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RATE OF REACTION

Definition Speed at which reactants are converted into products in a chemical reaction. Fast reaction; - time taken is short So, the reactants is quickly converted to the products. Thus, the rate of reaction is high/higher.

Slow reaction; - time taken is long So, the reactants is slowly converted to the products. Thus, the rate of reaction is low/lower. So; What is the relation between rates of reaction with time? When the time taken is short, the rate of reaction is higher, When the time taken is longer, the rate of reaction is lower, Rate of reaction is directly proportional with 1/time Rate of reaction is inversely proportional with time

Measuring the rate of reaction

Rate of reaction

________________________________________

Changes in selected quantity Time taken

Suitable changes; volume of gas liberated precipitate formation change in mass during the reaction colour changes temperature changes pressure changes Other observable changes?

Average rate of reaction : The average value of the rate of reaction within a specified period of time.
Changes in selected quantity Average rate = ____________________________________________ of reaction Time taken balas

Notes: Reaction with high rate of reaction, completed in short time. Reaction with low rate of reaction, completed in longer time.

Rate of reaction at given/Instantaneous time : The actual rate of reaction at that instant. (a.k.a : Instantaneous rate of reaction)
Instantaneous =Gradient of the curve at that instant rate of reaction

Table 1.1 pg 5 Example 1.1 pg 5 (HW-note) i. The average rate of reaction in the first 90 seconds from graph plotted? Solutions: The formula
Total volume of gas liberated Average rate ____________________________________________ = of reaction Time taken balas

balas

= =

ii. The rate of reaction at 90 seconds? (Instantaneous rate of reaction)

Instantaneous rate of reaction = Gradient of the curve at 90 seconds at 90 seconds

Solutions: - Plot a graph - Draw a tangent - Find the gradient The rate of reaction at 90 seconds = gradient at 90 seconds = Length of DF Length of EF = 0.14 cm3s-1

B: Factors Affecting The Rate of Reaction Why these two graph different?

a) b) c) d) e)

Total surface area of solid reactant Concentration of reactant Temperature of reactant Use of catalyst Pressure of gaseous reactant

Collision Theory Dear boys and girls to better understand of collision theory you must know few thing related to the theory which is; Collision Effective collision Activation energy Collision frequency Effective collision frequency Energy profile diagram * And also the chemical equation

What is the Collision Theory? During a reaction, the particles of the reactants must collide with each other, for bond breaking and then bond formation to occur to produce product. Bond breaking : absorb heat energy Bond formation : release heat energy Those collisions which achieved a minimum activation energy and with the correct orientation will result in a reaction. These collisions are called effective collisions. If the particles collide with less energy than activation energy or with wrong orientation, it will not result in reaction, is called ineffective collisions. So what is i. effective collisions? ii. activation energy?

Effective collisions Those collisions which achieved a minimum activation energy and with the correct orientation, will result in a reaction. Activation Energy Activation energy is the energy barrier that must be overcome by the colliding particles of the reactants in order for reaction to occur

Energy Profile Diagrams i. Exothermic Reactions

Energy

Activation Energy

Reactants Heat changes Products

Reaction path

Exothermic Reaction

Remember the process and diagrams, we will study more when we reach topic 4.

ii. Endothermic Reactions

Energy

Activation Energy

Products

Reactants

Reaction path

Endothermic Reaction

Activation energy is the difference in energy between the energy in reactants and the energy at the peak of curve

Exothermic Reaction Reactants Product Total Heat Higher Lower Energy Heat Energy Energy Energy during absorbs releases reaction during bond during bond breaking is formation is lower higher Thus; Heat changes = Heat Energy in product Heat Energy in reactant = - ve

Endothermic Reaction Reactants Product Total Heat Lower Higher Energy Heat Energy Energy Energy during absorbs releases reaction during bond during bond breaking is formation is higher lower Thus; Heat changes = Heat Energy in product Heat Energy in reactant = + ve The conclusion is; The reaction occur when reactants collide; a. achieved activation energy b. with correct orientation

1 Effect of surface area/size SMALLER size solid reactant, Bigger total surface area per volume Higher frequency of effective collision Higher rate of reaction

BIGGER size solid reactant, Smaller total surface area per volume Lower frequency of effective collision Lower rate of reaction

t1 I : Small marble II : Large marble

t2

Time / min

- Graph I is more steeper than graph II - Thus, the gradient of graph I is more than graph II - Thus, the rate of reaction for the experiment I is higher than experimen II Question: Why the total volume of gas is same? Answer: the number of mole of reactant is same

Effect of Size When the size of fixed mass of solid reactant (name the reactant, CaCO3) is smaller, The total surface area per volume exposed to collision with other reactant (name the reactant) particles is bigger. Thus, the number of collision among the reacting particles at the surface of the solid reactants increases. Frequency of collission is higher. Thus, the number of collision achieved the activation energy to become effective collision is also increases. This lead to an increase in the FREQUENCY of EFFECTIVE COLLISION. Hence, a higher rate of reaction.

Effect of Concentration When the concentration of the solution of a reactant increases; The number of particles per unit volume of the solution of the reactant also increases. Thus, the number of collision among the reacting particles increases. Frequency of collission is higher. Thus, the number of collision achieved the activation energy to become effective collision is also increases. This lead to an increase in the frequency of effective collision. Hence, a higher rate of reaction.

Effect of Temperature When the temperature of a reactant increases; The kinetic energy of reacting particles will increase, so the particles moves faster. Thus, the number of collision among the reacting particles increases. Frequency of collission is higher. Thus, the number of collision achieved the activation energy to become effective collision is also increases. This lead to an increase in the frequency of effective collision. Hence, a higher rate of reaction. HW: draw graph figure 1.10 pg13 draw graph figure 1.11 pg13

Effect of Catalyst Catalyst: a substance which alters the rate of chemical reaction while it remains chemically unchanged at the end of the reaction.
Energy Ea Reaction without catalyst Reaction with catalyst Ea : Activation energy without catalyst Ec : Activation Energy with catalyst
Product Reaction path

Ec
Reactant

When the catalyst is presence; The catalyst allows the reactian to take place through an alternative path which requires a lower activation energy.

Thus, more collision among the reacting particles are able to achive the lower activation energy. Thus, the number of collision achieved the activation energy to become effective collision is also increases. This lead to an increase in the frequency of effective collision. Hence, a higher rate of reaction. Effect of Pressure When the pressure of the gas of a reactant increases; The number of particles per unit volume of the gas of the reactant also increases. Thus, the number of collision among the reacting particles increases. The frequency of collision is increase. Thus, the number of collision achieved the activation energy to become effective collision is also increases.

This lead to an increase in the frequency of effective collision. Hence, a higher rate of reaction. Sketch graph: (i) Concentration of solution against time

Time / s

____ 1 /s-1 time

So, what can you conclude from the graph? (iii) Temperature against time

Temperature / oC

time /s

Suhu / oC

_____ 1 /s-1 time

So, what can you conclude from the graph? Concentration is directly proportional to the rate of reaction Temperature is directly proportional to the rate of reaction How to analyse the graph?

First Situation: All of these experiments are using the same size and mass of catalyst. The temperature of the reactants remains the same. Why are there differences in the rate of reaction shown?
Volume of gas / cm3 V I V/2 II
III IV

t1

t2

Time / min

I and II I and III I and IV [comparison] Please remember that the total volume of the gas depends on the number of moles of the reactant.

Number of moles = Molarity Volume (solution) 1000 Can you analyse the graph based from the volume and the concetration of the reactant? Second Situation: All of these experiments are using the same type of catalyst. The volume, concentration and temperature of the reactants remains the same. Why are there differences in the early rate of reaction shown?

V Volume of the gas / cm3 I II III

t1

t2 Time / min

Exercise: An experiment is carried out between 10 g of magnesium with 20 cm3 hydrochloric acid 0.5 mol dm-3. The reaction is completed in 8 minutes. [Relatif atomic mass: H, 1; Cl, 35 ; Mg, 24;

Molar volume of gas is 24 dm3 at room condition] a) Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction. b) Calculate the maximum volume of the gas liberated at room condition. c) Calculate the average rate of reaction within 8 minutes. d) Calculate the mass of the magnesium used in the reaction. e) Sketch the graph of volume against time for these experiment

The formula: IF REACTANT IS SOLID Number of mole = . mass Ar or Mr .

IF REACTANT IS SOLUTION Number of moles = Molarity Volume 1000 VOLUME OF THE GAS AT ROOM CONDITION Volume of = Number of moles 24 dm3 the gas

Solution: a. Mg + 2HCl MgCl2 + H2 0.01 b. Number of moles of Mg = mass Mg

Ar = 10 24 = 0.42 mol (EXCESSBERLEBIHAN Number of moles of hydrochloric acid = Concentration Volume 1000 = MV 1000 = 0.5 x 20 1000 = 0.01 mol Mg + 2HCl MgCl2 + H2 0.42 (0.01) FBCE; 2 mol HCl produce 1 mol H2 0.01 mol HCl produce x 0.01 mol H2 Thus;

The no. of mole of H2 = 0.005 mol (1 mol of gas = 24 dm3 in room condition) Volume of H2 = 0.005 X 24 dm3 H2 = 0.12 dm3 = 120 cm3

c. Average reaction in 8 minute = 120 / 8 cm3 min-1 = 15 cm3 min-1 d. FBCE; 2 mol HCl reacts with 1 mol Mg 0.01 mol HCl reacts with x 0.01 mol Mg Thus; The no. of mole of Mg = 0.005 mol (1 mol of Mg = 24 g)

Mass of Mg = 0.005 X 24 g = 0.12 g 2. An experiment is carried out between 2 g of magnesium carbonate with 20 cm3 hydrochloric acid 0.2 mol dm-3 . (RAM: H, 1; C, 12; O, 16; Mg, 24; Molar volume of gas is 22.4 dm3 at s.t.p) a) Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction. b) Calculate the maximum volume of the gas liberated at s.t.p. c) Draw a labbeled apparatus for experimet. d) How to test and confirm the gas liberated Solution; a) MgCO3 + 2HCl MgCl2 + CO2 + H2O b) No. mol of HCl = MV/1000 = 0.2 x 20 / 1000

= 0.004 mol FBCE; HCl 2 mol 0.004 mol CO2 1mol 0.002 mol

No. of mol CO2 = 0.002 mol Volume of CO2 = 0.002 x 22.4 dm3 = 0.0448 dm3 = 0.0448 x 1000 cm3 = 44.8 cm3

d) Add 20 cm3 lime water into a test tube, and passed through the gas into the test tube.