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- on flute techniques from the 20th century
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A. Changes of pitch
1. Glissandi 2. Micro intervals
B. Changes of timbre
1. Harmonics 2. Alternative fingerings 3. Tone-colour trills 4. With voice 5. Changes in the “tone developer”
1. Multiphonics 2. With voice
D. Attack and influence on the air stream
1. Key percussion 2. Slap tongue 3. Tongue ram 4. Flatterzunge
E. New technique of tone development
1. Whistle tones 2. Trumpet sound 3. Strong air stream without tone
F. Appendix: Fingering tablature for quarter-tones, for flutes without ring keys
Version 3.0e, June 2003 Downloaded from www.sforzando.se/flutetech ©Mats Möller/Sforzando production 1987/2003. May be distributed and used by flautists and composers, but not offered for sale or used without mentioning the source. 1
depending on tempo and the distance between the first and last notes of the glissando 2. a continuous slide from a pitch to another Is played a: 1.) Written: ¿ ¡ ¬ √ ƒ ≈ 2 1/4 note up 1/4 note down 3/4 notes up (sharpened semi-tone+sharpened quarter-tone) sharpened one semi-tone+flattened one quarter-tone flattened one semi-tone+sharpened one quarter-tone 3/4 tones down (flattened one semi-tone+flattened one quartertone) .A.e. less than 100 cents. eventually by filling up the interval with quarter-tones A N gliss. by filling up the interval mainly with semi-tones. sliding) represent a. but does not change the tone-colour as much as 1. quarter-tones (50 cents). in combination with turning the flute inwards or outwards 2. by changing the embouchure and turning the flute in. Changes of pitch 1. Glissandi (it. or bigger intervals. Micro-intervals Intervals less than a semi-tone. by closing or opening the keys slowly 4. on flutes with ring keys.or outwards (not very precise. [N b: 1. by bending the spindle on which the keys are mounted. played 1. on flutes with pads in bad condition. on flutes with ring keys with new fingerings or by using holes only partially open (the new fingerings will also change tone-colour) 2. a. by gradually opening or closing the rings 3. on flutes without ring keys. primarily with new fingerings. A N [N 2. i. as to make the keys not cover perfectly gliss. filling up an interval by a moving scale b. with embouchure.
o Most often written with fingering: but occasionally: 2o o o5 o o 7 . c. M ﬂ A A 3 . 1/8-tones etc. or together with the fundamental note from which the harmonic is produced: Å N Å N A A û It is possible to play the same harmonic from different fundamental notes: A 2. so as to create a new tone-colour. Compare with tonecolour trills which may also be micro-tone trills.may be written like this: 12 N ¡ N Y N ≈ N N ¡ N N ¡ N Y N ≈ N M A4 A N ¿ N [N ¬N N ¿ N N ¿ N [N ¬N M b. and then play at correct pitch. micro-tone trills Played with fingerings which are mostly printed in the piece. Alternative fingerings Å N Å N Å N û û û Alternative fingerings will change tone-colour. B.and upwards . Named “bisbigliando” or “Hollow tone”. Changes of timbre 1.A scale with quarter-tones downwards . Played with new fingerings and/or changing of embouchure. 1/5-tones. The notation often differs from one piece to another. Harmonics Harmonics from c1: A Å Å ≈N Å N Å N N Å Å N N L Notated as it sounds. You may also use a micro-tone fingering.
.. Changes in the “tone developer” Changings of embouchure. . different embouchures. i: or ã ﬁ ﬁ ﬁ üﬁ ü ü N T # A ü b. a. force and turbulence of the air stream. The effect is most obvious when you sing in the same octave as you play. may also change the tone-colour.). May be written: N N N N N A Ä Ä Ä Ä Ä or: Sing _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _| N A N N N N 5.• ox –o –o o 7 A M 4. May be written: — N T — — — A # 4 ε .3. Written with fingering: .. You may also create this effect by “disturbing” the air stream with the tongue.. Written phonetically. different vowels in the oral cavity. for instance: c. With voice By singing the same tone as played. will create a more hollow tone-colour. as when using the very last air in an exhalation. “Souffle” (fr).. the tone-colour will change. These trills most often also change the pitch.. Tone-colour trills Rapid change between the normal fingering and a fingering changing the tone-colour. from maximum tone quality to only air. velocity and pressure of the air stream etc.. : . velocity. form of the oral cavity. Also named “Aeolian sounds” or “Soffiata” (it. Increased air pressure. Most often written: ã N ﬁ ﬁ ﬁ ﬁ T A # N [N N A u: .
Multiphonics Two or more tones sounding at the same time (chord). Key percussion Closing a key with force.. - o5 o6 A o M M É N NT # It is also possible to trill in or between multiphonics: o o– o 7 N ¿N [N N A N ¬[ N 2. a. and even use the “closed” keys on the flute (g#. singing a descant. combinated with changing of the embouchure.. . increased or reduced air pressure and possibly turbulence of the air stream. or c. The effect is called “keyclick”. Keyclick with open mouthpiece. or b. a. Most often written with chord and fingering: . Polyphony 1. . the two parts in counterpoint Written in one or two systems: . There are two kind of keyclicks . and with closed. d#).C. without air stream. A4 4 N N M M A4 4 ÄN N M Ä 4 A4 M D.. will produce a note as well as a mechanical noise. With voice Singing a different pitch from the one played. YM o 9 . Attack and influence on the air stream 1. . written A ü! T å 5 . Performed (most often) with alternative fingering. You may combine keyclicks with normally produced tones.with open mouthpiece position. singing different notes and playing a descant. .
.. 6 . .! o– - A ü å T will create a louder keyclick than A ü! T å . By closing the mouthpiece with the tongue.. Keyclick with closed mouthpiece. . Slap tongue or *! A N T å Slap tongue is a flute technique which sounds very close to the pizzicato of string instruments. written A Nü! T å 2. . . it will be possible to play keyclicks which will sound below the lowest notes of the instrument. and then making a big and very rapid movement with the tongue. Keyclick and normally produced note. . It is produced by puffing short tones with the tongue. . normal slap tongue. . written ! A Ü T b.! o– 9 A (… ü) T [å ü or A ü T ü) ([å c.. Keyclick with closed mouthpiece is most often notated with fingering and sounding pitch.It is not necessary to hit the key of the desired pitch. The easiest way is to say “HOT!” or “HT!”. With a closed mouthpiece the keyclicks sound a major seventh down. the fingering . a. against the teeth. as well as the tone which is fingered: .. - o– b. indicating a mouthpiece blocked by the lips or the mouth). combined with keycklick: ! A üÜ T 3.! o– 9 . . Tongue ram Tongue ram is created by closing the mouthpiece with the whole mouth. . . . without any air pressure from the lungs. In fact the keyclick will sound louder if you hit a key “above” (closer to the mouthpiece) the normal hole.. A closed mouthpiece with tongue is notated (not to be mixed up with . For instance. The tone which is produced will sound a major seventh below the fingered one.
and is then written: jet whistle A ü glis s. The sound is also called “Jet Whistle”.. Whistle tones With an open but at the same time controlled embouchure and a very low air pressure it is possible to play Whistle tones. ü # T 7 .R.! T. A ü T ü) ( [å A ü T ü) ( [å With the tongue flitting like a flag in the oral cavity. in the flute. but louder and with a more whistling character. you will obtain a sound similar to “aeolian sounds”. A <M E. for instance: whistle tones ﬂ ﬂ ﬂ ﬁ ﬂ w. Sometimes you obtain this sound when you decrease the air pressure playing a low note on the flute. Many different notations are used. Whistle notes are easiest to control in the third octave. it is possible to play a. where you use the original fingerings. It is important that the tongue is very loose during the fluttertonguing. Trumpet sound N N N N M A With compressed lips. Flatterzunge HT! or . sounding like the tremolo of a bowed instrument. The effect may also be combined with an inhalation through the flute. New technique of tone development 1. Written A <M or flz A M or frull.Strong air stream By closing the whole mouthpiece with the mouth and blowing with great force directly and without tone into the instrument. as playing a brass instrument. an intermittent stream of air is created.t. removing the mouthpiece Written T 3. according to the work for flute and violoncello by Villa-Lobos. It is often used together with scale movements.! 4. in the hole of the mouthpiece b. A 2.
. . . . . . ¿ M . . A4 4 ¿ M ≈ M ¬M ≈ M ¿ M ¡ M ¿ M ≈ M ¬M ¡ M ¿ M ≈ M ¬M ¡ M . . . . . . . . ≈ M ¡ M ¬M ¿ M ¡ M ¿ M ≈ M ¬M ¡ M ¿ M ≈ M ¬M ¡ M ¿ M A .. . .. . . . .. . ¬M ¡ M .. . . . . .. . . . . . A . .. . ≈ M ¡ M ¿ M . ≈ M ¡ M ¿ M ¬ M ¬M . . . ≈ M ¡ M ≈ M ¡ M ¿ M ¬ M ¬M A ¿ M ≈ M ¬M ¡ M ¿ M ¡ M ¿ M . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¡ M ≈ M ¡ M ¿ M . . . . . . . .. . . . . .F. .. ¿ M ¡ M ¿ M ≈ M . . . . . .. . . . . . . ¿ M ≈ M ¬M ¡ M . . Appendix: Fingering tablature for quarter-tones. . . . . . .. . . . . . for flutes without ring keys 8 15 22 . ¬M ¡ M . . . . . ¿ M ➞ ➞ ➞ ➞ ➞ 7+9 ➞ ➞ ➞ 9 o o o 9 9 o o o 7 x o 9 9 o o o o 7 o 7 o 7 o o o o o 7 o o o5 (5) 7 - oo o o o o(6) o 7 o ➞ ➞ o o 9 8 o o o 7 x x o o o 7 8 - 7 o - o x o o o - x o oo o 8 o o 9 o5 o o 7 o o o o - 7 7 o - o o o o 7 x o 7 o 5x o o o o5 o 7 o o o5 o6 - oo o o6 o 7 29 A 8 ➞ ➞ (6) 7 ➞ ➞ ➞ ➞ ➞ ➞ ➞ . . . . . . . . .
Berio.sforzando. 1913) to Deák (Fuvola. Karkoff. More information at www. Contact: office@sfzrecords. Mats Möller plays music by Debussy. Welin.from Debussy (Syrinx.cda. Tiensuu. Takemitsu. Rosenberg.sforzando.se/1007 The cds are distributed by CDA.com. Grims-land. and this has a great influence also on Western art music. Cantilenas and subtleness. Sagvik. Jolivet. Möller and Deák. – In our time all music styles are present at the same time. focusing on Swedish music . Nilsson. music from the djungles of Puerto Rico and beautiful melodies inspired by Erik Satie as well as by popular music (Sierra and Agdur). More information at www. Varèse. Scelsi. 2003) 64'08 Duo 2xm presents some of the most famous works for flute and guitar written during the last decades.com 9 . says the young guitarist and composer Johannes Möller.Two cds with Mats Möller.swedishmusicshop.se/2001 DUO 2XM (SFZ 1007. 2000) 154' (2 cds) An exposé through the world of 20th century music for flute alone. Ferneyhough. as well as virtuosity and new techniques for the instrument. Morthenson. On this cd you will find Indian raga together with Russian avant-garde (Shankar and Denisov). Eliasson. together with two new Swedish compositions.se) and are also sold at www. using the extended techniques SOLO PER FLAUTO (SFZ 2001. Sweden (www. developed from the 70's and on. Bäck. Maros. 2000).
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