# 2011

31 Mechanical (B) NS ZAIN JAVED 261 NS AHMAD NASIR 207 NS SYED HUSSAIN JAMAL 256 GC MUNEEB SAQLAIN 288 GC IHTASHAM UL AHSAN 281

[MECHANICS OF MATERIALS ASSIGNMENT NO. 2]
We the above mentioned declare that no part of this assignment submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the course of Mechanics of Materials I has been plagiarised, copied or replicated from any source including but not limited to online sources, books and the notes/work of any students. If at any stage it is found that any part of the content submitted is plagiarised then we will be liable at the minimum for similar disciplinary action and punishment that is prescribed for exam cheating cases.

5 Allowable Normal Stress for FS = 5 82.5 112.00 m Width = 0. Material Ultimate Tensile Stress (MPa) 414 370 450 Ultimate Shear Stress (MPa) 220 330 330 Allowable Normal Stress for FS = 4 103.8 74 90 Allowable Shear Stress for FS = 5 44 66 66 Aluminum Cast Iron Steel .68 kg.1 Mechanics of Material: Mini Design Project We are required to design 3 different bookshelves.5 pounds or 0. The shear and normal stresses for the materials which shall be used and the corresponding allowable stresses for a chosen factor of safety is shown in the table below. The weight of a filled ring binder will vary but according to a few measurements made for this project the average weight of one ring binder (found after weighing about 10 to 15 ring binders) came out to be around 8 kgs. Also note that since some dimensions were unable to be found hence a value is either assumed for them or they have been measured from actual designs. with 3 different types of materials and 2 factors of safety.25 m Thickness = 0.5 Allowable Shear Stress for FS = 4 55 82. which are as follows: Length = 1. in order to be on the safe side of the design we will be using the higher end of the range mentioned i.com between 1 and 1 1/2 pounds. 1.5 82. These dimensions will be highlighted in the free body diagram of the design. therefore for the sake of our ease and convenience we have used the dimensions of the shelves installed in our rooms.e.03 m Apart from that another generalization that shall be applied to the designs is the weight of the books used according to Googleanswers.5 92. The general dimensions required for a bookshelf to hold 25 books and 4 ring binders will vary from designer to designer.

40 m B 0.2 DESIGN 1: Mechanics of Material: Mini Design Project In this case the free body diagram can be drawn as F1 F2 F5 0.25 m FB C F3 A Now knowing that we are assuming a uniform weight distribution. Applying equations of equilibrium in x and y directions give the following equations: ∑ = 0 gives ) + F3 )( ) F5 + FB + F1 = F4 ( ∑ =0 . therefore the force F5 is given by ( This is the force acting at B as well.

It can also be assumed that the downward force of 122.40) = F3 (0. DIAMETER OF CABLES AC & BC Allowable stress = force / area Allowable stress = 144. C = 77. in this case we assume that F1 will have a small value and hence it can be neglected.5 N is balanced by F3.5 / (for cable AC) (for cable BC) .5 N We can now compute the resultant force for the pin connection at C assuming it to be in single shear.25) + F1 (0.6 N FORCE IN CABLE AC = 144.5 N Substituting this in the equilibrium equation in x direction we get F2 = .25) Hence to simplify we assume that one of the forces F1 or F3 will have a very little value and hence we can neglect it.5 / Allowable stress = 122.6 N (the negative sign shows its acting in the direction opposite to the one chosen) Now in order to find F1 and F3 we have only one equation and taking any moments about a point will not yield a proper result for them. either.25) + F2 (0.3 F2 + F4 ( Mechanics of Material: Mini Design Project )=0 Taking equilibrium at A to find F4: ∑ F4 ( = 0 yields ) = F5 Hence F4 = 144.5 N FORCE IN CABLE BC = 122.5 N We can now compute the diameters of the wires and the pin at C. therefore F3 = 122. as shown: ∑ = 0 yields FB (0.76.

177 Diameter of Cable for FS = 5 (mm) 1.5 Allowable Normal Stress for FS = 5 (MPa) 82.8 74 90 Diameter of Cable for FS = 4 (mm) 1.094 1.430 Allowable normal stress = force / area = 77.5 Allowable Normal Stress for FS = 5 (MPa) 82.5 112.372 1.6 / Diameter of Pin C for FS = 4 (mm) using Normal Stress 0.452 1.491 1.410 1.333 1.034 0.6 / Allowable shear stress = force / area = 77.316 Aluminum Cast Iron Steel FOR CABLE AC: Material Aluminum Cast Iron Steel FOR PIN C: Allowable Normal Stress for FS = 4 (MPa) 103.279 Diameter of Cable for FS = 5 (mm) 1.577 1.5 112.4 Mechanics of Material: Mini Design Project FOR CABLE BC: Material Allowable Normal Stress for FS = 4 (MPa) 103.156 1.094 Diameter of Pin C for FS = 5 (mm) using Normal Stress 1.5 92.977 1.937 Diameter of Pin C for FS = 4 (mm) using Shear Stress 1.299 1.499 1.224 Material Aluminum Cast Iron Steel .8 74 90 Diameter of Cable for FS = 4 (mm) 1.092 1.5 92.228 1.340 1.048 Diameter of Pin C for FS = 5 (mm) using Shear Stress 1.224 1.

while both normal and shear stresses act in the pin at C. The free body diagram then becomes The above shown design is fairly simple as compared to Design 1. Therefore the force acting on each bolt comes out to be: 122. the weight of the loaded shelf can be divided amongst the four bolts used to attach the wooden shelf to the brackets. On the pins used to attach the brackets to the both shear and normal stresses will be acting.5 N as in the above mentioned design since the weight of the books remains unchanged. and this can be found by applying the principle of moments about the lower pin.5 DESIGN 2: Mechanics of Material: Mini Design Project This design involves two L brackets fixed with a wall using 1 bolt for each bracket to connect the bracket to the wall. . This force will cause a normal stress on the bolts and that will be the allowable normal stress which can be computed using the formula of factor of safety. Using this stress the minimum diameter of the bolts can be found out. and two bolts to connect the shelf to the bracket. In this design shear stress acts on the pins due to forces F1 and F2. Assuming a uniform weight distribution.

375 1.537 Diameter of Pin D (mm) 1. ∑ = 0 gives Cy – F1 – F2 = 0 Cy = F1 + F2 Cy = 245 N Taking moments about the point shown as B in the free body diagram will yield us the value of Cx.375 1.883 1.537 1.537 .537 1.30) / (0. ∑ = 0 yields F1 (0.20) Cx = 183.5 (0.5 / Material Aluminum Cast Iron Steel Shear Stress for FS = 4 55 82.5 Shear Stress for FS = 5 44 66 66 Diameter of Pin A (mm) 1.20) – Cx (0.5 N as already explained in Design 1.683 1.5 82. Thus the shear stress in the bottom two pins is due to the weight of the shelf.75 N Finding the resultant force acting in the pin at C C = √( ) ( ) C = 306.25 N DIAMETER OF PINS A and D Allowable stress = force / area Allowable stress = 122.375 1.20) = 0 Cx = 122.10) + F2 (0.375 1.683 1.6 Mechanics of Material: Mini Design Project Since the weight is uniformly distributed therefore forces F1 and F2 are equal to 122. Applying the equilibrium equation in the y direction will give us the value of Cy.883 1.

17 2.081 Diameter of Pin C for FS = 5 (mm) using Shear Stress 2.053 1.174 2.7 Mechanics of Material: Mini Design Project DIAMETER OF PIN C Allowable normal stress = force / area = 306.174 Diameter of Pin C for FS = 5 (mm) using Normal Stress 2.431 Material Aluminum Cast Iron Steel .862 Diameter of Pin C for FS = 4 (mm) using Shear Stress 2.431 2.25 / Diameter of Pin C for FS = 4 (mm) using Normal Stress 1.977 2.663 2.25 / Allowable shear stress = force /area = 306.941 2.295 2.

it differs in the sense that the weight now acts on the pins (whose number has increased). Force on each pin = F1 = total weight / no.81 N . ∑ = 0 yields Cx (0. Note that for this design the dimensions used are the same as that for the earlier two designs in order to keep the design criteria and conditions same for all the designs.25) (0.e. of pins = 490/8 = 61. Also there are shear stresses acting in the bolts.8 DESIGN 3: Mechanics of Material: Mini Design Project This design is almost similar to the one mentioned in design 2. and both normal and shear stresses in the top pin which connects the frame to the wall.08) – 2 (61. this gives ∑ = 0 gives Cy – 61.25 N The vertical reaction force for the pin at the top can be calculated by applying the equilibrium equation in the y direction.25 = 0 Cy = 245 N Taking moments about B will give the horizontal component of the reaction force at C.1875) = 0 Cx = 382. The weight distribution can be calculated by dividing the total weight by the number of bolts i.25) (0.25 – 61.25 – 61.0625) – 2 (61.25 – 61.

644 2.191 1.25 / Material Aluminum Cast Iron Steel Shear Stress for FS = 4 55 82.627 2.25 N acts. their number is 8.961 Material Aluminum Cast Iron Steel .331 1.5 Shear Stress for FS = 5 44 66 66 Diameter of Pins for FS = 4 (mm) 1.00 1.536 Diameter of Pin C for FS = 5 (mm) using Shear Stress 3.5 82.244 2.9 Mechanics of Material: Mini Design Project Therefor the resultant force acting at pin C is then equal to C = √( ) ( ) C = 454.5 / Allowable shear stress = force /area = 454.648 Diameter of Pin C for FS = 5 (mm) using Normal Stress 2.087 DIAMETER OF PIN C Allowable normal stress = force / area = 454.501 2.5 / Diameter of Pin C for FS = 4 (mm) using Normal Stress 2. Allowable stress = force / area = 61.087 1.796 2.5 N DIAMETER OF PINS: These pins include the ones on which a force of 61.00 Diameter of Pins for FS = 5 (mm) 1.961 2.648 2.365 2.268 Diameter of Pin C for FS = 4 (mm) using Shear Stress 3.

6. or the pins and the supports have been neglected for a better design. But due to this the diameters of the pins (if made out of cast iron and steel) comes out to be quite small. this too will cause an increase in the cost of the design. 2. In design 3 the number of pins has increase from that of 4 (in design 2) to 8. . 5. In general as factor of safety is increased the allowable stress decreases. 7. 3. or another material will have to be chosen which has better properties. since we are finding out the diameters of the components ourselves. The weight of the entire assembly that is the struts as well as the shelf. Design 1 does have the advantage that it involves the least number of pins (only the top two pins which connect the wires to the wall). The entire weight distribution of the loaded shelf is assumed to be uniform hence equilibrium equations were able to be applied at all the joints. Also one main assumption in all of these designs is that these designs will be able to support the weight of the books. All struts and the shelf are assumed to be rigid that is any sort of deformation is neglected. thereby reducing the force acting on each pin. With the above assumption mentioned it is also stated that any sort of concentration factors around the pins or any other joints are neglected. RELATION TO FACTOR OF SAFETY: Two factors of safety have been chosen in order to show their effect on the diameter of the pins and/or the cables used in the designs. 4. thus the area increases this will cause an increase in the cost of the material being used. Poisson’s ratio has not been accounted for. and thermal stress have not been accounted for since they have not been covered at the moment of this assignment. creep. In design 1 the results of the diameter of the pin at C might not hold true for most cases due to the assumption that the vertical reaction force does not have much of an effect. and the pins is neglected since it is assumed that their weights would not have much of an effect on the results. 10. 9. Effects such as fatigue. ASSUMPTIONS: The above design analysis involves a few assumptions that are common to all the designs they are: 1. All the joints made whether with pins or otherwise are all connected perfectly. Any sort of frictional forces between the shelf and the supports.10 Mechanics of Material: Mini Design Project COMPARISON OF THE DESIGNS: Designs 2 and 3 are more or less the same. Net and bearing stresses have not been accounted for. 8.

11 Mechanics of Material: Mini Design Project REFERENCES: 1. Design 1 .com/Q/How_much_does_an_average_book_weigh 6. and assumed for Design 3. .com/galleries/images/2339/large/1_IMG_0277.bonluxat. 2.http://www.answers. . Weight of an average book http://wiki.http://www.uniquestylesolutions.ikeafans.asp 3.http://static1. Design 2 .com/expo-cable_shelf_kit.jpg 4. Design 3 .com/cmsense/data/import/big/nisse-strinning-stringpocket_rd. Values for Ultimate Tensile and Shear Stresses . Highlighted dimensions have been measured on an actual design for Designs 1 & 2.jpg 5.Engineering Mechanics of Solids by Egor P Popov.