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OF WASHIV^3^ 3. 1881. BY JOHN W. AND 5 BOND STEEET.HOUSE-PAINTING. OARRIAGE-PAINTING AND GRAINING. 1. MASURY. mi ^''^^ OP ma D. WITAT TO BO. AND HO W TO DO IT. TT . NEW YORK: APPLETO:^^ AND COMPANY.

K^j- 1 ^ COPYRIGHT BY JCIIN W.<^^ 0^ "^. \ c\ ^^ \ . MASURY. 1881.

as known of the doctrines of Confucius or of Scandinavian mythology. mineral. or recoramend. necessary that the painter who applies the successive coats of paint should be acquainted with the processes whereby animal. to gratify or satisfy a thirst for Nor. and their which can or may be easily learned all and which to be it should be taken to heart by painted. but it is a matter of prime importance that the painter and his employer both shall know what materials and what processes will bring about the best results with a given expenditure of time and money. Of the little chemical properties and composition of these paints as is known —as a rule — ^by those whose special calling and is trade it is to apply the same. and vegetable substances are converted into pig- ments . . except is it knowledge. There are certain axioms pertaining uses to paints . as well as is who have houses by those whose business or occupation to procure. or apply the paint.PEEFACE The use of i)aints throughout the older and more civilis ized portions of our country almost as common as is the use of sheltering roofs and windowed dwellings.

To the unlearned its salt " has no other significance than applica- tion to culinary purposes and the preservation of viands. To make : plain our meaning. so as to bring all. composition. of whatever nation. Its he knows from every-day experience. per se. because he com- mands the language the word '' of chemical science. Now. the one of most ^^ fit to This word. convey the idea sought to painter-by-trade. resulting from the chemical combination of gases and other elementary substances.4 PREFACE. or kindred. is Greek" to the learned and unlearned alike. to the average reader this word flat has no such sig- nificance. and will not. the word in question be used. the offered Speaking of the different superficial appearances produced by the various modes or processes common in house-jDainting. To the learned this simple word suggests ten thousand Addressing an compounds. is beset with To treat a technical subject without is the help of the technicalities thereto belonging. to the scholar of chloride of his We speak call to sodium . To the most ignorant is however. we make ourselves to be understood by the use of to all learned scientific terms. Addressing the edu- cated. all be impressed. or tribe. we speak of a flat surface in contradistinction to a glossy or shiny surface. so simple to the initiated. a task the difficulties of which can be appreciated only by those who have attempted following example is it. and the words mind a wonderful its combination and condensation of Its uses chlorine gas with metallic base. its teachings within the comprehension of serious difficulties. which convey the same ideas people. The task of presenting this matter. .

assumed too . with the attendant discomforts. we ought to be assured that the result will be all that can possibly be included in the operation. we are at a loss to 5 know Tlie what signs learned. may so proceed in the initiatory steps as to secure in the end the best results with the least expenditure of means. durabilso far as painting and health. learned may say: *^ While confessing entire ignorance of the technicalities of your subject. audience so mixed and inclusive. We should be assured of beauty.PREFACE. We propose to make so this book entirely practical — so plain. though a sive that the fool. to use which shall not appear simple to the and puerile and contemptible to the initiated. has passed through many editions. It is an insult to our intelligence to address us in terms suited to the capacity of children or the ignorant vulgar. indeed." These remarks are made in excuse of any shortthis respect. man. When we subject ourselves to the all inconveniences of a repainting of our domiciles. coming in which which may appear in the volume to this is the preface. and is yet in de- mand. Experience has shown that the volume alluded to It was written. we know from the fact that our little volume entitled " How shall we Paint ? " and published in 1868. we would nevertheless be taught in language suited to our scholarly comprehension. economy. need not err therein " comprehen- householder having in hand the smallest — or the largest — job of painting.under a«mistaken assumption. That there exists a desire for knowledge in the matter of house-painting. ^Hhat the wayfaring . ity. can include these most desirable objects.

signifies to one . red. through the whole range of tones wherein the red ray of light is in any degree perceptible. en- hances the difficulties of imparting information. in general acceptation. mucli knowledge on the part of the reader. and was therefore not sufficiently practical. but it taught theories rather than processes. It taught. the color of bricks and on. in no small degree. It is a misfortune that the indefinite. and other familiar objects supposed to present the best examples of the purest tones of the various respective colors. If house-painting consisted of merely covering the wood. and renders necessary the use of words which have too often only local meanings. The employment of colors so indeterminate as are the names and tints. The word . The ure. are supposed to eye tinguish the artist from the mechanic. requires the exercise faculties which. for exami^le. names of colors are to such of signs an extent arbitrary.work of a dwelling with one or more coats of white paint. to speak of it is as a fine art would hardly be justifiable case. depend our comfort. our pleas- and our health. subject is one which comes home to us all. that. but. so far such from being the conduct successfully the business of painting of those dis- in our cities and larger towns. The attempt will be made as are in the following treatise to associate the names of colors with such flowers. to . and . and on which. fruits. mind so old red sandstone to another. An prompt by nature and education to distinguish the nice gradations of colors and tints —and the faculty so to arrange and dispose them as shall best harmonize them with each other. indeed .6 PREFACE.

in short. Happily. That this is true. but in economical features. A knowledge of thd materials employed in the prosecution . will be inferred the advance of that people in wealth. which. subject must not be studied only in aesthetic aspect not alone as adding beauty and comeliness its to our homes . just and out-buildings of a community are painted. and have thereby acquired the experience necessary to the forming of a correct conclusion. in such matters. advance of the people in the path of civilization in proportion as the houses. the consequences and refining influences of a high civ- ilization. too. should in a measure be our teacher and its guide. But the . for. as most imaction of the weather portant in preserving forces wood from the —in excluding dampness It is. with the surroundings 7 requisites in the —are indispensable It house-painter of the present day. painting. for — let was a kind of Puritanism in which there was no warrant in Nature.PREFACE. fences. highly promotive of cleanliness. the day of dead whites for the interiors of our dwellings has passed by us hope. appeal is made to those who have much. literature. that this condition is owing in a greater or less degree to the absence of the house-painter and his stock of paints. which has been ness. of our own country at traveled leasfc. and finds himself surrounded by the evidences of a ruder cultivation. all home comforts . said it by good authority affords the best and to many outward sign of the . Indeed. one feels as he leaves belattice fences of hind him the freshly painted houses and the older and more thrifty portions of our land. not to return. and arresting moldiness to be next to godli- and decay.

na- ture. and no amount of observation and study. and properties. and of the proper and economical use of the same. without the assistance of written explanations. and of themselves suggest the mechanical force which fashioned them. the mode of operation in the production of the factitious pigments used in house-painting. which they are influenced by the ever active in the great law of change. effects. would seem to be a necessary concomitant of success. or the result of the highest The aim of the writer has been to give. any trade. or calling. growth. bears in grain the story of its The nails which he uses are as familiar as household words.8 of PREFACE. and to explain the origin and properties There is of those which are of Nature's own production. and the mode and manner in invisible forces of Nature. . their source. Owing to what . there prevails a general ignorance of the nature and composition of paints. profession. But the materials which and colors reflect to the eye the thousand tints which the painter disposes with secret of their origin. in as brief a form as possible. origin. will give the clew to their composition and mode of production. nothing in do- mestic or out-door life so common. so constantly before our eyes. outside the ranks of those who profess the art of painting. The wood which ity the carpenter fashions into shapes of utilits and beauty. cunning hand give no sign of the They may be simple scientific skill. or compound substances wrought out in Nature's vast laboratory. as painted surfaces yet. The materials used by the painter and colorist are more directly the result of chemical research and discovery than are those of other trades and callings .

and would modestly commend not only to the trade. or in their harmonious combination and arrangement. is Such teaching certainly worthy the attention of those to whom we comit is mit the instruction of our children. the writer induced to book to the public. effort is made to educate the percep- tive faculties in the discrimination of colors. with the belief that there are but few instruction in its who may not find some pages. . not only in our common no schools. and the neglect of a national misfortune. the writer 9 must call a defect in our system of education. this little Hoping to create is an interest in offer this it important subject. but also to the general reader.PREFACE. but in the higher institu- tions of learning.

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129 XVIL—Dark-Oak XIX. .35 . XII. Ornamenting with Colors Mixing Paints and Colors .147 .13 18 III. XIV. . .. KaLSOMINING .96 113 Graining as a Fine Art. .CONTENTS CHAPTER I. VII.116 .. 81 V. . VIII. . . . ...143 XVIIL— Black-Walnut Ash Graining . XX. . Graining . . 71 X. . Graining.. . . . . 83 Paris-Green as a Pigment . or coloring Walls and Ceilings — CALLED XI. . New System of Interior House-Painting . . Ground and Graining Colors Tools required for Graining . Painted Imitation of Colored Woods. XIII. PAGE . . . . . . Chestnut Graining . .125 .. .154 157 . technically CALLED Graining . . .. . . . 123 XV.. . .. IV. .— Light-Oak Graining . VI.23 . 48 52 IX.. . Whitewashing. Mixing Paints and Colors (Continued) Paint as affected by Atmospheric Agencies Exterior House -Painting 40 . . Paints: Their Origin and Sources . . . XVI.. ColOes and their TJsEa Light and Color II. . ..

242 .— Vaenisuing XXX. . 174 .185 . . . . . Mahogany Geaining Geaining .. XXIX. . XXiy. XXXI. . . XXVIII. .. XXVII. XL. . . .12 CHAPTER CONTENTS. 220 . Satinwood Geaining Light-Oak Geaining .— Bied's-E YE Maple .181 Geneeal Eemaeks .165 .. . in 176 179 Distempee .195 .— Rosewood .217 . .211 . XXV. XXXIX.— The New Method XXXV. . . XXXVIII. Peepaeation of the Sueface Caeeiage. . XXXVII.163 . . . . .Walnut Geaining in Distempee. 235 — The Use of Ready-Geound Coloes How to make the Best Job in Black . XXXII. PAGE XXI. . Evils and theie Remedies .. on Unpainted 159 . . 238 . . XXII. Adulteeation and Waste . XXXIII. . .Vaenishing .172 XXIII. 224 229 — How to get the Best Results . . New System of Geainino Pine-Wood Suefaces Distempee-Geaining . .. Painting and Vaenishing XXXVI.. 198 205 XXXIV. . Black. XXVI. How to Paint a Caeeiage . .169 . . . Cleaving of Vaenish feom the Coloe . XLI. . . . .

. describes the gorgeous flower mosaics fied the nuptial which glori- bower in Eden's garden. whereof and wherewith the said David did a son of a him a dwelliiig-house). the ncw-macle King of Israel (even as beforetime he had sent to David cedar wood. woman of the . because of the non-existence of historic records. with fine poetic frenzy. — the King of Tyre. So-called sacred books— according to Moses tell us that long ago Tyre was famed among the nations of the earth for the skill of her workmen in gold and colors and broidery and that Huram.HOUSE-PAINTING. CARRIAGE-PAINTING. CHAPTER COLOKS I. The use of colors for decoratiA^e and ornamental pur- poses antedates written history. AND GRAINING. and tliey Avere possibly em- ployed by aboriginal son. or build trees. Milton. did send to Solomon. man in or for the adornment of his perits To trace the progress of this fine art from incip- iency were an impossible task. AKD THEIR USES. the blind poet.

and other pagan modes of worship. colored to symbol- ize the mysteries of their strange and. AND GRAINING. that colors . to us. Jewish. We may suppose that there was a period in man's history average mony. more- had a significance beyond mere harmonious arrangement. The en- during materials which monumentally record the glory of Egyptian civilization were. incomprehen- And so through — as we know them — all succeeding forms and changes and religious inventions. until the use of color for sacred and sacerdotal purposes seemed to have attained its highest reach with the culmi- nating temporal power of the Komish Church. we suppose. as also in embroidery and in fine linen. skillful in decorating in gold and silver and brass and was this iron. harmony and distinguish discords in compositions The protest of Luther and his compeers against what they deemed errors in the Church. whose father was a Tyrian man. included more than the diversion of a portion of the religious thought of the so- . and were used emblematically in the Egyptian. when the mind was educated in a knowledge of color-harWe know there was and is a time where in our an almost entire ignorance of and civilization there exists indifference to this subject. daughters of -Dan. An accomplished artist man of ! We may suppose that during the earlier i^eriod of man's development the employment of color for decorative and ornamental purposes was confined mostly to the temples of worship and to the palaces and tombs of kings over. sible religion. and. and a prevailing inability to discern of color.14 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE FAINTING. and in Tyre crimson and purple and gold.

All of art in painting. COLORS AND THEIR USES. Peter. and looking back to the Massachusetts Bay Colony. 15 it called Christian world from the channel through which had been accustomed those to flow. the Virgin Mother. and everything which savored of the Church was banished and put far away. the Antichrist. which the Church had gathered and almost monopolized the emblem of the cross. wonderful in influence. of. and are all most difficult to trace. The rigid teach- ings of the semi-theocracy of the Puritan Commonwealth were far-reaching in extent. we may find the cause of our to the use of colors own want of taste and our indifference for decorative and ornamental purposes. Modified by the influx of immigration. the repository of God's power on earth. on the part of those truly religious. Coming down to our own time.. The change in the spirit of who and followed in the footsteps of the protesters was entire. the object of ex- tremest veneration theretofore. the standing offense against the God of Abraham. grew that indisposition to. and sculpture. and architecture. radical The institution. we may assume. the stained windows. founded by St. They crop out to-day among the forms and features of our diversified society and civilization. which has ever been the a<3Companiment of Protestant Puritanism. became the thing ab- horrent. the softened light of cathedral and minster were become idols in the new light of Luther and his friends. the devil's engine for the perversion of hu- man souls. and consequent ignorance color-harmony. who folloAved Luther out. Out of this. by .

if not a and the use of colors for church purposes as a would have been looked upon than image-worship." so far as they were conscious of their own not rejoice that the materials of their re? spiritual impulses. by accumulation of wealth and its consequent refinement and luxurious ten- dencies. pagan and red the right hand and wrath ! Colors. the *^ crime little less heinous Scarlet with woman of Babylon" — she them was significant of who sat upon the seven Purple suggested of hills. morality of those God-fearing ascetics found proper and fitting expression in the rectangular shelters. among sin. said now generally to prevail. With those Puritan Fathers a knowledge of the simple names of colors was a frivolity. and the inability to distinguish color-harmony. either as ornaments or emblems. which has heretofore universally prevailed. it seems not necessary to . their purely intellectual To have rendered The rigid their places of worship attractive by ornamentation would have given the lie to their whole profession. under the spirit wooden roofs of which they assembled to worship ^Mn and in truth. drunken with the blood idolatry. May we as which architecturally symbolized the simplicity ligion were not enduring monumental brass or marble In tracing backward the cause of our want of taste and our indifference to the use of colors. of saints. could have no place in ideal faith. tlie eyer-increasing contact with world. and which may be us as a people. To may be traced the entire indifference to the use of colors for decorative and ornamental purposes.16 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. AND GRAINING. they yet bear more or less of the rigidity and sethese teachings verity of their original features.

harmony and the genas is the partial reis Encouraging covery from the white-and-green mania. Let us congratulate ourselves that the its latter dis- cordant combination has run course. has become a thing of the past. what tints and shades. or to rejoice at. We find ourselves now npon the other road. Be and it a matter to deplore. with its severe morals simple tastes. there to be much colors yet done in educating the people as to what and tones of color. gave place to the diluted Puritanism of white and green. I7 civiliza- go beyond the period of that settlement and that tion which has given the key-note to the moral and intel- lectual tone of succeeding generations. may properly be displayed in the coloristic decoration of domestic architecture. and has given place to a disposition. . at least. The paintless structures which were the vanity of our severe predecessors. as a system. to color the exteriors of our dwelling-places with some regard to eral fitness of things. it is its not to be denied that Puritanism.COLORS AND THEIR USES.

assert that light To was was made for the eye. color all belongs to light. might possibly give but the to ultra-caviler will hardly deny the adaptability of each objects can occupy the the other. which would otherwise be . In other phrase. made for light. and without that organ there can be no intelligent comprehension of the sensation which color causes. .CHAPTER II. to take a charitable view of like conditions of time. and in the absence of light objects are The mind becomes conscious of color because of the eye. COLOR. LIGHT AND. This construction may cause us many differences of opinion as to the merits or demerits of works of art or of impressions produced by natural phenomena. and it is doubtful if an object is ever seen twice by any one beholder under exactly and circumstance. As no two material at the same space same time. Color black. or that the eye rise to cavil . so no two persons can view the same object under exactly similar conditions at the same mo- ment place. is an attribute of light.

perhaps." This. every would be worse than wasted if. Chevreul. however. fortunately. and that in such matters nobody has the right or the calling to propound laws for others. and and always will be. English translation). and discords and harmony. in his work on ^^Laws of Contrast of Colors" (page 198. identical among all whose perceptive faculties are ordinarily susceptible to color impressions. or perhaps to willful blindness. 19 charged to stubbornness. There have been. which are supposed to be in . laws have been pro- pounded. was a very important matter about which to come to a decision. still not the rule but the exception. or captiousness. I *^ : As soon as I felt the my first care was to discover whether them. and the fact remains that the generality of persons see colors as Chevreul says he saw them.LIGHT AND COLOR. This diversity. in such matters. for the reason that time spent in teaching the laws which govern color contrasts. Such protesters are. gans of Notwithstanding the fact that the visual many people are so imperfect that the possessors it can not distinguish green from red. man was to be '^a law unto himself. Upon this assumption. must not lead us to the conclusion that we can arrive at no positive knowledge of the effects produced on the general mind by of colors certain combinations and contrasts and of light or- and shade. from time to time. it saw colors as the generality of persons see I was soon perfectly convinced that I did. will be seen. individuals is who claim that in all questions of taste there no room for dispute." are. says necessity of this study. as a rule. can not reasonably be denied that the sensation produced by the sight of these colors is.

than a blue ground . It is a fixed and arbi- trary natural law in color-harmony that gold harmonizes with and is pleasing to the eye in combination or contrast with so all colors all : and tints positive and neutral. but to discord with any color. depends upon proportion. with white So with red and white the white should be in excess. for the In treating the question of color-harmony. Rules as to may be given for putting together certain colors. or purit ple. A few general rules. and the remarks as to blue and white . as a white ground with blue spots would have a more pleasing spots. whereas. indeed. AND GRAINING. are hard to oyercome. formidable difficulties are met with. and decrease the good efl'ect of all . Not equally can not with gold is better with scarlet. be made too. that disagreeable results will follow from any offense against these conditions.20 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. and reason that all the natural laws relating thereto are so altered and modified by conditions and circumstances that they be- come liable to endless interpretations. So much. had the same color been in proper proportion bors. or crimson. so produce harmony and avoid discords. it to its neigh- would have heightened the good effect of all. : indeed. than with olive-green or greenish-drab. are Proportion and place. but no rule can be given for the relative proportions which these colors must bear to each other. tlie accordance with Nature's requirements in colors in coloristic decoration disposition of and ornamentation. may be laid down. such as follow With blue and effect white. the white should be in excess. powerful influences in the combination of colors a color used in a composition in certain proportions will be disagreeable.

from the fact that the eye can not be educated in color-harmony through the ear. however. they are not as pleasing when the yellow shows in the same quantity as the other colors. or is olive- green and brown. or between red "We say a black next a rusty. can not prop- . encing the disagreeable effect of placing side by direct contact. and one may almost as well be color-blind as to be without the ability to distinguish intuitively what are and what are not proper proportions. But or. and green. when and where and how may be done. Blue and red and yellow make perfect harmony in combination yet . alternate stripes of red in and green.LIGHT AND COLOR. dered less disagreeable by the introduction this but. and hence arises the hopelessness of the task of educating one in this art whose perceptive faculties are naturally deficient in this most important requirement . Few persons are color-blind to the extent of not experiside. may be changed to concords by the discord not be made to harmonize —in two colors which can —may be toned down and renof a third . it and both the other colors lose Intro- duce a white or yellow next the black. the blue should be red next. and its at once shows own color. can not be taught by written rules. Suoh rules as these. Discords in two colors addition of a third . and lastly the yellow. any better than the latter organ can be taught harmony of sounds eye. through the medium of the green. becomes dull and by the arrangement. the it is difficult course. When Of these colors are prefirst sented together. 21 are equally pertinent as to red and white. to determine the exact quantity of each. in quantity. a this is not all that required.

22 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTINa. AND GRAINING. It is easy to say that notes three and four in the musical scale struck to- gether give forth discordant sounds does not . but to the ear which know this by intuition. otherwise it would seem its possessor. the fact taught through written rules would be as seed sown on stony ground. The because he knows some reader will expect to find full and complete directions for the com- bination of colors in color compositions. knowlto erly be called instructive. for the reason that such edge should come by intuition be of no particular value to . As said before. which will be applicable under any and all conditions. this practice. knowledge comes only through the eye by the study of good examples. and by . writer moralizes a little here.

not because of processes. is is the man who it suits dogmatically asserts that a thing his tast^. The it faculty.CHAPTER III. is We haye now to deal not science . l2^ view of the fact is tliat tlie sole object in ornamenting with color to please the eye. in color ornamentation. when chemically or scientifically considered. faculties. not the perceptive. or good be- cause want of taste. its results. with what empirical and not what rational. good. where . The theory of color is inter- esting. these displayed in juxtaposition with good effect. OEN"AMEKTIKG WITH COLORS. that organ alone is must be with is consulted as to what art. it exists. not reasons. We propose to furnish rules. tuitive. may With be improved by the study of good examples natural faculty is but where the wanting can not be acquired. a colors good reason why. A knowledge of color-harmony is in- not acquired. but . colors bear to each other certain rela- That two or more tions. there an end to . may be is Chemistry its interesting in this connection. of itself. is not. as a fact but it interests the intellectual.

only to accept the rules down by those who possess the natural gift of distinguishing harmony in color. or other . a house. Undue importance has been given to the place and pro. must be made . Now. certain colors appear very different. have their best under subdued light. would be simply absurd. grateful to the : or natural tastes to the palate. formal lines and angles.24 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. viewed by in artificial light. were as absurd as to declare that all natural sounds must Again necessarily be pleasing to the ear. for ornamenting with colors. or all natural odors nostrils. too. is not in any sense a natural object is artificial but. it to the last degree and any attempt to give it the appearance of a natural object. and frequently under cial light. rior decoration are intended to sarily. portion of colors as displayed in Nature but Nature's ex- amples are worthy of imitation only so far as they conform to the rules of harmonious combination. when . modern its building. by coloring colors with those which Nature most largely displays. the stone-blind or color-blind were altogether vanity. while others are equally violent in contrast. exhibits her colors and her color combinations. Such have no part or laid lot in this matter. necesartifi- lightful. Nature. To assert that the combinations and contrasts of colors as displayed in natural objects tlie must necessarily be harmonious and pleasing to eye. many of which are highly pleasing and deand incongruous day while colors used in inteeffect. than when seen by daylight provision and. with . AND GRAINING. improved by the study of good examples. To discuss the question of color-harmony with argument. by the light of .

if by gaslight should be of a bright be indispensable. The of a full writer would impress most strongly the importance of the effect before taking and complete concej)tion the initial step in decorating with colors. There should be extended surfaces of a uniform tint for the eye to rest upon. Therefore. it dark blue should be lightened with white. and the colors used in ornamentation should be decided and contrasting. blue intended for exhibition tone. is. complete before the brush is With a is true artist the work is applied. form the exposition only. show a barrenness of . 25 For example approach to : yellow light lends to red. Cold gray tones and flowing lines and perspective drawing are not in lines of harmony with the formal our domestic architecture. and a fondness for copying natural objects and forms. The under the hands his in- of the sculptor. The colored pigments in the language are the signs whereby others versed If a design may read his inspirations.ORNAMEKTIXG WITH COLORS. brighter than by day. So with the true artist in coloristic decoration. this difference. be faulty in conception. The result insig- only is nificant. and to appears almost black and light blues and greens are apt be confounded. even as in sculpture the ideal statue the inspiration. or a brighter tone of the same. the marble plastic clay. scarlet. enables the author to make patent vention. and causes it to and crimson looks the darker tones of light. and. important. the process and the parts are Undue 2 attention to detail. this color Blue — that —loses by the absorption of too much . no amount of elaboration or perfectness in detail will remedy the defect.

proportions which each shall bear to the other the latter first. and I have it is come to know how It has only by studying its lines and tracings and ! a thousand and a thousand times again . but in the relative quantities or . AND GRAINING. This position would of course bring the patient's vision. is invention and a sad want of appreciation of wliat ine in art. and a hand most cunning and ber becomes a skillful in execution. genu- In color ornamentation care must be taken. colors. the Its is a is chamber set apart for ample ceiling ornamented in water- work of a so-called fresco-painter who possessed correct taste in color-harmony (all of them do not). if he can. not only in the selection of tlie colors. what a lux- ury to be sick in this room ! How many hours of dull the deli- pain have been brightened and made endurable by cacy of those lines and the sweet harmonies of those color blendings and contrasts— those exquisite shadings. requirement being almost equally important with the In the house of the writer state purposes.20 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. which keep the mind ever in a pleasant doubt as to whether the figures be the work of the pencil or the chisel ! In all the many hours beautiful colors of my painful illness this ceiling has been an unfailing source of joy. in a period of convalescence " Oh. imagine the satisfaction of the writer and his gratitude toward the artist when : the patient sufferer exclaimed. ceiling in the direct scope of the My reader will. This cham- common room when the invalid wife and mother is prostrated by one of those peculiar attacks which the doctors say require in curative treatment that the body must lie supinely.

employ. of the industrial faculties out of the question music and mirth are not in harmony with the sick-cham- Where look for hope ? Kind reader. many may be rendered hours of joy those days of mental lection of that the long. or in the nature of things. and bodily prostration becomes easy case. plain ceilings in ^^ ! Puritan whiteness Oh. The exercise . and color whereupon There that is to exercise those faculties. long. the very recol- and physical which one would for ever blot from memory —may of be made pleasant recollections by a simple display of color. Suppose a Eeading of books is for sanitary rea- sons. made more than tolerable the otherwise 27 weary hours of my ill- past sickness.ORNAMENTING WITH COLORS. to challenge comparison in healing power with the work of the artist-painter great terror. what a luxury to be sick in such a room ! " Is there any medicament. the Bountiful Giver has bestowed on us perceptive faculties. But the design . ? is The the want of mental occupation. of the industrial faculties is equally out of the question the great Desert of Sahara does not suggest so fearful a blank as protracted sickness under such circumstances and where look for hope ? Eeading is is forbidden . harmonious in tints and proportions. any sirup of drowsy poppy or mandragora." Think of this in comparison with cold. Therein lies hope ! not a shadow of doubt in the mind of the writer of the dreary hours of sick-room existence . pation. and robs the anticipated future hours of ness of half their terrors. ment ber. forbidden. in bodily sickness which prostrates. Given agreeable mental occuto bear. weary days inanition.

wreaths. set them right. portraits. eyen in so small a matter as the coloring of a sleei^ing- room. to eyes work must not be intrusted which see not. They are as : much out of place there as they would be on the carpet they are certain to be upside down. Bou- and other imitations of natural objects. take on shapes either grotesque or horrible. rather than blessings from the heights of Gerizim. and all imitations of natural objects. are not impotent for evil . nor dancing-girls. requires the pencil of an artist just as certainly as did those productions of the great masters. by the aid of a dis- and so severely simple that they tempered fancy. flowers.28 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTmG. nor its execution to unskilled hands." from our painted down from the brow of Ebal. are not good. according' as curses as we build. can not. should look down ujoon us from ceilings in domestic architecture. The figures must be purely conventional. so powerful for good. fanciful drawings." Faces. which enchant the world. entirely out of place. To produce good results. when we view them. wonder or curiosity. because they cease to interest objects of sight. when they cease to be However beautiful at first is they are in the nature of things inferior to the objects of they are intended to imitate. Titian and Tintoret. what tance. and. and that we may. bunch of flowers however fault- . must be strictly avoided. vines. ceiling. AND GRAINING. call '^ But let us not forget that these same colors. vines. thereby converting our sick-room into a ^' chamber of horrors. or standing on their heads. and a sick person has not strength of mind sufficient to quets. in a painted most impor- There can be no sentiment on a ceiling. Cupids. Exaggerated outlines.

and such soon become matters of indifference or disgust. the mind finds agreeable it is and pleasant its occupation sources. In tracing the lines and curves. purely conventional designs On the and figures —the same being artistically drawn. No work move the beholder with any its sentiment which did not necessarily belong to tion or production. with real artistic fervor.ORNAMENTING WITH COLORS. for the display of true artistic Therefore. and chanticleer with ." is is practicing art in the better sense of its the word. flower pigs Landscape and cattle painting. changes the dead level of a plain white ceiling into a ^'^ thing of beauty. which seems to be to elevate horse- painting and cow-painting above art as practiced by the masters above named. concej)- None and will deny that the drawing of purely conventional forms and figures affords good scope for the imagination. rats and and insect painting. taste. less 29 objects the drawing and coloring may be . and seem never to tractiveness. the artist who. contrary. or that room such art has the remotest connection with of art can spiration. and kept subseryient to the main object. which is the display of colors —always present themlose their at- selves with a fresh charm. and rabbits and and Guineaall his and ducks and jiucklings. the shad- ings and contrasts. reaching out toward highest signifi- This digression is made as a protest against the growing disposition of the times. and cance. when by sickness deprived of usual re- Ifc will hardly be claimed by the most enthusiastic for play of the imaginain- devotee of realistic art that the copying of natural' objects or imitations of nature gives tion.

only serve to show how expert and skillful men may certainly become in copying natural forms and imitating natural objects. cackling harem. and such it a display of skill is truly wonderful but the practice of does not necessarily include inspira- tion. without which fine art can not be said to exist. AND GRAINING.30 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. though given on canvas more natural than life. or genius. Talent of this kind of a high order is respectable. . invention.

as . by reason of their fugitive character. All the metals yield pigments of some sort. They are useful and durable both in color and substance. known and crimson and purple Prussian and Antwerp blues. Na- tive paints are found. as also agency. The important pigment lampblack also classed among vegetable colors. Lead yields white-lead. Among those retained are the madder-colors. being silica colored with iron oxides. distinguished by various names. and as a rule are not as liable to change as are the colors produced by chemical furnishes the bright scarlet lakes. in These mostly are generally neutral tints or shades. The mineral kingdom yields the great bulk of pig- ments used in plain and decorative house-painting. is and gamboge. The animal kingdom as carmine. and other whites of similar nature and composition.CHAPTER PAIKTS : IV. inexhaustible and boundless supply. indigo. Colors extracted from vegetable substances have been mostly discarded in painting. THEIE OKIGIiT AND SOUECES. in certain geological formations.

—are exposed some weeks. cadmium. verdigris. as they are technically less. Copper gives senic. and the cently-found metals. Mars brown. " Chapter XI. called red-lead. The run into molds forming like a a circle or ring. etc.32 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. Krem's wliite. conformably to certain other require- ments. molybde- num. an oxide of that more popularly known. to the action of vinegar. volatilized by gentle heat. AVhite-lead.white. Arsenicum supplies King's yellow and orpiment. all for ages the only substance which includes is the qualities or properties required by the painter. and the gray oxide. blue and smalt are Cobaltre- made from the metal cobalt. red oxide. . and. China white. 3 produce colors of peculiar beauty and brilliancy. than metal. called litharge. or other acetic acid. . Zinc furnishes the beautiful paint known as as zinc-white. and Venetian red. Through the action of this vametallic struct- porized acid. familiar metal. the metal gradually loses its . such as uranium. is Mercury produces in com- bination with sulphur what known as true vermilion. in combination with ar- the unrivaled green known '^ Paris or emerald green —for see a comprehensive and detailed description of as a Pig- which ment. called These shapes —buckles. also orange mineral. Mars orange and yellow. lead. etc. AND GRAINING. is any except iron. silver. perhaps. the comprehensive term for white pigments. entitled Paris Green Iron furnishes Indian red. with bars across something round gridiron the object being to present as much surface as possible. liquefied by heat. more or in covered earthen pots.

and takes on the appearance which is whitish. drop-black. Frankfort black. and in the manufacture of printer's ink. is the white-lead paint of the painter. and. its suspended open-mouthed to catch the zinc. when raised : to 2. The oxide at this stage sufficient to is extremely a barrel. to i)repare the same. This. forming carbonic-acid gas. the zinc rising as a metallic yapor. crushed to the size of coarse sand. friable substance. carbon. Lampblack. are deoxidized . forming the light. of 33 a as and character. The other white pigment (white oxide of zinc) is produced The ores. Lampblack. chemically known carbonate of lead. light. goes through chambers into which air is admitted. and packed in barrels of two of four hundred pounds or casks to manufacturers hundred pounds. useful form of carbon . in passage from the furnace to the bags. is filled and out of which the gas escapes. the to be considered most important and. bone-black. are spread on the fire. and conyeyed through iron pipes large room into which they are driyen. yiz.000° Fahrenheit. flaky substance known as flowers of zinc. and ground in oil. and sold it is whose business oil.PAINTS: THEIR ORIGIN lire AND SOURCES. which. and as follow^s mixed with fine coal. This room with large. The yapor and gases are sucked to a from the furnace. stout bags. In its yaporous form it unites wath the oxygen of the atmosphere. iyory-black.. the oxygen of the ore uniting with the coal. thirty or forty pounds being fill It is then compressed to about one fourth of its former bulk. by mixing and grinding in for the use of the painter. after being washed and crushed. are the names applied to the simple substance which affords all the blacks used in painting.

34 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. AND GRAINING. rosin. are or other bituminous substances. produced from the article known in trade as com- mon rosin. fatty substances produce lamp. and the common kinds from coal or being simply the soot gas All resinous. . The finer kinds made from tar. is here. oily. black in the process of burning it resulting from highly combustible bodies as they are imperfectly consumed.

We proposed in the preface to connect the names of the colors with some familiar and well-known specimens This is of flowers or fruits as examples. or reader. paints and This would seem a and so it facile subject about which to write . and convey to the individual hearer. Another difficulty which presents itself is the wrong. them to every mind the same significance but these names are so indeterminate. every hearer traces on the tablet. that we confess to not a little misgiving as to our ability to so present the subject as to make it fairly intelligible. or rather false impressions. would be. When we tri- angle. task. colors. no easy . nor does it help us altogether out of our difficulty for the rea- son that flowers. taches to the as to the exact meaning which at- names of colors. present such a variety of tones of the same color under varying conditions and circumstances. speak of a maybe a majority. of his mind a figure . if the names of colors carried with . existing in the minds of many. particularly those in a state of domestication. such entirely differing sensations.CHAPTER mixi:n^g V.

another. hearing the sound of the name. a familiar example. of being very niggardly. and the purples particularly being of gorgeous richness . however. the deep yellow of the marigold and so on through the whole range of the almost endless tones and hues of that color. or indigo. same With blue the case is altogether different. and the diffi- culties are almost insurmountable. this is In all the world of offer of the most pertinent example .36 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. we speak of yellow. and the blue a red-purple. tended — presents no example of a pure blue and herein we may accuse Nature scarlets. When. It is easy to say. purples. Yet if the yellow be the color of yellow-brown violet. in mental vision. blue and yellow commingled produce green. will see. not the color of the orange or the lemon. or in our color nomenclature the resulting color will not give to the eye a pure green. . the pale hue of the prim. flowers. easily localities the remembered. yellow-brown stone rose . the word conveys each individual hearer possibly a different sensation. and presenting in different color. to the mind of One. stone. for the reason that the floral kingdom —so far as the writer's observation has ex. another. we can a pure yellow that it is for the reason. in view of the lavish abundance of yellows. well Thus we have for comparison known to young and old. if there were none other. AND GRAINING. Thereyel- when we use the word low. having three sides and three corners. crimsons. we would photograph on the mind the . the most familiar. fore. reflected color of the buttercup not the pale tint of the primrose.

so to speak of —the only example and in every part of pure blue which the eye man all has ever beheld or ever will probably behold." Yet. " The poet wave is a tells Deep in the coral grove. or when the wind is from the north. follows : These conditions are as A day in the country. we can not present a familiar examjole of a pure blue color. a storm . which are indis- pensable in the exhibition of heaven's own blue. offer for his delectation this heavenly azure. If the reader would revel in the joy born of the sight of this color in all its purity. Where Where the purple-mullet and gold-fish rove the sea-flower spreads her leaves of blue. we see the sky glorified with those passing. summer thunder-storm. not seen in a calm nor in never in a south wind or an east wind. falling That never are wet with the dew. perhaps. let tacle. *in up during the and ushered by sunrise in an unclouded sky and . with sharply defined outlines. 37 is The flax-flower among blossoms us : the best we have to ofier. for the reason that with none of these winds do fleecy clouds. and (over. in It is never seen in a winter sky in our latitude.MIXING PAINTS AND COLORS. The reader must not mistake in suptimes. and Nature in her best mood. him watch and all wait. it as hoYv' ever blue the sea-flower may be. and purity. for 'tis a rare spec- and only shown when the conditions are favorable. posing the sky will at any and of the vaulted arch. We have in the sky —outside the world. It is summer only under would be the better word) peculiar conditions. following an afternoon or clearing evening night.

and the gorgeous plumage of tropical birds. and the So it most infinitesimal commingling of blue with pure blue : to crimson. except in rare sunsets.38 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. she has confined the colors to old use of this most pleasing of all and young. sur- rounded by those creamy white cloud-masses. the color fers first is of the primary colors. that it may be said to have no place there. sharp outlines. compared with the other primary colors. is that pure red which neither scarlet nor crimson. We suggest the red Dutch currant as the best its familiar example of pure red color. because of common . to con- vey the idea of what we mean when we speak of blue. or in the earth is its and in the general landscape proportion. will chase each other across the face of the sky. As before said. by close watching. and the slightest show of red changes it to purple. AND GRAINING. Then. to the painting of the petals of flowers. Early' in the forenoon a brisk west or northwest wind. red is. and Nature ofit . the third and last of the primary colors as seen in the spec- trum. the flax-flower is the best example floral we can out of the endless variety of the world. offer. in the water. large masses of fleecy clouds. with clearly cut. the faintest suspicion of yellow makes of a blue-green. suggesting to the pious mind heayen's own gateway. but few specimens of indeed. . a patch of pure blue color. The difficulty in obtaining a pure that the slightest reflection of the yellow ray changes it to scarlet. Red. the tempting hues of luscious fruits. may be seen in the zenith. Nowhere so small is it to be seen in the sky.

the perhaps. We best. when we speak of red after this disquisition. and not old red sandstone. seem now to have a point of departure —not . 39 occurrence in temperate climates. but certainly much better than none because. and because no better familiar example is offered. The name of yellow will suggest the color of the buttercup.MIXING PAINTS AND COLORS. of the practice of the art of compounding colored pigments will be looked for in the succeeding . and blue will call to mind the color of heaven. The teaching chapter. we shall be understood to mean the color of the ripe currant. not the yellowish-brown of the ochre pigments .

CHAPTER VI.) : Beginning with the primary colors. . according as the amount all of blue is varied. MIXING PAINTS AND COLOES. and will be pure just in proportion as the black is intensely black gives first and the white purely white. entirely neutral tint or shade. Yellow with blue gives the tones of blue and yellow green. we say Eed with yellow. The other secondary pure gray. are compounded is are pure. — (CONTINUED. in infinitude colors. black and white. These secondary colors will be pure in tone just in degree as the primaries of which they color. and these are termed secondary Red with blue gives the whole range of crimsons and purples. warm gray. a Red with gray into brown. and orange-yellow. scarlet. commingled in varying proportions. a cold. produces of tones . until the contin- ued adding of red carries the color out of the range of grays and this color so produced would be called warm brown. as the blue or yellow in the mixture predominates. It is derived from the extreme colors. orange.

cream-color. give sive all the exten- range of drabs. and will be dark or light in proportion to the quantity of white present in the mixture. This seems to include as to the all that can be said instructively of the mixing of colored paints for the production . palest straw-color to pure yellow. Yellow with gray gives a yellow gray with a tinge green. and will be or cold as the red or blue predominates. Blue and red with gray produce a nice tint. Blue with white gives pale blue of any desired tone. and will be warm in proportion as it reflects Red witli black or purple. and. with white and yellow. called French gray. Yellow with white gives all the intermediate tints be- tween the lightest. and white. or deep purple. indigo-color.MIXING PAINTS AND COLORS. produces brownlittle stone color. sec- the range of browns or olive- Green tinted with white gives apple-green of various tones. Black or purple. in mixture. with a slight addition of red. all Black. all the Black and red and yellow with white. as also fawn-color. gives the darkest brown. warm Eed tinted with white gives jDink. Eed with black the red ray. give olive-greens. —into —primary. and tertiary greens. and a yellow added makes the mixture a better imitation of this popular building-stone. carries the colors ondary. 41 of Blue with gray gives a cold blue gray.

for easier reference Scarlet is is derived from red with yellow.42 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. with red and black. black Below we give the same in : a condensed form. Crimson is derived from red with blue. is is Red crimson Blue crimson Purple is derived from red with blue. is Pure brown derived from black and red. and "Warm gray and red. is derived from red and black. derived from white with black or blue. derived from blue with red. derived from green and white. AND GRAINING. is Pure gray derived from white with black. is derived from white. Orange derived from red with yellow. derived from blue with red. is derived from white. is Orange-yellow derived from red with yellow. Pink is derived from white with red. colors possible deriyatives and the ex- treme colors. with black or blue. Red brown and white. Pale blue is derived from white and blue. with preponderance of is Green derived from blue with yellow. red. is is Red purple Blue purple derived from blue with red. from the primary and white. derived from red with blue. is French gray Blue gray red. is Brown-stone derived from red and black and yellow . is Olive-green black. derived from blue with yellow and Apple-green Silk-green is is derived from green and white.

present examples of these tints colors directly to the visual organs of the reader. a saving both in time and suggest. deep brown. economy . Continuing this subject furfacts ther. We but it would. we present some to which may prove colored pigments valuable to one for his who may choose mix own profit or pleasure. grays. color are derived 43 from red and white and Buff is derived from white and orange-yellow. first. called raw Turkey umber as and also burnt umber it —the native umber roasted—which process causes to take on? a very rich. is Cream derived from white and orange-yellow. as drabs. as crude or native umber. if a material can be found which in itself includes the colors necessary to produce any desired tint in the way of drabs or fawn-colors. instructively. Maroon is derived from red and purple and black. derived from white and yellow and black. is Chestnut derived from red and yellow and black. how- ever desirable may seem. Drab and fawn black and yellow. in such case. and fawn-col- ors—it follows. we would is employment of that very useful pigment known in the : trade as umber. This presented in two forms .MIXING PAINTS AND COLORS. Cuir-color is Tawny color is derived from white and yellow and black. is Corn-color derived from white and orange-yellow. the Therefore. according to taste or fancy. and broken is quite impracticable in a it work of this kind. to obtain such would be in the direction of material. These pig- . from choice. The colors now employed in exterior house-painting being mostly neutral tints —with a bit of positive color shown on the molds and trimmings.

or shade. within . book which should include every possible combination letters of the which compose our alphabet. and. in giving instruction as to what paints to order for certain purposes. the result of w^hich would be a tint darker than might be wanted. and look here to learn how to To give rules for the production of every color. care must be taken to make no mention reach. possible —maybe fer to probable — that some inquiring reader will pre- do it.44 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. AND GRAINING. and raw umber will give any de- sired shade of yellowish drab. list The of colored paints offered for sale in the is *^ coun- try-store." or in the ordinary paint-shop. used in the production of any tint of drab or fawncolor. make his own color. especially as a card is showing these colored pigments select presented. would be as impossible as to write a tint. In these days. and will give clearer tints than can ordinarily be j^roduced by the last-named colors. it is Notwithstanding these conveniences. when and colored j^aints are offered of almost every tint possible tone and shade suitable for use in house- painting. of those which are not. is The only caution necessary care lest too much of the color may be used. hue. not by any means exhaustive . Burnt Turkey umber will give (mixed with white-lead or zinc-white) any desired tint in the way of warm drabs. as a rule. ments. are the equivalent of black and red and yellow. there would seem to be no good reason why a householder should subject himself to the trouble and expense of mixing his own colors. wherefrom he may such color as taste or inclination all may dictate.

matter he requires. the color-maker ? to the book. or as the case may be. Prussian blue (which is a deep purple). For example suppose the would-be color-mixer to have on hand a hundred pounds of pure white-lead for the purpose of making a drab neutral tint for painting the exterior of his dwelling-house. and the quantity is ing-matter. an excuse may be at hand for such an : unexpected outcome.. or zinc-wliite. as a drop in the In bucket —not is literally.. Yet he has done according not as predicted. and the result is Who shall bear the blame —the book or are' The colored pigments used in tinting with white burnt Turkey umber. page adulteration of wherein the set forth common and extreme . that the may require of . pound umber he will get will be adulterated to the extent of eighty per cent. chrome-yellow and the yellow ochres. white-lead. sufficient to single pound of pure burnt umber. raw Turkey umber. compared with the base. is 45 the staple of color- of all light-colored oil-paints. will in all probability be produce the tint or shade he unfortunately. Chapter VIII. ultra- marine blue. paints and for the reason that. instead of giving the color required. and will contain only a fifth part of the coloringwill. this connection attention is called to 57. in case one should follow the written directions below. Indian red. burnt . the chances are. Venetian red. and when mixed in with the white. simply change the comparatively pure white of the lead to a dirty white. and the result should disappoint.MIXING PAINTS AND COLORS. As before said. of course. but comparatively. He learns from the book that a raw umber.

a peach-blossom color. from the clear yellow-brown of the ochre-pigment up to the palest straw-color used rable. which body-color. . These tlie Italian sienna. Prussian and verdigris. in contrast with neutral tints —such. the genuine "Eo- chelle ochre. as are blue. umbers. the will apply to the use of raw umber. from purple to the lightest sky-blue. and raw Italian sienna. a soft. tending to red. produces a range of tints most to be desired. shades will analogy. instead of red. so called. all Prussian blue gives the tones of blue. with white. —and this practice is hereby Eaw or buff. and pure and sweet in tone. the pigments thus produced will prove dufugitive.46 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. clear straw-color Burnt sienna. of a warm tone . that is. for example." with white-lead. will give almost any drab tint that can be desired. and the trimming and greenish colors so to produced will be almost too cold please the eye. and in color not Indian red will give. with white-lead. . will be the result. is. as Indian red or some other rich red brown recommended. latter named are transparent colors. be entirely in harmony with the same rule by Not to repeat. Burnt umber. Good effects are produced by the introduction of some decidedly positive colors in moderate quantity. with white. AND GRAINING. mixed into that wliite-lead or zinc-wliite. only that yellow drabs. one or two or more darker shades may be had for contrast on the molds and cornices and trimmings. By the addition of more umber. which was once a favorite color for walls in interior painting. sienna gives. produces a pink of an Yellow ochre. undesirable hue.

and deepens in hue for a long time after ex- posure to the light. clearer light blues than does Prussian blue. two pounds of pure whitelight. a range of purer. because of unrivaled water- proof qualities. upon the building than when viewed in Pure French verdigris is blue to the eye. peculiarities and mode of application the head of ^* will be under Carriage-Painting. The carmines and and their found fully set forth lakes are used mostly as glazing-colors." . but. with white.MIXING PAINTS AND COLORS. Ultra- marine blue gives. so called. its tenacity and non-liability to crack and and its property of drying under salt-water. it When lead. used for vessel-work should be mixed as follows : Ten pounds of pure verdigris. It will be that in coloring with verdigris the paint will be very much when the mass. which a good color for borne in mind wooden houses darker in the country. dried in oil when ground and used as a paint. and one pound of chrome-green. Verdigris gives with white 47 a clear leaf-green. and with is white and )'ellow a pea-green. This pigment is specially adapted for its ship and vessel painting. it puts on a dark bronze-green. flake off. Venetian red with white produces an impure pink which will fade very quickly when exposed to the sunlight.

A freshly- under certain atmospheric conditions. one must not expect to dry a coat of paint in five minutes to a by exposing the same burning heat. within reason and moderation. compound- ing and preparing colors which dry qr^ickly enough under a winter atmosphere. power as indispensable in the drying of oil-paints as in the growth of plants. or dry too quickly under summer heats. Because of the foregoing proposition. the same state as and days in when applied under a freezing temperature. to be a BY ATMOSPHERIC AGEN- Heat would seem painted surface will. and not harden in the containing package. to the severest Paints which will dry hard in twelve hours under an atmosphere will continue for days first showing 70° of heat. length of time which will put trial. —PAINT AS AFFECTED CIES.CHAPTER IMPORTAKT. Therefore. . the time required or necessary for the drying of a coat of oil-paint will be in exact proportion to the number of degrees of heat to which it may be exposed. remain fresh and soft for a the patience of a Job. the difiiculty of shall. This. In short. even. VII. of course.

in a steam-heated room. self -constituted painter. no doubt. under a temperature of 70° Fahr. read. said. The sensitiveness of freslily-painted surfaces to the influence of heat. For this purpose. as plants will not grow in the absence of heat. whom we disgusted and highly-incensed farmer who called account for attempting to shoot his prize calf. may Should we attempt to teach the average farming or producing folly of mind of the worse than attempting to raise lettuce or radishes out-o'-doors in our winter climate. be heard. is demonstrated by certain experiments conducted by the writer. in answer to a The sportsman. These surfaces were placed near an opening through which the unheated or cold air of the adjoining apartment entered.PAINT AS AFFECTED BY A TMOSPHERIC A GENCIES. with a view to ascertain with exactness the facts in the case. tion Examinaon the day following the exposure revealed the fact whereas the portion which had that the portion not exposed to the draft of cold air was quite hard and dry . and came in contact with a portion of the painted surface. will be 49 understood and appreciated. Farmer. and like to were a calf " ! Now. Some query our grandmother would. I aimed so as to hit miss it if it it if it were a deer. though a not err therein. we should be as hailed with a general to shout of derision. or the absence of heat. Mr. we would make . so will paint not dry readily where a certain amount of Iieat of is wanting. him to " You see. painted surfaces were exposed. been under the action of the colder atmosphere was as soft and fresh as when first applied. We desire to make this so plain that any wayfaring man. Yet.

in completed in winter temperature — soft paint nature of things. rub out be no under the brush. which dry readily. Having given the seek a remedy. as tender plants shrink and shrivel under the blighting influence of a killing this result frost. the finishing mass of film. because of the absorbing quality of the same. which will leave no mass outside to skin or film over. will be found certain for the proper mode applying liquid colors but. we could but find the way ''how to do it. is whether out-doors or doors. facts. that there shall on the surface over which this skin. it now becomes to avoid such tITe is pertinent to The only way an untoward event —supposing the work must. but the gloss will disappear. he choose. thus formed." directions .50 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. or film. and will it must be remembered that a mode well in a of procedure which work summer temperature will not give sat- isfactory results in a wintry atmosphere. if a paint on this same theory. " of it JSTew Method. dry. All oil-paints surface. covers a is mass of wonderfully sensitive to atmospheric influences. will A den lowering of temperature cause it not only to wrinkle. coat. so paint a house in . so that the surface will reflect a different tone of color." Under the heading. and can. be to so extend. There need not be much fear of applied to on a first coat new or unpainted pine-wood. on the The and sud- skin. heat a power which must be taken into account. in connection therewith. AND GRAINING. soft paint. all must be borne in mind that in in- house-painting operations. Every practical painter understands the if phenomenon. or can form. or coat-oyer. in the following pages.

or clap-boards shall present the appearance before alluded to.FA LVT A S AFFECTED BY A TMOSPHERIC A GENCIES. wise above what is written is. in artificial . a common . To be sin. possible. unfortunately. either natural or and we have to ask that the paint shall not be made a scape- goat to bear the sins of ignorance. an atmosphere of 70° of heat.written directions. while the inter- vening boards shall be smooth and perfect. that painting should always be performed. carelessness. or the willful neglect of plainly. if Our advice is. 5 cold weather that alternate weather.

next to the form the color it . the first impression the eye receives on beholding cases. have hitherto been painted white." country-house is says The color of the outside of a is of more importance than itself. to some extent. prevails. in '' : Coun try-Houses. The extreme fondness for white exteriors in discordant contrast with green window-blinds. since. and it is devoutly to be wished that return no more for ever. all The greater num- ber of our country-houses. Downing. one of the worst and partly because of its giving an appear- ance of especial newness to a house. and for dead white for interior painting. in parts of the United States. is passing away. No person of taste. in some makes its impression even before we fully comprehend the form of the building. his "Architecture of the mania for white and green may Apropos to this subject. . A better taste now. generally supis posed. which with sons is many per- in itself a recommendation. the color and. partly because white-lead is supposed to be a better preservative than other colors is (though the white paint generally used lin this respect).CHAPTER VIIL EXTERIOK HOUSE-PAINTIIs^G.

there are so many who have never we must urge that it given the subject a moment's thought. in broad to relieve Many of our country-houses appear to be colored . and most grateful to the and one needs. refreshing shades that everywhere trees. so great a breach of is. the grass. and give them. Our second landscapes. and the surface is. that upon them a few arguments against good taste. instead. and yet. Nature. some neutral tint —a tint which unites or contrasts equally with the color of the trees and grass. b'6 however.EXTERIOR HOUSE-PAINTING. It is absolutely painful. Our first objection to white is too glaring and conspicuous. and which seems to blend into other parts of natural landscape. We scarcely know anything more it uncomfortable to the eye than to approach the sunny side of a house on one of our brilliant midsummer days when revels in the fashionable purity of its color." . to turn his eyes away from them them by a glimpse of the pervade the soft. on the very opposite principle sunshine. is. It stands harshly apart the soft shades of th3 scene. Hence landscape-painters always studiously avoid the introduction of white in their buildings. who gives the subject the least consideration. instead of being a discordant note in the general harmony. has covered most of the surface that meets his eye in the country with a soft green hue. of the earth. guilty of the mistake of painting or coloring country- houses white . at once refreshing eye. of tone as objection to white that it does not harmoeffect of rural nize with the country. full of kindness to man. and thereby mars the so Nothing tends much from to destroy breadth size all any object of considerable and of brilliant white.

and. says it destroys the gradations of distance. we are to copy the natural disposi- tion of colors in the decoration of our houses. a canopy of azure above us. at times. fres- coed by day with a thousand shapes and hues of loveliness and beauty. if for no other. either in kind or proportion. and of a purity that art can hardly hope to rival. with lavish hand. should measurably be our guide and instructor. is not of itself good rea- son why the base of a house should be painted green." remarks that the objections to white as a color in large spots or masses in landscapes are insurmountable. which. and tint and shade. she will point us to the yaulted arch above. If we go to her for in- struction. The writer. He eye. and penciled with exquisite touches the tiniest leaf. She will show us a land- scape whereon." It must not. for the reason. little Wordsworth. stars . The fact that Nature. It should be remembered that a building is not. to the gray tints of the morning twilight. AND GRAINING. all spreads a carpet of living green beneath our feet. in a volume on *' The Scenery of the Lakes. haunts the and disturbs the repose "It of Nature. in his book on "House-Painting. that Nature exhibits them in abundance. be supposed that.54 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTma. and the roof sky-blue. and the gorgeous blazoning of the summer sunset. in such matters. she has painted forms of beauty of every color and hue. in seeking in- struction from Nature. in the vernal season. and by night with myriads of cool. these colors should have little or no place in the external ornamentation of a building. as . however." says teriors : of the use of white for ex- is a kind of Puritanism in painting which has no warrant in Nature. In fact.

be treated as it such and any attempt it to make appear a natural object. —excepting the '^ latter — is not admissible in exterior house-paintof white The advocate may ask. if it have any. covered. and diminish. Two or three tones of color which harmonize. use of the primary colors. red. and what and most suitable for exterior house-paintof the case will ing ? The economical view remain in abey- ance. in any sense a natural object. AVhat looks better than white ? " which means. and this . either by contrast or analogy. with 55 its formal lines and severe angles. The its true theory in painting a coun- try-house obtrusive . tints or tones of color called neutral. or hide. and becomes important to ask. What looks better in a country landscape than a white house peeping out from a mass of green foliage simply. the question ^Miow not to paint" may be considered as settled. grays. but not to enhance its good features. are olive-drabs most suitable for exterior painting. may be exhibited in juxtaposition with good effect. colors are fitted How shall we paint. . or of it when it is hidden from view ? For present purposes. is artificial to tlie last de- and must. exultingly. before said. as also and greenish-browns. under .EXTERIOR HOUSE-PAINTING. blue. stone-colors. cream and clay colors. defects to bring it into harmony with its surroundings. and yellow. fawn. buffs. all circumstances. black and white in small quantity ing. but. The tral. dis- by painting with such colors as Nature most largely plays. as appearances only are now important. is ridiculous. and with the general landscape. and The the extreme colors. gree. is to render the building conspicuous. or semi-neu- as drabs.

probably for the reason that it is not generally known that much most is — —perhaps is.. whether white . as bodily and mental sanity. style of painting happily. its judgment is by no means . from parts of the country. the delicate organism of the eye becomes tired when exercised by certain color-impressions. is among the mysteries to the uninitiated. to produce the various hues. shades. the various colored all and to give defi- pigments necessary to produce the tones and tints commonly used in house-painting. and the eye alone is The percepmust be consulted as to what good . of coloring exteriors with one uniform. from the fact that not a small proportion of mankind are possessed of perceptive faculties which are not sensitive to color-impressions tion of color is — i. and broken so simple to an adept. e. infallible. Since the publication of his book on "House-Painting. Pure paints. to furnish rules for. but. under the most favorable cir- cumstances. a natural gift. are the exception and not the rule that the chance of getting pure paint. tones. is. and with black and white. nite quantities of. of the paint sold it by dealers throughout the country not what purports to be. other. they are color-blind. now the fashion —the custom tint. The art of combining colors with each colors. The difficulties in the way of such an attempt do not seem to have occurred to the applicants. unvarying being among the by-gones. and impossible with many.56 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. as *^all looks to the jaundiced eye " and. or colored. as much depends upon yellow circumstances and conditions. as compared with the chance . AND GRAINING." the writer has been applied to by scores of people.

serve more fully to illustrate the . It is easy to say that one pound.EXTERIOR HOUSE-PAINTING. small and that not the worst. except in name. such as will be suitable for coloring the exterior surface of a house. to the fictitious materials. In any event. to be wholly a lost fictitious article. siennas. suppose the lead to be pure. or. and the best are always the cheapest. or zinc. etc. only one quarter that this a To mix with pound. will produce a tone of pure drab. suppose. of getting a highly-adnilterated material. let a case be supposed. few facts will. and the coloring material or to be so property. to be so Now. what they purport to ticles. as to have almost coloring case. of raw Turkey umber with one hundred pounds of pure white-lead. Many of the materials sold under the yarious names. the much cheapened by is adulterating materials that the tinting power of the same of pure white-lead or zinc. would give a shade four times darker than is wanted . its much reduced In the one . or two pounds. but wholly fictitious ar- without any of the properties of the genuine. of pure umber. the failure would be attributed. To illustrate the difficulties in the way of furnishing a set of formal rules whereby to instruct the uninitiated in the art of combining colors. and genuine. A perhaps. be. or two pounds. lead. good results are possible only by the use of good materials. in the other. almost no effect would be of the shown by mixing the same with one hundred pounds white.. as umber. a dirty gray or brown would be the result and. In painting. not but to the author of the rule fall all and on his devoted head would the blame. instead of both articles being pure or zinc. are not. is is 57 .

than pounds of black paint commonly per pound . at a cost of twenty cents. be. after fall while the cheaper article a brief exposure to the off. possesses more coloring-power. fine lampblack. the custom has been adopted of selling ready-made colors. say. AND GRAINING. of the pure pigment will realize a better result a dollar's worth of the so-called cheaper paints and the pure paint will retain its intense blackness almost for ever. and to save the trouble and loss of time consequent upon the mixing of colors with white. is The best of its kind always the most economical . Take the well-known article of lampblack as a familiar example. No matter how great *Hhe skill of the workman may To remedy the good results are obtainable only by the use of good materials. than would a volume of argument. and no conwhich does sumer should ever purchase a package not carry with sible it of paint the name of some well-known and respon- manufacturer. sold in the shops at a cost. is applicable to all pigments. weather. economy in using cheap or false impure paints.58 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE FAmTmG. whether white or No one can afford to use impure paints. and will color more surface. and these are produced by the use of such materials as experience has proved to be most suitable . rior. which are tones and tints mostly suitable for exteinterior. and soon What is true of lampblack colored. used by five itself. One pound of pure." evils which grow out of the common and extreme adulteration of paints. will. of ten cents or. house- and many of them equally suitable for painting. The list comprises a great many different tints and shades of color. turn gray. twenty cents' worth than will .

that ready-made colors are more permanent under the weather-influences than are the tones of color produced in the ordinary way because . By *^ colors. deceive. in a measure. those coloring native pigments only are used which have been shown by actual test to best retain their color under the fading influence of sunlight also. and pink and salmon colors. The claim is. is almost absolutely unchangeable. too. for siicli ijurjiose 59 —reference being had to economy. For example : Venetian red. to disappoint so different with the eifect being them. for the reason that they are mixed with the white before the paint mill. and. per se. when used These tones of color. that these colors are more homogeneous. in the result.EXTERIOR HOUSE-PAINTING. liable to the same objection as white. which. for exterior painting. when seen in large masses. com- pared with a small patch of color shown on a sample-card." in this connection. ease of working. It is not claimed that these colors are entirely permacan remain unchanged under the nent. dura- bility. No compound color compound bleaching influence of the bright sunshine of our climate. Any and the natural-colored pigments. and purity of tone of color. consequently. passes through the and. are rendered fugitive by admixture with white. become more thor- oughly incorporated the mixture —more entirely an integral portion of in small quantity —than are the colors mixed . are apt to . Bright blue and red grays. however permanent they may be by themselves. is meant those colors all of which are produced by tinting with white. becomes one of the most fugitive colors when tinted with white-lead or zinc. are not exhibited. for the reason that such colors are.

as has been. The tones and tints are the purest possible. are The advantages of ready-made colors are many. is tities as only the exact quantity of coloring-matter required added. only from the nu- merous applications received by him. be understood that these paints are ground in at the the general It will oil. hand. supposing the proper materials to be at . They are always the same. pure. for rules and forms whereby colors those who are unskilled in compounding may be able to produce any desired tone. moment of using the same. *but not tliinned with the quantity of oil requisite to spread them with a paint-brush . mode of producing tints and tones of color. and shades of color not universal tlie among those who profess the art of painting. and not the rule. heretofore. and require to be thinned with raw linseed-oil. tints. because they are mixed in large quanby steam-power. if writer has good reason to know.60 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. That the skill necessary is to produce the yarious tones. unsophisticated colors are the exception. AND GRAINING. They more economical. or turpentine. but such is not always the as before said. or readily procurable case. there is no waste. is The color writer well aware of the fact that to a skillful painter the task of producing any desired tint or shade of is an easy one. being produced by the use of the very best materials. tint. and. that they come to the hands of the painter of about the same thickness or consistency as ground white-lead. for. or both. and any additional required quantity of the same . or shade. since the publication of the book before mentioned. being compounded by rule. and always in like proportions..

the writer would impress most strongly all the fact that. is wanted. however. There communities. are. be used in the selection of the yellowish colors. Referring to the use of those colors wherein the yellow ray is predominant. It than the sample would lead one to its never comes short of it is promise. either in the vernal or winter season. however. have no well- grounded opinions. obtrusive than white. and becomes obtrusive as exhibited in large masses.EXTERIOR HOUSE-PAINTING. of its the colors except white. yellow is. and no two houses in a all to village should be painted alike. in all . the use of those colors which are so entirely neutral as to dis- arm criticism. most desirable. supposing be painted well. for. therefore. and owner may select tlie exact tone or hue which may before the 13lease his taste work shall be commenced. in matters of taste. color tlie 61 may be readily obtained. but are controlled entirely by the decided expressions of their stronger-minded neighbors. the result less apt to disappoint. with green blinds with its is perfectly harmonious in . from strong reflective power. There will always be more of expect. the least diminished by dis- tance. A yellow house itself. and surroundings yellow being almost the only color all which harmonizes perfectly with the shades of green and all the shades of brown. and the most it difficult to neutralize. Caution must. timid persons who can not bear criticism who. in house-painting. Variety is. To such the writer would recommend. Samples are furnished. Exterior house-painting affords a . unless a is decidedly yellowish tone It is. and always in better harmony with the landscape.

strong reflective power of yellow causes this color. isolated. parIt is bare. is not a custom to be honored. for painting houses suitable foliage which are partially concealed by —which look out upon of every hue. the alphabet of color inexhaustible. As a rule. when viewed in large masses. AND GRAINING. building. The custom which has of heretofore much prevailed. One general tone its dis- should pervade the whole. of painting groups of buildings. or principal.62 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTINO. except may be desirable to hide or diminish some of the lesser buildings. winter landscape. in some particular. to present a staring appearance. to the darkest green from the brightest hue of the willow glaring. showing more or less of the red ray. sunny—but not —warm. and agreeable. of the pine. is not recom- mended when the house a conspicuous object in the landscape. so there exists no necessity for uniformity. good opportunity for the expression of individuality. the public through masses of green It accords admirably with any of the greens. That will best be accomplished by painting such of the same color as the main. uniform color. the principal building should present the lightest shade. the drabs or gray tints are pref- . is Fortunately. as it has its own form and where it size. namely. like white ticularly in a It is a bright. cheerful tint. unscreened by trees —being. liable to the same objections as wliite. A very light is yellow tint. belonging to one homestead. its Every member of a group of structures should have individual color. and every man should. under such The circumstances. express himself differ- ently from his neighbors. harmonious. For buildings so exposed. but each should have tinctive color.

Pine-wood surfaces must. No theory. clapboards. -Such knowledge must come from practice and as to observation. population —of country-houses. is Unfortunately. as may be. gum-resin" incompatible with the used for outside painting. assuming that his forty-seven years of constant experience and practice in this matter invests him with the privilege of offering advice. and the eye alone must be consulted what is good. in the nature of things. The life of the pine-tree the sap. present. are the only ones suitable for exterior paint- ing which harmonize with green blinds. and the dead wood always oil it . and of plain work. so called little and with such owners the writer would have a plain talk before con- cluding this chapter. knots. can teach the art of properly combin- ing colors and tints for decorative and ornamental purposes. owners of houses reside at greater or less distances who from the larger centers of . theories. directions. too. in the way of instruction or education.EXTERIOR HOUSE-PAINTING. which will certainly dissolve resin and the in solution will. retains more or this *^ less of this resinous substance. 63 These tones of color. how- ever well elucidated. which hardens to turpentine on expos- ure to the atmosphere. erable. The foregoing the case or suggestions. in turn. in exterior weather-boards. as certainly destroy the . more or less of imperfections in the way and is sap. without becoming obnoxious to the charge of vanity or presumption. wherein the yellow ray predominates. and be useful mainly to. are given under the impression or convic- tion that they will affect. and resinous exudations. moldings.

an entire when used on exterior surfaces for the sun and heat will reveal these spots in spite of all efforts to conceal . paint. Time. which on interior work. is sometimes applied to the knots and pitchy places serves moderately well failure but this application. no doubt." The it so-called remedy is no remedy. and. practice of the writer to expose new pine-wood action of the weather-forces for one season before painting that is. oxidizes. and corrugates the same.64 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. A coating of shellac-varnish . them. work no good remedy is (The reader this subject in etc. A common practice among builders is. thereby giving the paint. thing to hold. for the reason that it is proves in the end worse than the evil intended to cure. but the does much more in way of good results. AND GRAINING. the planed and smooth surface. proves . a bad state of things . so that the . tliere is in outside it. to cling to. The weather corrodes. is certainly well rid of The to the . it This not only remedies the evil in question. to have the painter follow the carpenter with the brush and pot. one summer and winter through. The tooth when applied. This is. unfor said fortunatel}^. and the elements. and also renders inactive and innocuous much that the pine contained Avhich had a natural tendency to hasten the destruction and lessen the durability of the paint. someof Time eats out the wood. may. The owner an old house is. In such cases the of evil must be borne as best it it.) is requested to note carefully what on Chapter IX. under the heading of ^^New System. roughens. will certainly work a cure but every house-owner does not care to wait this slow process.

or may be. as a rule. of a new wooden is. who has lived in a furnace-heated house. the shrinkage of soft wood. house. that the practice with those who build houses. though it may be heavy with successive coats of paint. in hair's- breadth. with a view to lessen the shrinkage of the wood —a most absurd theory. as soon as the hammer truly.EXTERIOR HOUSE-PAINTING. last to deprecate We are free to confess. no doubt. In view of this. however. Every man knows. and shrink to rattling openness under the dry heat of the furnace-fire and the closed doors and windows. wood may be coated is 65 it. Every hygrometric lessens. or lessen. as the case change in the atmosphere increases. that we do not anticipate any appreciable diminution in the con- sumption of paints because of the rest in the conviction that the facts herein given. will paint his We new owner house just the same as if nothing had ever been said to . leaves This done. what vanity to hope to arrest the shrinkage of pine-wood exposed to the burning ! fervor of our lize summer sunshine its As well hope to crystal- water without increasing its bulk. dimensions From what has been the conclusion may be drawn that satisfactory results are not to be looked for in the first outside painting.. One may one as well attempt to arrest the rushing waters of Niagara with a wicker dam as to hope to prevent. or cool hot iron ! without contracting said. We know. the painter follow the carpenter as soon as possible and a manufacturer of paints should be the this custom. with oil-colors. the bulk and dimensions of dead pine-wood. to have . how the soft-wood doors will swell to tightness in the moister at- mosphere of summer.

If paint be put on a piece of wood." all this action on the part of the painter no reasonable exhandicraftsmen are as proud ception can be taken. though properly applied. Why filled ? Because the spaces which the paint should is have were already occupied with a substance which . and the painter will treat contempt. the pores of the same being saturated with water. next in order village painter and thereby hang a great many being called in consultation Your — not yet having become a convert to the doctrine of ready-made colors with most amusing dogmatism: "No — no — no! —will say. is not applied at the right time. Much of the flaking. to. and do To because I know my trade. since with the utmost will paint our itself we must and to newly-planed wood. for . Certain rules as to time should be heeded or listened should be observed. that's all there is of is The important question of ivhat to use. cleaving of paint from and certain conditions peeling off. pushed the paint from the wall . Therefore. but because the paint. the universal solvent and the paint could find no perma- nent lodgment. The water it. from the fact that no two material objects can occupy the same space at the same time. as the how "best do it" presents most important question. AND GRAINING. tales. not because of any defect or shortcoming in the material. wooden surfaces is. the chances are that the paint will not adhere tenaciously to that surface.66 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. and when the conditions are favorable to a good outcome. I can better than another. . the contrary that the builder will smile in derision of it our theory. No mixed it colors for me. make my own colors.

once for when we speak of these colors we have in mind paints manufactured by responsible parties. mixed as aforesaid. however. it will safe. been long enough in the business to have learned. In selecting a paint. as a rule. who have and experience. do not fade so quickly as do colors made by tinting with white-lead. at the moment of using the same. called high-sounding titles. of their 67 acquisitions in the way of knowledge and of learning as of their manual dexterity. the so- "rubber paints" do not contain any "caoutchouc. and to their just and proper less pride. what mixtures to will give the best . do. "Good wine needs no . Fortunately for the purchaser. and the proof is constantly before their eyes that colors. all. for the purchaser to distrust claimants for favor just in proportion as they are thrust upon the public by loud and windy advertisements.EXTERIOR HOUSE-PAINTING. less These objections . ignorant. that the The reader will understand. are." or other fire-proof substance." and the "fire-proof" paints do not contain any "asbestus. becoming and frequent every day and the painters themselves are fast becoming converts to the theory that ready-made colors relieve them of what has heretofore been the drudgery and vexatious part of their trade . or wnnging-machines. and bluster. without educa- and without experience —men be who essay paint-maklevel of agents ing before they gravitate to their natural for life-insurance. blow. is To know. and brag. by practice results — what use and what to avoid and not the thousand-and-one so-called "mixed colors "put upon the market by parties tion irresponsible.

AND GRAINING. hue. and cornices. or extremes^and the . for of course. Quack-medicine To come back new house boards. for the reason that is the eye alone must be consulted as to what this good. no matter where and when. and must not be taken granted because of any theory. bush " is and. to our ^* plain talk. The painting or should be." We suppose a in the country. clapboards. or shade may be selected for the main or body color —not. or hidden. by a proper exhibition of well-selected or well-chosen this work. an ounce of is practice worth a pound of theory. presenting exteriorly pine-wood moldings. and defects may be lessened. . more or less elaborate and ornamental. The writer does not hope ta make any converts to his theory and practice of presenting . tints. promulgated. dollars a year. and by whom. what will be the effect of any proposed arrangement. and the most composer in colors can not. under novel or untried conditions. as a rule. In matter of painting exteriors with colors. Any tint. is. stuff offered for sale to the public devoid of any real value or intrinsic worth just in proit is portion as extensively advertised. a matter of prime importance. first imj^ression rather from the be spoiled Architectural beauties may by bad coloring In . ever advertised his business to the extent of two hundred thousand venders do that. with certainty. say. trimmings. fancy skillful can not anticipate the fact . because the beholder will receive his color than the form. or true coin.C8 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. No dealer in specie. positive colors. contrast- ing colors may be made to harmonize therewith but this will be discovered in practice.

producing thereby a harmony by contrast — is recommended. be exhibited in small quantity. These would alike. and much darker brown. by analogy. effects in the application of the . as Indian red. thin paint to To the dry wood. harmonize. or Tuscan red. suppose a neutral tint for the main with a darker tint for the trimmings.' a rich neutral or red brown. The succeeding stand. The reason Having the that it is useless to waste time in putting on two when one tint will serve all good purposes. different. then. or even two weeks. the finish is. of course. —the main or body color. companion- both by contrast and analogy in other words. drab. The first coat should will be better — week —ten days.EXTERIOR HOUSE-PAINTING. as compared with its neighbors. unpainted . or because they are The introduction of a third. The third color must. or by the use of a different or contrasting color. color than the others —for instance. 69 tlie action of tlie weather-forces. by the use of the same color as the body-color of darker tone. but he would impress most strongly the importance of giving the wood time to dry before ap- plying the paint. however. give a coating of of one color all. one may experiment with the trim- mings. as a warm less brown with a cold gray or a neutral number. Better effects can be produced by the use of three colors than with a For instance. at least. ^before the application of the second coat . one coats of paint should not follow each other too rapidly in outside painting. parts. the pine-wood surface to for a year. —the color selected for for this colors. selected on the main house. in actual practice. color. and find out. what will give the most pleasing colors.

in the way of durability and every other good quality. and the atmosphere in and about at a higher temperature it will be than under other conditions.70 and. under the heat-force. [ . and the boards dry and warp. to be. with good enough at hand. A very dark-colored building. HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. has yet been discovered. there is . to The wooden surface becomes heated almost the rays of our bright burning under summer sun. for his own use. shingle-roofs are specially affected. for reasons which include both taste and economy. the writer would most emphatically warn any would-be purchaser of paints. If these com- pounds are what they claim owner does not want to be. if a third is to be applied. are Linseed-oil paints I ] good enough. Such a st3de of painting is better avoided by general house-owners. that can for a the oil of flaxseed as a vehicle or moment compare with medium for preparing it is | pigments for external house-painting. and split and shrivel. to avoid the numberless chemical and other compounds which are daily offered in ever-increasing variety. exposed to the direct action of the sun. vanity to be looking for something better. tlie first same time should be coatings. given as between the of yery dark colors is and second The use not recommended. they are if what the houseNothing and. and so be- come hard features therein. AND GRAINING. absorbs the heat-rays. they are not what they claim fraud on the face of the business. dark-colored buildings do not harmonize so well with the general landscape as do those of a lighter tint. Red Very and often become leaky because of the absorption of the heat from the sun. and. As a parting word.

SYSTEM OF INTERIOR HOUSE-PAINTIXG. Suppose a new house. and turned over by the into the hands of tke painter. —of and the unpleasant odor which exhales from its the painted surface. and because of f ulness. eliminating — let us in detail. beautifying. and utilizing. of the wood and plaster surfaces of interior domestic architecture. so to speak. repainting of the interiors of our classed with the disagreeable neces- houses The painting and may properly be sities of domestic economy. for many ion and conviction that the almost universally ado]3ted and accepted practice in the art of house-painting is not in ac- cordance with the general advancement and improvement of the age. To best set forth what there is in the present system which needs reforming proceed to examine it — or. perhaps. of the opin- The writer has been. Let it be borne in mind that these remarks apply to the use of white and colored pigments in the orna- menting. joiners well rid of the plasterers. Disagreeable. supposed unhealthyears. because of their interference with the orderly process of daily routine its costliness.CHAPTER NEW IX. The usual mode of pro- .

casings. the result were satisfactory. Conse- quently. AND GRAINING. oil. To produce a moderately satisfactory result. If. presents less of more or knots and other imperfections. its after this lengthened and tedi- ous operation. and the surface. the nature of which oil incompatible with the used to thin the paint for covering the surface. which has been produced at such a cost of time and money. gave promise of stability and permanence. as it is with the oil of . or more generally named. ceeding on the part of to coyer the wooden surface with a coating of white-lead. flaxseed. as some days — say three or four must more elapse between the successive coats. and a week or to complete the final drying process. shutters. thinned to a proper consistency for application linseed-oil. It is from the evils inherent to now pertinent to inquire how far short the present system comes of what age of improvement. which contain resinis ous matter. and many weeks must pass by before the gradual harden- house-atmosphere will have become clear of the unpleasant odor which exhales from the paint in ing or drying process. not less than about twenty days will have been consumed in the work of painting alone . base-boards. the which is a ready solvent of the resinous . tlie latter is. there inventing would be less of necessity for seeking out or shall be free some system which the present one. may reasonably be demanded in this The of soft is pine-wood in called the common use in the construction of our houses.. what wood-work such as doors. and.72 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. etc. this process must be three times repeated.

This may be remedied. choice the are re- selection of timber for joiner's. evil. when not exposed 4 to the bleaching influence of direct is sunlight. This evil. and materials used which a few years ago would have been utterly jected for such purposes. to such an extent im- not destroy. but the remedy is not absolute.NEW SYSTEM OF INTERIOR HOUSE-PAINTING. march is of civilileft in Therefore. matter. too. and discolorations appear. every year. as to seriously from time pair. evil is The common remedy and the varnish resin. for this the interposition of some substance which shall act as a shield between the oil and keep them of gum-shellac from actual contact. by giving a coating of varnish to the painted surface . dissolved in alcohol is A made the best material yet discovered to . because the action of the many places which the eye failed to discover before first the application of the coat of paint. the gradual darkening of white-lead paints thinned with oil. it. in a measure. if to time. 73 it. the uniformity of the painted surface. For thi^ there no remedy but % to dispense . prevent the discoloration before mentioned cation reveals is but one applioil hardly sufficient. as the is dissolving action of the oil continues after the paint supposed to be hard and dry . as the pine-forests disappear more and more rapidly under the increasing demand for timber. ente-rs into combination with decomposing and forming a substance which discolors the white pig- ment to such a degree as to deprive it of its power to cover and conceal these imperfections. and the destructive less of (to that species of vegetation) zation. In addition to this is which inheres in the wood itself.work. is a grow- ing one.

one's domicile for weeks. rather. of the wood-work Nothing is more common. soon remove the paint. destroyed thereby. with the knowledge that the freshness of the beautiful white or delicate tints. and the ordi- nary painting" and repainting of our interiors. and bare spaces on the most handled parts are the unavoidable result. or the paint would have no more adhesive power than tial mixed with water. while is all the rest of the painted surface is quite unworn. or at best disagreeable. in-doors. AND GRAINING. or to To abandon during the an atmosphere which is sickening. is. than revelations of bare wood around door-handles and much-used j)ortions of the wood-work of frequented rooms. if must be a portion of linseed-oil used. An entire rej^ainting the only remedy for such a condition. but the remedy is little better than the evil it is in- tended to cure. and the substitution tine) of oil of turpentine (spirits of turpenas there still —or the partial substitution. to a great degree. of the painted surface. will hesitate to agree with the writer in the declaration that. operation of repainting. all things considered other attending discomforts —as costliness. —painting. because the adhesive and water-proof character of the paint is. last with the use of linseed-oil in the or finishing coat. that remain in loss of time. No person. is satisfac- tory neither in the process nor in the result. whose knowledge comes from experience. in- and the washing and wij^ing dispensable to cleanliness and neatness. so pleasing .74 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. The par- substitution of the drying-oil with the volatile oil of turpentine lessens the tendency of the paint to turn yel- low .

as hard varnish It apt to do after long exposure. to conceal the wood under the least possible number of coats. will hardly outlive the unpleasant odor of the drying paint. bility. to inquire what a system should include to insure its commend it to general favor. but last to be ascertained. external produce that result. and sufficient tenacity and elasticity to to resist accidental knocks and blows. in a good degree.limV SYSTEM OF INTERIOR HOUSE-PAINTING. smoothit ness of surface. must possess. domestic gases. resist must the discoloring property which inheres in the wood. influences. the succeeding coats . shall introduce and exclude most of is ? that is bad which all will required. to cause foreign substances to adhere to with the least possible cohesion . and banish what so readily dispense It with " would seem pertinent. body. sufficient hardness to pre- serve its integrity under the unavoidable and constant wip- ing and washing enable insure it it . covering or hiding quality. either of and the darkening. 75 to the eye. or separating. good in the present. dura- unchangeableness in color and substance . and more or less speedy and general adoption. or whatever other atmospheric agencies tend to It must dry or harden so rapidly that new pine-wood may be fin^e finished ready for use in not more than four or days —that is. and give It uniformity and homogeneousness to the work. inquiry : is certainly good and sufficient cause for the '' Can not a better system than this be invented or discovered —a system what which shall include all that all is . is First in importance. now that we have presented the shortcomings of the present practice. and to is against cracking. yellowing.

easily must work and flow smoothly under the brush. decorate his domicile It can not reasonably and fancy may suggest. to fulfill usual skill or labor in all its application. The paint should reach the hands of the consumer. without gloss. in a liquid state. and non-reflective the last degree. and evenly under the paint-brush. AND GRAINING. a stirring with a stick. in obe- dience to the dictates of fashion or taste. as no paint can find favor with professional painters which requires unIn short. Scrubbing of paint'' should be taken out of the category of a housewife's duties. and not require skill in any extraordinary the handling. and who must. to render the whole mass of like consistency throughout.76 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. unyielding surface . Lastly. requiring no mixing or other manipulation. for be . It will be understood that we are treating the subject. and whatever discoloring influences it may be subjected to. not as it concerns or affects the few. it should follow on consecutive days. retain its tint. but the average town and country householder. be he professor or amateur. smoothly. . hard. it the requirements of a good paint. not. must dry quickly. adhere to that custom which rigidly requires flat. all painted surfaces to be to dead. The move ** finished surface must be of such a character that a simple wiping with clear water and a soapy cloth shall reall finger-marks and other ordinary discolorations. except. be water-proof and dirt-proof spread easily. . cover well present a smooth. but the masses not the wealthy citizen who has the means and conveniences of repainting within his easy reach. as who can taste many reasons. perhaps.

The condition precedent The that the paint shall not. may sults adopt it not. the best re- come through the best knowledge and the most skilled manipulation. more beautiful and which reflect the light. It fills pores of the wood. however. important. and. where appearance alone non-glossy. of interior house-painting in practice The new system its full success. which will be described being an economical process. with the best results. as with every other system. a liberal flowing coat of shellac-varnish. The it cost varnish is not great. is particularly in white or light tints is but this kind of paint- costly. as a rule. not a practiced j^ainter. pitch. after. it is proposed to apply the new system to the finished with ordinary pinereceive. a more ing delicate than painted surfaces . preparation. worth more than two coats of ordinary of the i^aint. and in the least degree fulfills the conditions which. This the is coat effectually kills knots. The unpainted wood must all painting. painted surface. First. requires certain conditions which are entirely essential to is. with this. j)reparatory to interior surface of a house wood. is 77 flat. in-doors. for all and sap. " whereby the new system " is to be rendered practicable. needs no apology on the The following detailed process. denied that. be- cause. and of applying but a .NEW SYSTEM OF INTERIOR HOUSE-PAINTING. in the oj)inon of the writer. be applied to an unprepared surface of new pine-wood. will be made so plain that any person with a slight knowl- edge of how to use a paint-brush. score of cost or trouble. practical purposes. the average householder requires and demands. .

Next.78 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. The applica- tion of a third coat of paint completes the job. crevices. Flow on to the a brush. trifle but. AND GRAINING. gives a smooth. and the work will be ready for puttying. be or colored. sistency. using. face will clean like French china. and water-proof The finish will be found far superior in solidity and much more homogeneous than the same number of coats of best white-lead. as commonly applied. there need be no more discourse on that head . The preparatory step in the painting will be a thorough stirring of the paint. and insures a good ject. uniform. and leave as much paint on the sur- face as will stay there without running. Ordinary putty will not do at for this. pour whatever quantity may seem work with best into a clean paint-pot. and gives the best painted surface that can possibly be produced by any reasonable expenditure of time and money. glossy. Next day but one. a proper con- and use a putty-knife in stopping the holes and The stopping or puttying being completed. and. take from the can a mix with common whiting to the time of sufficient it quanwhite tity of the paint to be applied to the work. The work now surface. result in the end. as it is worth ten times its cost. . but we suppose a better surface yet be required. if the result be satisfactory. no more need be said on that sub- This yarnish-coat will dry in an hour. and the ut- most perfection of the system be demanded. brings the work to a readiness to receive the first coat of paint. so as to make the material of uniform consistency. It will The sur- improve by . The putty must be prepared To make it. apply the second coat of paint as before.

it. time re- make it fit for use the supe- smoothness and water-proof character of the surface. and the quency of necessary renewal. the most economical process ever adopted. Enumerating the advantages. than under the old its but when the quesaspect. is whereby the cleaning rendered easy . wiping. in most comprehensive held up to view. common in every infre- its its tenacity. must not we can have all good and desirable results here- without paying for them. perhaps. we have quired to dry the paint and rior —the its . is tion of economy. It will be to re- any ordinary wear. The question be supposed that qualities of economy now presents these itself —a most imIt portant consideration. this question of expense. the new system has altogether the advantage. Directions which must be observed and obeyed : Strain the paint! Let the pail or pot out of which or the paint 'is to be* used be clean and free from dust . no greater. less . found hard enough 79 wij^ing. wearing properties. tion We think we speak with modera- when we declare our belief that one jDainting under the '^new system" will outlast four paintings under the prevailing one. durability under its non-liability repeated washing. and other discoloring influences. dwelling . Yet the tofore described can be brought about with no extra outlay.NFW SYSTEM OF washing and sist INTERIOR HOUSE-PAINTING. or scrubbing to discolor under the influence of ordinary domestic gases. All these good qualities combined render in the best sense of the word. is The cost of painting under the ^^new system" . yet elastic enough to stand without cracking or chipping. smoke.

There seems to be no further explanation necessary in elucidation of our theory. and unjustly con- demned. it must it necessarily find favor. the error will have been on the safe side. all by reason of its inherent If it shall prove in others' practice it that we have proved Like all in our own. In such a is proceeding the old saying. recommended. it Keep good will serve a many times. however. where the brush has stood for a time in water. The new system fall of painting must. is sure that the brush clean. ^^An ounce of prevention worth a pound of cure. unused. tlie pail a joiece of common Swiss muslin. AND GRAINING. it will . a flat brush. care. and. and pour the paint through it. of course. will in many instances be thoughtlessly. stand or merits or demerits." has peculiar the muslin strainer under water.80 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. Tie over the top of is motes. such as sold in the dry-goods shops at about twenty-five cents a yard. is known to painters as a kalsomine-brush. Failures. Maybe there will be nothing caught in the strainer. new things. carelessly. and many other good and door of the be made sufficient reasons for failure. and significance. necessarily growing out of want of non-compliance with plainly-written rules and direc- tions. It is always well. If so. For extended flat sur- faces. unskillfulness in handling. like the scapegoat. is it the paint exposed in an open can or pot. to out well in turpentine before putting it into the The best brush for applying the paint in question the commonly-used bristle brush. will be laid at the unfortunate paint. Do not leave Be wash paint.

as much paint on the surface as will stay there without running. It may be washed with cold water and a soapy cloth on the third day after being finished. 3. Before applying the paint to new work. . Strain the paint before using. 2. 9. the theory is offered. only in it proportion as 1. 81 many. under the brush. and well rubbed paint. is all anticipated it by the author of the '^New System" all. not rub the paint out. notwithstanding these unayoidable drawbacks. new Do Do Put not leave the paint exposed to the air in an open vessel. That. and. The more the paint is washed.NEW SYSTEM OF to bear the sins of INTERIOR HOUSE-PAINTING. with pumice-stone. With the fol- lowing brief summary of the rules and modes of operation. however. in the fullest confidence that. not use ordinary putty in stoj^ping the nail- heads. before applying the 6. . 10. there is certain success awaiting its introduction. 5. 4. 7. on like varnish. as with it ordinary color. with a paint-brush. Use a putty-knife in stopping the nail-heads and crevices. but flow 8. the better it will look. shall fulfill what is claimed for Do Do not apply the paint to an unprepared surface of new pine-wood. Old painted work should be clean. in spite of he calls attention to the same. flow on to the wood. it and commendation is asked. a liberal coat of shellac-varnish.

It is not poisonous. 12. Bedrooms may be slept in. 11. during the operation of painting.82 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. AND GRAINING. The sample-card in- cludes the various colors and tints suitable for in-door painting. These paints are presented in liquid form. put up in tin cans of various capacities. containing from five gallons to so small a quantity as one quart. . or in any wise disagreeable or detrimental to health. without fear of unpleasant results.

CHAPTEE
WHITEWASHIN'G

X.

OR COLORING WALLS AN^D CEILINGS CALLED KALSOMINING.
is

This simple operation
occult,

sometimes mystified, or made
title

under the appalling

of calcimining, or, as

generally rendered by the professors of the art, kalsomining.

This terrible word, enough, in
to

its

sight or sound,

when not understood,
end,"
is

make "the knotted and comits

bined locks to part, and each particular hair to stand on
as harmless as

Bottom in the play when

meanhears

ing becomes
or sees
it,

known

to the startled auditor

who

first

perhaps in connection with a painter's
Calx, or lime,
is

bill of

magnificent proportions.

the root out of

which grows

this formidable verb, or

noun, as the case
ivliite.-

may
same

be,

and
if

to calcimi7ie

is,

in plain English, to

imsh ; and,

the material be colored, the operation

is

the

—only

it is

then brought within the category of the

blue."

Dutchman who would have his walls "whitewashed mit This common and simple operation, namely, the whitewashing of walls and ceilings, is so much a matter of course, that the* average householder does not deem it

84

HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING, AND GRAINING.
to care to un-

worthy of investigation, and does not seem
derstand what the operation includes.
tary point of view,
it is

Yet, from a sani-

a subject of prime importance.
of

The promulgation
'*

Professor TyndalFs
is,

theory of

Fermentation and Disease"

in the

opinion of the
dis-

writer, the

most important announcement since the

covery of oxygen by
eighteenth century.
terial welfare of the

Dn

Priestley in the latter part of the
it

Indeed, so far as

relates to the

ma-

human

race, it

may
to.

prove the most

important the world has ever listened

The question

has already been asked, no doubt, by the reader, what possible significance the

theory can have in this connection.

Much.

The paint

for the million has been,

and

will con-

tinue to be, lime and water.
erly prepared, has
cleans,
it

This water-paint, when propdesirable qualities.
It
is

many good and

whitens, thereby bringing in light, which

wholesome, and good, and indispensable in the best de-

velopment of
natures.

human
it is

nature, and probably other animal
is

Indeed, so important an element

light, that to

be deprived of

almost to be deprived of existence.

All

dark growths are
is

sickly,

and savor

of the earth.

Sunshine
is,

necessary, not only in the moral world, but
;

as well,

a physical necessity

and any theory of painting which
It
is

ignores this fact should be distrusted.
live in

not good to
sit

dark dwellings
;

;

it is
fit

not wholesome to

in dark
sunless
!

rooms

and the only

occupants of gloomy,
sin,

abodes are sickness, or sorrow, or

or

shame

The

writer has witnessed with lamentation the growing disposition on the part of those householders

who claim

to be the

KALSOMINING.
best, the leaders in society

85
to adopt the use of
It

and fashion,

dark hues and shades in interior color-ornamentation.
will be kept in

mind
is,

that the average householder has, aa

a rule, no fixed or definite opinion or purpose as to what

he wants, but
or persuaded

on the contrary, almost wholly governed
taste, or opinion,

by the

or dictum of the

decorator, or upholsterer, or furnisher

who

is

at

and for

the time *^the mode."
ings,

We

believe that abodes

and dwellis

rooms and apartments from which the sunlight

excluded, are not as good homes or abiding-places for hu-

man

beings as are those where the sunlight has free access,

and where the light of heaven abounds.

Suppose the
send

effect of these entering rays of heaven's light be to

to their holes the bats,

and owls, and bugs, and other unsame time, expose their dark

canny things

;

it will,

at the

ways, and enable us to shut
ingress

them

out, so they shall find
is

no more.

This digression

for the purpose of

more

fully impressing the importance of the use of light,

white, or nearly white tints in water-painting, or white-

washing, or
it.

*^

kalsomining," as one
repeat,

may

choose to

name

Lime

is,

we
;

and must continue
it

to be, the paint

for the million

and well
and

may

be, as it includes

many

good and desirable
cleans, sweetens,

qualities or properties.
disinfects,

It covers well,

and

costs almost nothing.

Any room
less cost,

with plastered walls and ceilings

may

be

made
it ?

neat, sweet, tidy,

and wholesome with a
paint.

little

labor and
to

by the use of lime-water

How

do
:

It is easily done,

and a very simple operation.

So

pro-

cure from the shop where such articles are sold a quan-

86

HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING, AND GRAINING.
lump-lime
will be

tity of

—mind, lump-lime—not
less air-slaked.
is

lime in powder,

which

more or

These lumjDs must

undergo the process of slaking by or through the application of water
;

cold water

good enough
all at

;

but the water

must be poured on the lum]3s not
changing conditions require.
be placed in a tight pail or pan, as

once, but as the

The lump

or

lumps should

may

be convenient, and
will eagerly drink

wet with water, which the thirsty stone
up.

For a minute or two, or more, no change

will be peris

ceptible,

although a wonderful chemical change

going

on nevertheless.

The

water, having been heated by this

chemical operation, will exhale from the stone in the form
of vapor,

and a

slight

change in the appearance of the lump

will be perceptible.
fairly

The

slaking

may

be said

now

to

have

commenced, and more water must be given, and more

by degrees.
shall

The

process will continue until the

lumps

have become entirely disintegrated, have fallen into
will boil

powder of snowy whiteness, and with the water
like

an open

tea-kettle over a brisk

fire.

This boiling
is

process

must be

carefully watched, as the water

thrown

oS very

rapidly in the form of vapor and steam,
is

and the

tendency of the mass
craters begin to

to dryness.
solidify
;

When

the miniature

form and

on the surface of the
ebullition
stick,

mass, more water must be added
ceases, the

and when the

whole

may

be stirred thoroughly with a
entirely
.

and thereby rendered
a portion of
it

homogeneous.

Being

cool,

may

be taken and thinned with water to a
;

proper consistency for application wdtli a whitewash-brush

the thinner the better, so the wall be solidly white and

KALSOMINING.
spotless,
it

87
thick,

and not

streaky.

If the

wash be applied too

will

show a sandy

surface,

and be apt

to flake or chip off,

and

will

have a tendency to turn yellow.

This wash

—the
have
to

lime being properly slaked and properly applied
in itself sufficient adhesive
off

will

power to keep

it

from rubbing

when brought
it is,

in contact with the

hand or garments,

which

of course, constantly exposed.

The

practice of water-painting,
is

commonly

called "kal-

somining,"
is

in this wise

:

The

base of the water-pigment
is

known

to all as chalk,

which

a soft, friable carbonate

of lime, containing

more or

less siliceous

matter and other

impurities.

These impurities are removed by grinding the

chalk under a heavy edge stone which slowly revolves on a
circular bed.

The bed

is

surrounded by a water-tight tank,
of water.

into

which flows a constant stream

The

particles
its

of the crushed materials, agitated

by the stone in

mo-

tion, are temporarily held in suspension

by the water, and

flow off with

it

into large

sunken

vats, a

number
;

of which,

placed side by side, are connected by troughs
of the
first

the overflow

vat

is

received

by

its

nearest neighbor, and so

on until

all

the vats

become

filled.

The

vat farthest from
all,

the mill will, of course, contain the finest deposit of

from the

fact that the purer material will be longest held

in suspension.

The

deposited mass,

when

of proper con-

sistency,

is

lifted

from the vats and thrown upon

thick,

roughly-shaped blocks of chalk, which absorb a portion of
the water, and in a short time so harden the cakes of whiting
that they

may

be handled.

They

are then taken

from the

blocks and dried byexposure to the air in a kind of lattice-

is produced by the same method. but. however. is. harder kind of carbonate This article used for the painting of ceilings class of and walls in the better work. that preliminary operation will be We will suppose the wall to have been papered (that covered with paper-hangings). If these cracks be so extensive as to require. in filling. and fill the opening with mortar made of plaster and water. the labor of that craftsman must be had and obtained. and described. Paris-white is is framework. the mode of operation is in this wise : Cut away clean down to the laths. It will be remem- bered that this washed and purified chalk does not possess in itself the adhesive property of the lime-wash as described above. that the removal of the paper has revealed cracks in the plaster more or less formidable in number and extent. A plasterer ac- customed to to this kind of work does not need to be told how do it. following the best are capable of giving. and further. of prime importance. no lime or sand. known as barytes. on the contrary. mode of proceeding in The preparation of the first The such work we wall for re- ceiving the paint is. but hoi- . but the material used of lime. and the task must be performed by the painter. may is be used with whiting or Paris-white. To this.88 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. This filling should not be flush with the surface of the wall. gelatine in some form is added to the pigment impart the adhesive power which the material lacks se. the services of a plasterer. Yet. AND GRAINING. a finer. per In plain white ceilings sulphate of baryta. supposing a case w^here the cracked plaster must be removed. will be readily transferred to anything which prevent to may be brought in contact with it.

in a measure. otherwise. The proper this of filling are a broad-bladed putty-knife or a small-pointed trowel and a water-brush. been prepared beforehand. and may be worked upon where lime if is at once . and be ready for application so soon as the stopping process shall have been concluded.Paris. as the parts to be operated on must be kept wet . is made thus : One . that is. whereas. This the small cracks better than a preparation where lime used. to fill the holes and cracks with a putty composed of equal parts of plaster and common whiting mixed with water and is. The ordinary mode wall for painting is of procedure in the preparation of a *' to point up '' .KALSOMINING. as it is called. the dry wall will take the moisture so quickly from the putty or filling as to prevent the necessary adhesion of the terial. and then be filled flush with the surrounding surface with white mortar mixed with plaster-of. This should stand a day or two to dry and harden. new with the old ma- To '^ insure the best results. glue-size (that tools for a weak work solution of glue in water). Next in the order of proceeding —and a most important This wash will have part of the process — * is the application of a wash which shall furnish the proper Aground" or substratum on which the water-color shall rest and remain. the cracks should receive a second going over" after the first application shall have filling will stick in is had time to dry. lowed out and depressed so as to receive another 89 filling. and nicely smoothed with a trowel. This wash or sizing. a preparation present will be apt to turn the paint yellow painted before the mortar-filling be fairly dry.

of bar-soap.white made with water into a added one half pound of white glue in poses the wall to be painted white. paste.90 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. and the whole thinned down with water to a proper consistency for application with . with closed doors and windows on a and being finished. the coloring-matter must be added to the paint before the addition of the glue -size. This compound will be reduced or weakened with cold water to a proper consist- ency for application with a whitewash-brush. white or brown. one half pound pound of powdered alum. one quarter pound yenient. and thoroughly mixed and incorporated. and then form of a thin wash be incorporated with the white mass. may not be put into the thick paint in a dry that is. The glue then may be added. as may be con- These ingredients are to be dissolved separately in boiling water. slowly stirring all the mixture the time with a stick. in dry powder. but be first wet with water and thoroughly mixed and manipulated till there in the shall be no lumps in it. The coloring pigment state. this preliminary All work is supposed to have been performed fine bright day. smooth. the doors and windows should be thrown open so as to make the surface ready for the coat of water- paint as quickly as possible. and to this the alum-solution will be added. This sup- If a color be required. will be solution. AND GRAINING. Care must be taken to touch every portion of the surface with this solution. and when the solution of each is com- plete. to insure uniformity in the painted surface. of white glue. The preparation of the paint is as follows : To stiff fifteen pounds of Paris. the soap-solution will be poured into the liquid glue.

to streak it so that the brush-marks may be even It is one way. patched. In making a shade or tint for wall-painting in water-colors." is required is not an easy task. a tint where the blue ray is very decided in the mass of paint will dry out almost to whiteness on the wall. No attempt must be made ^* to lay it off. recommended —a pure white wall or ceiling being the object little — is to add to the white mass a ultramarine-blue previous to the addition of the glue-size. very hard in some places and and spongy in others. soft unequal in surface. and parallel each with the other. ample. and will not readily solve. is easiest way make a foundation for to apply previously a thin coat of oil- The next step upward in this kind of painting . To dissolve a pound of white glue so as*to obtain a perfect solution. it must be borne in mind that the color dried upon the For ex- wall will not be half as dark as in the mixture. in a tight vessel sufficient water to cover or immerse Let this stand overnight. the it water-paint on the wall must be left as the brush lays on. The material The easy way to bring it about is to pour ujoon the glue it. is In cases where the wall very much to discolored. That is to say. the the " kalsomine " paint. such as for ^^kalsomining. is dignified as frescoing.KALSOMINING. 91 differ- In applying this water-paint a is ent style of manipulation adopted from that commonly and properly practiced in oil-painting. miscalle'd fresco-painting which it is not in a . and the pouring upon it in the morning of boiling water will almost instantly give a perfect solution. a kalsomine-brnsh." as the phrase all goes. stubborn.

because . nitely more so. either in themselves or as they v/rought upon by independent forces. proper sense. as affected by through the medium of the eye. This material. from the lightest tint to the deep purples. with water-colors. This question of the finishing. from a sanitary point of view. as who are striving to reach a place of it among the practice artistic affords opportunity for the display of fine talent. respect. but the health as possibly affected by the materials used for such purposes. but which will. art The attempt will not be made here It to teach this by written rules and directions. infi- important but. earnestly This branch of paint- is recommended to the attention of those artists. We colors have not now in prospect the health. therefore. can only be studied by the eye and learned through that organ. discolor. AND GRAINING. or painting of the wall in the rooms where significant in it is we live is important and more than one . but rather ornamenting. or decorating. It is. and browns. reds. which are the very not only more fugitive in color. JEsthetically viewed. Example and In the best examples of domestic architecture this style of coloristic decoration is so common that plain walls and ceilings are now ing the exception and not the rule. darken. more suitable to be preferred for such work to oil-pigments. practice are the only teachers worth heeding. gives with colored pigments tones and shades the most delicate and and the purest possible. in nature of things. or coloring. carbonate of lime. may be Paper-hangings.92 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. and turn yellow and dingy. which cover the walls of so many dwelling-places.

The poisoning most directly traceable to this cause occurred in London. as a matter Of course. as we have a theory of our we must of allude to the subject again own to propound. and subject it " Strip from the walls that to the analysis of my crucible. "woes unnumbered" do not but in the pigments which are used to color and ornament the same —Paris-green having been fixed upon . of the paints 93 to which color them. ear. and 1 my test-paper. and the facts were given to the public in the form of a report from a certain medical expert. This question will be found somewhat fully dis- cussed in succeeding chaptei^ on " Paris-Green as a Pig- ment " case but. as the offending material. or Health Commission. In the interest of science and the cause of : humanity. is. eminent. The writer has been at some pains to investigate this poisoning theory. the equivalent of our Board of Health." The report — ! give me your and will whisper the sad tidings The doctor found in the ashes of this inciner- ated paper poison enough to kill—how many ? We have . as no case of sickness has yet been traced directly to this source. the order was given painted death. my alkalies.KALSOMINING. So far. now and here. this theory must rest on mere assumption. or something which looked deadly material. are supposed by many ills be sources of direful and diseases. The learned doctor found the walls of this "chamber paper. and relate ! of horrors" covered with figured and painted among the many colors he detected —horrible to like that —Paris-green. on the assurance of of its advocates that these direful springs exist in the paper. my precipitates. my acids. to a public board which or was.

in the street. The cause may have been it in the room. coat after coat. tear off the rotting sham. in the neighborhood. it follows as a matter of course that no poisoning or sick- ness could have been brought about through that material. the occupants of this deadly chamber had been poisoned by the P^ris-green present in the paperhangings. and paint with lime-water pigment. in the pigments apartment.94 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAmTING. Ordinary mortals. or sickness. and Therefore. in the house. not doctors. and life. women. If stomachs of the unfortunate dis- you would remove the cause of ease. are offered. and to disease the walled-in space with seeds of which find favorable conditions for development in the throats and lungs and dwellers therein. which figure or disfigure the where Look rather behind the flimsy covering. how many. AND GRAINING. but a dozen men^ forgotten just children. elegant and finish.' and you where will give health and light and sweetness. is wash thoroughly with water wherein acid or its present carbolic equivalent. seems to be the thing it is scrape and clean the walls. which not . Paper-hangings in style interior all was dank and noisome before. artistic in invention and design. The poisoning. do not look for paper. of wetted flour in the form of adhesive paste has been piled rot up from year to year to and ferment in the moisture and warmth of a heated fill atmosphere. would have resolved the question thus : As was found in the paper-hangings all the green arsenite of copper that ever was probably put there. and to their proper employment in . we recognize If in the as a fact. the painted pretense. mass after mass.

AVhat we object to is the covering up. the burying of filth with. while we are not of those who which exhale from a stable or compost- heap can not be breathed without fatal results. painted paper —a cheap way of temporarily dis- posing of nastiness believe the odors . ornamentation not a word is 95 offered in objection. and. or under." . that insidious dangers lurk around us. '^botli we do believe when we sleep and when we wake.KALSOMININO.

maximum of consumption as after. came into use and reached its in this country about thirty- a paint some twenty years favor . Paris-green five years ago. technically or scientifically speaking. second.CHAPTER XL PARIS-GREEjq" AS A PIGMEi^^T. an arsenite of cop- per. in England emis. and name of Paris-green. since the decline of all upon the market under or devise about the names which ingenuity could invent there which ever hung a sound suggestive of greenness. The beautiful pigment known in this country under as the commercial erald-green. throughout the country. Paris-green. the improvements which were made in the production of chrome-green. Two causes dis- operated to bring about this result first. on the Continent as Sclieele^s green. a compound of Prussian . From that it fell into disa brushful of : and there are to-day. the many agreeable properties and poisonous nature of the paint and. have been put These. Yet it is a repetition of the same old thing. and consists of about three parts of copper to seven parts of arsenic. many painters who have never used it.

during the past twenty years. 97 fact conis. that the general use of green paints in this country evidences a meretricious taste . it We it. and with a good deal of pertinence. hot climate. favorite is again to come to the front therefore this disquisition on the use of Paris-green. There is practiced.PARIS-GREEN AS A PIGMENT. generally. It may be said. there are signs and symptoms that the old . 5 . it us to call attention to that material which can give most satisfactory results in the use of green pigments for exterior color ornamentation. but rather to the discouraging of its general use in the external decoration of our domestic architecture. and that the aim of those who take an interest in this subject should be directed. in the matter of painting. notwithstand- ing all that has been said and written to the contrary. and the unfortunate nected with the use of this jpermanent color begins to fade or change almost the gives it that it moment the painter the finishing touch with the brush. as we find —not as we would wish to have In our bright. the public sense demands that these appendages Recognizing to our windows becomes shall be colored green. outside blinds are a necessity. This fact having been demonstrated. to the comprehension of the dullest understanding. this fact. not to the pres- entation of brighter tones of this color. blue and clirome-3^ellow . for all . indeed. particularly for isolated houses. and. is The answer to that proposition as follows : We are treating this matter not from an look at it sesthetical but from a practical standpoint. domiciles not in crowded city streets and.

for the reason that gives to the painter a new pigment. requirements — that is. a only set of outside lattice-blinds may be painted with a green costing fifty cents a pound. without it regard to the material to be used. is done to please the eye. is Painting. or with one which costs fiye or eight cents. except that be green. which. recognizing^ the fact that the public taste demands a green for outside blinds. . all will be green but those coated with the expensive color will retain their freshness and brilliancy for a long time. in the material which the subject of this article. brilliancy and durability. Imagine a house-owner contracting with a carpet-dealer to furnish pets. would be simply absurd and ridiculous. but which com- paratively unfading and unchanging when exposed to the bleaching influences of light and other atmospheric forces. and.98 HOUSE AND CARPdAGE PAINTING. exhibited in any other department of household economy. we would have the pigment come into use for this purpose which offers to the eye the purest and most pleasing tone of that favorite color. Both these alike will fulfill the . him with car- with no other stipulation than simply that the same ! should be of green color let Yet thousands of house-'owners out the painting of their blinds and shutters to those Avho will do the work for the least sum of money. discovery of SclieeWs green it is The most important. the two most desirable prop- erties —namely. so far as color a jorime object. is Fortunately. Now. while the others will change on the first exposure to sunshine. if a kind of so-called regard to saving. we find united. AND GRAINING. which is not only reflects the purest green rays.

so patent in Nature's workings —that grand principle of compensa- tion — is. in the opinion of the writer. unrivaled and for this reason must. and the paint may. can not have the best without pay- ing all it is worth and. These crystals from ieach other in shape and size as do the grains of sand on the its seashore . ! brilliant and permanent. its merits few. a non-drier Vehicles. such as varnish. and the liquid driers. seem to lose their peculiar qualities in presence of this brilliant and unap- proachable color. except to simply note the fact that it precipitates from its solution in a crystalline form. But. again come into general use. . nowhere more prominent than in colored pigments. Parisis. all patent drier. a description of the mode of proceeding in its manuwhich facture will be omitted. As green to combine all the bad working qualities. in this instance. So far. its peculiarities will account for some of of working when differ 'aj)plied with a paint-brush. but these few throw the shade.PARIS-OREEN AS A PIGMENT. but to the last degree. in form and structure. unfortunately. that it would-be competitors so far in . in many if cases. Its defects are all its many. Nature has put so many bars and penalties in the way as to severely limit and. is 99 It -this material fulfills all the required conditions. to prohibit the use of this most beauti- ful paint. alas that fact. As we propose to the merits to treat the subject this with special reference and defects of chemical product as a paint. stands preeminent. is not only coarse in grain and translucent (that it is without body or covering property). We . drying japan.

by comparison. and is working Very or smalt. can liken it and the crushing of the crystals of the paint produces the same result as would follow the grind- ing of blue-glass smalt on a. of its nature and so. it if the work were to be subjected to close inspection. therefore. AND GRAINING. Fine impossible to complete it in a satisfactory paint will adhere to a painted surface with a tenacity entirely foreign to the nature of this sand-like substance. stone under a muller. It may be a help rather than a hindrance to those who are unacquainted with the peculiar nature of this pigment. the uninitiated painter imagine the difficulty of coating a comparatively smooth surface with a portion of fine sand mixed in oil. and he will have some idea of one of the the most formidable overcome ! difficulties in way of the use of Parisit fine. and. transparent sand can hardly be over-estimated . in appearance and granular character.100 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. than anything we to . such as used in hour-glasses. there's the reflect their rub These crystals are transparent. The difficulty of covering a surface uniformly with these particles of green. seems more analogous to Paris-green. that they be put upon the work without further breaking or powdering. so But why not grind ? and this formidable objection Ay. get a better idea qualities. in order to produce the best results. it is absolutely necessary. and only beautiful color when unbroken . to associate it in the mind with some fine sand. would be almost manner. Just in proportion as the grains are broken they lose the property of reflecting pure green light. familiar substance. Let not inaptly be compared to that abundant material. green as an oil-paint. To 1 .

PARIS-GREEN AS A PIGMENT.
sum up
all its defects,
;

101

we would say
is

:

Paris-green works

badly under the brush

translucent,
;

and therefore

will

not cover the under-coating

has a most perverse habit of
it

running away from the work after
the utmost care
;

has been put on with
all things.

and, as a drier,

is

the worst of

Much
subject
is

has been said having reference to the poisonous

nature of arsenite of copper ; and, as this branch of the
important,

we propose

to discuss it in the light

One would conclude—putting faith in the marvelous facts given to the reading world from time to time by scientists— that an inhalation of air which had been in contact with Paris-green
would prove more deadly than the breath of the fabled upas-tree. Harrowing tales are periodically told of whole
families being poisoned almost to

of experience, reason,

and common-sense.

death because of the

presence of this terrible pigment in the paper-hangings.

The reading

of a paper at a recent scientific convention,

on the possible consequences of the use of Paris-green in
the destruction of the potato-beetle, called forth this re-

mark from one

of the learned professors

:

"There

are well-

authenticated cases of poisoning by arsenic through the
Paris-green present as a stain on the wall-paper."

Now,
is

we submit that such a statement might have been expected
from a medical doctor, whose practice and profession
a degree, in the nature of things, empirical
scientist
;

to

but from a
it

such a statement

is

surprising.

Until

shall be

shown that there inheres in this pigment a power to overcome the vis inerticB of the matter to break the bonds

whereby

it is

held to -the paper, and afterward diffuse

itself

102

HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING, AND GRAINING.
throughout the atmosphere

as a vapor

—we
it

hold that

it is

contrary to reason and common-sense to conclude that any
case of sickness
is

because of the presence of Paris-green in

the paper which covers the wall.
that
is

Let

be borne in

mind

much

of the arsenite of copper used

on paper-hangings

highly sophisticated, or adulterated, with sulphate of

baryta, or carbonate of lime, or terra alba, or

some other

in-

nocuous substance
is

;

and that the quantity

of arsenic present
is

very small.
;

This question of quantity
if it

highly impor-

tant

because,

can be demonstrated that one of those

reputed '^chambers of horrors" did not contain so
arsenious acid as
is

much

exhibited in a single bottle of chill-and-

fever medicine, the poisoning theory
probabilities.

must

fail for

lack of

No

one,
(as,

we hope,

will

contend that the mere

presence of arsenic

for instance, the glass bottle

which

holds the stock of the apothecary) would produce paralysis,

or any

symptom

of metallic poisoning.

Such a theory
of sight

would beat homoeopathy and spirit-rapping out

The uncontradicted

assertion

is

public that arsenic

be administered in ever-increasing doses until the

may human

system can bear frightful quantities with apparent impunity.
all

This being admitted,

it

would seem

to follow that

the green arsenite of copper which would be present in
as coloring-matter

any ordinary apartment

on the paper-

hangings, might be eaten by members of the family with
their bread

and butter, in the course of a month, without
results.

danger of serious
reasonable,
it

To render

this poisoning theory

must be shown, not only that the pigment
'per se,

has the property of volatilization

but that

it

has.

PARIS-GREE^ AS A PIGMENT.
moreoYer, the power to escape from
fine it to the surface of the
tlie

103

bonds which conitself free

paper

—to break

from

the tenacious

medium which surrounds and
and

incloses each

particular crystal,

to float or fly in the atmosphere,

and find

its

way
by

into the system, either through the lungs

or the skin, in such quantities as to produce the
of poisoning
arsenic.

symptoms

There

is

no reason

to suppose that this salt undergoes
to the air
;

any change when exposed
there
is

but,

on the contrary,
it is

proof positive and abundant that
last degree,

inert

and

unchangeable to the
crystals or silica.

even as

much so

as quartz-

The

writer has a sample of Paris-green

which was made
It has

in

England more than twenty-five years ago.

been exposed every day to sunlight, and
air, yet, so far as

much
it

of the

time to the

the eye can discern,

has uncolor,

dergone no change.

It reflects the

same bright-green
all

has the same sand-like, granular character, and to
ances
to
is

appear-

in the

same shape and condition

as

when

it first

came

hand

—as unchanged
Again,
if

even as the glass vessel which con'per se,

tains
is it

it.

Paris-green b^ volatilizable
live for years in

how

possible that

workmen can
which must

good health

in an atmosphere

be, in the nature of things,

perfectly saturated with this virulent poison

—namely, the
it

Paris-green factories, where thousands of pounds of

are

spread out so as to expose the greatest
to the action of heated air in confined

amount
rooms
?

of surface
It is

not

unusual in these factories to see sjiread upon drying-tables,
at one time,

from

six to eight

thousand pounds of Paris-

green, the vapor rising from the same being like unto a fog

104

HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING, AND GRAINING.
The workmen go
into these rooms,

in all parts of the room.

and stand around these

tables, stirring the

mass for hours

together without any inconvenience, and frequently

may

be

seen in cold weather sitting close beside a steaming-hot
table eating their dinners.

In the process of passing the

dry green through bolting-cloths, the workmen stand for

hours together breathing an atmosphere visibly colored with
fine particles of green, and,

notwithstanding the precau-

tions used to prevent the inhaling of the dust, a considerable portion finds its

way

into the system through the

mouth

and

nostrils.

As

said in the beginning,

we '^propose

to look at this

question in the light of experience, reason, and
sense," and, in view of the facts presented,

common-

we

believe the

reader will justify us in the declaration that no well-authenticated case exists of poisoning

by Paris-green because of

the presence of that pigment in the paper-covering of the
walls of occupied apartments
;

moreover, that this poisonit

ing theory

is

entirely baseless, unless
is

can be shown that

arsenite of copper

fataLin small doses, yet harmless

when

taken in large ones.

That Paris-green

is

a poison, and,

when taken

in suffiits

cient quantities, a deadly poison,

no one familiar with

composition will have the hardihood to deny.
care can not be observed in keeping, handling,

Too much
and using and
it

yet there

is

no sense

in

making

a bugbear of

it,

fright-

ening people from
properties

its
it

use by attributing to

it

qualities

and

which
as

does not possess.

Paris-green,

when

employed

an

oil-paint, is perfectly harmless, except that

PARIS-GREEN AS A PIGMENT.
it

105

acts as

an

irritant in contact
;

with the

flesh if
is

allowed

long to remain so

for example,

when

it

permitted to

accumulate under and around the

finger-nails.

Every
effect,

workman, however,
and the
irritation

is

not obnoxious to this peculiar

may

in all cases be avoided by extraor;

dinary care in washing the paint from the hands
vented, by wearing gloves

or pre-

when using

it.

Paris-green

may
way

be used either as a body-color, or as a
that lakes and carmines are used in

glazing in the

coach and carriage work.

Used

as a body-color, it

must

be applied in successive coats, so as to conceal the under-

neath (or ground)
practice
first
is

color.
:

The mode

of proceeding in this

as follows

The work, whether

old or new,

must

be coated with a body-green which, in tone of color,

resembles most closely the Paris-green.

This should be
first

dry and hard before the application of the
finishing color, so that the last coat

coat of the

may

" bear out " as

well as possible, Paris-green having a tendency to fiat in

drying, which
ing, it

is

at times extremely annoying.

As

a glazdic-

may

be put on over any color which fancy

may

tate or suggest.

The

writer has produced most satisfactory
is

results
color.

on a ground of yellow ochre, which

a dull orange-

Any

tone of brilliant green

may

be obtained through

the use of Paris-green as a glazing, by the use of darker or
lighter under-coats, ranging

from the darkest green of the

pine to the very

lightiest

hues exhibited in vegetable growths
It will, of course, be brighter

in the earliest vernal season.

and purer in tone than any

of the greens

which Nature
dull,

exhibits in natural* objects, and will

make

by com-

of this pigment has before been referred to elapse after the coat. or in meadow-bottom. AND GRAINING. shown richest parison. thin. or by country roadside. we would explain that glazing —used in reference to painting— means It belongs particularly to carriagescarlets. For the information of those unacquaint- ed with the significance of terms used in the shop. painting. has found the bulk of his paint on the floor. may be put may seem to re- The non-drying property . if there be no hurry for the work. vehicles. the Among Paris-green many objections to the use of this material. are produced in this In glazing. quire. and the rest hang- ing in bead-like drops to the lower edges of the blind-slats. dened the face of many an unfortunate painter who. exhibited on the running-gear of fancy road- wagons and other wheeled way. Those most beautiful and crimsons. we neglected is to mention the cost —which is important. or even longer. can not be spread out (extended) like body-colors (which will bear extreme grinding). Despair is the only proper refuge in a case of this kind. whether in well-kept lawn. by reason . the putting on of a transparent color over a ground of opaque or body-color. the brightest of the grass-greens. as the most exi^ensive color used in ordinary It house-painting. It and. some days should coat of Paris-green before the finishing first had best stand two weeks.106 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. one or two or three coats as circumstances on over the body-color. because of this. The paint must not be too and only as much must be put on the surface as will Carelessness in this has sad- stay there without trickling. carmines. coming to take a fond look at his work next morning.

teration with worthless materials and. as before stated one coat of body-color and two coats of Paris-green. In to moreover. and concluded by painting a set of blinds from the rear of a first-class city house. which have rendered it so formidable to the it and which have almost driven overcome its out of use. and a much larger Its quantity is required to spread over a given surface. not altogether do away with. its 107 want of covering property. freed from some of the objectionable features painter. first green ground in oil is not offered in a pure As mentioned part of this article. to present it in the fullness of its pure Our course included more than one hundred These were accu- experiments. this. and to lessen. and. so that the amount expended in a job of this kind may be known beforehand. there must not be any extra effort made . in the concluding sentence in the we had been conducting a series of ex- periments with a view to preparing Paris-green for the hands of the consumer. will The cost. under any of endless names. tendency to run. We got the best results through applying the green as a glazing over a ground of yellow ochre. Parisstate. rately measured. all and the paint in each of three successive coats carefully weighed. both of labor and mato be be given. offers great temptation to extensive adul. terial. from the surface . of its translucency. We hoped that to non-drying jDroperty to that degree clear we could safely recommend if raw oil for use in its is thinning. green color. as a rule. high cost. what most important.PARIS-GREEN AS A PIGMENT. or trickle. The prime cost of this green is its about twice as much as chrome- green. too.

ever rough they tant requisition may impor- —which to please the eye. Painters can hardly divest themof this kind selves of the idea that work must appear well however. but. the answer will be What matter ? The coarser the better. when If softened by distance. Things viewed too closely often appear harsh and repulsive. as seen in their proper places. No matter how coarse or ill-conditioned they . but a transparent glazing through which the body-color may be seen. that is. first a coat of blue or lead-color. namely. but from a distance. may look effect when standing in the paint-shop if when exhibited in their proper belongings. An artist. you away from the canvas. The work is not painted to be felt of. and new blinds will be the better for having four . so long as they fulfill the is. then a . takes pict- when viewed in close proximity. whether new or old. A solid job must not be looked for. tlie cover under-coat. so long as the best results of painting may be attained thereby. objection be made : that the surface of the '^ work is rough. or with spectacles. that they are not to be viewed through a microscope.108 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. but to be looked at. should have not less than three coats. This fact can not be too constantly kept in view. that blinds are painted to please the sight and not the sense of touch . and it is not of the slightest consequence howbe. hanging to the window-frames." Outside blinds. more need not they have a good be asked or looked for. when he would exhibit his ure. It must be borne in mind. AND GRAINING. in order to get the best possible effect. become lovely and enchanting. too.

or groundwork. that result being impossible. A good. work but not too thin and it should be frequently stirred in the pot. and objections up the use of Paris-green. but two weeks should between the and second cbats of the finishing Do not sandj)aper the work in any part of the less process. so that the coarser particles of the color may not escape. should bear out w^ith a kind of half-gloss. must be put on thinned with raw No oil drier of any kind may be used in thinning. will exclaim. is presented out of the beaten track. The first lead coat five may stand three days. *^What!" they stuff. The two clear coats of Paris-green oil. but no extraordinary care need be exhibited in mahe it cover. The paint must be thin enough . The coat of body-color. easily. the effort to well-worn brush must be used in applying the Paris-green." when anything readily conjure to.PARIS-GREEN AS A PIGMENT. days . is "paint blinds with this poisonous that you it which so coarse must be constantly *so stirring it with a stick to keep it from sinking. and transparent that will not cover . injures Those painters who are apt to see ^'a lion in the way. because the Paris-green will be apt to run on a rough than on a smooth surface. will a host of difficulties in. followed by two coatings of Paris-green. and the second four or elapse color. 109 coat of body-color. A little hard-drying varnish first used in this coat will give a better foundation for the coat of green finishing color. and boiled the delicacy and purity of the tone. and be found in the end settled in a hard cake at the bottom. used as a glazing. and to not desirable.

and the other grim with darkness. . a drop too much be applied " etc. and three four feet. accom- plishment of such a result not worth some extra pains and labor ? The set of blinds before : mentioned were of dimensions as follows three pairs were ten feet long. that single particle will conIs the original emerald color. each pair. permanent. They had a uniform width of twenty-one inches. its even over own if color. from year pigment to year shall re- and so long as a single particle of the main on the painted tinue to reflect its surface. and of being entitled to bear the so up even the pretense of green ! name . too. timid disciple. and which threatens to ? run away Just from the work 60. and darkening to blackness in the shadow no two sides to every blind. all It will be seen that these were the equivalent of twelve pairs of blinds six feet six inches high by twenty-one inches wide. respectively. is This perma- nence. But who ever yet got any good thing it ? without working for for the prize ! *'He that would win must labor " On the other hand.110 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. through winter and summer. so unchangeable No fading out to faintness in the sunshine. deep. other so-called greens grow sick in comparison. so durable. rich. as they show on town and country houses. one '^sicklied o'er with a pale" suspicion of color. three were seven feet long. and velvety. that give all A color so brilliant. but continues right on. think of what will all have been gained when these difficulties shall have been surmounted. and then. three were five. These . not a matter of a single season. AND GRAINING. This would be about a fair average for outside blinds.

blinds painted three coats. The following pure Paris-green recapitulation. at 12 cts 7 47 3d coat. 6 fed G inches x 21 inches color. about six pounds of color being consumed in the work. comes in when ground linseed-oil.PARIS-GREEN AS A PIGMENT. as in oil. prepared manner. as this must depend. of this will produce to say that a any such result and it is entirely safe good job of Paris-green can not be effected with the color as usually sold in the shops. „ 6 ( pounds body " . Of course. at 25 cts $1 50 2d coat. the cans of pure Fifteen pounds of green. . Indeed. After standing ten days. at 12 cts 48 4 75 Total $13 72 This gives about one dollar and fifteen cents as the cost of the paint for three coats on a single pair of six feet by twenty-one inches blinds. 1st coat.. 9^ 4 Paris-green. will be used. in a great . No figures are given as to cost of labor. . nothing short . at 45 cts $6 75 72 4 27 ^ { { 6 " " " raw raw ?. this is predicated upon the supposition that the very in the best best material. After standing four days. and in this were used nine and one half j^ounds of thick color and about four pounds of raw oil for thinning. . 15 ^ raris-green. ^ oil. at 45 cts oil. was thinned with this six pounds raw and the whole of mixture was consumed. the first coat of Parisit green was put on. given in figures. will show at a glance the cost of material for painting blinds with : Tioelvc pairs. the finishing coat was put on. blinds were first HI painted with a coat of dark chrome or body-green.

because it is. An old and experienced city painter names three dollars per pair as a fair price for one coat of body-color and two of Paris- green on ordinary outside blinds. the only green for outside work which gives real satisfaction. degree. to bring it back into use as soon as possible. place. after all. make one trial. under favorable conditions and to those who have heretofore used and discarded it. those painters to We would suggest to who have never essayed a trial of Paris-green . AND GRAINING.112 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. on time. . and circumstances.

always a learner." would be a "taking" caption to this chapter. As no two faces are alike. perceptive power. as are required to portray the lineaments of the human face . AS A FII^E ART. presents white. practice. . and and talent. to reach the goal of success —in this as in and all other branches of the art of painting patient study. taught in Twelve Easy Lessons. requires the same faculties.CHAPTER GRAIJ^IJs^G XII. perhaps. neutral browns. We are sorry to dispel such simple and childlike faith but a regard for truth and common- sense compels us to declare that. so no two pieces of wood are exactly similar. practice. the same care. close ob- —one must travel the long road of servation. and some credulous souls would certainly believe it true. To imitate with colors the veins. for example. *^The Art of Imitating Colored and Fancy Woods. and figures in a piece of fancy wood. practice. from see in it a Vandyke-brown is One may knot which the color of . all Oak-wood. the same development of skill. grains. but in the same direction. For this reason the grainer must always to almost be a student. not in the same degree.

The operathat. devoid of every pos- between these two extremes may be found shade of red and yellow brown. because each one would have a prejudice or predilection for some particular tone which he had unconsciously fixed in his mind. these facts and conditions must be respected. light oak grain- ing presents too sented with too much of the yellow.114 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. and in some cases even more than Finished natural woods do not reflect their color superficially altogether. and dark oak not bright enough. and albino specimens wliicli are quite charcoal. Light oak requires a groundwork mahogany. and. quite a foxy red and no jury of expert the average color of the grainers would agree as to what is wood. to The novice must not expect imitation of any fancy or make even a tolerable common w^ood by the simple ap- plication of graining color to a proper ground. and the operation must proceed in accordance therewith. almost bright enough for White oak is is almost devoid of color. a coat of graining color on that figures of the whereby may be shown the grain and wood. AND GRAINING. In other words. tion is threefold. color sible . As a rule. and which he had habitually accustomed himself to impart to his work. They have depth. while the . The requisites are : a smooth groundwork. Western oak of palest straw-color. and It to give the required depth and transin grain- parency. as well as tone and figure . must not be forgotten that the intent . while dark oak is best imitated on a ground of red. in colored imitations of the same. light oak is made too bright. solid. and dark oak is repre- little of the red tone. and on that a glazing lights of transparent color to show the and shades.

in her endless the painter would many specimens which select rather avoid than imitate. are not Natural deformities. presents because Nature. too. change color when exposed and to other atmospheric influences. to the light Woods. blackish is gray of unfinished black-walnut. The animal-painter would not of fancy from the . Nature must not be followed too closely variety. the presence of which would not be suspected in the natural growth as it comes from the planer. worth . In other branches of imitative . the imitator woods should select for imitation the best which Nature offers — those which are most pleasing as objects of study to the eye. art. which glows out from beneath the surface. except as perpetuating. curiosities. a rich undertone of yellowish red. mellower. flock the shabby specimens to show on his canvas so.GRAINING AS A FINE ART. as in of natural woods. softer tone with age and use. The cold. and most interesting and observation. the learner would become a successful imitator this. ing in is 115 not to represent the wood in tones and shades it its natural colors. too. but tlie puts on when varnished or pol- ished. this wood reflects when yarnished or polished. reddish brown which There is. too. and put These on a richer. altogether different from the warm. for Instance. if conditions must be known and respected.

close observation. is. of those faculties without which a person should hardly adopt this profession as a specialty.CHAPTER XIII. knots. or seem to have. Therefore. Formerly the house-painter was supposed to include among but of his accomplishments the art of graining as well as sign-painting. and long-continued and constant practice. TECHNICALLY CALLED GRAINING. become the custom for some to give undivided attention to those several branches for which they individually have. or deyelopment rather. PAINTED IMITATIONS OF COLORED WOODS. and delicate nianii^ulation. The art of imitating the grain. are indispensable in the make-up of a good grainer. An eye prompt in detecting similarity in shades and hues of color." sign-writers . imitative power. certain workmen *' desig- nate themselves as ^^grainersto the trade. or predilection. gilding. taste. and colors of fancy woods like all painting not merely mechanical. late years it has and all other branches of the trade . a special faculty. acquired by study. Success in this line is dependent on the possession.

would be as much an impossibility make a finished musician by teaching the theory of tolerable degree of perfection in the art sound. only in the larger places. of brushes The number and variety and other tools used in graining can be shown herein with sufficient accuracy of description to enable the novice to order what he will necessarily require in case he shall be disposed to practice the imitative art. have been supplanted by an which were once much affection for light desired. and maple. Formerly the ticed art of graining in oil-colors was prac- by comparatively few. more easily than by practice. the same being the knowledge experimentally gained by those who. have become perfected in which this particular branch of the art of painting.GRAINING. Even a but there can be obtained only by tion . The disposition for grained work. and much that can be acquired." etc. of course. has of late years revived. rosewood. at one time declined materially. much practice and close observa- is a great deal that can be told. men to devote themselves entirely To teach the art of imitating rules as to the grain of the various set of written woods used in domestic architecture by a and directions. and the fashion for this kind of painting is now more prevalent and general than ever before. as mahogany. and the knowledge of the pig- . and dark oak and black-walnut. to the trade. there not being in small villages sufficient towns and work in any one branch to permit workto a special department. with skill and custom. the difference being simply that certain kinds of woods. 117 This custom can obtain.

Its best artist results are gained only by patient labor and the accomplish these by some secret process himself. but the would-be grainer does not of necessity require a knowledge of the simple names of the materials which he would use." These "tricks of the trade." and all the rest comes by and observation. . and placed of all. the greatest of the ob- way of the practice of graining. and the would-be grainer has only to learn to the theory of practice "how do it. and work in a mysterious way. stacles in the Therefore. AND GRAINING. are placed within his easy reach. rules AVhen and wherever in the following pages for groundwork. who claims known only to to may be set down as a quack. is removed .118 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. because of the fact that ready-made graining colors. are much less common than in younger times. the reader will bear in mind the fact that the looked-for results can not be . pretended Tlie writer has seen a professed grainer involve himself in the utmost secrecy. our times. when simply mixing oil common brown wax is with heated and turpentine little to make what called "megilp. and proportions are given for producing certain tones and tints or for other purposes. The printing age and the book-making mania have brought to light most of those occult compoundings. real or ments and other materials used was a secret. which require only to be thinned to fit them for use. what was once hidden knowledge within the reach There is truly no trickery in art. In these. not only are there no mysterious compoundings. by those who have not had the advantages of practical instruction in the art." the quackery of the professors.

When we say raw the best Italian sienna tinted with white. contain. and easy working qualities. is the most important article in the stock of the painter. White-lead. and it all at- tempts to supersede success. The packages do not state. is even in a highly adulterated the article. we beg the a clay- reader not to expect to produce that result with lead that is white-lead only in name. The fact that its j^urity can be ascertained tests. otherwise Every painter should some absolute stand- we shall all be working in the dark. and new establishments are from time to time erected in different parts of the country to supply the growing want. entirely without The demand always increasing. has . by chemical or mechanical wliich are known only to the initiated. as unlike the genuine Italian sienna as the sale of it is unlike honest dealing. have been. and with sienna which is colored mixture. it name and guarantee of some well-known manufacturer.lead will give groundwork for light oak graining. the that the ground paints sold throughout the country are not genuine. so for it is far. have made it the favorite pigment with the trade.GRAINING. article in No common use probably has been adulterated to such a shameful extent as has this indispensable pigment. which in- dicated by the label or brand on the exterior thereof. 119 reached by the use of materials which differ from those given. either in kind or qualit}^ readily see the necessity of adopting ard. Its un- equaled density. No painter should ever purchase a package of ground color which does not bear upon responsible as a rule. so well known by its familiar name. The consumer should know. opacity.

The result is. because the marks and brands of well-known manufacturers have been fraudulently counterfeited and imitated. for instance. and difficult . its rendered this adulteration easy. of the fact. as being all that In giving directions for reproducing these tints. otherwise our results It would be as uncertain as the wind. if the materials necessary to the mixture were not the same in quality as well as quantity. is This. white-lead is . AND GRAINING. is would seem hardly necessary and we rest is upon a simple statement necessary or important. If the white. a satisfactory enhancement of the seller's profit. White-lead is what is is known in trade as a leading article. of course. which must form the base and bulk of the . would be worse than vanity for the writer to give directions for the producing a given tone of buff. even. but extreme disappointment on the part of the con- sumer. this fraud upon the consumer here. What sugar to the grocer. not an absolute security. absolutely necessary that some base of proceedings be first established.120 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. profit . Thousands of tons of so-called white-lead are an- nually sold in the United States which do not contain a single grain of that material. detection extremely and to-day the only guarantee which the puris chaser has of the genuineness of the paint the name of the maker which the containing package bears. it be- comes. It is almost every- where sold at a merely nominal and the tradesman of pure white- readily accepts anything bearing the name lead which he can sell at the price of the genuine article. to the seller of paints. A detailed statement of the ways and means whereby effected.

to be done economiIf white- must be performed with the If yellow ochre is best materials. you Every painter and consumer will do well to lay to : heart the following axioms 1. pounds of in distributing a so-called pound paints. A job of painting. of course. of pure color through ten ground the consumer has to pay for ten packages instead of one. get pure lead.GRAIXING. or some other worthless material. at it whatif ever cost. not an economical proceed- Yet painters and other consumers buy paints every simply because the nominal price It day which are more than half sand. and ten one. is less than that of pure color. intellect to ought not to require a very brilliant comprehend the fact that. the less 2. Every man of common-sense can understand that buying sugar which is half sand. demanded. to the fact that all painting. can. once for with the absolute necessity of su]3ply- . the result. but only a fictitious imitation of it. of whatever character. 121 mixture. and the quantity of color necessary to reproduce the given tint be used. get pure. costs to do painting. can be perat a less first cost of formed money and time with the best rather than with the cheapest paints. be not white-lead. and the better it is of its kind. The purer the it paint. ing. lead be required to paint a house. because the nominal price is is only two thirds that of sugar. the writer would again call the attention of the consumer cally. made in the hope of impressing the painter. would be entirely unexpected. At the risk of being charged with unnecessary repetition. of whatever grade or degree. freights and ten is profits when he should pay only This digression all.

122 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. . AND GRAINING. As a rule. Without them we need hardly hope it will for success. results are possible. be well to avoid many-hued These are often used with intent to deceiye. With such the best ing himself with the jiurest materials. labels. Truth can commonly be told on plain white paper.

therefore. Black-walnut ground.CHAPTER XIV. show that the color of the groundwork after it all.walnut on the is maple ground. chest- may be the same. COLORS. one sees a yariety of tints. The ground-color nut.walnut in alternate strips. differs materially in tone from the others mentioned. maple. Attention called to this fact to is. of less consequence than it would seem. and from yellow-brown to deepest black-brown in the walnut. and depth of color but it would not be a difficult task for an expert to make a fair job of black. trusting to a greater depth and body of graining color to produce the darker shades. GROUKD AND GRAINING Looking at a wainscot or wall of oak and black. for light oak. in order to avoid the extraor- dinary labor of making a ground for each separate width or strip. to put on such a color for the ground of either wood as will enable the workman to show the liglitest colors which the woods respectively present. of course. supposing to be light enough. from pale light redIt yellow to light umber tone in the oak. becomes necessary. as its brightness can always be subdued by the use of a greater . satinwood. both . and ash.

and uniform in color. tory. a matter of prime importance that the sur- face of the work shall be smooth. . If may common colors be used. cloudy appearance. the work will present a muddy. or German Vandyke-brown. solid. the best colors are gether preferable. In the first case the best results are possible . in the second they are utterly unattainable. dark graining-color and the glazing coat. or as the case Turkey umber. The graining-colors should be compounded of the best Italian siennas. alike inartistic and unsatisfacalto- In the matter of economy.124 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. so-called cheap colors. tlie quantity of It is. however. for the reason that a dollar's worth of the pure colors will be sufficient to cover a much larger surface than three dollars' worth of impure. AND GRAINING. in order that the graining-color shall comb cleanly and wipe out also clearly and brightly. such as are generally sold in the shops in the country. require.

but the un- must avail himself of all the advantages which the best tools and materfals place within his reach.CHAPTER XV. may and the does produce effects with means and novice for. First in im- . There brushes are certain tools in and the indispensable of production painted imita- tions of fancy woods. TOOLS KEQUIKED FOR GRAINING. without which even the most exjoert professional at a loss. grainer would be and would labor un- der difificulties. appliances which could hardly find use A Badger-hair Blender or Softener. Yet it must be by understood that such a work- man. means of a cunning hand and practiced eye. through use and skill. good workman may work with indifferent tools skilled .

comes a badger-hair blender Piltod Maple Over- (or Top-) Graiucr.126 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. . i B yteel Grainiiig-Couib. portance. after the brushes necessary for applying the graining-color to the groundwork. AND GRAINING.

of the four widths being one medium.i ii:'hii mon in and about every ordiOak Over(or Top-) Graiiier. when coarse comb- ing with clear. and three four inches wide. the result is effect- ed by the use of one of the coarsest combs.i.. size of the teeth. the teeth of the same being covered with a piece of cotton rag or cloth. three two inches. and softener (a cut of 127 . A set of these com^n^ises twelve combs. two or three flat bristle or fitch brushes.i|i|:|||iHiiiri..iii(i. three of which are one inch wide. and one coarse. being com"''"M. This is in every respect the equivalent of a leather comb. and consisting of a painter's duster. nary paint-shop. in Each comb the several widths varies from its companions in the one in each fine. comprises all tools re- extraordinary the rest quired.w|[||. steel grain ing-combs.TOOLS REQUIRED FOR GRAINIXG. and a i)iece of clean cotton rag. Formerly. a few leather combs were considered indispensable but now. distinct grain is required.i. For graining . This short list. with a top- er over-grain er (a drawing of which the is given). three three inches..|..[||M|||i't|i!|. which is shown on page 125) sec- ond.

. where the work is to be mostly and wlien it is necessary to get over the largest posrequire the use of sible space in the least possible time. to tlie remark names and deeasier scrij^tions of the tools and brushes. and that will be Maple Graining. The reader will not take exception. to give the is certainly. to use much than to teach the lesson of how them. must not be understood that for CameFs-bair Cutter for Maple Graining. all kinds of work no other brushes are required or of." The cost this set of grainer's tools will be. however. that. made use for the reason that very extended surfaces. a tool called a cutter described under the head of of necessary. say It five or six dollars. These. larger brushes. such as large stores or warerooms. at the outside. is ^^ maple. plain. Avill be noted each in its appropriate i)lace.128 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. AND GRAINING.

the graining-color as a fair job of is less important than the groundwork.CHAPTER XVI. is The yellow observable in finished oak furniture derived in a great measure from the successive coats of varnish used in the finishing process. but has not so much significance as is generally ascribed to it. mainly. Golden ochre will do in place of sienna. obtains among professional grainers that the graining-color should be mixed with special reference This is true in a measure. both light and dark oak may be performed with the dark-oak graining-color. that it reflects. In fact. by studying the natural wood. supposing the ground to be suitable in either case. but does not produce so clear and soft a The too common use of chrome-yellow is is deprecated. In making a ground-color with . The opinion to the ground. LIGHT-OAK GRAINING. The light ground-color recommended for the imitation of is oak produced by the use of white-lead and pure raw Italian sienna. to make work It will be seen. for the reason light-oak grained that the general tendency too yellow. none of the chrome-yellow tone. tint.

quite unlike what is required to secure a good job. however gratifying to his own The self-love. care must be taken to procure wliitc-lead the true Italian article. he is instructed to take therefrom what- . True. the others being light. to indulge in a look at his handiwork. AND GRAINING. The beginner thought that his will not be led first away with the flattering attempt. come most and the smallest amount of merit never goes wholly unrewarded. as some do. greatest variety consistent with good taste. as the so-called American substitute will give a muddy color. will result in a very close imitation of the wood. same kind and show Let there be the Violent con- and a habit of of putting in always the work in certain places. this it might happen in a door be desirable. and raw sienna. but the examples of some first-class artist in this line. of natural wood. Mannerism should be avoided. trasts are to be avoided. to cop.130 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. but would not Referring to remarks on page 124 concerning the preparation of the work for the reception of color. The same general tone of color will be preserved throughout. which he will probably caricature rather than copy. and the learner to have supplied himself with a can of read3^-made graining-color.y at first The study for the learner is not the natural wood. lights which he will vf\])Q out will stare stiffly at him when he steps back and the shades effort . will frown as if in mockery of his maiden but patient labor and striving for success will overobstacles. It will not do to have one panel on a door dark. and suppos- ing the groundwork to exhibit the proper tint.

there is it. The quantity of color required. ever quantity 131 may be required. but only so much as may be necessary to hold the color back from drying too quickly. as this is most easily remedied. for one side of a door is almost infinitesimal. to do the work in hand. so as to be ready on the following day for the glazing-coat. preferable to the other extreme. and the can to exclude the dust and. graining-color is mixed with reference to drying. as jajjan drier much of the japan in market now is made without o]:*- shellac. look paint Too and much color will make the Avork It is common to ruh in that is. to prevent the evaporation of the turpentine. or good but. no advantage to be gained in using The work will not be any more durable because of the use of an undue i:)ro2)ortion of oil in the thinning. A portion of boiled be required in the thinning. may be done by the use of japan gold-size.LIGHT-OAK GRAINING. first fall The beginner of or learner will at into the error is. and the varnish-coat will be decidedly better on a surface without gloss. but. except in cases where the its erator is assured of quality and genuineness. which will be ascertained by trying oil will it on the work. If it be desirable to it grain and glaze and varnish on the same day. Except to secure this. mixing little his graining-color too thick —that he will use it too is thinning . it covering the remaining color with turpentine to keep fresh. That portion of the color oil intended for immediate use must be thinned with and turpentine to a proper consistency. — — all the panels tlie panel-moldings before proceeding to put in work. as . muddy and slovenly. Ordinarily. its use is not advised.

made to the difficulties in the by means of written words. or rather lack of system. *' work claggy. it the color wipes out better after has set a little. is a bar in the of turning out really finished workmen way in almost any of the trades. " technical " or trade terms used throughout this work are those in common use among English grainers. any branch all is said. after tlie be acquired through perceptive faculties. With a view to the fullest elucidation of the process. An liour of practical demonstration would be better than a volume of written instructions. to this who have brought with skill country the knowledge and acquired on the other side. toAvard perfection were comparatively easy but to teach a language that has no alphabet and no grammar may per- haps prove more fruitless tlian the writer even anticipates. the It will work will not comb well or wipe out cleanly. That portion of the surface which is to receive the "veins" or "sap" must is not be combed until after the work put in . To lead the half-taught learner . and to . for the reason that most of the best work- men them in this line are Englishmen. where a rigid system of apprenticeship renders good workmen much more way possible than with us. while that to be kind of work called "dapiDles" requires the combing done before the wiping out of the It will be observed that the lights. The laxity of our system. because. of apprenticeship. care must be taken not to rub in too much at once . really of art. in such case. Allusion has already been of teaching. If the color be quick-drying." to use the grainer's expression. a knowledge of which must.132 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. however. AND GRAINING.

him who has never seen a job of ^graining performed. is shown. rag for wiping out and a set of combs These comprise operation. as they surely will appear properly cleaned up. so as not to look dirty and muddy. in with the paint-brush so as to present a The beads. for clean- ing up the corners. a soft.LIGHT-OAK GRAINING. if not Too much look ^^ color on any part of the finished. the term rubbing in" will be better understood. I33 to it make it. operation. like painting. if possible. for putting on a dry paint-brush. All preliminaries being completed. thereto . comi^rehensible to the greatest novice. molds. all which are really required for the first '^'^ In practice. and corners should be stippled with the bristle-ends of a dry brush. may have adhered . clean. door will make it blotchy " when Care must be taken graining. in regular order of procedure. not by as to leave adding a darker but by " wiping out. and beads color —supposing too much worn cotton for the combing. In oak it will be remembered. must be rubbed uniform surface. or sash-tool. the grain color. molds. it is now supposed is that the door. to have the color evenly distributed. is proposed to begin with the ^'^ rubbing in" applying the graining-color with a brush —that —and continue the is. to its completion. ready with its well sand-papered coat of pale-straw ground This for the reception of the coat of oil graining-color. or painter's duster. that being the subject to operate upon. The tools necessary in the first stage of the stiff work are simply a moderately the color . brush." so . the performance being much more like rubbing the color into the groundwork than in the ordinary acceptation of the word.

is with simple straight combing. with a rag held loosely in the fingers. it be not a very creditable imitation of the natural Supposing the panels are to be grained. will as a rule. and much and all elaboration is not recommended ordinarily. and it is advised. so as not to wipe the wood clean of the fine . repeating the operation a in a similar manner with comb still finer than that used in the first combing. . branch of Now it ceases to be mechanical. to is to wipe off a part of it in streaks. much more respectable at display. to show on them rather plain work. then to comb each in its turn with one combs lengthwise. similar in character of The corres2:>onding panels must be graining. as has been sug- gested. the color which remains represent- ing the darker portion of the wood. turn off a job of grained work wliich will not offend good taste. The panels will first receive attention. the groundwork clean. from top bottom. even though wood. this point the process will have been simply mechan- and such work may be performed by any house-painter paint a door with plain color in a workmanlike who can manner. should present the same general appear- The fact must be well understood that clean work. To ical . and workmanlike than an abortive attempt may. the first proceeding in order. ance. rails There be space enough on the and stiles to show the veined work.134 HOUSE AND CABRIAGE PAINTING. and becomes a fine art. with proper ground and graining Almost any man who knows the two ends of a paint-brush colors. AND GRAINING. after the application of the color.

and bottom stiles." the moldings will be combed plainly. which performs so important a part that we can hardly imagine a good grainer without at least one thumb. (The horn w^ill tool sometimes used for taking out the lights be described hereafter. not resemble the dapples in the natural wood tice but. top. and the thumb-nail betool required most important and useful in the operation. first attempt will not. The broader lights will be wiped out with the fleshy part of the finger. and the middle rail. and the recovering it with a clean portion of the rag. with the center. prove very will learn. and the finer lines with the covered nail of that most useful member. In spite of his best efforts. soon become saturated with color. That portion of the rag which covers the thumb of course. so i)erseverance only If his first deserve success.) will. and so will cease to be effective in wiping cleanly.LIGHT-OAK GRAINING. as pracAvill only makes perfect. may con- Supposing the panels to be finished ''for better for worse. he gratulate himself on his performance. at appears so easy and simple. will come . first sight. it the whole of the rag shall aside. probably. how perform what. effort shall suggest to the beholder anything better than quail-tracks and blotches. When color. This necessitates the constant uncovering of the thumb. satisfac- The tory. if and the beginner difficult it is to he learn nothing more. the lights will . become saturated with its must be thrown and place supplied with a clean piece. The taking out thumb with a piece comes at once the I35 of tlie lights is done by covering the of cotton rag.

136

HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING, AND GRAINING.
These are usually selected for the greatest

next in order.

display of work.

The

color will be

first

applied to the

middle

stiles,

leaving the middle, top, and bottom rails to be

rubbed
middle

in,

each in turn, as the work proceeds.
be finished before putting the
rail.

The two
work
into

stiles will

the middle or broad

The

color

may

be rubbed into

the top and bottom rails at the same time as on the broad
rail.

In this order of procedure no care will be necessary

in wiping the joints,

and the color may lap over on the parts
off at

not rubbed
stiles

in, to

be cut

the joints in the finishing

or rails, as the case

may

be.

The
distinct,

necessity of keeping each piece composing the door

and treating each by

itself, will

be obvious to the

greatest novice in the art of graining.

The work
in the sap

of wiping out with a rag will be continued
is

or veined portion no longer than

actually

necessary, as whatever can be done with the coarse
will be a clear saving of time.

comb

In the sap or veined portion
wiping out, and

of the

work the combing
it,

will follow the

not precede

as

was the case with the panels.
usually be finished plainly
;

The top
that
is,

and bottom

rails will

with coarse combing, but not of necessity straight grain.

The
and

outer

stiles

can be heavier and coarser than other parts,

this will finish the

work

so far as the oil-coat

is

con-

cerned.

The

oil-graining

is

now set

aside,

and the job

left to dry,

to be ready for the glazing-coat,

which should be done in

water-color, supposing the intention be to varnish at once.

Some

grainers glaze with a portion of the same color as was

LIGHT-OAK GRAmma.
used for the
advised.
first coat,

137
is

but the use of water-color

Etrongly

Supposing

this oil-coat to be well dried, a light
fine

rubbing over with a worn piece of

sand-paper

is

recom-

mended
put

before the glazing.

Colors ground in water, and

uj? in'

wide-mouthed

bottles, are

now

obtainable in the

color-shops,

and are more convenient and economical than

the same materials prepared in the paint-shop.

The proper
sienna, burnt

glazing color for light oak
sienna,

is

made with raw

and Vandyke-brown,

in such proportions as shall

be found best in practice, and the color must be used thin,
and- the quantity used
of glazing
is

must be very
as a

small.

The operation
poor job

most important,

good job may be spoiled

by unskillful manipulation in

this process, as a

may

be redeemed, in a measure, by skillful handling in the

glazing-coat.

Much may

be done in this process, in the way of remeit shall

dying any defect in the ground, supposing
in finishing, not to have been just
is,

be found,
;

what was required

that

a yellower color

may

be imparted by using more of the

raw sienna

in the glazing-color

—supposing a more
may

yellow

tone be desirable

or, a too

yellow ground

be concealed

by using more of burnt sienna and yand3'ke-brown.

The

color should not be thinned at once, as was the color for

the oil-coat, but should be placed on a palette or a piece of

board, and thinned by dipping the brush in water as the

work proceeds.
some
parts, as
will serve, while

This

is

necessary from the fact that in

with panels, a very thin, light wash of glazing

on the moldings, and around the knots, and

in the ^*sap" work, h

much

thicker coat will be necessary.

138

HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAmTINO, AND GRAINING.
of the operation are

The brushes required for this part a top- or over-grainer, shown on page
er,

127, a badger-blend-

on page 125, and a

common
as

pocket-comb.
stiff

The

watersoft-

color

must be rubbed

in with a

bristle-brush,

and

ened with the blender, so
brush-marks.

not to show any streaks or
in at a

But one panel should be rubbed

time, as the thin coat of water-color dries almost as fast
as it

can be applied.

The top

grain,

which

is

almost

inappreciable, will be put in with the over-grainer,

which

must, after being dipped in very thin color, be combed

with the pocket-comb, so as to separate the bristles into
groups, which shall stand apart from each other, forming, as
it

were,

a series of parallel, small, thin brushes.

The

over-grainer, in this shai^e, will be passed lightly

from

top to bottom of the panels, after which the blender must

be used to soften the harsh lines and give indistinctness to
the grain.

Great care

is

necessary, in this operation, not to

apply too

much

color, or the effect will be streakiness rather

than the almost imperceptible grain required.
or shading

The

glazing

must be continued on the

rails

and

stiles, as

may

be required by the character of the work.

These should

be darker than the panels, and the molding should be

more deeply shaded than the
lights

rails

and

stiles.

The glowing

around the knots are wiped out of the glazing-color,
This brings the

and delicately softened with the blender.

work up

to varnishing, wiiich will

be treated in a sej^arate

chapter, and the utter impossibility of giving anything like
a clear conception of this operation of glazing, by

means

of

a verbal teaching, would seem to preclude the necessity of

LIGHT-OAK GRAINING.
any further words upon the subject.
conclusion, that
it is

I39
to say, in

Enough

to graining

what light and shade are
It gives

to the higher branches of the art of painting.

depth, and tone, and glow, and transparency

;

and, more

than any part of the process, requires the possession and

development of those faculties which distinguish the

artist

from the mere mechanic.

The

object selected for the operation described was
is

chosen for the reason that the greatest amount of work
usually done on doors, and a

workman who can make
difficulty in executing

a

good job on

this will find

no

what-

ever kind of wood-work

may come under

his hand.

In

wainscoting, or side-walls, composed of narrow, tongued-

and-grooved boards of equal width, the custom
less

is

to
is

put in

work, and to show a greater uniformity than

shown

in the separate pieces composing a door.

Coarse and fine

combing, with here and there a strip showing dapples and
sap-work,
is

the usual

mode
is

of giving variety to the strips
as the case

composing the wall or wainscot,
glazing-coat, however,

may

be.

The

mostly relied on to give distinct-

ness
left

and variety

to the work.

Some
Avill

of the strips will be

without glazing, while others

be glazed more or less

dark, as taste and fancy

may

dictate.

As

a rule, the boards

or strips alternate with quite a degree of regularity, a darker

shade between two light ones.
effect

This gives a

much

better

than to have a group of dark ones followed by a group

of lighter ones, or than an occasional of lighter ones.

dark

strip in a

group

A good

effect is

produced on doors and

other paneled work by putting in the panels very light

UO HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING, AND
ings being in any case darker than the rails and

GRAINING.

oak, and the rails and stiles very dark red-oak, the moldstiles.

The

molding,

if

not too deep and heavy,

may

be painted with

coach-black before varnishing, with a gold stripe in the
inner
flat

portion of the same.

This gold stripe makes a
off

very good contrast with the light-oak panel, and sets

the
re-

black better than anything
quires a skillful hand,

else.

This work, however,

and

is

not recommended for novices.

A summary of the
ful to

foregoing instructions

may prove

use-

some readers who may not have seen a job

of grain-

ing performed, and we propose to give, in brief, an outline
of the processes in the order in

which they usually occur.

The The

first requisite is

a hard, well sand-papered surface,

with a properly colored ground.
tools required are a paint-brush,
;

for rubbing in
;

the graining-color
er's duster, or

a set of steel graining-combs
;

a paint-

other dry bristle-brush

and a

rag, to

wipe

out the lights.

Next

in order

is

the graining-color, and the ready-made
for
all,

colors are
It

recommended
of

esi^ecially for
all

beginners.

may

be well to state here that

graining-colors are

compounded

raw and burnt

Italian sienna,

raw and

burnt Turkey umber, Vandyke-brown, and drop-black, in
varied proportions according to the requirements of the
j

occasion.

It is impossible to give

due proportions, for the

reason that these materials, found usually in the jiaintshops, vary so
sistency.

much

in strength, quality, fineness,

and con-

The

tools

and materials being provided, the next

in

fine. The tools required in glaz- ing are a water-color brush. good brown japan or If the needs of the occa- sion require the color to dry very rapidly. a top. and practice are indispensal)le prerequisites to a good job of grained work. the the joint or line of contact should show color. for the for no other. rub the oil-coat lightly with a piece of worn sand-paper. In dappled work comb the surface before taking out the In sap or veined work. tool. comb after wiping out. is Use boiled and turpentine. if Use water-color for the glazing. and no color more oil than necessary to keep the from setting too quickly. and be of lighter This oil-coat is with all its darker neighbor. reason. make the proper glazing for both light and dark oak.LIGHT. The before-mentioned horn for taking out the lights in dappled work. Before glazing. practiced hands pnt on too As a rule. Eaw and burnt sienna and Vandyke- brown. a stile crosses a stile at rail.or over-grainer. a good general rule for oak The should stand overnight to dry. slightly rounded. is simply a straight piece of horn about an inch wide. The end. When the rail being dark and full of work. oil much color. taste. to contrast plain combing. Judgment. skill. stiff Rub lights. This un- can be properly learned only by practice. graining. and as thick as a nickel five-cent piece. that no time must necessarily elapse before varnishing. must be beveled on both sides . in the graining-color with a moderately brush. use a small quantity of gold-size. in varying proportions. order of proceeding is 141 the thinning of the color. a badger -blender.OAK G RAINING. and a rag.

common means described. AND GRAINING. . graining becomes subject to the rules it which govern art generally. but for the un- learned. the uninitiated teacher. but to tion. knowledge or idea of anything better not for those and these words are who are skilled in the art. as the of it horn requires wiping after every application to the j)ainted surface. . —not is to him wlio is able to be a him who desirous of receiving instruc- As a fine art. on a piece of sand-paper. there is no hesitation in declaring that the best efforts or attainments in this line are not those which closely resemble the natural wood. as a carpenter sharpens a tool with a whetstone. if be admitted that true art has lines and bounds and. both as to ground-tints and graining. offers the readiest is for providing one's self with sucii a tool as above The ground is coat must be well it will dried. otherwise be cut up by the sharp edge of the The directions given herein. and kept sharp by rubbing it to a sharp edge. in every apothecary's shop. on which the horn used tool. The blade of a horn spatula. but rather suggestively.142 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. are not presented dogmatically. . The hand not holding the tool must carry a piece of rag. paradoxical as the utterance may most seem. as worthy of following by those who have no .

differing only in proportion. or he who of his having the would add to his stock of already acquired knowledge must not suppose. the chances are de- . sometimes used for ground for dark oak.CHAPTER XVII. and royal red. raw sienna.. The ground of golden ochre for dark oak is made of pure white-lead. every w^ord used in describing the pro- cess in light-oak graining has equal significance in this. is when a very bright tone of the The graining-color is composed same materials as the graining-color for light oak. There this is not a word to be said instructively under heading which has not been fully given in the fore- going chapter. The reader —he who would become a grainer. With the exception of the different ground and graining color. is Deep orange-chrome desired. both in tone and working quality. viz. DARK-OAK GRAIXIi^G-COLOR. and Vandyke- brown. in j^lace golden ochre. Unfortunately. because materials required to names of the make a graining-color. burnt sienna. that he has only to procure a can of each of these at the shops and proceed forthwith to make what is demanded.

all will see the importance of the best materials to the unor the novice. get what he does not want. dealers in paints buy ground colors bearing the names of the required articles. A grainer must indeed be weak in resources who can not do . this fastidiousness comes more from than from reason. while the Vandyke-brown is composed of Now.144 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. than The bulk of the so-called raw sienna is little better. As ity a rule. in a majority of cases. that sell is. to require Nor gods nor man can tell a workman to make a good job of graining what ? " ! with such materials is quite as unreasonable as was the requisition on the part of the Egyptians that the captive children of Israel should make bricks without straw. without regard to qual. practiced It has hand been said before in these pages that hardly two professional grainers will agree as to the exact tone for ground for any one perhaps most of the fancy or colored woods. and receive that rests with the consumer to to be good^ or at demand and least that which he knows which has a good reputation. stubbornness. is It a lamentable fact that the ground colors offered for sale rule. what they j^ur- any. willfulness. commonest yellow ochre the burnt sienna . or vain conceit. cidedly against him. In view of the fact that the most skillful and experienced painter can not do a job of plain painting well without good materials and tools. In many. they purchase what they can buy most cheaply it and most dearly. if is hardly better than Venetian red. as a port to be. cases. and he will. throughout the country are not. rather than what he does want. AND GRAINING.

the woods harmonize with each other. whose knowledge of color. ! are thoroughly me- chanical. but the contrast with the light-colored ones iant as with the dark-toned woods. black-walnut. as does white is but white All with the lighter-colored ones feeble and wanting. been improved either by study or practice fited and all readers may jDcrhaps be benesubject. 145 a fair job of graining on any ground. whereas the contrast of the lat- ter-named wood with the light-colored ones improves and brightens all the contrasting tints and shades. maple. It is by a few words on this most important unquestionably essential that every painter should know what plain trasts or colors and tints may be used in harmonious con- combinations with the various painted imitations of fancy woods. suj)posing the same to be light enough and not decidedly off while too many. and rosewood. in- deed. . not so brill- The bright colors in these deaden the usually dull tones of black-walnut. Gold is good with is all. Green is entirely unobjectionable . bird's-eye satinwood. no doubt. . chestnut. Many of our professed grainers are real artists. Blue is entirely harmonious with all all these latter.BARK-OAK GRAmmO-COLOR.harmony has not . it forms a most pleasing contrast with light oak. Black harmonizes with the woods. and execute with true artistic fervor . but is discordant with mahogany. are and among these latter will be found those as to tints of who most captious and fastidious There are some who ground and color. and ash . alas color. and detract from it thereby . Avill read this book. except black-wal- nut with mahogany and rosewood.

. but especially rich with green. and blue. generally. and tint. carmine. black. Gold is good with every color. white and black harmonize with all colors but green. Light and dark oak are best shown by themselves in contrast with each other. In color-harmony. AND GRAINING. being too coarse in the grain to exhibit with good effect in combination with maple and satinwood. shade.146 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. purple.

a blackish brown. and in almost any large . and the beholder would hardly suspect the presence of a rich red undertone. almost as bright as the glowing red of ma- hogany. This wood. was used only for very that this common purposes. BLACK-WALNUT GRAINING. In black.CHAPTER XVIII. has so common in every household.walnut graining no two as to what the prevailing tone should workmen seem to be. a sample presents which upsets wood. now description. and no one dreamed cheap and common domestic tree would become ma- the successful rival of the aristocratic rosewood and hogany. all preconceived notions. when itself the mind seems about to accept a certain shade as the best imitation of the natural wood. The wood agree itself presents so great a variety of tones and shades that. Previously was held in slight estimation." as seen before The is general tone of the being worked. Yet such is the case. and the inquirer finds himself ''all at sea again. and furniture of every last ten or fif- become the mode within the it teen years. so exten- sively used in doors. wainscoting.

of white-lead. confining oil. we shall treat it skill in successful only incidentally. This red glows out from underneath the brown and can not successfully be shown It in the graining- must therefore be provided for in the ground- work. with golden ochre and royal red and the fact that there The reader will bear in mind exists in this case no difficulty in covering and concealing with the almost black graining-color the underwork. as the most proper tone for imitating this popular wood. AND GRAINING. There can be no question as to the mode of painting most proper for producing the best graining. is what is called soft-grained. from straw-color to drab. to go over the work with a coat in water. however bright it may be. rather than one which is too dull to represent the brighter specimens of the natural wood. . results in black-walnut The wood and dark oak. So it will be best to err on the side of a too bright ground. of Yandyke-brown and drop-black ground colors used in graining All the may be obtained from the dealer. a groundwork made black.148 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. Black-walnut imitated on every variety of colored ground. which should be sufficiently red to represent those pieces of the wood which is exhibit the reddest tones of color. and does not present the sharp lines and clear grain observable in light Therefore it can be best imitated is in distemper-graining but as this process more difficult than oil-graining. color. and requires more manipulation. our teachings mainly to graining in Supposing the groundwork to be of the right the next proceeding is tint. furniture some parts will show a decidedly reddish l^iece of ground. . surface. We suggest.

and that no mixing cept to thin with boiled oil required. for in preparing the less cost 149 than would be involved same in the paint-shop. is too. This coat of water-color. so called. For the information of those who it are unfamiliar with this word. or the operation signifies. when the shall intention is to wipe out the lights with a rag. or unvarnished surface. which not ob- servable in the new. thinned to proper consistency . stains and deepens the The effect of the varnish. The oil graining-color. which we would remark that stippling is simjoly the bristles pouncing of the whole surface with the ends of the composing a painter's duster or other brush. is to bring out the red undertone. When this stippled coat of distemper-color.^ It is taken for granted that the a can of readyis workman will have supplied himself with made graining-color. unpolished. ready ground in water. must be bro- ken into grains by stippling with a painter's duster or other dry bristle-brush. after the manner of oak graining. borne in mind that in is black-walnut graining the imitation always darker than the natural wood. is usually finished with some varnish or polish which tone. for the reason that wood of this kind used in domestic and other architecture. exin such proIt and turpentine portions as practice alone will teach properly. while yet fresh. need oil only be said in this connection that just enough of should be used to prevent the color from setting too quickly. the work will be ready for the application of the oil graining-color. and also in furniture. It will be which is not the mode we recommend.BLACK-WALNUT GRAINING. has become dry.

to the distemper or water-color. That portion of the surface of the is work which has been ready for what we are rubbed in with the graining-color 23leased to call the hand of the artist. and ished before rubbing in any more . to for the reason that the darker veins cover so small a proportion of the surface. There are two modes one is to wipe out the lights. This portion of the work skill is re- quires not only more time but more than any other. but not without reference to the work as a whole. AND GRAINING. as in oak graining the other. there AVith must be a certain uniformity. that wiping out the lights is wipe off nearly all the color which has been applied. for application may be fin- rubbed into each panel or other piece successively. individually. to put in the darker veins with a sable or camel's-hair pencil. The oil graining- color may be left to set a little before proceeding with the work of putting in the veins of doing this . each must have its individual character. may be rubbed in before putting in the The panels and pieces composing the door must be treated. it is com- mon to wipe with a rag some of the color from the work from . or. As the veins are put in. The former mode is not rec- ommended. if the color be slow.150 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. and with the glazing and shading really that part of the operation which demands a cunning hand and a practiced eye. : and figures. the proper manipulation of which comes easy after a little practice. Avhatever of variety. they should be softened with the badger-blender. and in another collec- tively — that is. After applying the coat of oil graining-color. in one sense. the whole door-side veins.

BLACK-WALNUT GRAINING. unworkmanlike charac- It . important that proper care be taken as to the joints each separate piece of wood must be shown by and for itself. and softened with the blender. petty. and stippled with a dry brush. grainer. and inartistic. and blended with the badger-hair softener. to elaborate the job too much. slovenly. or it will look finical. A painter's duster. Too much plainness. or diagonally across the same. The graining on Th6 the stiles of a door must not lap over the rails. to give bottom of rail or panel.quickly. but go cleanly joint-lines. be done. or other brush. composed of Vandyke-brown and drop-black. toj) to 151 be. work a is careless. will be all-sufficient to make a good enough imitation for a Care must be taken not considerable portion of the work. before the glazing-coat. which will be water-color. even in the best jobs. The mode of procedure in the finishing oper- ation will be the same as described under the caption of light-oak graining. as may be convenient. The water-color will be rubbed in one panel or piece at a time. will of course be done plainly and . on the other hand. drawn lengthwise of the rail or stile. more or less color being aj^plied as the nature of the work may require. as the case may variety If it and a more woody appearance to the job to tell in hand. It will be observed . will give the ter. and sharply along the dry overnight. work of some accomplished Much of the graining. or oil-coat will be left to a day or two. were possible just when and where this should . the writer's task would be comparatively easy this but knowledge will come only through or the close observation of the natural wood.

152 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. as of rails and stiles doors and wainscoting. should . burnt and drop-black. of summary the foregoing directions for graining : black-walnut shows as follows A ground-color. Oil graining-color. and a glazing-coat of water- mixed the same as for the first stippled coat. and blended to soften and give distinctness. or golden ochre and royal red and black. the oil-coat is dry. and gnarled places or The use of the comb may be entirely dispensed with in black-walnut graining. sienna. be applied as soon as the stippled coat of water-color The veins are put in with a pencil on the fresh oil-coat. so as to show darker than the surround- ing surface. as best Keady-made grain- recommended and cheapest. is that there a mucli greater uniformity of tone in blackthis walnut than in either light or dark oak. A stippled coat of water-color. The oil-color is may dry. composed of Vandyke- brown and drop-black. burnt umber. AND GRAINING. Avith . orange chromeyellow.or over-grainer may be used for putting in the veins on straight work. Moldings and carved work must always be glazed. a view to it economy of time but to make good work with requires a practiced hand. singularly free from knots wood being spots. made of pure white-lead. A bit A of sponge is a useful article in all kinds of water- color graining and glazing. ing-colors are composed of Vandyke-brown. The top. it should be lightly rubbed with worn fine sand-paper. them in- When color.

. and an eight-inch kalsoflat side mine-brush for stippling. is For glazing. day by the japan or gold-size in the work to be finished without varnish. a blender. and softened with Let the ground-color be light enough to show the est light- specimens of wood. When a large surface is to be grained cheaply. employ a large paint-brush for rubbing in. the glazing- coat must be of oil graining-color. always better than beer as a thin- whenever first it will hold the color. be applied.BLACK-WALNUT GRAINING. 153 This must also be stippled. trusting to a greater depth of color to represent the darker pieces. and not the ends thereof. as beer has a bad effect on the coat of varnish. water ner. A job If the of black-walnut graining free use of is may be finished in one oil-coat. using the of the bristles.

is of prime im- portance. will probably remain for a long time unanswered. in the inte- rior finish of railroad-cars and of houses and domiciles. from whatever cause. whenever the wishes and disposition of the occupants may be in ac- cord with the saved-up money wherewith to pay the painter's bill. against painted imitations of the same. It has of late more and more come into use and carriages.CHAPTER XIX. A domicile constructed of soft-pine wood may be left for a time unpainted without any great detriment to comfort or to the health of the occupants. . with the great majority who have the bills to pay. Until within a few years there has been no demand for its painted imitations of this very useful and. beautiful wood. was not deemed expedient. and painting will be in order at any time subsequent to occupation. ASH GRAIKIKG. First cost. The latter-named fact has consequently created a demand for the painted imitation of this wood in cases where the use of the natural wood. in some of presentations. The question as to the economy of natural wood. of house-owners.

being cheaper and more oak. without becom- ing spoiled or damaged. Indeed. but the varnish would discolor the tints unless they should be quite dark. and plain colors. they were dapples excepting that the which give such an agreeable diversity to oak-wood are entirely wanting in ash. Ash may be imitated on the same ground-color as that all used for light oak. such as would be suitable for finishing the interior wood-work of a dwelling-house. properly performed. I55 of all the various styles of painting. who can not always distinguish between these two woods. and wipings. Plain colors could be as surely and well protected as grained work by coats of yarnish . the most economical. the same as written especially for this. undergoes the same preparation. Ash-wood. and the instructions given for lightif oak graining may be followed. and house-cleanings to which interior painting must necessarily be exposed. would not look if well. The work for ash graining has the same colored ground. will last an indefinite period. it more than any other woody growth. many not unaccustomed to familiarity with furniture and other joined work. because such work.ASH GRAINING. which. Graining or grained work is. It combing to show the veins and would seem that no further directions or instructions . is easily worked than frequently used as a substitute for the latter. and the same process of wiping out and grain. and stand the washings. nor be in accordance with good finished with a varnished surface. there are closely resembles. taste.

to fill up and varnish the same. and tlie exhibits a wonderfully diversified grain. now cars. for the reason that he will experience in great difficulty and spend a good deal of labor making that which he may obtain ready-made to his hand. There a sj^ecies of this wood called Hungarian ash. These knots.156 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. and the American ash varies so little in its grain and tone of color. and of knots in ash is to use it as an example for imitation. can be given as to the best method of proceeding to obtain a good imitation of this wood. that the workman is advised to procure a piece of ash with a planed surface. in common is use in the interior finish for passenger- This applied wholly in the shape of veneers. AND GRAINING. . with their acflash-lights. The occurrence not infrequent. The painter ready-made is advised not to attempt to if it make his own ash graining-color. same being In tone of beautifully color. . of be possible for him to obtain a can color. and in contrast the knots themselves are commonly very dark with the surrounding parts. it both in groundwork and grain. companying give to the tints and complication and bright all wood those beautiful diversities which ren- der this common is material worthy of imitation. The use of this wood is so common. and intricately curled and tinted. does not differ from the common American growth.

This chapter graining.CHAPTER XX. White-lead with yellow ochre give the best tint for little and a little orange-chrome will groundwork. and we will not quarrel even imitate spruce or hemlock with the man who would with grained work. The writer confesses himself at a loss to understand why any person should coarse his taste " desire or require the imitation of this . excepting the direction for making the ground and preparing the graining-color. will finish our direct instruction for oil- and little will necessarily be brief. and sickly-yellow-looking wood is but "every one to perhaps a good motto. The ground for chestnut is decidedly more yellow than it any which has been shown or described. Ready-made chestnut graining-color can be pro- . and to require a glazing of yellow to would seem make a really close imita- tion of the natural wood. and burnt umber with a very Van- dyke-brown and burnt sienna makes the best grainingcolor. from the fact that there is to be said on this that has not been already repeated under light and dark oak. CHESTi^UT GRAIKIKG.

AND GRAINING.158 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. black-walnut. or other woods which are worth imitating. and the use is advised in preference to making up This wood of the color is by the painter. Why do people require painted imitations of this very ordinary and plain-looking wood ? . The filled best study a piece of chestnut board. specimens executed by any class workman. the cost of painting in In view of the fact that the cost of imitating this cheap and common wood is as great as is imitation of oak. by wiping out. first- copy for the beginner. as and we can not therefore recommend. while it hard presents a greater degree of sameness and It should be imitated want the of variety. is and the use of coarse combs. the query still remains unanswered. after manner of oak-graining. We have never seen a grainer who took any particular pride in his ability to make a good imitation of this wood. its cured at the shops. planed and up and polished. generally of very coarse grain. being of so-called more rapid growth than any of the other woods.

PINE-WOOD ON" U:N'PAINTED SURFACES. more or may be required. into . and throw the same less. at the same time not being objectionable. of wliite glue. as To prepare the glue-size. new white pine gives ^s good a ground- color for light-oak graining as can be desired. and he therefore reasonably concUides that the same will be a novelty to the trade.CHAPTER KEW SYSTEM OF GRAIN"IKG XXI. and the oil- color applied directly to the ground. The and first work of this kind which ever came under the writer's notice was performed under his own supervision direction. for dark oak and black-walnut. of this The peculiarity new manner The tint of of graining is the application of the graining-colors directly to the unpainted pine-wood surface. The operation same manner as consists simply in giving to the work one of coat of glue-size. under the proposed mode of treatment. and applying the graining-color in the heretofore described under the title "Light-Oak Graining." In this method (referring to black-walnut) the stippled coat of distemper-color must be dispensed with. take a handful.

as wood will be. a clean pail or other vessel cover with cold water. and also strong enough to cover the knots and res- inous places. A little practice will make per- The than the is graining-color may have a greater proportion of oil recommended for graining on joainted surfaces. . and let boiling water. It is advised to . rub in and grain one panel or other piece at a time at least. when fresh. for the reason that the heavier the graining-coat. more or less absorbent. AND GRAINING. For black-walnut the should be stippled. The beginner will find it not difficult to trace the veins. stand overnight. ordinary black-walnut graining stippled coat and the veins put on the being used to soften. consistent and turpentine. oil As much graining-color. should be used with the proper tone of color for the light-oak parts. Next morning pour on apply a moderate heat for a few minutes. so that the varnish-coat will not remove the graining-color therefrom. Let this be of strength sufficient to bear out the graining-color long enough to permit the combing and taking out of the lights. the better body will there be for receiving the varnish-coat. the blender as before described.* until the operator shall have learned by experience color will *^bear it how long the out" without setting to that degree that will not comb and wipe. as thinned with boiled possible. as is first application of graining-color directed for the distemper-color in . . fect in this respect. and the whole will become thoroughly dissolved and homogeneous.IGO HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. notwithstanding the coating of glue.

harddrying. vised. the grain of which is that of white pine.GRAINING ON UNPAINTED PINE-WOOD SURFACES. advised. The system but as a is not offered as the or as a substitute for. will not chip off and show the lighter groundwork underneath the darker graining-color. which will 161 show plainly through the color. and the practice will be good. as the extra coats of varnish are ad- wearing quality of the job will more coat. cheap and ready mode of producing a smooth and durable surface in houses where white and light tints are not specially required. equivalent of. The with first coat being well dried. furniture-varnish. it enables the un- make a clean job at the least expenditure will of time and money. for the reason before It will given — to make a better body for the varnish-coat. the best grained work as ordinarily performed . as was the Oil is or distemper. and one which prove vastly more durable than the best job done in the ordinary way. than repay the cost of thq second It must not be supposed that work done but in this way will present the finished appearance of grained work done on three or four coats of paint skilled grainer to . Two be well to leave the work for a day or two before applying the varnish. and the glazing or shading coat first coat. being ingrained on the wood. which should be carriage. plies This apnot unlike not to black-walnut. may be either oil-color. should be rubbed lightly fine. for the reason that tracing the natural veins will familiarize him with the shapes and directions which the grain takes on in the growth of the timber. The . as in the ordinary way. worn sand-paper. because the color. and not quick.

and believe that it is many are slow to done on an unpainted surface of trial will cost common as.1G2 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. the color and varnish already applied will paint upon. AND GRAINING. make a good foundation to . among writer exhibits specimens of this style which pass experts as good jobs of grained work. white pine. a nothing. in case the result shall not prove satisfactory. In any event.

to kinds of graining —and oil. general disposition to look insignificant. the best produced by the use of water-colors. DISTEMPER-GRAIKING. rather . alcohol. The term '* distemper-graining" is imperfectly underto be a stood by most people who use it. close-grained woods.CHAPTER XXII. . however. glue-size. oil-graining being of date. satinwood. and there seems as largely. of paint- Its proper definition a method ing wherein some vehicle other than water or for thinning the pigments. such as beer. such mahogany. in distemper. upon it not wholly. all oil is used is Its application. to that work only —where nonetc. if is. water-proof thinning. is employed in place of varnish. all imitations of wood and marble were done comparatively recent is. or substances of like nature. effects of the hard. coarse-grained . The advantage (so to speak) of distemper-graining that no time need necessarily elapse between the putvarnish-coat. are than oil graining-colors while for the open. and rosewood. Formerly.. ting in of the work and the For certain kinds as maple.

104 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. AND GRAINING. . the oil-colors are decidedly preferable. There are soveral modes of procedure in distemper-graining. woods. as oak. all of which will be treated more or less fully in succeeding chapters. ash. and chestnut.

which does not belong to the natural wood when finished and polished. with the addition of burnt sienna and Vandyke-brown. Painted imitations of should always be executed in dis- temper or water-colors on a very smooth ground of almost white. very small. There are several modes of taking out the is The one recommended by means of the tool made . altogether the most beautiful' of what are it called the light-colored woods. Italian sienna. but it is Some grainers it not recommended. fine of this yery respectable native tree is. and the work must be rubbed in one panel or material. sinuous grain. because gives a sharp. The wood its close. gives the proper graining-color for The raw sienna. and penciled. harsh character. lights. with texture. but just turned toward a buff with the addition of the slightest quantity of Italian raw sienna. Raw maple. of course. piece at a time.CHAPTER XXIII. its delicate. soft-toned ground and shadings. forms the bulk of the The ground should be rubbed very smooth with The amount of graining-color required is fine sand-paper. use a white ground.

it was little T^orth. This. and 128. is a piece of woolen cloth. shown on page of the expressly for this work. is keep the pencil-points apart or separate. say broad- so folded as to present. AND GRAINING. but not in the direction of the tool —that is. This brings the work to (or top-) that point where the use of grainer. on the end of a somewhat sharp angle. sinuous motion from top to bottom of the panel. in order to wipe out the color as shown in the natural wood. like almost everything else obtained at cost. from left to right. The pipes. . and the sides of the its cutter are alternately raised and lowered in passage. When the writer was a boy. the blending or softening must be done transversely to the direction or path of the cutter. to take out the lights by rolling a to bottom. as may be. and to put in the bird's-eyes by dabbing the wet fingers held surface of the work with the four more or it. shown on page comes into use. but we are inclined to the little opinion that. will be seen. to say the least of was an expeditious mode of procedure. The work is then blended with the badger crosswise. and to produce good results requires a cunning hand. the custom was. and to draw the over-grainer with an undulating." as it the " piped maple over126. a form similar to the eyes seen in the wood. and there nothing to be done but to make the proper color for the over-grain. The ob- best tool for this purpose that has ever come under the servation of the writer cloth.166 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. in maple grainwet sponge from top ing. less loosely or in contact. to an imitation of maple is The putting in of the a somewhat delicate bird's-eyes operation. The tool is drawn over the work longitudinally the case panel or rail or stile. called a cutter.

fold the cloth over itself so as to upon is bring that portion of the folded edge which held in the fingers at right angles to the part held under the left . at a distance of about two inches from the right-hand end. which place will be readily found by consulting a piece of the blender is not used after to be the the natural wood. the writer will attempt to describe the operation. applied to a small quantity of color such as fancy The sharp end.BIRD'S-EYE MAPLE. which. and in panels only. about as large as the hand . when spread upon a board or to other flat surface. will retain enough form a minute. but not so easily made intelligible by a yerbal description. will imitate the eyes or dots in the natural wood. as well as or better than any other readily available means. What seems crosswise. and fold in the middle lengthwise . With not a few misgivings as to the success of the experiment. hand. in- complete circle or eye. Remember. bring the two edges together toward the body. on the shape of a flattened horn. leaving the fold away from the body . then. These eyes are not put in without regard to arrangement. Each eye has its proper place. forming at the right hand an imperfect tri- angle this will be continued until the cloth shall take called. shadow of the dark spot is the color which the cutter did not remove. the rails . and which was softened Bird's-eye maple is from left to right* exhibited mostly in shops and ofiices where showiness is required. so candies are wrapped in sometimes. 167 The operation of folding the cloth is extremely simple to the sight. the eyes are put in. Take a piece lay on the table of woolen cloth.

better.1G8 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. The tree wood is the well-known in the sugar-maj)le {Acer saccJiarinum). will The time probably come when this tree will possess a greater value for cabinet and joiner work than at present for the is crop of sugar which it yields. rosewood. . Its use con- fined mostly to panels for cabinet furniture and linings for drawers in the shape of veneers. so common more Korthern States.walnut. stiles and being either warm-toned black. AND GRAINING. The moldings may be cut which affords this in with scarlet ver- milion (true) before the finishing coat of varnish. or.

and substitution by black. and a professional grainer might not in the course of years be called on to do a piece of grained work in imitation of ma- hogany . Consequently.walnut. to imitate mahogany sucart. which may be best produced with extra-deep The graining-color made with burnt Italian sienna and a little Vandykebrown. cessfully was considered the highest reach of the grainer's of this For painted imitations is wood a bright ground required. a few years ago. which man can account Painted imitations also have gone out with the original. The mutations of fashion have again brought it to the front. orange chrome-yellow and royal red. is * This chapter was written some years ago. and from this time forth mahogany will be " the mode.* almost total disuse of this beautiful and serviceafor cabinet-work its wood and internal domestic architectis ure generally." and black-walnut must take a back seat. what we have said about mahogany graining has a double valufe. when this beautiful wood was almost forgotten as a material out of which to construct household furniture.CHAPTER XXIV. The grain is put in with various means and tools. whereas. and must remain one no of those freaks or caprices of fashion for. MAHOGAKY The ble GRAINII^G. for the reason that imitations of the favorite wood will again be in demand. I .

170 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. Some use vermilion or orange . as shown on page 128.or over-grainer. as in its application to oak. . and the proper use of it readily comes with practice. making ground for mahogany but our opinion is. the grain will necesat the side commence and terminate on the opposite mineral for side at the same height or grainers level. and brought down on course. broken or separated in comb-like teeth. be distinct. that the colors recommended are sufficiently bright. with a slightly waving motion. as the result would be to mislead rather than to elucidate. is The top. we refrain. The fine lines which are put in with the top-grainer do not. pro- ceed in straight or nearly straight lines from top to bottom. but commence at the bottom on the left-hand side of the crotch. . and that the brighter-colored pigments are not necessary or advisable. at a pretty sharp angle. such as used in oak graining. a most important tool in mahogany graining. as in oak panels. how- ever. but must be kept as much as pos- sible in its natural or dry state. the right-hand side and terminated at the bottom or sides of the panel. is In doors and other paneled work what known as crotch- work is generally displayed. of the bottom and terminate there but as the graining sarily continued up the panel. workmen have devised for this We could tell of a dozen others. AND GRAINING. and for this purpose is advised as the best of all the vari- ous methods which ingenious purpose. tlie according to kind or variety of the wood to be imitated. the use of this tool In this the lights are taken out with the cutter. but. It must not. at is The first lines will commence. to the center of the crotch. and are carried.

any more than ors. as in all kinds of painted imitations of natural woods. and then proceeding again. leaving as much varnish on the surface as will remain there without ^ running.MAHOGANY The rails GRAINIXG. This may be a very thin coat. with thin glazing-color and stipple with the blender. the badger-blender plays a it. 171 and stiles in doors and paneled it work may be its grained with the blender by drawing ing-color. _ . just enough to hold the distemper. it Graining can not be done without can be done wii^put a paint-brush or col- It is the principal and mosf^luable means to produce it. panel by panel. The finishing varnish-coat should be what the trade denominates as "hard-drying coach-body. most importantipart. softening the grain." and should be flowed on with a thick badger-hair varnish-brush. the varnish-coat first is next in order. In this. bringing to a full stop. in the work. for the rea- son that mahogany has more depth and transparency. is When this varnish-coat sufficiently dry—which should be in one day —the work Rub is ready for glazing. The glazing-coat in mahogany graining seems more dispensable than in imitating the other woods. as may seem in- necessary. over the fresh grainprogress either continuously or by arresting it every three or four inches. effects which are almost or quite unattainable without is. which will be done with the same color as was used for putting in the grain in the first coat. Supposing the graining distemper-color —that the application of —to be finished and dry. and the varnish should be what coach-painters call quick ruhhlng.

The . it is true. but the true quick- The surface should be very smooth. shall be shaped in rosewood. but their surroundings are usually such as to put grained question.CHAPTER XXV. This brings the surface to a proper condition for receiving the grain. and previous to putting in the grain there should be a glazing of English crimson-lake applied to the ground. mainly from the fact that such articles as would be painted in imitation of it are generally not are fabricated out of the natural wood. satis- factory or desirable. EOSEWOOD GRAINING. This will be done with black. as a rule. work entirely out of the The proper ground silver product. for rosewood is crimson vermilion . and the arbitrary dictates of that capricious yet almost unquestioned power command that and cer- tain articles of furniture. Rosewood doors not uncommon. This costly and beautiful wood yet holds its place in the fashionable world. Painted imitations of rosewood are not. not the so-called American yermilion. but not lampblack. for certain times places.

and. as this one of the most fugitive of all colors. will not give what is required for the work in question. especially for out-door work. not at the ordinary places where ground paints are sold. This penciling-coat will be blended as fast as put in with the badger. required for this work is The black There is is to common lamp- black what the latter-named article to lead-color. a black used by coach-makers which comes from the carbonizing of pure ivory.ROSEWOOD GRAINING. the wood itself now mostly used for such articles of furniture as are not suitable for imitating with painted work. Eosewood imitations being are not common. be very thin. ments of the grainer must be reduced with raw This black of is the proper material for putting in the grain an imitation of rosewood. It will be found ground in quick-drying and for the requirelinseed-oil. . when thor- oughly dry. gray tone of tlie 173 common carbon. its use is not advised. vehicles. the whole surface will be glazed with a very thin coat of the same black as was used for the veined work. and the glazing process will be precisely the same as recommended for black-walnut and oak. may be obtained by the grainer. but at some dealer's who trades in coach-makers' goods. which comes from the destructive distillation of fatty substances. This is the only black which has no rival It but that darkness which has never known a ray of light. but. Rose-pink first is sometimes used in place of lake far the is glazing-coat. The glazing-coat of black —the black being a body-color will. of course.

CHAPTER XXVI.
SATINWOOD.

This
on a high

is

an East-Indian wood of

fine grain,

and takes

polish.

It is displayed

mostly in panel-work, and

is

imitated on

a ground of the same tint as that used for bird's-eye maple.

The

graining-color

is

the same also as that used in grainviz.,

ing the last-named wood,

raw

Italian sienna with a

very small quantity of burnt sienna and Vandyke-brown.

The

difference in the painted imitations of these

woods

is

simply in the manner of putting in the grain.

The graining

is

done wholly in distemper, and the Kghts

are taken out with the cutter, as

shown on page

128,

and

the directions as to putting in the top grain, given in the

chapter on "
to the

Mahogany Graining,"
little

are entirely applicable

work
is

in question.

There

very

demand
wood

for satinwood in this coun-

try, either in the natural

or in the painted imitations

of the same.

While

it

is

important to cultivate a bold, free hand
must, not be forgotten that a close imita-

in graining,

it

SATIN wo 01).
tion of natural

175

wood

is

the result of careful manipulation,
taste.

a practiced, eye,

and good

No man

can perform a

good

job,

in imitating colored

and fancy woods, with a
grained door
is

whitewash-brush dipped in color, and get over a half-acre
of

surface

in

eight hours.

A

may
work

be a
of art

"thing of bemity,'^

as certainly as

the finest

which adorns the walls

of a picture-gallery.

The

itinerant

picture-vender gladly accepts a few dollars for his pair of
thirty-by-forty-inch elegant landscapes,
gilt frames.

in

broad Dutch
is

This sum, multiplied by hundreds,
artist,

freely

paid for the work of some famous
of

the whole surface

which might almost be covered with a man's two hands.
door-side

A

may

be grained for a quarter of a dollar, or

twenty-five dollars

may

be expended, in labor alone, on the
is

same

surface.

In either case the purchaser

supposed to

receive

no more than an equivalent for

his

money.
easily

In

graining, the most skillful
rapidly, the cheapest

workman can perform,

and

and plainest kind of work required,

and

it is

a matter of necessity that the professional grainer

shall be able to

adapt his hand to any style of work which

may

be required.

CHAPTER

XXVII.

BLACK-WALNUT IN DISTEMPER.
This mode
of graining black-walnut
is is

recommended
and cheaply,
It is

when

a large surface
little

to be painted quickly

and with
which

regard to the closeness of imitation.

accomplished in various ways and by various means, some
of

—those deemed most useful—will

be hereafter de-

scribed.
First, the

ground, similar in tone and character to that

used in oil-graining,
coat of water-color,

Chapter XVIII, will be stippled on a

made

of burnt sienna

and Vandyke-

brown
that

;

but the coat and color both must be lighter than
in oil-graining.

recommended
dry,

Upon

this stippled coat,

when

may

be put in the veins and lines with a sable

pencil or with the top-grainer, as described in oil black-

walnut graining.

This, of course, requires no time before

the varnish-coat, which must be, supposing the intention be
to glaze over the varnish, quite thin.

When

dry, the glaz-

ing coat of water-color must be applied in precisely the same

manner

as

shown on page

152,

under the head of

''

Black-

Walnut Graining in Oil."

BLACK-WALNUT IX DISTEMPER.
It
is

I77
ex-

common,

in

work which does not present any

tended surfaces, such as panels
sists in

—or

rail-work,

which con-

moldings and narrow

flat pieces, as
first

door and window

frames, and cornices

—to give

a stippled coat of oil-color,

and when dry

to

put on oyer this a coat of distemper-color
less

and grain with the blender, drawing the same more or
in right lines lengthwise of the work,
suit the taste or fancy.

and softening,
is

as

may

This mode

recommended when

the surfaces do not afford any chance for a display of artistic labor or skill.

When

a large, extended surface of neiu

wood

is

to be
is

pointed in imitation of black- walnut, and the result

to

be accomplished with the least expenditure of time and
material,

we recommend the following
work a coat
it

course of jDrocedure

:

First give the
tity of

of glue-size, having a small quan;

whiting mixed with

on

this,

when

dry, a coat of

ground-color made with pure white-lead, colored with gold-

en ochre and a

little

ivory-black, to produce a
oil,

warm

drab

;

thin almost entirely with boiled

and,

when thoroughly
an eight-inch

dry, apply with a largest-size paint-brush, or

kalsomine-brush, a coat of distemper graining-color, mixed
as follows
:

Vandyke-brown and burnt umber ground

in

water, added to an equal quantity of smooth flour-paste.

Thin

this

with water to a proper consistency, and apply as

before said.
as
is

For the graining, use a handled duster, such
for

common
it

removing the dust from a painted

floor

by means

of a dust-pan.

Put the

color on a large surface

at a time, as

will not dry rapidly,

and go over

it

straight
ai

or diagonally with the bristles

composing the duster,

178

HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING, AND GRAINING.
The
varnish-coat over this needs be

stipple with the same.

heavy, and of elastic material, to insure durability.

This

style of painting results in a clean, respectable-looking job,

durable

if

properly done, and quite as cheap as ordinary

two-coat work of plain painting.

best elucidate to the average prehension the results mode of proceeding to accomplish the best with the least expenditure of means. This oil- which bears out about is much an ordinary second a rubbing of sand- coat. thinned with clear. Ordin'ARILY there are no conditions or requirements where the painter or grainer the is called upon to depart from now almost universally adopted custom of graining oak . perhaps. consequently. boiled coat. when . will. This is followed by the coat of ground-color —a light buff as made as of pure lead and oil. golden ochre. every grainer should acquire a knowledge of the process. allowed to stand two davs. in oil-colors but there may be occasions where a job of oak graining must be done in distemper. score of economy and saving of A description of the process. First in order. the size new wood receives a coat of glue- mixed with common whiting. as now in actual operation as a in one of the large buildings used by the writer mancom- ufactory. It is recommended only on the time in the operation. IN" LIGHT-OAK GKAINING DISTEMPER.CHAPTER XXVIII.

into condition for tlie distemper graining- For this. as in oil-graining. to give a oil still In case it may be deemed desirable greater variety to the work. and to a a door. more than ordinary plain painting. this work should receive a heavy flow- ing coat of elastic varnish. it paper brings color. and some portion will be left as stippled by the whitewash-brush. whatever may be required to do the work mix to suit the taste. little. a glazing-coat of graining-color may be given to every other board formrail ing a wall. as to tone of . take of raw sienna. AND GRAINING. This style of painting costs but it is. if any. while desirable is much more and pleasing is to the eye —that the general appearance altogether preferable to plain colors. and Vandyke-brown ground in water. or ceiling. and add to the mixture an equal quantity of smooth flour-paste. or stile of When dry. burnt sienna. or bulkhead. apply with a largest-size paint-brush.180 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. color. thin with water to a proper consistency for' application. some of the work will be combed. and comb To give variety. .

last longer. spoil the best in such a and leave the surface condition that all the labor expended will be worse than is thrown away. YARK^ISHIKG. wash better. less discretion in the way of true Work that is worth varnishing at It will it all. and whether be inside or outside work. would hardly evince economy. such as is used on furniture^ not suited to varnishing painted sur- faces. Closing the seams of a costly garment with unsound thread. hard varnish. is worth a good coat of that article. in a short of cheap varnish possible job of graining. the . at whatever cost of trouble and money. belief seems almost beyond that a householder should secure. look better. especially if the It work he exposed to the toeather. or covering an expensive house with a paper roof. if it A coat —or a dear varnish.CHAPTER XXIX. be not suited to time. The shabbiest economy ever practiced in painting is the use of cheap varnish in finishing any job where a coat of varnish is required. Quich-drying. this particular work— may.

To effect this. requires. There is no good reason why grained doors should not and they may be made as beautiful last without repainting as long as an oil-painting or other work of art. and attractive as the pictures which adorn the walls. in the and practice a left-handed economy varnish.182 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. while the one will wear ten times as long as the other. purchase of What would would expend be thought of a carriage-painter who fifty days' labor. would not be more than thirty or forty cents. on the pretense of economy It must be remembered that the durability of a job of grained work depends wholly on the varnishing. put upon the painted surface to protect and difference in cost between the best varnish is The and the worst. in painting a coach. for a job of grained work. but it is within . much better Many house-painters are at fault in this matter. services of a first-rate artist to do a particular job of grain- ing. knowledge. and a practiced hand . The owner would pay not for the poorest varnish than three dollars a gallon —that most unfit for the purpose while the best ought not to cost over six dollars a gallon. and give a finish. less but a trifle. It is quite within the power of a good workman to so finish a grained door that it shall remain in perfect preservation for twenty years or more. AND GRAINING. and evince no anxiety is as to the character of the var- nish which preserve it. skill. and the requisite material. and finish the same with a coat of ? doubtful varnish. of course. The difference in first cost between the best and the worst varnish for coating both sides of a large door. the best talent.

his example and processes are worthy partial adoption of the of imitation." and the last. incompatible with beauty of finish is and the coach-painter of these supposed to have reached the maximum two most desirable qualities in combination. varnish should be applied as will remain on the out running. or finishing coat. but of the best re- sults that are possible with imitations of colored or fancy Nothing in is spared in coach-painting which can or may any degree conduce to the durability of the work. coach-body varnish. The . or any other work. should be hard-drying. and the finishing coat should be flowed on with a flat. after standing long become sufficiently hard. to The first coat should. It will be No novice should attempt are not remembered that we now treating the question of common grained work. Through a modes and processes common durable than they coach-painting. insufficient compensation. reach of every good workman.VARNISHING. should be looked upon as coats. done under the whip and spur of woods. should be put on. at least. So. coach-work more beautiful than house-painting. so far as they may in be applicable to the work of house-painting. As much work withpractice. thick. the first being what known m coachenough painting as ''quick leveling or rubbing varnish. finished after one coat of varnish. in fact. This operation requires skill and with an excellent judgment. Ig3 job of grained No good Two is work. the painted surfaces inside our domiciles may as be rendered as is much more now are. not . be rubbed with powdered pumice-stone. badger or fitch flowing-brush. it.

the writer would for of say. may seem but it assertion startling to the average honse-painter's is intelligence. to put as much on there is the work The more varnish smooth and free on the" surface. how much can be put upon and made to stay there. Varnish should not and must not be rubbed out under the brush. use good work the as will best varnish you can get. In concluding this chapter. House-painters should learn the art of varnishing from coach-painters. The object should be. a fact. The two processes are is In varnishing. is rubbed out. the object as will stay there. not . how can the surface be coated with it but. as paint entirely different. supposing it to be from runs. the little better. AND GRAINING. nevertheless. . and as mucli it remain on the work without running.184 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTma. that not one house-painter in a hundred has any knowledge of the proper use and application of varnish.

would serve to elucidate the subject. The aim has been detail to describe as. belonging to such process. simply its through such medium.CHAPTER XXX. these difficulties would be slow . the processes with as much and particularity in the opinion of the writer. To teach. is it as not to make seem child- a task which one comprehending to undertake. by means of written words. can not be appreciated by one who has not made the attempt. is comparatively easy but to make clear to the comprehension of the novice. however simple. a process which depends for successful execution almost entirely upon the it eye. without the use of the technical vo- cabulary belonging thereto. The difficulty of teaching any art or sci- ence. and not befog the learner with a confusing multiplicity of directions. a process where both teacher and learner are familiar with* the technical terms naturally and properly . There is much and that might be said in a general way on the subject of graining which can not find room in a work of this scope extent. GENERAL REMARKS. and at the same time so to phrase ish to the initiated.

we would again call attention to the fact that the object has been so to present this matter that one. much more . is commonly painted in imitation of some of ^ the lighter hard woods. the object being to turn off the job as quick- . no attempt made at putting in fine work. struction in these pages. is A very large proportion of what called graining is finished with one coat of color to the groundwork and one coat of varnish. AND GRAINING. two varnish-coats are the excep- tion rather than the rule. or even a majority of all is wrought out the various processes heretofore described. not so much on the score of ap- pearance as for cleanliness and economy. and varnished without glazing but one must not expect to obtain the best results through so simple a process. face is A varnished surwell. would be enabled to start from the right point and proceed in the proper direction. and this will be found true in graining. What is worth having is worth working for as in . Indeed. and places of like nature. Witli an apology for the repetition. The through reader will hardly grained work. upon the effort The measure of success which will wait can be known only to those who seek income to the conclusion that all it. unacquainted even Avith the simi^le names of the tools and materials usually employed. Much of the black. factories.walnut oil- graining color is done without the stippled coat of distemper.186 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. The interior wood-work in mills. easily kept clean than a surface of ordi- nary paint but varnished plain colors do not look is Under such circumstances. any of the higher branches of the art of painting.

who soon become expert in the preliminary process etc. of rubbing in. who have a slovenly habit of not cleaning up the ends and clothes. finish. should be taken to carry the work closely and cleanly in door-frames down and base-boards . City grainers the trade" —those who call themselves "grainers to —do not usually.GENERAL REMARKS. uneven surface. in large jobs. They remind us of men who wear good but who Care neglect to brush their hats and black their shoes. of a smooth. clean work. and the coat should The succeeding coats should be as . in the very best possible school for acquiring a thor- ough knowledge of the art. hard surface to grain The importance upon can not be over-estimated. rough places will not part an undue proportion the attempt is of color. New pine wood-work. There are some otherwise very good grainers. which is to be finished in imitation of first any of the hard woods. of their occu- and who are. but employ one combing.. and with it when made to wipe out the lights. ly as possible. to the contact line with their resting-places as also to cut closely and wipe cleanly along the joints and lines in paneled work. for the reason that the The best workman will retain in the world can not do good work on a rough. should always be coated with a color first darker than the intended be well sand-papered. A well sand- papered surface and finely ground colors are indispensable to good. corners. **rub in" the or work themselves. more boys. from the nature pation. 187 with a view to neatness and general uni- formity.

etc. will. it being understood that who makes the lowest figures will ''get the shall require Suppose the house. after repainting. of going to the upholsterers in New York it to obtain estimates of cost. such as carpets. carpets. be liable to chip in the nature of and. new would any but a all lunatic think. AND GRAINING. while exhibiting a profuse liberality in most other house decorations and embellishetc. the liability of is the finished surface to accidental injury ened." may be done. dark with a view. ordinarily practice a niggardly economy in respect to the painting of their houses. the general is appearance of the work little defaced.. furniture. to the proper ground-tint for whatever kind of imitate. with the request that they come over and view premises preparatory to furnishing estimates as to how cheaply the work th€ painter job. it. ments. as possible.188 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. An owner having decided upon the repainting of his domicile. with a view of letting out the work to the concern which would promise to do for the least sum of money ? There is as . of course. writer has been at a loss to The comprehend why men. If the color underneath be dark. as a rule. hangings. hangings. very much it less- As the varnish becomes in time it is off. under the circumstances. bringing the reveal the under- graining-color and ground-color with neath coats. under the accidental blows which things subjected to. brittle. furniture. compared with what it would be supposing the priming-coats were white. seems naturally impressed with the idea that the proper thing to do is to call upon all the " trade " far and his near. wood it is proposed to By such a course of procedure.

as a rule. and cheap tilings are. — graining particularly — as in furniture and up- A grainer may paint a side of a door with an expenditure of ten cents' worth of labor. not to him who can teach. these facts. the be- ginner .aENERAL REMARKS. in house- painting holstery. or he ten dollars' worth of labor on the same surface finish it . should expect to receive for his money more than its worth . it seems a little unreasonable that a proprietor. in the 189 way of quahty and kind. True. but to the learner. having chosen the cheapest thing because the grained-work varnish. the writer knows from the closest observation and an every-day expe- rience of nearly forty years. the requisite means and materials but the perceptive fac- . the dearest in the end. is should find fault spoiled by the cracking of the and that the blinds fade almost before the painter turns his back on his completed job. offered. or with varnish which costs six dollars per gallon. not to the experienced and practiced workman. the hand must be educated. this is That especially true of paints and painting. The reader is earnestly requested not to lose sight of the important fact that these words are directed. but to . much latitude. No person. may bestow and he may In view of with varnish that costs him one dollar a gallon. even in having his house painted. and the intellectual faculties must possess a knowledge . because of the fact of how little can be taught by printed instructions in an operation which de- pends for its successful execution almost entirely upon the of perceptive faculties. him who is desir- ous of receiving instruction and the writer's task has not been a thankful one.

190 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. but relatively lighter or from the fact that the work may be made less or darker by the application of color. more of the graining- Nevertheless. The so tint of the groundwork is important. The best color will prove the cheapest. now almost everywhere. as a The cost of material for graining is but a trifle. obtainable These are at hand. to it is better. and will cost less in . It will be safe to assume that the graining-color for one side of a door will cost not more than a cent. cheap adulterated paints. match the wood which like all intended to Cheap graining-colors. of the learner the importance attempting this work only with good and proper ma- As before said. pound of the best retail for and finest color in market may be purchased at about twenty-five cents. the first great difficulty in the way of the painter who would become a grainer has been obvi- ated by means of ready-made graining-colors. and this quantity would be sufficient to cover from thirty to forty doors. time and trouble. are simply worthless. but because the tone it is of color will best imitate. have the ground right to start with materials for and best we have given the proper making the . Once more we would impress upon the mind sity of terials. must be consulted as to the success or failure tell ulties alone of the work. and when not or in the immediate neighborhood. The eye only can whether or not the work is a creditable imitation of the wood which the workand even neces- man has attempted to copy. not only because of the greater surface it will spread over. AND GRAINING. may be ordered from the manufacturer at the additional cost only of expresscharges.

but in tone of color. while there should be no violent contrasts. while the other painfully suggestive of a failure to perskill of form a task which the the workman was not equal . notwithstanding the general uniformity. Other widths will show a brown. ayerage ground for the various woods. hard. the least is a dead level of uni- formity. 191 Referring again to the groundwork. just known among painters as so much oil should be used If as will give this gloss. both in grain and shade. more than the necesindispensable with a sary quantity of oil be used. The browner tones can be readily produced by the application of a thicker coat of the graining-color. even surface good job of graining. They differ not only in grain and figure. and no more. let us say that the surface should not be flat. as all these variations shown it in the painted imitations upon a uniform ground. but should present what is an egg-shell gloss — that is. Every person who has studiously observed natural woods need not be told that no two widths in a wainscoting of narrow oak boards are precisely alike. are to be The grain also Now. in the plain portion. as of umber. No two adjoining boards in a wainscot should be just alike.GENERAL REiMARKS. the paint will not rub smoothly. follows that the tone of this ground must be yellow enough to display the yellowest samples which the natural wood presents. Some is of the boards will show a tone of color in which yellow decidedly prominent. whereby the yellow groundwork maybe concealed. and a smooth. particularly if is the lights be taken out with the horn tool heretofore described. The first is is only monotonous and unattractive. Of the two evils. presents a variety of colors.

as a panel should be put in with reference to its corresponding companion. the two panels. and should be very similar in both color and There must also be a general likeness in all the panels and the same character be presented on of work. No cabinet-maker would throw together the to different pieces which go make up a door or a piece of cabinet-work. particularly of light oak. Grained doors. grain. As a rule. condemn arrangement as unnatural indispensable it is but every grainer knows how to insure a workmanlike job. the middle rail and stiles generally being selected for the most elaborate figuring. its The work on . this methodical Inconsiderate persons may rashly . HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. ness Such carelessin- would result in violent contrasts and disagreeable congruities. side by side.192 to. and the same tone of color should rails The and stiles of the door will give sufficient opportunity for a display of the various kinds of grain and tones of color. supposing them to be natural wood. say with straight combthe ing and in dapples.one. AND GRAINING. all. should be grained with special reference to each other. that is. without regard to selection. and not with the case upper or lower may be . which and similar in appearance. when is the panels of a door are grained moderately plain. a greater show of work rails made on and stiles. "With the greatest variety there first-class joiner or must be a certain uniformity. as if sent corresponding panels sawed from the same log. should presimilarly grained. the top and bot- tom rails being generally plain and lighter than the outer are usually heavy stiles. The advantage which is the imitator has over : the worker in natural woods this while the worker in .

the grainer may give a " counterfeit presentment " of such sur- selections as best comport and harmonize with the roundings . best The aim of the writer. the said color being one of the most useful and indispensable articles in the paint-shop. and frequently if more costly. while for chestnut a is decidedly yellowish tone wanted. which can be and should be obtained. than the same work would be made of the natural wood. to make plain. but the genuine article. for the reason that there —rather is in the other for a too a remedy light ground. even at some cost and trouble. is pure raw Italian sienna. ash. the smallest quantity is required. of it course. a piece of grained is wood in the highest style of the art more beautiful. tinted with pure white-lead . has been to simplify much as possible . moreover. and chestnut. and. not to darken and confuse —the object being to save the work- man all unnecessary trouble and expense. not the so-called sienna which is sold by most paint-dealers under that name. in giving suggestions mode of producing the proper tints and as to the tones for groundwork the thing as for the various woods.GENERAL REMARKS. in the application of a greater quantity of . Care should be taken not to make the grounds too dark extreme. For oak more of the sienna will be required. darker. For maple-ground. the real is 193 restricted to such varieties as his stock presents. maple. The best and cheapest and most convenient simple material for making grounds for light oak. the ground should be but little For light ash. being necessary only to change the white to the faintest suggestion of straw-color.

perhaps. And now. not to the expert. for black-walnut may be the same as for light oak. These instructions being offered. observed. but to the uninitiated. will fail to find something instruc- we bid adieu to this subject. however. to simplify the matter to the last possible degree. as also in the glazing-coat while a ground too dark can not be made lighter. as was recom- mended in the case of the raw The domes- tic so-called siennas will not prove substitutes for the gen- uine Italian pigments. burnt ground Italian sienna with white will produce a far better than any other single color. The ground black. with the addition of a little burnt sienna and No two professed grainers. and everything which in our view can tend to plain to the novice the art of imitating woods with colored pigments. we do not propose to run counter to any man's prejudices. . For dark oak. our object being. make having written all that seems important to the learner. The same caution must be Italian sienna. AND GRAINING. each one having some predilection for a particular tone. in obtaining this color. . and turn to fresh fields. as aforesaid. will agree as to the exact tint of color for groundwork. with an apology for any shortcomings. and a hope that no one tive in these pages.194 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. graining-color.

which a perfect job in the way of carriage-painting. Coach-painters can liardly be supposed to be more unanimous than professors of the healing art. The it writer does not belong to that class which takes is for granted that a thing good because it is new . of proceeding to the many ways same ob- jective point. particularly when the latter-named fra- ternity are leagued by all sorts of oaths affiliate and bonds not to or hold consultation with a school of medicine to kill or cure which proposes by some irregular method. nor any particular theory or mode is of procedure includes all that is good and avoids all which bad. HOW There mode are TO PAINT A CARKIAGE.CHAPTER XXXI. nor to those who who cling to a time-honored custom simply for is the reason that the same to those believe that sanctioned by long use . and doctors even will disagree as to the proper of treating the same symptoms. than we propose in every respect No doubt some will see a better road is to travel to reach the same point. The prejudices of craftsmen are difficult to meet and .

As well might one expect the ear to harmonious combinations of sounds by a treatise on musical composition. as to teach the art of painting by mere words. it may be asserted. but the second is in his day and generation. rule. without fear of contraciviliza- diction. and becomes an innovator because of the charms and excitements of novelty. tion and refinement which are more which com- bine more fully the useful and the beautiful. if properly heeded and carried into may lead to the correction of errors which exist because of the want of to educate proper instructions. "Without attempting to trace the progress of improve- ment in vehicular construction. practice. it and dogmatically best. luxurious and comfortable carriages and country man- which are turned out from ufactories. first-class city To tions paint a carriage in the highest style of the art re- quires a judgment matured. pronounces other. simply because has never tried any and he hates innovation. Another readily adopts or tries all suggested improvements. the first will As a useful win in the race . Yet. In nothing more than this true that practice alone makes perfect. that there are few things in our advanced attractive. an eye contrasts. than the gracefully modeled. AND GRAINING. to appreciate combina- and and a hand cunning and skillful to is it execute and perform. One clings to a system lie hard to overcome. from the rude log-wheel and elegant vehicles of carts of the ancients to the graceful the present day. while the finished workman needs no . tions are valuable only as hints Written rules and direc- and suggestions which.196 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING.

many tlirougliout our country. there are the. Of the new and shorter method we shall treat hereafter.HOW ing remote from fess TO FAINT A CARRIAGE. art of carriage-painting who pro- and practice the without the oj^portunity of perfecting themselves in the higher branches of the profession. . In the hope that to such our directions may prove of practical benefit. I97 written rules. liv- great centers of population. we give the mode of pro- ceeding in the old method of carriage-painting.

It will not be denied that whatever material adheres most tenaciously to the wood. second. The Old Way of Pamting a Neto Carriage. PREPAKATION OF THE SURFACE. as the durability of the job depends in no small degree on the soundness of the initiatory proceedings. is whether it be white-lead and raw oil. boiled oil. for the body. which best resists the changes of temperature. and enough turpentine to make the paint work easily.CHAPTER XXXII. or any other substance. and wear and tear. For the first or priming coat. or wood-filling. As two used the priming or first coating of the new wood initi- ates the operation. drier. adding a few (say two or three) spoonfuls of japan for &. how to apply And these are impor- tant questions. the best. as to what it. : first. dryness and dampness. Apply an even coat of this paint with an ordinary bristle paint- . shall be the material and. or japan. thin a small quantity of ground white-lead with raw linseed-oil. that simple process requires a word or at the start .

allow little the putty to stand a above the surrounding parts the holes should be more than full to allow for any possible shrinking. and carriage-part. and ground through the Thin to proper consistency with turpentine. oil. Let the body stand three days at the end of which apply the second lead-coat. made thus White-lead three parts. chinks. and corners of the body. taking care to work the color down smoothly. and imperfections in the wood with hard : putty. dry lead in three . 199 brush. the carriage-part being meanwhile in the blacksmith's shop undergoing the process of ironing. superfluous material from the . Whiting one part. Wet with a mixture of Linseed-oil two two parts. crevices. taking care to work the color well into the nailheads. and japan. equal parts. and apply with an evenly-worn brush. must be filled with soft putty. made of white-lead wet with equal parts of varnish knife. After this. After the body has stood for four days for dry- ing. This coat should stand four days. all the holes. fill for drying and hardening.PREPARATION OF THE SURFACE. mix the color for the second coat as follows : Dry white-lead. All open-grained wood. When that is. using a square-pointed putty. Care must be taken to all fill all the pores of the wood and thoroughly remove surface. filling the screw-heads and other hollows. parts. as ash. Varnish Japan or gold-size one part. wheels. mixed. mixed stiff in japan and raw mill. crevices.

We can sug- gest no better mode of mixing rough-stuff than the fol- lowing. the application of which should be dry lead. whether rough-stuff. Dry white-lead Wet with a mixture of Varnish two parts. and again the next day the fourth as the third coat which should be mixed the same without finely oil. oil should be may is. which should be mixed in first coat. one part.200 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. parts japan mix stiff. viz. be applied. Japan Oil one part. reduce with tur- pentine. if not pressed for time) the body is ready for rough-stuff. that The rough-stuff mill. of course. English filling two two parts. Observe that care should be it taken to spread every coat evenly. one part. or color. one half the quantity of oil used in the The following day the third coat. This should be allowed two days for hardening before the application of the second coat. stiff Gold-size Make into a paste. as should. be lead. AND GRAINING. and apply as before. coat. parts. be ground through the should all the other mixtures into which dry lead enters as one of the compo- nent parts. in which no used. and one part oil . The last coat of rough-stuff should be followed . wet with four parts japan and one part oil. and reduce with turpentine to a proper consistency for spreading with a well-worn brush. This should stand three days before the third and last lead-coat. After two days (four is better.

hours. using the water-tool for all corners and for places where the particles removed from the surface by the action of the pumice-stone are apt to collect. as great care This should be done by an is required to prevent the pumice-stone from cutting through the successive coats of paint to the wood. because. in equal parts of japan and raw oil. The lump of pumice-stone should be to pre- kept well filed. dust off as down thoroughly every through the mill and apply lead-coat mixed : follows. While the carriage is hardening. reduced with turpentine. and plenty of water should be used vent the pores of the stone from becoming clogged with the paint. and ground finely Dry white-lead. the pores of the wood will remain unfilled. guide-coat and. which should stand two or three days to dry. places axles. the paint be too thin.PREPARATION OF THE SURFACE. the body should be washed off with clean. experienced hand. 2 sand-paper. The body may now go to the smith's to be hung all up. The painting process should now be resumed by prim- ing the iron-work. mixed in Japan and turpentine. put on bands. if too thick. 201 by the guide-coat of Frencli yellow ochre. being completed. the wood. it can not be spread evenly.worker should smooth up where the beds may project over the etc. cut part with No. cold water. and The body may now be left to dry for twentj^-four work resumed on the carriage-part. First. the scouring of the body may be proceeded with. This process should be continued until none of the is left. That done. working the paint well into the wood. . Judgment if is re- quired in the application of this coat. Apply with bristle paint-brush. and.

which has. and the body It is us. have brought the surface to the best possible condition for receiving the first coat of color. is because for a scratch or indentation there to no remedy but go half-way back and begin again. will now be understood that the successive coats of paint. This coat should stand at least four da3^s for hardening but in the mean time faces of spokes. because fall any loose particles not re- moved will crumble and away after the carriage has been for a time in use. This surface. that being . will be ready for color. seems to unnecessary custom of going over the work again with is what It called the surface lead-coat. it proposed to dispense with the old and. it would be well the flat to soft-putty the rims. using the filling well into a square-bladed putty-knife.202 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. taking care not to allow any to re- main on the surface. and all surfaces of the carriage- Putty for this work should be made of dry whitewet with equal parts of oil. Work the grain of the wood. and varnish. Particular pains . work is resumed on that by going lightly over the whole surface with the very finest sand-paper used for such work. AND GRAINING. with the labor of rubbing and smoothing. been gained by the expenditure of so it should be the constant effort of much time and labor. lead. It is proposed to finish this job in black. the same must be stopped with quick putty. japan. part. must be taken main to clean out all the corners and. should any imperfection be discovered. Returning again to the body-part. any holes or crevices reunfilled. the workman to preserve.

like black any machinery whereby hard pigon which their value and good and some of the lakes could be reduced mainly depend.PREPARATION OF THE SURFACE. The ordinary appliances and means for grinding colors in the paint-shop are not equal to the task of grinding black to that degree of fineness which is essential to produce the best effects in finished black-work. Asking pardon for and taking for granted that there are at hand ground colors for coachpainters' use. and that the body which was left ready for color is is to be finished in the best style. and comes and manageable that were incor- porates at once with the thinning. Nor has ments there been. until a recent invention. without adding so to that impali3able fineness working qualities much to the cost as to entirely. Black. the most 203 all common as well as the most important of It does the colors used in the carriage-shop. either in this country or abroad. not finely ground. Black ground by means of finer this improved machinery it will be found than a few years since so soft was thought possible to reduce it any substance. and the mixture beas homogeneous as though it all one substance. not take long to learn that black (which is the carbon resulting from the close vessels) is burning of animal bones in serviceable and valuable just in proportion to the minuteness of the division of the particles. which will be done in a second with the help of a penknife-blade. put them beyond the use of coach-painters this digression. is Enough of this black to go over the work taken from . has little little body and comparatively adhesive property. the next proceeding to open a one-pound can of ivory jet-black.

the work is ready for the first coat of varnish. trifle the can and thinned with turpentine. using a linseed-oil if there be time. . AND GRAINING. of raw Apply with a flat camel's-hair brush. That done.204: HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. This coat had best is stand one day before the second coat of black applied. which leaves no brush-marks.

in our opinion. as a coat of bad varnish will nullify all that has been done in that way.CHAPTER XXXIII. about three or three and a half inches wide.varnish. must flow smoothly must rub well. well as beauty and. is recommended ment. well cared for. CARRIAGE-VARXISHIXG. badger-hair varnish-brush. as is a most important point in the process of our far. But let us return to the body. of chisel-form. If you can find a varnish fulfilling all these necessary conditions. will last a lifetime and grow better with age. not for us to say who makes the best rubbing. the requirements of the occasion. flat. it no matter what name may bear. but we have no hesitation in saying what. for such work if as is now the subject of treat- Such a brush. apply a coat of it to the flat work in hand —not a heavy A thick. all So has been done with reference to durabil. a rubbing-varnish should le to It it fulfill all . . ity. elastic . clean it must dry hard. and yet well. This work. it behooves us It is to be not a little particular about the matter. but a light one —with a brush. coat. down and not sweat. of which there are several kinds intended specially for varnish.

of all. which. . reducing. for the smooth. and apply as before.. is This operation. For cut- ting down No. we. by going again with sand-paper and now care must be ex- ercised not to rub the sharp angles through to the wood. AND GRAINING. nut. the sharp corners as to the flat and rounded remove all the successive coats down to the wood and. will . The smoothing being properly performed. must now be put During first. and made stiff . but clear japan. as these parts receive most of the wear and tear of actual use. as also do the hubs and rims. . and remember that the bases of the spokes require attention equally with the centers. Dry white-lead wet with a mixture of japan and in the proportion of three parts of the former to one of the latter. and which aside to dry for three days. of course.206 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. this may be resumed on the carriage . with striping and varnishing. 1 sand-paper." and must not be intrusted a careless hand. as the same amount of rubbing applied to surfaces. After this. simple as it may to no ^^ child's play. perfect sur- face required for the reception of the color. etc. depend upon last lead-coat. and the paint This being the it should be applied as before. seem. left which was time work over it with one coat of rubbing. : dust off and apply the second lead-coat mixed as follows oil.varnish. it follows that these. etc. reduce with turpentine. and around every bolt-head. require to be best protected with the paint. and be very care- ful to smooth out every corner and bead. observing the same directions as to grinding. and the last lead-coat last coat may be applied. In this no oil need be used. After three days another slight sand- papering. this coat use is to complete the job.

first and it will be found hard enough for the felt rubbing. That portion of the ground black remaining in the can after the painting of the body will be found been kept well covered with turpentine as —supposing to have —as and pliable it soft when first opened. a water-tool. This work must not be intrusted to unskillful hands. put this on before the coat of varnish. down the varnish as closely being careful not to go through to the color. Mix a proper quantity of this with turpentine. and the body is ready for the trimming-shop. and plenty clean. loose particles removed from every part. first when coat. and as carefully put on. the second will follow.CARRIAGE-VARNISHING. this to harden. the result will be an untimely stripping . and apply with a flat camel's- Ten hours work is will be sufficient to dry this coat. first and cornier. If performed by experienced hande. and tlie 207 nooTc. which should be as good in every respect as that used on the body. the work is ready for the coat of color. expert only can do it An in- to perfection. Provided with a piece of cloth or and of finely pulverized pumice-stone. cold water. mixed the same as the If the to be finished with a very first wide stripe. apply rub- bing-varnish. oil if desired. This ojoeration will be repeated through three successive coats of varnish. return to the body. not to allow the pumice-stone to dry on the varnish the water-tool freely in all use the corners and around the moldings. to the The carriage-part as has must now be subjected same rubbing process been applied to the body. and . The carriage- parts being ready for the first coat of varnish. using hair brush. Leaving with one which was left coat of varnish. proceed to cut as possible.

preparatory to the finishing-coat of varnish. removed to the varnish- room. job materially impaired. any one ^' supposes he can do this because he has been told it. but received known and is read of men. is a delicate piece of work. If On do this subject there is not much to be said. There is no royal road is to this accom- plishment . A is knowledge. and be sure that every particle of dust you leave upon the work will be found by the varnish-brush. The body from the trimming-shop ready for This. ! A mistake in this is little less than a crime And your shortcoming will not will be only judgment against you. indispensable to success. The and dry. shall prove of value as to the successful of all. AND GRAINING. too. not only of the nature of varnish generally. . the most important in the whole proceeding. rubbing.208 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. the striping next in order. To become an adept and in this art requires long experience. we may add. confidence. skill. Supposing to be successfully performed." a single attempt will be all-sufficient to cure how him to of his vain delusion. a thorough washing must follow. The carriage-parts. but of the particular varnish to be used in the operation. and carelessness in this respect has too often called down maledictions on the head of the innocent var- nish-maker. and the writer confesses himself at a loss how to give any hints even which performance of this. and the prosioect of a well-finished this delicate operation is of all the sharp angles. rise in all a good conscience. self-possession and. its attainment through the steep path of striping done long-continued practice. are ready for the finishing-coat. and requires judgment.

it. or the moldings will be discolored. using a clean sponge and a chamois-skin which has been well broken in.CARRIA GE. close the it.VARNISHING. dusting off well. and await the not pressed for time. door reverto pro- ently behind you. Kemove it to the finishing-room. Do not use dusters which have been used on After lead or color. wash it off thoroughly with cold. Eemember strictest that good work depends . Hav- (for better or worse). produce a perfect job in carriage-painting. in a great measure on the attention to cleanliness and a sloven can not. clean water. no longer liable to injury from The next thing with a little oil. your work from harm. 209 Eemember that a mote on a panel becomes a beam in the eye of the beholder. and then go carefully and This will pick up every to lightly over the whole surface. having finished retire. in the na- ture of things. and wet the Let ends of the hair with a small quantity of varnish. take a dry. quietly lock- ing the door behind you. in order is to care for the tools. it If will be well to allow the body to stand over one night before finishing. keeping face is locked until the surdust. . which was put in order the previous even- ing . This you will do. flat fitch-brush. particle of lint and dust. first The brush used for picking up the lint should be softened and then thoroughly washed with soap and water. lock tect call on your good angel result. this stand for half an hour. and. and practice. and carefully put away for future use. as you say your prayers. and there remains only you may it apply the varnish. alone. and the smallest speck looms up like a distant ing completed it hill in a misty atmosphere.

but. The work which has been under way weeks may now be looked upon few days to harden. having been blacked should receive the and dry. service. etc. may stand a up. motto in every paint-shop. . tend to harden the varnish and pearance. A great many carriages are so finished. and they may. which it is destined to undergo but this clean. cold-water washing . and economy^^ should be tlie Neatness. and then be hung off for a period of five It as finished. and have presented to the eye quite as good an appearance. and do. the completed carriage of repeated washings first . and would not be safe to finish work for city wear in less time than we have given to the job in hand. order. time it is indispensable element. stand the ordinary wear and tear of country roads pretty well . If properly otherwise it will it is performed. should be done by an experienced hand better left undone. will rather improve the general apbe turned out for The finished vehicle may now and there need be little apprehension that the It painting will not prove a durable and creditable job. The bolts.. for use on city pavements. no an doubt. AND GRAINING. unless some other and shorter method be adopted. might have been completed in much less time.210 ^^ HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING.

at the same tim_e retaining all the good features and . perhaps.CHAPTEE XXXIY THE NEW METHOD. if enough for the times. the mode of painting carriages." result and quicker. In short. involves the expendi- . FOE vised. pervading principle of compensation. results of the slow process : that is to say. shorter ways of arriving have been sought not discovered. at the same in Keeping mind to the grand. without cracking and. the last ten years ways and means have been deefforts and many made. of those we are not who believe the time heretofore deemed necessary produce a first-class job of coach-painting can' be materially shortened. used in the painting to insure elasticity. the chances are oil altogether in favor of durability. such as we have described in the foregoing pages of this book. material from drying to that flinty hardness which can not be supposed to bear the shaking and concussions which j^ all wheeled vehicles on city pavements are necessarily subjected to. when enough has been and prevent the . chipping off. to shorten the process of carit riage-painting time. — to expedite the work and turn fast out in '' less The pace has not been for.

. tended toward bringing about such a As remarked in the second chapter of this treatise. AND GRAINING. XXXII the "priming" being efforts in the di- we have concentrated our rection of producing such a substance as shall close the pores of the wood against the absorption of after-coats." we propose to give own experience —to present the facts as we find them. All our experi- ments have. If haste be a sme qua non with the the work must be completed in half the time heretofore deemed essential in the production of it is enduring carriage-painting. as well as of dampness. suggested that some other mode be adopted. In writing about our the results of our *^ new way. leaving every will man to his own Judgment as to which course he ments and adopt or pursue. looking to we inaugurated our experithe compounding of such a mixture as would permit of shortening the time without impairing the durability. Some time has elapsed since practice. number of days. we must abandon the stage-coach system. If we will have railroad speed. Our experiments have " priming " for first coats upon new wood and . jobs too common which soon perish with the painter. ture of a certain ally curtailed which can not be materi- without incurring the risk of what has been of late. if using. to In a word. therefore. result.212 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. resulting in the more durable work at a less cost. this substance is intended resulted in a cement the surface of the wood. of the book. and Chapter all-important. We end in have long been of the opinion that coach-painting could be reduced to a more perfect system. yiz.

THE iron. The 1. 2. oil used in after-coats will not be absorbed by the wood effectual prevention of the and. having become cemented into the grain of the wood. in . once hard. To give the reader a clearer idea of what we mean by cementing the surface of the wood. the after the showing of the grain work 3. in hand shall have been finished. process of drying applied to wood. apit plied to a sheet of tin. and brittle. simply for the reason that the tin does not absorb the The same mixture. NEW any METHOD. will become. we make the following illustration : It is well known that a coat of lead in linseed-oil. be- cause of the fact that the ever-hungry wood dry. in the lifeless and hardening. and if this be accomplished. results of these experiments are as follows : The eifectual closing of the pores of the wood. as a consequence. 213 which comes nearer to possessing the article ever above-named desirable qualities than used for coach- painting. which insures a solid founda- tion. oil. Absolute certainty that . can not be made to chip or flake off. so as to prevent the possibility of dampness going through the priming. Dryiug and the to a hardness j^aint. lose its elasticity. all after- coats" must necessarily retain their elasticity. *^ grain-showing" is effectually prevented . will not. and. which. after has become dry and hard. this will absorb or drink up the oil and leave the pigment is surface against such absorption is what To close the new priming '^ intended to do .

there a when succeedgradual giving way of the whole foundation. But to the modus operandi. we have not lost sight of the fact that the wood-fillers now in use. and then api^ly a coat a day until the job is filled. under no circumstances must the beads and corners be full of the material. which never become hard. old way. coming from the etc. has always been caused by the porous wood taking in a large proportion of the ings are elastic. well-worn brush is best for applying it. as in the smith's. It is not to be supposed that any new claimant for it all public favor can find cling to at once. A the short. oils with which prim- compounded. but retain their as stickiness. our opinion. and thoroughly . and the work should stand two days before the application of first coat of rough-staff. leaving the pigment dry and nonIn considering this matter. are in every sense bad as the substance from which the wood a coat being soft is will absorb all elasticity. and give the putty two days to harden before applying the second coat. thus affecting the finishing-coat of varnish and causing a broken surface. This priming should be It proceeded with as in the use of lead. The bridge is carries safely. bands put on. Apply the guide-coat and rub down and finish The carriage .. evenly and must be put on and left well brushed into the grain of the wood. Putty on this coat of rough- stuff after two days (summer heat).part. lecause such ing coats are applied. Many pertinaciously what has been good which tried and not found wanting. AND GRAINING.214 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. should be trimmed up.

Every painter supposed to have his own peculiar ways and notions as to how painting should be . 215 sand-papered. we suggest a trial of the mode above described to those who have not given is the matter any attention. faces of spokes. Brush the priming well into the grain. A thin coat is all flat best. tak- ing care not to use too much. first Sand-paper and apply coat of color. but the results of our experiments have factory. dust off. cutting close carefully down Dust off and apply the coat of priming to every part. Next day putty rims. From this point all subsequent proceedings up to the finish will be the same as the old method. and with soft putty made is places evenly elastic. The usual mode of proceeding for color . to the wood. and tear up the "priming. if proper care be exhibited in rubbing down. to the foundation. previous to sand-papering this ." There may be better and shorter methbeen satis- ods. the sand-paper will not be apt to clog. this will insure a perfect surface. Such has been our mode *' of proceeding in the use of the new priming. the carriage-part filling will come off." and. and there will remain a good surface without injury the next day. to smooth down next day flat but our j)ractice '* has car- been to apply with a camel's-hair brush a coat of riage-part filling." reduced with turpentine to the consist- ency of color. made more elastic with oil and varnish than for coloring over lead-paint. By adopting mode of proceeding.THE NEW METHOD. Disclaiming any intention of dictating a rule of action for the conduct of others. iron- work included.

Referring again briefly to the painting. as to lessen the ne- cunning and for education and taste. du- being all involved in the subject is entitled to a careful investigation. seem that any labor-saving machinery can be it brought to bear upon cessity for in such a skill.216 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. of carriage- we would remark and cost. With these done. that the question of time. It rises out of mechanical art. drudgery into the domain of such work in all its The ability to perform is possible completeness and perfection an accomplishment of which any It does not man may be way justly proud. new mode it. we have no desire or intention of interis The trade of coach-painting not to he classed with mere mechanic routine. AND GRAINING. fering. . rability.

or it will drop from the spoke or wall — as the case may be —whenever the dislocating force shall be sufficient to overcome the slight cohesive power of the particles of paint. or plaster. or cleaving of the varnish from the underneath coat or surface of color. that there shall be a surface to off which the material may cling and fasten . or varnish. are operations which are not generally considered in their true respective forms and These operations are in the nature of things if akin to that of plastering. and in the different modes of application —the . in either operation. the troubles involves. one being done with a brush. and remedy for. which the work of carriage-painting necessarily We allude now to the trouble known as chipping. PAINTING AND VARNISHING. but it is the other with a trowel equally necessary and important.CHAPTER XXXV. peeling. If a plasterer should 10 put his first coat of mortar on . Painting and varnishing proper light. Painting differs from plastering mainly in the lesser quantity of material used. and should be so looked at we would find the true cause of.

as failings lucidly as may be. if possible. as usually. All who are in the trade are familiar with their several and respective features. In naming these shortcomings. in spite of all we may write to the contrary. cry out against the plaster. on drying. chip- ping or flaking of varnish. suppose the plasterer should put a coat of hard finish on a previous coat of the coat well same—taking care to grease the first —and all should. rence. ties ? and hair. there can be no doubt of an existing disposition of carriage on the part makers and painters to so examine this question as to arrive at the true cause or causes of these accidents. which wei. Now. and would gladly be rid of them. to prevent their recur- We are talking of no new thing. and we say almost universally. practiced. drop off.e closely in contact —each particular lath it as near to its neighbor as the lathing-man could stick and that plaster should.218 laths HOUSE AND CAREIAGE PAINTING. . and. the sand. the general and particular and shortcomings of carriage-painting. and premature perishing of when the foregoiiig-Tisimed mishaps shall have been avoided. and on that unofthe blame of his shortcomings is fending material lay ? The object in this present writing to set forth. we put them : in their order of importance and frequency. on the dropping off of the final coat. were deficient in adhesive quali- Or. what would be thought of the mason who should complain that the lime. and which we fear will recur. thus paint and varnish cracking of paint and varnish. AND GRAINING. of first-class may way The obstacles in the work are not few or strange. but of what has occurred often and again.

for the present theme. particles. Weather-changes during for and varnishing may be potent and most difficult to understand and guard against. to account for all these mishaps at a word. If this 219 kill it at a monster had a single head. but. varnish. are fruitful sources of part of the Want of skill and good judgment on the workman cause many calamities rubbing. where no provision for needed circulation of air ors. mixing of color without regard ning materials . with little or regard to the time actually necessary to properly accomplish a first-class piece of work. and driers. one head killed another freshly So. is the undue haste no in the completion of the job in hand. and most prolific source of evil. out kno tvledge of what the result of such mixing will be lastly. We failure. or both . plentifully cheapened with or japans made from kauri-gum dammar. A primary cause of failure in the painting department of carriage-manufacturing may be the partial seasoning of the timber. evil. oils. unfortunately. to proportions in the thin- the introduction of different driers with. possibly. do not pretend to have enumerated all the causes of but enough. is Badly ventilated work-rooms. . seems sim- ply impossible. to dry in a day. and consequent shrinkage and rearrangement of the the process of painting evil." and when succeeds to its place. we might it is blow . nish resin made .var. . col- turpentine. made adulteration of leads. is "hydra-headed.PAINTING AND VARNISHING.

giving or yielding not a jot. the priming tant . for every ill. How and how not to do : it. EVILS Ais'D THEIR REMEDIES. We would like to present a and make the way so plain that any man. without not. to be properly is Listen to our theory Assuming the wood seasoned and ready for paint. to provide or suggest a remedy. the longer paint stands without hardening —supposing may tion the same to be properly it compounded —the it more tenaciously be placed. such a foundation good work is possible . err therein. is Next remedy do in importance to finding out a cause of evil. What day.CHAPTER XXXVI. are now the questions. not a particle. need not to it. the more oil in the priming- . most impor- because it is absolutely necessary that the coating on the wood shall hold its place from first to last —through With it. Therefore. though a coach-painter. thick and thin —under all vicissitudes and untoward circum- stances. shall it be ? Not something that will dry in half a As a rule. will cling to the surface on which All drying substances tend to lessen the its enduring qualities of linseed-oil and hasten disintegra- and decay.

as elastic to all succeeding coats. let all subsequent proceedings be in harmony there- with. But to return. than introduce an elastic stratum some- where in the dation which layers. but there a proper system and a key-note and that key-note once struck. Better so. . keeps this. of long experience of lead prop- the painter (who is. without giving the erly. applied to an old spoke or to a strip of would probably exhibit an en- tirely different state of things. is will. he will . same color. yet knowing are. blame upon the color. We is treat now of the old process of lead-priming . blame on the color and condemning assure himself that there exists no other possible cause for the disaster. we suppose. This an every-day experience. A coat of the glass. in finishing over this foundation. and the workman compelled first to rush that work along. crack all over. is A quick-drying color put on a foun- soft all the way up. but the mass soft all the way Now. coat a fair time and chance to harden prop- Making the best of the conditions and requirements. If the key-note be the lightning-speed process. the time that none of the coats through. sufficiently all is prevent cracking. a man and sound judgment) puts on another coat erly mixed. hard. Suppose the work to have received an honest coat of priming. in the nature of things. it shall 221 —supposing have ample time to dry. Hasty and ill-considered Before laying the the painter should condemnation shows want of balance. in consonance with the theory of following the key-note. and. a better theory and the disappointed workman lays the —wanting it. all after-proceedings should be in consonance with its vibration.EVILS coat the better AND THEIR REMEDIES.

as aforesaid. and not on the still shoulders of the innocent workman. must receive its due weight and acknowledgment. he should at least have the grace to put the blame for failure where it properly belongs. on the head of the maker of the last thin coat of color. or it the operation wherein shall not be properly heeded will end in disaster. and run and put to the test of actual ? wear and tear. but to begin and complete the paint- ing and varnishing of a carriage results as to durability —so as to secure the best —in the space of two weeks. so far as we know. AND GRAINING. worse. and that the carriage-painter often- times required to perform a labor more difficult of accom- plishment than was required of the Jewish bondmen by their Egyptian taskmasters. it On the contrary. a feat is beyond the skill of any man who ever yet painted carriages . but nothing more certain tlian the fact that — ^like the seed sown on stony ground — it will perish. We is be- lieve the case of the captive children of Israel has its parallel in the carriage-trade. be within the limit of human ingenuity . To make sun-dried bricks without straw may. that in carriage-painting — as in almost every other process in art and science time is an element which can not be disregarded with impunity. If the manufacturer will not afford the painter proper and reasonable time wherein he may accom- plish his work.222 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. The fact must not be lost sight of. will show —what is result It may not crack nor chip. The work being finished. out. but kept ever before the eye and the mind. and so do the best that can be done under such circumstances. man of sound discretion —use an elastic varnish. or. alas ! all too soon. a — ^being.

EVILS AND THEIR REMEDIES. of time given this finishing. as were. which should not. that most filling important work of properly up a carriage-part. will prevent these it masses of dried putty. No amount details of work to dry. keepit ing the corners clean. for example. and at the end of every spoke. we * shall know one of these days. or varnishing. no care in the ornamenting. around clips. between the leaves of the springs. In the very best aspect of the case. with a view to a durable job. Take. What the denizens of the lunar conglomeration may be equal ! to. in this line. on this 223 mundane sphere. Let us anticipate the consequences in a case is where the painter required to do this job in about one quarter of the time which should properly be devoted to it. have been left to repose there. the painter or workman is too often required to do in a given time what can not be properly accomplished within the specified limits. perhai)s Again. from being disengaged off from riage their resting-places is and dropping when this car- subjected to the jolting and consequent vibration streets. and smoothing up every part as should be. there must of necessity be masses of thick paint left in the corners. caused by roiling the wheels over stone-paved .

A word ground of caution to painters just oil now may be pertinent. the color. pose. bear in mind the fact that the latter . . or paint . is a prolific source of evil in causing the varnish to japan. however small the quan- tity. tended to stances.CHAPTER XXXVII. since the flaking or cleaving of varnish from is This no new thing. fatty sub- whether turpentine. will cause this trouble. The next most is common and vexatious trouble with the painting. you do use or varnish in ground colors. mixed with other and cheaper gums color mixed with japan. even in those in the shop. among If the sources of this No doubt there are others. varnish. but has existed. we sup- the invention of the art of varnish-making. evil. made from inferior shellac. . and oil. or made from These are unsuitable materials. CLEAVING OF VARNISH FROM THE COLOR. varnishing over a glossy surface oil. certain rubbing- varnishes unskillfully or carelessly made. when the due proportion of each is not properly atflake . . Some lows of the causes of this anno^dng accident may be enuall merated here : —we do not oil pretend to give them —as fol- Cotton-seed in the color.

but must be by the application of reduced to a "scratch -coat" pumice- stone and water. By strict attention to these little de- many of the troubles of the paint-shop — as varnish. shellac. oil. and whether or not these Colors driers will work must never be oil. as far as possible. All paints. gives trouble.CLEAVING OF VARNISH FROM THE COLOR. well together. japan. tails. must ill 225 all cases be superior in quantity to the oil. . and turpentine may be so mixed as to give a surface which no rubbing-varnish There will adhere to. Every foreman in a carriage paint-shop should mix the colors. flaking. supposing all he has time so to do. with a knowledge gained by abuneffect of dant experience. if used only in proper quantity and proportion. Color-cups must be kept covered. A glassy surface must not be varnished. just what the such mixing will be. unboiled linseed-oil. and turpentine should be kept. trouble in many paint-shops has resulted because the painter has never fully appreciated the fact that varnish. If not. No doubt. rarely. too much caution can not be exercised in putting is 'these thinners together. nothing so good for a it ^'binder" as pure. Really. finished with a japan gloss. and not to any man or boy he may have pitting of under his charge. The less use of two driers in the same color is deprecated. he should intrust this most important operation to some one experienced hand. to exclude dust and air. in air-tight vessels. driers. cracking. un- the user shall know. because if ever. or premature perishing of the whole —mav be avoided.

false too. because of the fact that while the outlay of money ob- for materials is something tangible and always patent. which in other departments . in a measure intangible difficult to — ^less and much more There is. the is expenditure for labor servable. This is a feature which we would call the special attention of the manu- facturer. that the labor of these of painting a carriage colors. for the reason that the labor of producing their equivalent in the paint-shop would be more than the cost Second. It is claimed that. the waste in the paint-shoj^ is one third less than before . also. as no extra quantity need be applied to cover up a sanded surface.226 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. measure. is The claim lessened is. and weigh. that these colors are economical to the last degree that to use them costs nothing.- they are permanent beyond anything ever dis- and uniform to a degree that the painter need have no fear of not being able to duplicate any job he may have before turned out. of ready-prepared colors. what we choose to designate economy —a '^penny-wise" policy—exhibited too fre- quently by purchasers of colors. First. that the labor and waste in grinding colors in the paint- shop exceed the prime cost of these goods is . much by the use and that the labor and tim^ saved by the use of ready-made colors in painting a carriage will be more than the cost of the paint to consumed in the job. AND GRAINING. played . that there a saving in varnish. Now we come to a point in this question wherefrom we propose to discuss the comparative merits of ground colors with those as before produced in the carriage paint-shop. as a and count. we claim . since the introduction of prepared colors.

working and covering well. supit pose you have been using a certain black. and one which has never been tested. of good body —always it. in this. too. finish-coat of any light carriage is very and that which works best and covers the undercoat most comj)letely. would be looked upon allude to the in as 227 extreme folly and stupidity. by experimental test. We common practice of procuring paints similar name to those which the purchaser has been using. absurdity. There is. or only a . For example. In too many consumer does not take the trouble to learn. everything else being equal. in the trade will admit that a painter Any sane person would not necessarily have made a good bargain simply because he had bought a hundred pounds pound. they must of course be cheaper in fad. we think. some would-be rival or competitor offers you a paint in substitution of this well-proved article . quarter as much. and have found to be uniformly fine. because of the con- sequent saving of material and labor. wanting. and drying invariably so as to take varnisli in the number of hours allotted to In the strife and competition for trade. as those he has been using but rushes to the conclusion that. simcases the ply because these paints are offered at a nominally lower price. not the right road to true economy. whether the nominally cheaper colors are worth as much as half.CLEAVING OF VARNISH FROM THE COLOR. of so-called coach-black at ten cents a The chaffering for a few cents a pound difference between an article that has been tried and never found is. is the cheapest at whatever reasonable price. being cheaper in naine. a peculiar from the fact that the cost of the color actually consumed on the trifling.

such practice is the exception and not the will be. in every calling. at the same time. . that there risk. and always short-sighted individuals. there yet remains the fact that the greatest possible five cents accomplishment in the way of saving would be on a four-hundred-dollar job . but there are. —^bearing this fail. AYe would not convey the idea that the practice of such false trade rule . while. of durability. and years must necessarily elapse before question can be settled. This can be tested this only by time . is than you paid for the former Of course. coat One pound riage-parts.. the question of permanence. the same name. in case of success. viz. nothing in the best aspect of the case to pay for the of a certain black will. who take the name for the thing the word for the fact. say. in using to you are trying an experiment your own cost if it and with a gain so small. at a price ten cents a pound less color. economy is common in the indeed. the experiment dollars. there is another most important feature involved. two light car- Admitting that the ten cents a pound is an important item. . AND GRAINING. and possibly two or three days' Again.228 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. may involve a loss of twenty or thirty delay.

CHAPTER XXXVIII. Admitting all is these claims. certainly The demand for is and all steadily ex- tending. and in overcoming the most formidable of the difficulties heretofore existing in the carriage paint-shop. and in a few years will include in the civilized world. and vexation and disappointment were in many ground colors in- stances the only fruits of costly and laborious experiments. Machinery best adapted to bring about the desired result has been constructed without regard to cost. talent. All this has not been done without a vast expenditure of time. carriages are places where. energy. by what mode of proceed- ing. made and painted. experience. can the best results be realized in the use of ready- made colors. HOW Havikg we take it TO GET THE BEST KESULTS. for granted that all will admit the correctness of . in what way. . and money. detailed somewhat this question of sui:)erioritv. our premises and our conclusions as also the fact that much has been accomplished in the way of lifting the business of carriage-painting out of the slough of despond —so to speak —in which it once was. the next question in importance to the trade how.

of course. and pour thereon tine to quite sufficient turpenall submerge the whole . dry. turpentine all at the whole Do not add the once. giving color its it the appearance of a perfect solution. supposing the workman required to finish quickly over a . is To escape this dilemma. even mass. This point having received due attention.230 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. Listen while we review the subject in the light of ten years' every-day experience. take care of themselves. and set forth it. then pour it in. We refer now. This same put over a ground not thoroughly hard and all would crack to pieces. the contents will. then cover with the top of the can. it With the patent-press can. as were. to the ordinary can. present state a quick-drying substance. We take it for granted that the mixing-cup was scrupulously clean to begin with. and put away carefully for future use. what we have wealth. little by little. First stir the color before adding any ." we found to be the best way to do Premising with the is somewhat trite proverb that "economy would impress most distinctly the importance of not taking is from the opened can of paint more material than just amply sufficient to complete the job in hand. stir till first add a small quantity of turpentine. and mass becomes smooth and homogeneous. and exigencies of the case required. In thinning. if less than an hour of time. scrape cleanly and neatly the color from the sides of the can. could be used so as to dry ready for varnish in mixture. The In the if now under consideration it is is suj^posed to be black. until the contents of the cup shall present a smooth. AND GRAINING. level the top of the re- maining mass evenly. stirring all the time.

so that the coat will dry —not hard. described proceedings : Let the painter take an old it paint it black. supposes ample time and no extraordinary haste. this black. it Yet we claim that. but not otherwise. the right course in such case. Another reason for such a course painter. if varnished too quickly. to apply one coat of color only on a single day . and that the mode of operation is is. using the same color as in the after putting and in an hour all. yielding. and add in lieu thereof a small quantity of pure raw linseed-oil. thinned wholly with turpentine.varnish. Next mornit. in a measure. will dry ready for varnish in an hour's time. for many reasons. will always be better to leave the job un- varnished overnight. correctness of this theory Any doubts existing as to the may be removed by the followingsjioke. is on the stripe let him varnish over This not coat of varnish will reveal the fact that the stripe so black as the is body of the spoke by ten shades. TO GET THE BEST RESULTS. As before said. —which in our judgment. leave out a portion of the turpentine. let him draw a broad line through the center of first coat. and this coat may be varnished over in that short time with safety. This one good reason why a black coating of color should be left overnight before varnishing. is. Black.HOW soft underneath. however can perform a perfectly satisfac- . and leave to dry overnight. or less . we would suggest adding 231 to the color a quantity of elastic rubbing. The present case. however. ing. that long experience has taught us that no skiflful. supposing the ground to be perfectly hard. will not give the same shade and density of color as when allowed ample time to dry. but.

yet In our judgment. does not endure as does work where time has been duly given to all the processes. a great deal depends on getting a fair Therefore.232 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. when put to the test of actual use. who does not give each and tory job in coach-painting every coat of paint and varnish time to become dry and hard all the way through. It is. all operations. fifty We or do not propose to consider each and every of colors in detail. In start. we admit jobs —to look at — have been done in this manner. by use and experience. we would have : all learners lay to heart let this important truth in all lake or carmine jobs. in order to produce the best results with the least expenditure of labor and material. and of the occasional to request that each shall investigate this complaints because of this. ninety per cent. however. Such work. more coach-painters' "What has been said respecting black will apply in a general way to all the fore- body-colors. familiarized themselves with ground colors to such an extent that they require no advice or direction in the matter. the . Referring again to the discoloration of black because of being varnished over too quickly. we have and every painter among our readers question for himself and his own convincing. in the trade Yet there are doubtless many who would gladly receive instruction as to the way of working lakes and carmines. of all the carriage-painting is done in the United States that some of the best done too quickly . AND GRAINING. true that most of the men painters in the carriage-shops throughout the country have. no doubt.

—requires a all rich ground in correspondence. with can there be any reason why the same rule does not hold good with glazing colors principle. and yet dry. ? Supposing. and that only finish the enough color has been taken from the can to work. the adoption of this and the work prepared in accordance thereto. To this must be added a very small quantity which must be well color. however. ready for add turpen- varnish. is taken for granted that the cup clean. by working the color too foregoing directions be followed. stirred in and re- thoroughly incorporated with the peated until the color in the cup in the mass. then. much may lost. TMs must be is well broken up. point. to produce a good job in carmine color. smooth and entirely homogeneous.HOW ground TO GET THE BEST RESULTS. who would take excep: tion to this our position. of pure spirits of turpentine. Nothing can be gained. and the color be applied . —which is not only the brightest in all but the most transparent of the lakes itself. then. but thick. an imitation i7i 233 he as close tone of color to the glaz- ing as possible. answer unmistakably negative. by standing overnight. After the tine to thin to proper working consistency. It must work If the freely and flow be perfectly. is the next important question It is the preparation of the color. Then add oil. we would put a query Would you attempt produce a good Job in carmine by glazing ? over a black ground We anticipate to this question an If. although This we believe to be the proper starting- we are conscious of the fact that not in this particular in full agreement with every of the trade. as much raw linseed-oil as the color will bear. we are member To to those.

. mode in painting todies. of upon a carriage-part will be enough but this will not be sufficient for panels. This will give the best possible tint or color. Another mode of ^wi the color in varperhaps. color in yarnish One coat of color and one . will prove a lasting job. as a little color can be put in last.234 Avitli HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. of must be and clear. each succeeding coat of varnish until the course. AND GRAINING. which. there need be no fear as to the result. a flat camel's-hair brush hy a good luorhnan. best This is. the operation in transparent painting is to nish and flow on over the ground.

When will men learn that two things are not necessarily the same. by omitting to cover of up and take is whatever paint may be remaining after the job ished. in a certain way.CHAPTER XXXIX. and then neglect the proper precaution and care fin- preventive to waste. because they may be called by similar names ? Take. at only equaled : by our absurd attempts economy. is Our reckless prodigality. Another absurdity a slavish devotion to names. For example a painter will sometimes speiid the time and exertion necessary to walk a mile. and are 'described in the foregoing pages. The money enormous value of paint wasted in this country is — greater. sarily Now. for example. than in all the world besides. the greens used in carriage-painting. These are either chrome or copper greens. and labor neces- expended in saving the devoted to care and cleanliness. perhaps. would have resulted in the saving of twice that : amount. all for the purpose of purchasing a can of paint a shilling less than he can buy it for under his very nose. briefly The docly greens are . ADULTERATION AKD WASTE. a quarter part of the time shilling.

236 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. sanding sugar. considering that he has pay vastly more for the color he buys when mixed sand. sulphate of baryta. causing "in the mass" to resem- . under own proper so-called name. one pound of of color pounds of the base. then. which transparent when mixed adds to the value of paint in the same man- ner and degree as watering milk. whether white or black. bilities are Yet the probaits that a of this color. AND GRAINING. rivaling lampblack). this earthy base. colors chrome and the diaphanous greens are copper is colors. A it fair selling price of this pure green. when pure. dry. say. or mixing shoddy with wool in the production of value of these articles respectively. Some idea of the coloring property or power of real chrome-green may be had by impart reflecting its on the fact that a single pound of it will tone of color to a hundred pounds of a glassy. do we buy is ? Listen ! The chrome-green" of commerce simply silica. adds to the What the painter reto not sand ! And. Chrome-green. or carbonate of lime. colored with chrome-green. pound and two hundred pounds of the base green ! and all is is sold as chrome- Now. in oils. would be about eighty cents per pound pound to consumers. of a dense body (almost. in proportions varying color to five from (the best). it translucent substance. and covers and conceals all it touches. as a rule. in this respect. *^ What. can not be found in any carriage-shop in the United States. to one . it ivith the would seem not to require a very elaborate argu- ment to convince the dullest comprehension that for the consumer pure colors are the cheapest. cloth. quires is color. and at this price would be the cheapest green obtainable.

signifying that it (the can) did contain. and the most scru- pulous cleanliness. Dropping casually into a carriage paint-shop. unfilled." when it pretended green paint spread upon a piece of glass. if it did not it dry under such treatment as that. to the sides. We dries asked the foreman how he was suited with these goods. "the black is We thought. are indispensable to economy and good results in the carriage paint-shop. . with a speck of color here and there.ADULTERATION AND WASTE. would seem a proposition." in want dry around of a little black. it contained about two thirds of its its origi- nal contents but of original value not a fifteenth part was there. ble the pure green itself. first rate. or had contained. not long ago. color That a painter had better buy the self-evident unmixed with the sand. had dipped into it with the palette-knife. into it. would well deserve any amount of maledictions. and viewed through a microscope or magnifying-glass. presents the appearance of vitreous minute grains. hut it up so ! " "Oh!" said he. The utmost I care and attention. and drying influences of a warm atmosphere. One after another of the " hands. ivory-black in dirt. like small sea-birds scattered along a sandy beach. we espied a can. and the deep pits or holes were left. japan. and exposed to the dust. this I say is 237 for "in the mass. We looked and found . and thus waste the material in the speediest possible manner. with a label on it. It was uncovered.

of Take. sive color A single ounce in a pound of this expen- would afford a larger profit to the seller than is usually realized by those who sell it pure at first hands. consumer has been most to blame. the a article carmine. easy and comparatively safe. wliich has of so great late years become an evil as to work out its own The cure. THE USE OF EEADY-GKOUJSTD COLORS. has not wholly of the grown out of a disposition on the part manufacturer to secure immoderate profits. who have promised it is to give him more money than worth. skillful Nor could this be detected. for example. In a color so expensive small percentage of adulteration makes a material reduction in the cost. because of the ready credence he has given to the promises of needy and un- scrupulous for his sellers. by the most . in using.CHAPTER XL. It would seem almost risk spoiling a job ! beyond belief that a coach-painter would in the hope of saving a half-dollar on a gallon of varnish ? Would such paints of it is a case be a novelty so difficult of detection as to The adulteration of make the practice as this. The extreme adulteration of paints.

suppose a case To : illustrate the convenience in Two or three new spokes an old wheel are to be painted. for the reason that a specialty of this business with made means and appliances which do not exist in the paint-shop. paint. completed and placed in a stronger . the match could have been . In carriage-painting. The time necessary to presuffi- pare the paint from dry materials would be more than cient to match. The result is general dissatisfaction but. 239 The clieat would be revealed only by the untimely fading of the late to color.or slush-tub. suppose an old carriage to be revarnished. with colors ready Or. suppose it to have been discovered in the process of grinding.THE USE OF HEADY. immediate effects are less important than remote consequences. to say nothing of loss of patience . in the paint-shop. and that would be too remedy the evil. is The color mixed mill. which. The colors referred to are prepared expressly for use in carriage. is to match on the stone. and no longer a match. of course. and varnish. the change involves an addition of various colors : one after another is added. the result is. and with loss of time. of these colors. and practiced painter. may not be dis- covered until the application of varnish until the job is perhaps not even light. and with reference only to the requirements of the trade. its almost worthless for other work. changed. They are finer than it is possible to make is them in the paint-shop.GROUND COLORS. a quantity of paint sufficient to paint is two carriage-parts.work. colors been Had ground on hand. stripe. and finds as it is way into the waste. at hand. and afterward run through the In the grinding process the color has This . not very elegantly termed.

he disappears. gives the thumb-screw a half turn. The foreman. AND GRAINING. The day is a hot one. in one quarter the time made stock. turn the screw. boys and other persons of immature judgment spite of all that and. put give pressure into the mill. and the pot of half-ground and feeling himself entitled to a half-hour's recreation in re- ward for his industry and perseverance." Tired and disgusted — ^not appreciating the importance of fine colors —he mill. and with one quarter the and the saving would have been both in time and and the danger avoided of mismatching the color be said that a thoroughgoing. in may be said. like Mantilini. than a crime. in no stinted quantity. feels his life of the perspiring juvenile. often intrusted to .240 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. neglects to clean. Time is limited. driven with other work. the color ! the crank goes to a comes out an end. and. finds just time to mix the it black on the stone. and enough to insure moderately fine color. and a mistake now is little less The paint-shop is short of hands. material. The crank turns slowly under the hands who. Suppose another case j^i'O^^ised : A new cer- body is ready for color —an ordered job— on a tain day. such mistakes do happen in the best-regulated shops. presto lively tune. in the process of grinding. single brushful of the paint informs The application of a him that in fineness it . It may does not make such mistakes style of but such work It is is not always done by that workmen. and soon the task is at Leaving the which he color. to be ^^ one demnition grind. practical painter . and the foreman comes from the varnish-room with just enough of daylight left to color the body.

is 241 equal to No. unpainted. not blessings . for convinced. readily than five flat more perfectly. and be not only These colors should come into general use. because they are finer than any other colors. and a waste of from ten to fifteen per cent. are worthy the attention of use paint. the surface requires an extra coat of rubbing. The body. safe. colors. 11 who buy and . 2 saud-paper lot. So the boy. all —we think Ave may aver that prepared on tlie score of economy alone.varnish to present a respectable ap- pearance. Try them. paint-shop Ground all and economical. Do ? not such accidents frequently occur in the colors offer a remedy.THE USE OE HE ABY-G ROUND COLORS. to say nothing of all the other advantages. . and dry more any others. ! presented with a stands coat of till — well. sure. being smalied. next day or. but because they v/ork more freely. these complaints. being foujid. After conversing with more than Mindred painters as to the cost of grinding colors in the shop —the extremes in the estimates given being minimum and one dollar as the thirty cents as the maximum average cost for labor alone. but there is no time to grind fine a fresh and tlie cup of thin color could not be made is in a week.

and assumes that tone of the of color which would result from mixing the color : medium with the black. it ceases to be pure black. a For example black. white. on the conIn avoidance by a coating of yellowish translucent low-lake over drab. the greater the number of coats of clear varnish. . The presence any one of these detracts from the entireness of black. and the surface reflects less of more or impure yellowish light. . when viewed through however slightly. when black is viewed through any colored medium. or over a mixed green. is. The same may be Some of the medium. said of all the primary and secondary colors colors.CHAPTER HOW TO XLI. a medium of yellowish varnish. greenish hue and. A of PUKE black in theory. the greater will be the detraction from the purity of the black. but successive coats of the most color- varnish destroy the whiteness. of the extreme color. reflects. So with white : a single thin coat of the palest varnish over a coat of pure white detracts slightly from less its purity . would be improved. MAKE THE BEST JOB IN BLACK. the absence of all the pri- mary colors and So. as yel- mixed and broken trary.

HOW TO MAKE THE BEST JOB IN and in order BLACK. and that. possible colors. carmine. every coat of varnish should contain more or . the one. after that. but from a surface which has beneath colored particles reaching sive coats of varnish to the it a depth of continuous way down through groundwork. lakes. and In this way a depth every coat up to the last of color is colored. the successure. flat glass vessel filled such hues. the first coat In carmine and the on the ground is is put on in varnish. 243 of these accidents. It should be borne in mind that the opaque or body colors do not compare in beauty and brilliancy with the transparent colors . etc. the colors are beautiful in : proportion as they are transparent for examples. the light must be reflected. both in labor and mate- but who ever gained a good thing without working for Black should be. as a rule. ultra- marine-blue. and with but one coat of clear varnish. this < To be mode rial it ? . emerald-green. opaque surface. of proceeding is expensive. though is with the same substance. scarlet and crimson lakes. to secure the best results possible in carriage-painting. and. flected from the vases placed in the windows would not shops. All are familiar with the beautiful colors reof apothecaryfluid. flat color . obtained which can be had by no other process. we suggest the application of last only one coat of clear varnish. put on in one coat of clear. We believe that the best is work turned out of any city establishment finished without a single coat of clear color (we speak now more particularly of glazing jobs). of course. : The principle the same in carriage-painting to show the best not from a flat. This results from the depth of colored reflect A thin.

car- black enough in a dark night. clear varnish. THE EN^D. . and almost any toler- ably good black looks well is enough when viewed ^jcr It only when placed is in . Any se. AND GRAINING. In this mode the black holds and does not take on the greenish impossible to avoid.244 HOUSE AND CARRIAGE PAINTING. that its inferiority apparent and men who strive to excel in their productions are not content to occupy inferior posi! tions in any particular. comparison with the best. the same black as used for the first coat. *' Excelsior " is a good motto for coach-painters. tinge which otherwise of course. which should be its color. riage is it is is good or bad only by comparison. less of up to the finishing-coat. All work.

Other volumes to follow. Illustrated. AND HOW TO DO IT. ers* Colors. Jllustrated. NOW READY: BUILDING A HOME.Volumes at to all Subjects pertaining to Home and the Household. Showing the Nature. HOW SHALL WE PAINT OUR HOUSES? A POPULAR TREATISE ON THE ART OF HOUSE-PAINTING. HOW TO FURNISH A HOME. D. [Price. THE HOME GABHEN. Paint- 12mo. Cojnposition. Illustrated. on receipt of price. Jllustrated.y Publishers. 12mo. flexible. clotJi.50. AND GRAINING. lytASTJRY. 60 cents each. WHAT TO DO. devoted Books are a Series of New Hand. . A31EN1TIES OF H03IE. PLAIN AND DECORATIVE.HOME BOOKS Applctoiis' APPLETONS' Home low price. & 3. By JOHN W. Price. $1. and their Proper tion and Mode of Production of Paints and and Harinoniotts Combinaand Arrangemetit. For sale by all booksellers . MASURY. post-paid. 5 & Bond Street. H03IE GROUNDS. with illuminated design. New York. CO. Bound in cloth.PAINTING.] By JOHN W. APPLETON 1. HOUSE -PAINTING. CARRIAGE. or sent by mail.

Preece.. By W. De Wiveleslie Abney. C.. S. $1.50. &^ c^ Bond St. Uni- With Illustrations.. or any volume sent by mail. Armstrong. Geological Sm-vey. II. Machine-Tools used by Engineers. S. Pro- D..50.Elementary Works on Mechanical and Physical Science. Introduction to the Study of Inorganic Chemistry. By I'rofessor T. lessor T. By Professor W. including' Cloth. M. By G. 1. Cloth. or that are so well fitted for the instruction of engineering students.75. APPLETON 6. Sivewrtgiit. E. L. C. C. S. E. Anderson. $l..50. By $1. C. F.. Several of the authors are preeminent in their own specialty. E.LC. ler. A. C. . post-paid. By Professor F. By Professor J. and Laboratory and M. $2. By Professor H. sale by all booksellers. F. Load. Introduction to the Study of Organic Chemistry.5iJ. it would be a difficult task to single out ani>ther list of text-books on the same or collateral subjects in our language which could be compared with them.. -f 1. D."— Zo/if^o??. D. & E. F. E. D.. F. S. 11.) "This admirable series of text-books is invaluable for the use for which it was originally planned. P. C.50. Tilden. Cloth.. For price. 16 mo. D. R. SS. LL. Ph.50. . The Strength of Materials and Structures. $1. By W. or tor students generally in our public and science schools. By Professor C. Jenkin. *1.D. E. Cloth. Metals : Their Properties and Treatment. The Elements of Machine Design.. M. LL. Maxwell. Barry. Unwin. Muir.5u. F. M.CO. FULLY ILLUSTRATED Volumes ALREAor Published: SIZE. M. Cloth. on receipt of D. A.50. $1.5U. Cloth Cloth. Gore. Cloth. D. Electricity and Magnetism. F. M. By C.50.. C. of II. C. Cloth. $1 .50. Ph. E.. M. By Frank in the El't- Elements of Astronomy. D.25. H. L. The Study of Rocks LEY. Railway Appliances. $1. By E.S. $1. $2.50. M. So. The Art of Electro-Metallurgy. i. Chemical Philosophy. 1*. Principles of Mechanics. FORMING A SERIES OF Text-Books of Science. Introduction to the Study of. F. M. By versity of Dublin.SO. F. Practice. Cloth. and their works must have been of immense service to the numerous class of students for whom they are chiefly intended. S.. Cloth. C. an Elementary Text book of Petrology. either in regard to quality and price. Cloth. G. Shelley. $1. By W. Telegraphy. E.50. L. E. E. C. D. and J. $1.. Adapted for the Use of Artisans and Students in Public and Science Schools. A. Mil- M. B. By J. A. Cloth.. Professor of Astronomy Cloth.. LL.E. Cloth $1. F. •tl. S. S. |1. Cloth. N. Treatise on Photography. By J. S. (other VOLUMES IN PREPARATION. B^ll. A. E. Cloth. Workshop Appliances. Examiner. Cloth. Taking the series as a whole. E By Captain W. Theory of Heat. Bloxam. E.5U. M. Goodeve. Publishers. W. Oualitative Chemical Analysis Thorpe.50. The Elements of Mechanism. Guodeve. LL. V. Frofessor T. 3. P. A.

he saw something of the wandering Bedouins.' so to call it. *• It would be sheer affectation to deny the fascination exercised by the -Anecdotal History of Tarliameut.00. ' rive so large a fund of entertainment. (5t- 5 Bomi St. in delineatini. The Land With Excursions in the of Gilead. In four volumes. " As pleasant a companion for the leisure hoars of a studious and thoughtl'ul man as anything in book-siiape since Selden. Timayenis. By T.v^.'''— Extract from Preface. New cheap edition.. Yellum cloth. Clcth. '' Never did any book appear so opportunely. Nrjo York. from which the reader can de. is that it is founded on Hellenic sources. Eut. and so statesmudike a grasp of its conditions. Publishers.50. With IllusCrown 8vo. " While I cheerfnlly acknowledge my obligations to Gibbon and Grote— the most eminent of modern historians — a careful s^tudy of the Greek writers has led me to differ from them on many important matters. by Gf. to form my judgment largely from the records he has left n^. trations and Maps. "His journeys took him quite off the beaten tracks of tourists and archajoan be inside view. cloth. A. M. with Copious Notes and Appendices."'— London S}:ectato7\ A From History of Greece. $8. written by one who was in succession the fellowprisoner of each of them. Compiled by Crown 8vo. Frajiment of Irish History. 12mo.MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICATIONS. Anecdotal History of the British ParHament. M."— ^c/ec^ic Magazine. By Laurence Oliphant. H. History of Herodotus. and we know of no recent book on Palestine waich is really so instructive. so lar<ze a knowledge of the Irish question.50. G. With Maps and Illustrations. The peculiar feattire of the present work. With the Earliest Times to the Present.. From the Earliest Periods to the Present Time. cloth.50.00.CO. New edition.'' ''''—Saturday Eetiew. 1840-1850. i. C. Jennings.' the character of that epoch. edited.. "Yonns: Ireland" is a memoir of the few stormy years in Ireland during which O'Conuell was tried and convicted of conspiracy. $3. The book is founded on the private correspondence of the leading men of the period. with so lucid and graphic a style. I have not hesitated to follow the Father of History in portrayint? the heroism and the sacrifices of the Hellenes in their first Avar for independence. Lebanon. §2. of native life and manfoi^ical explorers i?ot ners. Young A Ireland. $2. with Notices of Eminent Parliamentary Men and Examples of their Oratory. K. . G. Maps and Illustrations. 3. $1. 12mo. cloth. APPLE TON 6. and throws a searching light on the Irish politics of the present day. By the Hon. whenever it had appeared.orge Rawlinson. T.—Zo/?f7o« Telegraph. 8vo. therefore. it would have been a book of great xaa. and Smith O'Brien tried and convicted of hit^h treason. An English Version. and has seen since a remarkable career in Australia. n. Sir Charles Gavan Duffy. 2 vols. nor.

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such an account of the life of Dickens as will meet the requirements of the general reader. Beaconsfield A Sketch of the Literary and Political Career of Benjamin Disraeh. By Charles H. Jones." " Macaulay. The writings abound with delijjhtful little essays and incisive bits of satire and humor. Series. what is better still. By Gkorge M. Towle. A By Charles H. Paper. so far as possible. 6-5 Bond St. and an excellent feature of the book is its short but significant citations from the press.." ("New Handy. Ruskin on Painting. fiom a Sketch by Earl of Beaconsfield. cloth. in a compact form. 30 cents.") ISmo." etc.") 18mo. Short Life of Gladstone. and. an attempt to give. His Life — Lord Macaulay his Writings. Maclise. in 18*70. : By Charles H.ht together as a sort of literary banquet of Thackerauian tidbits. . Paper. i. 35 cents cloth. in 1830. Books Handy-Volume — his — his Theories. 30 cents. late With Two Portraits.") ("New 18mo. 60 cents. Extracts from his speeches and estimates of his literary work are given. Selections from his Letters.BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. both friend and iQc:'—Boston Courier. author of " D. (" Xew Handy-Volume Series. APPLE TON d^ CO. uiaiiy of which in this volume have been brou<i. he may depict himself and tell his own story. " In two hundred and fifty pages. A With The work is Short Life of Charles Dickens. Stray Moments with Thackeray: His Humor. of his personality. Being Selections from his Writings. Thomas His Life Carlyle By Alfred H. By W^illiam H. ("New Handj-Volume Series. 30 cents .Volume Series. ("New Handy-Volume 60 cents. Guernsey. the author has succeeded in giving a clear impression of Gladstone's career. A Short Life of Charles Dickens. which help the reader to see the great statesman through the eyes of his contemporaries. (" New Handy-Volume Series.") Paper.") 18mo.Volume Series. Publishers. 60 cents. Jones. . author of "Macaulay: his Life his Writings. 35 cents cloth. Series. Liberal extracts are made from the letters of Dickens. RideING. cloth. 60 cents. Paper. Paper. Jones.") 18mo. prefaced with a Few Biographical Notes. — . ("New Handy. Paper. 3.. Satire. and from a Drawing by Sir John Gilbert.") ISmo. 30 cents cloth. 60 cents. . . cloth. 25 cents cloth. Paper. and Characters. New York. 60 cents. 60 cents. in order that. With a Biographical Sketch.

By A. Cloth. By Arthur Beckwith. Series. Studio^ Fieldj and. IV. Cloth. D. Paris. An important feature of the work. The twelve great pictures of the world. Doremus. 60 cents. Gallery. D.. DvviGFiT. APPLETOX & CO. and Persian. Rollin." N. 12mo. Cloth. which affords a convenient stepping-stone to a just appreciation of the most celebrated masteri)ieces of painting. .felt by a -writer who desired to take a class through the history of the great sculptors and painters. 12mo. N. "This little volumci has grown out of a want long. Evening Post. it is -n-ritten as tersely as possible. 12mo. $1. Second 12mo. France. With an Appendix on the Principal Galleries of Europe. II. Y. author of Cloth. Eome. of the galleries of Florence. "The volume artistic for the first time. Y. III. & 6 Bond Street. Schools and Masters of Painting. Y. With Photo-Engraved Illustrations. 1. 12mo. and Germany. and may be used to adyantage as an guide-book by persons visiting tbe collections of Italy. edition. "The work is a small one. Buskin on Painting.25. With numerous Illustrations."— /T/cwj Preface. 29 of Appletons^ ISmo. and one which may save the traveler much time and expense. and other Em-opean collections. Hispano-Moresque. A.50. . and to amateur artists and art-students it will be invaluable as a' hand-book of varied information for ready reference. Radcliffe. Sicilian. is the sketch presented in the Appendix.00. A Manual for Young Students. By Horace J. V. 30 cents cloth.") YI. By S. 3 RD-6 4 . Cloth." N. Dresden. but it is comprehensive in its scope.BOOKS ON ART. Tribune. 3. G. $3. A Manual of Painting." Great Lights in Sculpture and Painting. are described in a special chapter.00. Majorcan. With " a Biographical Sketch. which are famiUar by copieand engravings to all -who have the slightest tincture of taste for ai-t. $1. "Grecian and Roman Mytliology. New Handy-Yolume (Forming No. with no waste sentences. $1. Introduction to the Study of Art. ior the Student and Amateur with Information for the General Reader. and scarcely any waste words. is one of great practical utility. By M. Publisheks. $1.00. Majolica and Fayence Italian. Venice. Paper. as a preliminary Btep to an intelligent joui-ney through Europe.

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JUSTINE -^^^|^. ^ "^ --«%ll\\^^-^^ . ^ -^^ ST.*.^^^^.' ve.^ <^. .^ ^^^^^^ ^.O M O - «0' ^^ ^^ ^^ms J'X '^^w^' ^^^\ '^* ^^ "^^f •-^«^.= ^0 DOBBS BROS. > '^ -^ -.^^^ '"^"^ . INC.^ .*^^^\^ °o^^.