Developing Countries – ICT importance The force driving contemporary globalisation is ICT enabling instant communication over space

and time, collection, storage processing and transmission of digitalised information – with far-reaching implicaiotio0ns for inducing crossboorder transnational relationships. Problem: Two opposing trends have emerged: one marking increased interdependence, multilateral global agreements while the other unfolds increasing political fragmentation and emergence of new regional groupings. Need to look at the ways in which these global processes create new opportunities, new insecurities and new inequalities for established, emerging and developing nations. Linked to the critical role of ICT in stimulating development and ushering the Information Age. In this context the major force driving contemporary globalisation – ICT is a challenge and unique opportunity to accelerate development and users in structural change and the Information Age. Policies: stimulate innovation, production and diffusion, with emphasis on efficiency, productivity. Innovations and productivity key driver of ICT – emergence of innovations to boost economic value from the material to the non-material, shifts in wealth. Marked by the introduction of the electric motor, steam power and subsequently various forms of communication such as the telephone, radio and television. ICT is a unique vehicle weaving the production process linking investment to the inputs on the computer and the telelecommunications sector. Western Economies – US may be ahead in the adoption of new technology with its computer industry and innovation still raising productivity – it has already had its long period of gestation and development. Political Impacts: ICT key means of revamping the nature of traditional competitive democracy enabling participation, transpareceny, accountability and efficiency in the delivery of public choices. This can be initiated buy diverse pressure or interest groups, and social movements to forge alliances, national-global links and break the monopoly of traditional source of information. Change ways of influencing decision making and change the landscape of politics. Emergence of virtual diplomacy. Barrier for political impact: Enriching politics and inducing social change within and between nations may be locked by existing power structures through measures to extend their monopoly over the new technology – controlling access to sources, the contents and freedom of choice over information which conflicts with their ideology. Impoverish substance, depth and quality of information, heighten social exclusion

national and global governance. Diffusion: Diffusion of ICT in developing nations shows sharp contrasts with developed and is closely linked to its relevance in the challenges facing goals of shifting from an agricultal to an industrial society. Digital dived. Developed nations Possibilities and Limitations: i) ICT linking levels: individuals and households at the local. . industries services and strengthening democracy – in the framework of economics which are basically rural with limited industrial output – though this is gradually changing – marked by deep-rooted poverty. the regional and the international level and encouraging the sharing of identity ii) ICT for governance at different levels: across levels and below levels under different political and economic structures – developed. nature of technology make this unfeasible. Re-skilling re-training critical. Major Trends: Diffusion of ICT is fundamental to enable developed and developing countries to stimulate socio-economic development and user in structural change. voicing demands. the national. measures to fulfil goals of growth and protecting workers are correlated. Championed as a major vehicle for creating intensifying strengthening and transforming conventional modes of politics and power to enable new forms of local. efficiency.Developing states may impose strict controls of the nature of the information distributed through ICT. Relevance of the concerns stemming in developed nations on the patterns of adoption needs to be assed under the conditions facing developing nations. developing and transitional. Developed nations ahead in the digital race. competitive strength directly and indirectly in specific sectors. In LT however. term coined to capture the bias in the patterns of access to ICT in terms of the levels of user of the internet (region. sharp income inequalities. Shift from state to market based liberalisation policies. and sharp socioeconomic differences. acquiring information on rights. iii) Mechanisms for governance based on interparty political competition. choice of political parties. Problem: ICT can incorporate notions of governance through transparency. sector. asserting basic rights and building alliances at several levels. Creating a more egalitarian system to overcome human problems in systems. accountability and exposure of injustices. Hence. Scope of using ICT to enhance productivity may lead to reductions in demand for labour – possible unemployment for some sectors. socio economic group [income age sex]. Especially so in poverty. Overtime the digital gap within the socio economic groups could be reduced through targeted policies. Developing nations face a major challenge in incorporating ICT into development policies to boost productivity.

which have blocked development and enabled strong ‘knowledge infrastructure’ impacting on all key rural and urban industries. Challenge – how to integrate ICT into development policies to overcome such hurdles. Basic premise of ICT is that is s a major motivation force for: efficiency. outside borders. . boundaries between public and private. Access to ICT by the poor limited. Ambiguous – tax jurisdiction. Problems: uncertainty of the outcome from lack of trained employees gaps in sustainability costs etc. On education – alleviate shortages of teachers. providing more open and pluralistic forms of competition for insurgents among parties. borderless nature and partly on its empowerment of individuals. . tipping the balance of relevant political resources form money. anti globalization protests again IMF in Prague 2000. Makes government organization and powers. WTO direct action campaigns 1999. important as indicators of the disruptive potential Minimal cost instantaneous global communications where technology can be used by a diverse coalition to challenge the legitimacy of international organisations and the authority of governments Democracy: Characteristics’ nets erosion of borders – reduces overall power of governments to control their citizens – increases ability to seek receives and imparts information through any media regardless of frontiers. etc Disruptive potential of digital politics: Flash protests Ant capitalism protest City of London. ICT has been seen as a vehicle for reducing information gaps. development and new demand. the social sectors etc.because of the shift in production in India. Remain rare. Need to open up opportunities – help he disinvited to have a voice and escape the poverty trap. Main democratic potential of digital information and communication technologies lies in strengthening organizational linkages and networking capacities in civic society. lower prices and more output. Growth functions of translating productivity gains into new investment. Speed of development makes it difficult for any government to cope with. Limits regulation. and enhance skills. members and bureaucratic organizational linkages to know-how and technical skills. offset remoteness. Require re-formulation of social norms and social rights to ensure that legislation embodies minimum standards.Rise of networking – LinkedIn. interest groups. Net also promotes the ability of people to associate freely with others who share their r views and interest regardless of where they are located. saving costs in factors of production. but can have immediate impact not eh policy process.

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