap your fingers. your front foot. and the point of the staff are on the central line vertical plane (Zhong. 浑元桩). Hold the staff firmly but do not tense your forearm muscle. it is convenient to execute all defensive and offensive maneuvers/techniques. Grip In staff training. 35 . 浑元桩). You must grip the staff firmly in both hands. Postures Fighting is dynamic. Keep both arms slightly bend. 诀 曰: 脚 无 定 位. Hold the staff with both hands with palms facing towards each other. It must be firm to transmit your whole-body power to the end of the staff. Your grip must not be too tight or too loose. keep the staff level. your left hand is about a foot from the butt and your right hand is comfortably near the center of gravity of your staff. On-guard: Center-Level Posture (Zhong Ping Shi. keep the point at your central line. 身 无 定 势。 However. 中平势) This is similar to the Center Four-Level Posture (中四平枪势)for the spear. shoulders. as if forming a fist. 枪心). head. Start with your right leg forward small step posture (Hun Yuan Zhuang. It must be relaxed to maneuver. Assume the small step posture (Hun Yuan Zhuang. Keep your head. Half grip: Place your fingers opposite to your thumb half way around the staff. 四平). fully around the staff. The rear hand holds the staff about a foot from the butt end. the front hand holds the staff comfortably near its balance point (Qiang Xin. do not tense your forearm muscles.B. 中). with the section between your hands touching your waist just above your hip. and to draw an initial move from your opponent. it is traditional to use a right hand lead. C. Place your thumb on your index finger or along the staff. to position and Orient yourself. The main difference is that the rear hand holds the staff about a foot from the butt end. squeezing the staff between your fingers and your thumb. Some are used to induce your opponent to attack purposely exposed targets by deliberately creating openings to draw a reaction.

劈). Face squarely to the front. You must rely on footwork (stepping) to avoid an attack and then orient/position yourself to counter with downward chop (Pi. palm facing down. This posture exposes your high and middle level targets to induce your opponent to attack high. Hold the staff with the section between your hands touching your waist. lower your front hand. Block-Road Posture (Lan Lu Shi. palm facing up. slide your staff backwards with only a foot remaining in front of your right hand. Simultaneously turn your torso 180 degrees to your right. Move your right hand slightly to your left in front of your left hip. Be prepared to defend your lower level targets from your opponent’s attacks. your upper level is protected but it exposes your low and middle level targets. You are "hiding" your staff on your right side. right hand points backwards. Right Lead: From the right lead center-level posture. This posture exposes all your openings/targets. 撩). horizontal sweep (Sao. simultaneously lower your rear hand to in front of your hip. Pointing-to-the-Ground Posture (Zhi Di Shi. your left hand is on your left hip. bend your front arm and lift the point of the staff to eyebrow level. This will allow you to deliver hard strikes from both ends of the staff (Da. 中平势). Bend and raise your rear hand slightly. left elbow forward. 似曲非直). 藏棍势) Left Lead: From the right lead center-level posture. 高提势) From the center-level posture (Zhong Ping Shi. Hide-Staff Posture (Cang Gun Shi. butt end facing forward. palm facing up. 36 . holding the staff level. palm facing down. 扫). These two “hiding staff” postures expose all targets. or upward lift (Liao. advance your left foot into a left lead small step posture. with the middle section which is between your hands touching your waist. In this posture. 指地势) From the center-level posture. "hiding" your staff on your left side.High-Lift Posture (Gao Ti Shi. Hold your staff horizontally with equal length on each side. 打) by rotating your waist and stepping. knees slightly bend (Si Qu Fei Zhi. 拦路势) Stand erect with your weight evenly distributed between your feet in the parallel step posture (Ping Bu Zhuang. Keep the staff touching your waist. place your feet shoulder width apart. Keep the section of your staff between your hands touching your waist. 平步桩). Your right hand is on your right hip. allowing the point of the staff to almost touch the ground. with your left arm in front.

打. 横扫) or inclined (Da. 摇. 推. 滑) your opponent’s staff off its line of attack or it can be hard (Gang. compressing the imaginary spring between your knees (Jia Xi Fa Li. Sao. 点) or lateral shake (Heng Dou. Liao. 格) to “bounce” off your opponent’s staff. The plane of the "fan" can be vertical (downward chop. You must rely on footwork (stepping) to avoid an attack and then position yourself to counter attack with downward chop (Pi. 撩). 横抖). 打. This is similar to the spear thrust if you use one hand to thrust and allow the staff to slide through your lead front hand.Pointing-to-the-Sky Posture (Zhi Tian Shi. Liao. Hold your right hand high. 37 . 劈. Pi. D. Ge. 撩. 一动全身转) to generate lateral force (Heng Tan Dou Li. Shaking (Dou. Yao. pointing to the sky. 扎. in front of your right hip directly below your right hand. Types of Power Discharge The type of power discharges/releases delivered with the staff are: Thrusting (Za. Dai. as in small upward lift (Beng. 刚) to push/bounce him off. torso bladed. driving your whole-body forward and simultaneously thrusting your arms straight forward to deliver linear stabbing power with the point or the butt of the staff. Pi. 扇面). left shoulder forward. push or hook your opponent's staff. 带): Use whole-body coordinating with arm action to pull. Yao. 指天势) Assume a left lead small step posture. 抖): Use whole-body effort combined with forearms rotation to induce short distance snapping motion to the staff to bounce your opponent's weapon off its line of attack. 剪): Coordinate the whole-body to torque your torso and rotate your forearms/palms clockwise or counterclockwise (Yi Dong Quan Shen Zhuan. upward lift. 内螺旋) while mildly opposing it with drilling the front leg (Nei Luo Xuan. 扫): Sweeping/swinging strikes or chopping power comes from the torque of your torso to drive your shoulders and arms in a large circular action. 掀. used in lateral inside/outside (Quan Nei/Quan Wai. 夹膝发力). These can be soft (Rou. 劈) etc. small downward chop (Dian. 横弹抖力). 架. 柔). 内螺旋). to stick onto your opponent's staff to slip (Hua. Striking (Da. 弹抖力) power release is also used in blocks (Jia. 崩). horizontal (Heng Sao. Hold your left hand low. 摇) at any angle. The staff shaft sweeps out a large "fan" like surface to strike (Shan Mian. Your staff is vertical. This type of spring-like (Tan Dou Li. 劈.. to the right of your head. This posture exposes all targets. keep your right elbow bend. Lateral Circular (inside/outside) Parrying (Xian. Ci. 圈内/圈外) parrying techniques to deflect linear thrusts. Jian. 刺): This is initiated by drilling your rear leg into the ground (Nei Luo Xuan. Pull/push Parrying (Tui.

内螺旋) to push your whole-body forward while mildly opposing with drilling the right leg inwards (Nei Luo Xuan. rotating your right forearm clockwise (Wai Luo Xuan. 刺): From the right lead center-level posture (Zhong Ping Shi. 握要固) is necessary to transmit the power from the ground through your hand to the end of the staff. Caution: Never strike your target and leave your arms and staff extended on your target allowing your opponent to counter attack. or 2. upward/downward. drill your left leg inwards (Nei Luo Xuan. 38 . 插): Plant/stab one end of your staff onto the ground. Or you may take a small forward step with your right foot. 内螺旋) to take up power from the ground. 中平势). simultaneously. 圈外). the butt section must touch your waist. 夹膝发力). Strike at your target with a change of direction or target during your strike. A firm and proper grip (Wo Yao Gu. use the ground support to defense against low sweeping/swinging strikes (Sao. A. 外 螺旋) to thrust slightly to your right (opponent’s inside. These are the preferred striking qualities: 1. 圈外). 2. 圈里). or 3. All power discharges/releases are included when you have mastered power discharges in the six principle directions (Liu Mian Fa Li. 内螺旋) to thrust slightly to your left (opponent’s outside. Compress the imaginary spring between your knees (Jia Xi Fa Li. the side to the left of your central line is inside the circle (Quan Li. 六面发力): forward/backward. Basic Techniques The following is a list of selected techniques. thrust the point of the staff forward with both hands. We have classified them into six categories based on the dominant type of power discharge/release involved. Thrusting Techniques: Point Thrust Two Hand Thrust (Ci. and lateral left/right. 中平 势). 圈里) or counter-clockwise (Nei Luo Xuan. Strike your target and retract/reset immediately.Planting (Cha. the side to the right of your central line is outside the circle (Quan Wai. 扫). From the right leg lead center-level posture (Zhong Ping Shi. Your left forearm should touch the butt section of your staff and rotate with it in sync. Strike through your target with maximum momentum.

lifting the point to head level. Simultaneously rotate your left hand clockwise (Nei Luo Xuan. Lateral Circular Parrying Techniques High-level Parry (Xian. just enough to parry. Simultaneously. B. shift your weight onto your right leg. 内螺旋) to push your whole-body forward. Coordinate your drilling of your right leg and arms motion to deliver maximum power. The butt section of the staff must remain in contact with your waist. This is a close quarter short range technique. 柔) circular lateral forces to defeat linear thrust attacks. Note: Thrust and withdraw must be fast to minimize exposure. your right thumb. 外螺旋) to palm facing up while pulling back slightly. Simultaneously. Simultaneously. your left hand stays on your hip. push and lift your left hand upward then thrust the butt forward. lift your right hand and pull it back in front of your right shoulder. drill your left leg to push your whole-body forward (you may take a small forward step). 外螺旋) to palm facing up while pushing downwards. torque your torso to your right. 截把): From the right lead center-level posture. Butt Thrust Butt Thrust (Jie Ba. slide your right hand towards the point of the staff. 掀) Right (Outside) Parry: From the right lead center-level posture. drill your left leg inwards. Retract to your center-level posture immediately after thrusting.One Hand Thrust (spear thrust. Your left forearm should touch the butt section of your staff. rotate your right forearm counterclockwise (Nei Luo Xuan. rotate your left hand counter-clockwise (Wai Luo Xuan. The lateral movement of the point need only be slightly wider than your shoulder width. Za. your left hand stays on your hip. 扎): From the right lead center-level posture. 39 . This technique is for defending against mid-level and highlevel thrusts. Left (Inside) Parry: From the right lead center-level posture. Simultaneously. step forward with your left foot. Simultaneously thrust the point of the staff forward with your left hand. The point must not be higher than your head. drill your right leg inwards. index and middle fingers form a tube allowing the staff to slide through. push your left knee slightly inwards. It uses soft (Rou. rotate your right forearm clockwise (Wai Lou Xuan. torque your torso to your left. This increases your reach but decreases your control of the staff. 内螺旋) to palm facing down while pulling back slightly and lifting the point to head level. Drill your right leg inwards (Nei Luo Xuan. The point moves up and left with circular lateral force (the point describes a counter-clockwise arc from 3 o'clock to 12 o'clock). 内螺旋) to palm facing down while pushing downwards. The point moves up and right with circular lateral force (the point describes a clockwise arc from 9 o'clock to 12 o'clock).

This parry uses soft (Rou. rotate your left forearm clockwise to palm facing down. 下压) Right (Outside) Press: From the right lead high-lift posture (Gao Ti Shi. 缠裹) Clockwise (Outside): From the right lead center-level posture. The front hand is the fulcrum. torque your torso to your left to move the point left and down. Raise your left hand slightly. Use whole-body effort. To parry midlevel thrust. The point describes a counter-clockwise arc from 12 o'clock to 9 o'clock. slightly lower your right hand and rotate your right forearm clockwise to palm facing up. Coordinate your whole-body. arms movement. leg drill. Simultaneously. Simultaneously. you may lower your left hand to increase the angle between the crossing staffs. 一动无不动). Simultaneously. rotate your left forearm counter-clockwise to palm facing up. Left (Inside) Parry: From right lead center-level posture. The rear hand is the fulcrum. rotate left forearm clockwise to palm facing down while lifting your left hand to shoulder level. keep the staff touching your waist. the press down should be fast and powerful. Lateral movement need only be sufficient to parry your body width. use your left hand as fulcrum. torque your torso to your right to move the point right and down. and body torque are in sync (Yi Dong Wu Bu Dong. keep the staff touching your waist. Raise your left hand slightly. drill your left leg. 柔) lateral forces to defeat low level linear thrusts. Your staff should be level when you finish your press down parry (Ya. 剪) Right (Outside) Parry: From the right lead center-level posture. you may lower your left hand to increase the angle between the crossing staffs. torque your torso to your left to move the point down and left.Low-level Parry (Jian. Left (Inside) Press: From the right lead high-lift posture (Gao Ti Shi. 压). slightly lower your right hand and rotate your right forearm counter-clockwise to palm facing down. slightly lower your right hand and rotate your right forearm counter-clockwise to palm facing down. Simultaneously. rotate your left forearm counter-clockwise to palm facing up. 40 . rotate your right forearm clockwise to palm facing up. To parry mid-level thrust. 高提势). The point describes a counter-clockwise arc from 9 o'clock to 6 o'clock. The point describes a clockwise arc from 3 o'clock to 6 o'clock. 柔) vertical forces to defeat mid-level linear thrusts. This uses soft (Rou. rotate right forearm clockwise to palm facing up. Simultaneously. The butt section of the staff must remain in contact with your waist/torso. Wrapping (Chan Guo. torque your torso to your right to move the point down and right. drill your left leg. Press Down Parry (Xia Ya. Coordinate your whole-body. The point describes a clockwise arc from 12 o'clock to 3 o'clock. move the point clockwise in a circle in a vertical plane. Raise your left hand slightly. drill your right leg. 高提势). drill your right leg inwards.

Lift with Point (Tiao. using whole-body motion. rotate your right forearm counter-clockwise to palm facing down. then counter with this upward lift. Coordinate the drilling of your right leg to torque your torso to drive the strike. 撩. step forward with your left foot. You can step forward with your right foot instead of your left foot. Simultaneously. 缠裹) your opponent's staff. use your left hand as fulcrum. Your right hand should slide backward slightly and should press downward at the finish of the strike. This is a hard (Gang. torque your torso to the left. 挑) Large Vertical Upward Sweeping lift (Liao. Tiao. move the point of the staff upwards to head level in a vertical plane. 刚) power release technique. Upward Strike (Lift. drill your right leg to use whole-body force. The circle described by the point in a vertical plane need to be between your shoulder and navel. usually used after a low level parry. 扇面) sweep out by the shaft of the staff is in a vertical plane. swing and push your right hand to strike your staff downward to the center-level posture. 挑): From the point-to-the-ground posture. ending with the point directly in front at head level. 撩): From the left foot lead hide-staff posture. Simultaneously. Use this to "entangle" (Chan Guo. deliver maximum power through your properly aligned and connected whole-body to the staff (Xun Zhao Jing Lu. move the point counter-clockwise in a circle in a vertical plane. Visualize throwing a shovel of sand backwards over your head. 41 . Pi.Counter-Clockwise (Inside): From the right lead center-level posture. Simultaneously. Striking Techniques Downward Strike (Chop. then follow with further attacks as a line opens up. 劈) Large Downward Strike (Chop. shifting forward then backward while lifting up and withdrawing your right hand and pushing down with your left hand to your left hip. raise your left hand to move the butt end of your staff to your eyebrow level. 劈): From the left lead pointing-to-the-sky posture. Pi. Liao. C. Then pull and lower left hand to your left waist. The "fan" (Shan Mian. Or confuse your opponent by continue circling. push and lift your right hand forward and upward. Keep the butt section of your staff in contact with your waist. Use whole-body effort. The point of the staff moves down. 扇面) in a vertical plane on your right side. Use footwork to avoid an attack. Coordinate body and arms motion. pull your left hand to your left hip. 扇面) of the strike can incline in any angle. 寻找劲路). Variations: The "fan" plane (Shan Mian. laterally just wider than your body width. forward and upward. the staff sweeping a "fan" (Shan Mian.

out to your right then forward (a semicircle in a horizontal plane). by pushing your rear hand forward and allow your front hand to slide close to your rear hand then releasing your rear hand and grip the staff with only one hand. Simultaneously push and raise your left hand in front of your right 42 . you opponent will be able to "see you coming" and use zoning against you. 扫): From left lead hide-staff posture. But you give up some control and increase your vulnerability. simultaneously pull your left hand backward to your left hip. The staff sweeps out a “fan” in a horizontal plane. out to your left then forward in a semi-circle in a horizontal plane. It is best to first create an opening then use these strikes. 扫把): From right lead hide-staff posture. push your left hand forward and up to strike upward with the butt. High level strikes are usually done with front hand sliding or with one hand. 拦路势). Horizontal Sweep (Sao. rotate your torso to your left while bring your left hand under your right upper arm. Left Two Hands (Sao Ba. 刚) power release techniques. These are large movement hard (Gang. 打) Right High: From the block-road posture (Lan Lu Shi. The butt moves from back. and torque your torso to your right. Use whole-body force. Beat (Da. Simultaneously. pull your right hand back in front of your mouth.Lift with butt (Tiao Ba. Front Hand Sliding Strike: Allowing your front hand to slide towards your rear hand during the strike will increase your strike power. swing and push your left arm in a semi-circle to your front. If you use these as initial attacks. 反扫): From the right lead center-level posture. The staff sweeps out a "fan" in a horizontal plane. You can strike high level (shoulder. the point moves from back. Use whole-body force. swing and push your right arm in a semi-circle to your front. mid level (waist) or low level (shin. push your torso forward and torque your torso to your left. head). drill your right leg. simultaneously pull your right hand backward to your right hip. ankle). Use whole-body force. Low level strikes are usually accompanied by kneeling. Keep the staff in contact with your waist. One Hand Strike: During a strike. step forward with your left foot. Keep the staff in contact of your waist. extends your reach. push your torso forward and torque your torso to your right. 挑把): From the right lead center-level posture. sweep the staff from left to right to strike. Torque your torso right. drill your left leg. drill your left leg. 扫) Right Two Hands (Sao. Some variations: Reverse Sweeping Strike (Fan Sao.

拦路势). and up to swing the point of your staff from your right rear down. This is powered by drilling your left leg to torque your torso to the right. drill your right leg. Simultaneously push and lower your right hand in front of left hip while raising your left hand in front of your left shoulder. Strike with the point section to your lower left. Strike with the butt section to your high right in front of your right forehead. Simultaneously push and raise your right hand in front of your left shoulder while pulling your left hand down and back. then pull your right hand down and back to your right waist. and up in front of your right forehead. This is a hard (Gang. Sliding your front hand slightly backwards along the staff and keeping the staff touching your waist as long as possible will increase the strike force. Strike with the point section to your high left. forward and up to swing the butt from left rear down. and torque your torso to your right. then strike hard into your opponent. 摇) attack as soon as you start your stepping. The staff must remain in contact with your waist. The staff must remain in contact with your waist during the initial part of your swing. drill your left leg. The staff must remain in contact with your waist. 刚) power release striking technique. 43 . Left Low: From the block-road posture (Lan Lu Shi. Coordinate your whole-body to move in unison. 摇) Right Diagonal Upward Swing: From the left lead hide-staff posture. forward. simultaneously push your right hand down. torque your torso to your left. The staff must remain in contact with your waist during the initial part of your swing. start your swing (Yao. Simultaneously push and lower your left hand in front of your right hip while raising your right hand to in front of your right shoulder. drill your right leg. Diagonal Upward Swing (Yao. This is powered by drilling your right leg to torque your torso to the left. 拦路势). and torque your torso to your left. 打). forward.shoulder while pulling your right hand down and back. then pull your left hand down and back to your left waist. This is a large motion. Left Diagonal Upward Swing: From the right lead hide-staff posture. bend your left elbow and raise your left hand in front of your left forehead. In beat (Da. Strike with the butt section to your lower right. Left High: From the block-road posture (Lan Lu Shi. and up in front of your left forehead. Keep the section of the staff between your hands in contact with your waist. bend your right elbow and raise your right hand in front of your right forehead. Avoid opponent's attack by stepping. the power is mainly from torso rotation. simultaneously push your left hand down. slow technique. forward. 拦路势). Right Low: From the block-road posture (Lan Lu Shi.

Follow your pull back with an immediate attack. twist knees outwards (Wai Luo Xuan. Your staff moves back and left parallel to the ground. Pull Backward (Dai. 后带) distance need not be big. Do not lean backwards. 高提势). 高提势). Keep the point of the staff at a constant level. 柔) neutralization and a fast counter attack technique. backwards. “Stick” onto your opponent's staff and then use pull back to guide his attack to the side and back. push your hips forward (Tu. Simultaneously. 推). it can be an offensive or a defensive technique. 带) Right Pull Backward: From the right lead high-lift posture (Gao Ti Shi. The pull back (Hou Dai. 内螺旋). rotate your left hand counter-clockwise to palm facing up and pull back slightly. compressing the imaginary spring between your knees (Jia Xi Fa Li. Simultaneously. shift your weight to the left. 浑元桩发力). simultaneously push your staff forward with both hands. Keep it horizontal. You can parry then push (Tui. simultaneously rotate your left hand clockwise to palm facing down and pull back slightly. Focus at the end of the push. 高提势). or you can push then strike. 吐) and push the staff forward with both hands. When shifting your weight backwards. Your staff moves back and right parallel to the ground. shift your weight to the right. Left Pull Backward: From the right lead high-lift posture (Gao Ti Shi. 拦路势). backwards. 刚) focus explosive power release similar to Yiquan forward power discharge/release from the small step posture (Hun Yuan Zhuang Fa Li. 夹膝 发力). This is a short distance hard (Gang. 推) Push Forward with Point: From the high-lift posture (Gao Ti Shi. Push Forward with Mid-Section: From block-road posture (Lan Lu Shi. Drill your left leg to push your body forward. Do not straighten or lock your elbow. The point should remain at a constant height. drill your rear leg to push your whole body forward (you may take a small forward step with your right foot). Do not straighten or lock your elbows. 44 . step forward with your right foot into a small step posture. or you can block then push. Focus your power release at the end of the push. withdraw your right arm while rotating your forearm counter-clockwise to palm facing down. and torque your torso slightly to your right. withdraw your right arm while rotating your forearm clockwise to palm facing up. Push/Pull Techniques Push Forward (Tui. Keep the staff level. Simultaneously. This is a soft (Rou. twisting your knees inwards (Nei Luo Xuan. 吞). and torque your torso to your left. lift the staff to shoulder level.D. 外螺旋) stretching the imaginary spring between your knees and sink your hip downwards (Tun.

Downward Shake (Short Chop. Drill your right leg to torque your torso to your left. Use Shake (Dou. rotate your right forearm clockwise to palm facing up. push your right hand downward and lift your left hand upwards. 勾) use soft (Rou. 勾) Right Hook: From the right lead high-lift posture (Gao Ti Shi. 抖) when your linear thrust is neutralized by your opponent’s lateral circular parry. Simultaneously torque your torso to your left and slightly withdraw both arms and body to move the point counter-clockwise in a small circle to your left. Left Shake Circular: From the right lead center-level posture.Hook Backward (Gou. The circle movement of the point must come from the waist movement. 柔) power release technique. 柔) vertical forces to defense against low level linear thrusts. rotate your right forearm counter-clockwise to palm facing down. Dian. rotate right forearm clockwise to palm facing up while pulling downwards and backwards. E. Shake (Dou. Simultaneously lift and push your right hand in front of your left forehead. The staff strikes downward ending in the center-level posture. rotate your left forearm counter-clockwise to palm facing up. These hook techniques (Gou. 抖) Right Shake Circular: From the right lead center-level posture. drill your left leg and mildly opposing by drilling your right leg (squeezing the imaginary spring between your knees) to use your whole-body balanced-force. Simultaneously drill your left leg to torque your torso to the right. Keep your staff touching your waist. When he thrusts. Left Hook: From the left lead forward butt-thrust posture. This is a soft (Rou. The point of your staff "hooks" backwards on your right side. Simultaneously lift and push your left hand in front of your right forehead. “Stick” to your opponent's staff. The butt of your staff "hooks" backwards on your left side. Be sure you are using your whole-body and not using localized muscle action. Simultaneously torque your torso to the right and slightly withdraw both arms and body to move the point clockwise in a small circle to your right. 点): From the right lead high-lift posture. pull your left hand downwards and backwards. shake left or right to position your staff on top his staff and counter attack by thrusting towards your opponent. 弹抖力). 高提势). rotate your left forearm clockwise to palm facing down. Shaking Techniques Shaking is defined as short distance snappy spring-like power release (Tan Dou Li. Your left forearm 45 . It is used to save a bad situation: your staff being parried out from your central line.

slide your right hand towards the point. the point is level with your knee. Keep the staff vertical and close to your side. turn it palm facing up. using wholebody motion. push it upwards and to the right of your forehead directly above your right hand (the staff is vertical on your right side). Use this to follow along your opponent's staff to strike his hands. This can be used as a parry or strike to your opponent's lead forearm. torque torso to your right to block to your right. push parry or as a parry by itself. 格): From left lead hide-staff posture. Left Upward Block (Jia. 格): From the right lead center-level posture. Upward Shake (Short Lift. Visualize throwing a shovel of sand backwards over your head. 46 . pull it back to your right hip. Shake downward (Dian. Simultaneously. Coordinate your whole-body to snap (shake) into the block to bounce off your opponent's staff to prevent him from following your staff to strike your hands. Simultaneously drill your left leg. thrusting both hands a small amount upward and forward to block with the section of the staff between your hands. Use the half-grip with your right hand. torque your torso left to block to your left. Keep the staff vertical and close to your side. 架): From the right lead center-level posture.should touch your waist. raise your right hand in front of your right forehead. 崩) uses rapid short snappy power release to lift with the point. 点) with rapid snappy short power release. push down and forward with your left hand. 刚) power release block. This upward shake (Beng. F. raise and push your right hand to the left of your forehead. Simultaneously pull your left hand to the left of your hip directly below your right hand (the staff is vertical on your left side). 崩): From the right lead center-level posture. torque torso left. Keep your staff in contact with your waist. The butt of the staff is higher than your head. slide your right hand towards the point. Simultaneously drill your right leg. Simultaneously drill your right leg. turning it palm facing up. Beng. Left Side Block (Ge. Downward shake can be used after a circular parry. raise your left hand. Blocks and Planting Right Upward Block (Jia. Right Side Block (Ge. move the point upwards to shoulder level in a vertical plane. Keep your staff in contact with your waist. thrusting both hands a small amount upward and forward to block with the section of the staff between your hands. 架): From the right lead center-level posture. raise left hand in front of left forehead. slide your right hand towards the point. Simultaneously drill your left leg. This is a hard (Gang. torque torso right. slide your right hand towards the point. shifting forward then backward while lifting up and withdrawing your right hand and pushing down with your left hand to your left hip.

Practice slow motion trial-and-feel (磨杆试力. Planting (Cha. use Shake-like snapping force (Tan Dou Li. 刚) power release techniques. 扫). 假 想敌). Left: From the left lead hide-staff posture. After learning each example. 插) Right: From the right lead center-level posture. Use whole-body force. Practice two-man drills using each technique to learn distances. Practice each technique with proper power release (滑杆发力) to merge all force component as one (Quan Shen Li Yi. Side blocks are hard (Gang. pull your hands back slightly. Jia Xiang Di. This is a hard (Gang. They are used to defend against mid level horizontal sweeping strikes (Sao. Play this mental movie until the drill become your spontaneous reflex. Raise your right hand over your head. simultaneously lift your right leg as you plant/stab the point to the ground on your right side. 4. angles. Remember these 47 . Practice crisis rehearsal (imaging and visualization. 滑杆试力) to ingrain and perfect the execution of each technique with whole-body harmony. pull your right hand to your right side. simultaneously lift your left leg as you plant/stab the butt to the ground on your left side. 2. 刚) power release technique used for defending against low level horizontal sweeping strikes (Sao. 扫). Yiquan staff training is accomplished by: 1. 3. Basic Drills Learning a physical skill begins with Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) which consists of modeling and imaging. it is necessary to "nurse" the trainee (对滑对扎). pull your left hand to your left side. reactive forces etc. 3. use relaxed standing (in the appropriate posture) and think through each drill (Jia Xiang Di. 假想敌) of using each technique. Initially. Examples of Two-man Drills Here we shall select key examples of two-man drills (对滑对扎). Raise your left hand over your head. first slide your right hand then your left hand towards the point. 弹抖力) to bounce your opponent's staff off. 全身力一).In all blocks. In modeling the student mimics the movement of the teacher and in imaging the student think through the movement to "ingrain" the skill.

推). Follow the staff to the lead hand. Nurse means: For A to learn each technique.are only examples to illustrate some of the techniques/tactics. keep your staff touching your waist. A uses outside high level parry. Defeat the low level attack and counter attack to mid level (Sui Gun Da Shou. B thrusts to A's inside low level. B thrusts to A's outside high level. B starts from the center level posture. he can directly use the downward chop (Pi. c) Low Parry then Uplift Strike of the lead hand Expose your low level target to draw your opponent to attack. a) Thrust and parry In this drill. B thrusts to A's inside high or mid-level. B thrusts to A's outside high or mid-level. Use small circular arc when parrying. A is the student/trainee. 2. Dian.e. 圈内). B is the teacher/trainer. you are only limited by your imagination. Key points: A should use the mid section of his staff to make initial contact. 48 . outside means outside the circle (Quan Wai. 4. We will use the following terminology: 1. b) Push and Downward Strike of the lead hand The tactic is to follow your opponent's staff to strike his lead hand (Sui Gun Da Shou. then pushes forward. and low level thrusts. Inside means inside the circle (Quan Nei. A starts from the high lift posture. 1. A and B immediately exchange roles. then chops downward. 以横破直). keep left hand low to increase the crossing angle between the staffs. 劈.. 点) to strike B's lead hand without using the push forward parry (Tui. Follow through with an attack after parrying i. B thrusts to A's inside mid-level. A uses inside press down. B must cooperate and allow A to execute it correctly to completion repeatedly. Key points: Lateral circular parries are used to defeat thrusts. A uses inside low parry. A push-parry forward (slightly to the right) then chops downward along B's staff to strike B's lead hand. 随棍打 手). If A uses stepping to evade B's thrust. Be creative when your think up new ones. 3. 2. 1. middle. Use lateral circular force to defeat linear thrust (Yi Heng Po Zhi. A push-parry forward (slightly to the left) then chops downward along B's staff to strike B's lead hand. 3. A and B both start from the center level posture. B must "nurse" A. 2. 随棍打手). 圈外). learn to parry high.

2. Then immediately steps forward with his left leg and executes diagonal upward swing (Yao. exposing the low level targets. A avoids the attack by stepping forward (at 45 degrees) with his right (left) leg then swinging his left (right) leg behind his right (left) into a right (left) lead small step posture. torques torso to the left (right) and executes large vertical upward lift (Liao. 撩). Swing Step then large upward lift: 1. following B's staff to strike B's lead hand. d) Beat and Swing Expose all targets to draw your opponent to attack. A rotates his waist to the right. Step then upward lift: 1. uses uplift (Tiao. 3.1. 挑. 摇. 1. 撩) to strike B's right forearm with the point (butt) section. B thrusts to A's low level inside (outside). B thrusts to A's mid-level. 撩) to strike B's right forearm. 2. B thrusts or strike to A's high level. executes right high beat (Da. Then evade the attacks with side step and/or counter attack. exposing all targets. B thrusts to A's high level. Key point: If B pulls back. Then immediately steps forward and lifts upwards (Beng. A assumes the high lift posture. Step up quickly to do diagonal upward swing. 打) to knock B's staff from the central line. Liao. A uses low level inside (outside) parry. Key point: Use the time interval between B's initiation and completion to counter strike. Liao. 崩. Key point: Use whole-body force and torso rotation to power the beat strike with the butt section. A assume the point-to-the-ground posture to draw an attack to his high level. Tiao. A assumes block-road posture. 3. A side steps 45 degrees forward with left leg. 挑) to strike B's forearm. use upward lifts to strike his staff to create opening (if A is inside the circle) or to strike his forearm (if A is outside the circle). 2. no blocking required(Shan Da. 49 . 3. A assumes left (right) lead hide-staff posture. e) Side Step and Upward Lift Remove yourself from your opponent's line of force by stepping then counter attack. 2. 闪打). 3. Simultaneously.

Variation: From left leg lead posture. 2. 3. use butt section to execute press down parry and thrust. Be prepared to receive multiple attacks. Your second thrust may include "push" (Tui. executes left (right) shake (Heng Dou. lead hand palm facing down (up). Key points: Switch quickly from inside to outside under your opponent's staff (Shan Zhuan. 4. 3. Use multiple attacks. 2. B executes inside (outside) press down parry. swings staff in small circle under B's staff (Tiao Qiang. 压). A must use fast forward fencing step and thrust to defeat B. A uses inside (outside) mid-level down press parry (Ya. A pulls back slightly. Your first thrust should be fast and light with enough conviction to draw a parry. 2. then thrusts to B's outside (inside) at mid-level. Pressing "push" onto B's staff while thrusting will hinder his ability to change. B defends with inside (outside) press down parry. 4. Press down and thrust: 1. Key points: Keep left rear hands low to increase the crossing angle of the staffs. then switch on contact.Key point: The swing step and the upward lift strike must be simultaneous. A pulls staff back slightly. A thrusts to B's inside (outside) mid-level. 闪 赚). A thrusts to B's inside (outside) at mid-level. f) More Thrusts Keep your staff close to your opponent's staff to attack (攻则贴杆深入). A and B both start from the right lead center level posture. B thrusts to A's inside (outside) mid-level. 50 . lead hand palm facing up (down). 推) on your opponent's staff. then steps forward with right leg (fencing step) and thrusts to B's mid-level. 调枪). Shake and thrust: 1. 3. A and B both start from the right lead center level posture. Double thrusts: 1. A and B both start from the right lead center level posture. 横抖) and thrust immediately to B's mid-level. then immediately steps forward and thrust to A's inside (outside) mid-level.

颠提). 压). Pull back then thrust Side step to remove yourself from your opponent's line of force (Shan Da. 带) to guide B's staff pass. Variation: Side step and large chop from point-to-sky posture (Zhi Tian Shi. B defends with inside press down parry (Ya. A side steps with right foot. brings staff down. 拍位) of your opponent's staff will knock the staff from your opponent's hand. 劈) at the sweet spot (Pai Wei.Key points: Stick to your opponent's staff then shake. 闪打). right and up. 4. Shift torso back to increase safety but do not lean backwards. Then immediately steps forward with left (right) leg and executes horizontal sweep (Heng Sao. A and B both start from the right lead center level posture. 打) to knock B's staff from the central line. 1. 3. 2. executes right (left) high beat parry (Da. g) Side step. counters with mid-level thrust. 横扫) to strike B. A rotates waist to the right (left). If done correctly. i) Beat and Sweep Whole-body twisting (一动全身转) including core/torso torque and spiral rotations of the limbs provides hard striking power. 1. Key points: Stick to opponent's staff to use pull back parry. 4. A thrusts to B's inside mid-level. 1. simultaneously do left (right) pull back parry (Dai. 3. 3. A and B both start from the right lead center level posture. 2. 51 . A side steps with right (left) foot. h) Thrust. then executes down chop on B's staff or right hand (Dian Ti. A assumes block-road posture. Softly pull back followed by rapid forward thrust. Here speed wins. 横抖). side step and chop Side step and strike your opponent's lead hand. A’s staff should be on top of B’s staff after the shake (Heng Dou. A thrusts to B's inside (outside) high level. follow with thrust to B's throat. 2. turns torso to the left. 指天势). B thrusts to A's high level. B uses inside (outside) high parry. Key points: Hard down chop (Pi. immediately counters with thrust to A's head.

Torque your torso to increase the beat and sweep power. 压) or down chop (Pi. 劈) on B's leading hand. 横扫) to A's outside high level. 3. 3. 架). 2. Use parry on the thrust. B strikes with a reverse horizontal sweep (Heng Sao. Then immediately step (right leg) forward and executes upward lift with point of staff. 1. B strikes with reverse horizontal sweep to A's outside mid-level (low-level). B strikes with horizontal sweep (Sao. the butt should be higher than your head. 3. simultaneously uses left upward block (Jia. shoulder or lead arm. 弹抖力) in block to bounce off your opponent's staff. do not use block on the thrust attack. then side step with right leg 45 degrees to the rear and simultaneously executes left down press (Ya. 2.Key points: After stepping. 堵打). Then immediately steps left leg forward and executes down chop to strike B's head. 2. B strikes with horizontal sweep to A's inside mid-level (low-level). 弹抖力) to bounce your opponent's staff off to prevent him from following your staff to strike your hand. A and B both start from the right lead center level posture. A side steps 45 degrees forward with right leg. you may knee down and sweep strike to low level. A and B both start from the right lead center level posture. Key points: Use spring-like shake power (Tan Dou Li. 劈) to A's inside high level. Block then attack upwards. k) Side Block (or Plant or Hook) and upward lift Use the concept of zone. 2. 52 . Keep staff in contact with your waist. Use spring-like shake power (Tan Dou Li. 扫) or down chop (Pi. Use block on sweeping strike only. Jam and block your opponent's strike in the accelerating zone (Du Da. 架). the point should be lower than your knee. Key points: In right upward block (Jia. A uses right upward block (Jia. j) Block and chop Make use of the concept of zoning. A and B both start from the right lead center level posture. Block then attack downward. 架). 1. A uses right side block (right side plant). Blocking Inside Sweep: 1. Blocking Outside Sweep: 1. A and B both start from the right lead center level posture.

A side steps 45 degrees forward with right leg and executes left side block (left side plant). 2. Then immediately steps left leg forward and swings right leg.3. A and B both start from the right lead center level posture. 3. Stick to opponent's staff during parry. A steps forward and thrusts. 2. m) Parry and Push-thrust Stick. Keep your staff in contact with your waist to use whole-body balanced-force. As soon as an opening line appears. A uses outside (inside) circular parry or outside (inside) press down parry. 1. 1. step into his center gate. A and B both start from the right lead center level posture. Key points: Use small circle and fast rotation in wrapping (Chan Guo. B thrusts to A's outside (inside) mid-level. n) Parry and Butt-strike Horizontal sweeping rotation provides the striking force. Key points: Swing step and sweeping butt strike must be simultaneous to provide power. 粘杆) and wrap (Chan Guo. A sticks (Nian. For low-level defense. 1. 3. 弹抖力) at side block to bounce off opponent's staff. you may use hook or plant and follow your opponent’s staff to your opponent's lead hand instead of bouncing his staff off with shake power release. Control your opponent's central line. 2. 缠裹). 3. A sticks to B's staff. 粘) to B's staff and continues with clockwise (counter-clockwise) wrapping (Chan Guo. l) Wrap and thrust Use stick (Nian Gan. 53 . and pushes the point towards B's throat (Suo Hou Qiang. Key points: Use spring-like shake power (Tan Dou Li. A steps right leg to his left and executes outside parry. Key points: Step forward and push forward immediately after parry. 锁喉枪). Then immediately uses upward lift with butt end of the staff. 缠裹). 缠裹). A and B both start from the right lead center-level posture. simultaneously delivers horizontal sweeping strike with the butt to B's right side. A uses outside (inside) circular parry or outside (inside) press down parry. immediately steps forward. B thrusts to A's outside mid-level. B thrusts to A's outside (inside) mid-level.

不 期 然 而 然. quickest.o) Another Thrust and Lift Step back to increase the distance from your opponent to recover from a failed one-hand spear thrust. P. subconscious. 挑) on B's staff front section. A and B both start from the right lead center level posture. 因 势 而 变。 诀 曰: 不 加 思 索. and most accurate while conscious choice reaction takes longer. B chops down hard and knocks A's staff (point end) to the ground. recovers by pulling left hand back. 4. executes upward lift (Tiao. 1. natural. However. Then thrusts to A's high level. 54 . p) Side Step and Sweep Remove yourself from your opponent's line of force by stepping. You can create additional ones as you study the staff. All rights reserved. 2. spontaneous movements are the simplest. Be sure to torque torso to provide power for your sweeping strike (Sao. Lau. A executes sweeping strike (reverse sweeping strike) towards B's leading knee. until the intentional actions of the technique become habit. 诀 曰: 有 意 而 练. Simultaneously. you must be very selective and only training with the ones that are natural and instinctive. A steps right leg forward 45 degrees to his right (left) to avoid the attack. B thrusts to A's inside (outside) high level. quickly side step or retreat. 3. Key points: Rely on stepping to avoid attack. Key points: One-hand spear thrust increases your reach but reduces your control. A slides back at 45 degrees to gain distance. A and B both start from the right lead center level posture. 2. 无 意 而 用。 诀 曰: 应 机 而 发. there are as many possible drills as your imagination. They covered most of the maneuvers and techniques discussed. 3. 莫 知 为 而 为。 We have recorded a number of two-man staff drills. until your skills become spontaneous reflexes. The principle of “simplicity of choice” implies instinctive. 扫). If your staff is down. Then attack his low level. recover your posture immediately. A uses left hand one-hand spear thrust to B's mid-level. Therefore. you should train to minimize unnecessary conscious choice reactions and select the techniques that work for you carefully and practice them repeatedly until they are second nature to you. 1. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2009-02-28 J.

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