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-750

-500

-250

0

250

500

750

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000

(c)

0

Bearing pressure (in kN/m )

2

50

100

150

200

250

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000

(d)

Design a raft foundation for the layout of columns shown in Figure 12.C.19(a). All columns are

of square shape of size 40 40 cm. ADSP ¼ 80 kN/m3. Use M 15 concrete and Fe 415 steel.

Assume 10% as the load of raft and soil above.

Total vertical column load ¼ ð600 þ 1600 þ 2000 þ 600 þ 800 þ 1800 þ 2000

þ 1000 þ 800 þ 1000 þ 1200 þ 600Þ ¼ 14000

Eccentricity along the x direction is obtained by taking moment of column loads about the

grid 1–1

½6ð1600 þ 1800 þ 1000Þ þ 12ð2000 þ 2000 þ 1200Þ þ 18ð600 þ 1000 þ 600Þ

x ¼

14000

¼ 9:1714 m

ex ¼ 9:1714ð6 þ 3Þ ¼ 0:1714 m

Eccentricity along the y direction is obtained by taking moment of column loads about the

grid C–C

Table 12.C.7 Comparative study (see comments in Section 12.C.2).

Structural Design of Foundations

pressure (kN/m2) moment (kNm) shear force (kN)

Conventional With factored 624.323 987.323 1032.20 624.323/28 ¼ 18.08

design load

With design 624.323/1.5 987.323/1.5 ¼ 658.22 1032.20/1.5 ¼ 688.13 18.08/1.5 ¼ 12.05

load ¼ 416.22

Design using BEF 205.050 kN/m2 at 440.576 kNm at 631.628 kN at 5.86 mm at x ¼ 0 mm

(with design load only) x ¼ 0 mm x ¼ 6680 mm; x ¼ 6680 mm;

299.937 kNm 564.406 kN

at x ¼ 2227 mm at x ¼ 724 mm

571

572 Foundation Design

(d/2+900) 400

700

0.5d 0.5d

Side

800 kN

0.5d

(d/2+900)

(d/2+900)

0.5d

1600 kN

700 mm

400 mm

700 mm (d+400)

Corner (d+400)

(b1) (b2)

1 2 3 4

700 6000 mm 6000 mm 6000 mm 700

750 mm

800 mm

19400 mm

per meter length of the slab

(c)

Figure 12.C.19 Raft layout and column loads; (b1) critical section in shear; (b2) critical section in

shear; and (c) details of reinforcement along the longitudinal section (Example 12.7).

Structural Design of Foundations 573

y¼ ¼ 5:4285 m

14000

ey ¼ 5:42855 ¼ 0:4285 m

19:4 11:43

Ix ¼ ¼ 2395:16 m4

12

11:4 19:43

Iy ¼ ¼ 6936:31 m4

12

A ¼ 19:4 11:4 ¼ 221:16 m2

P 14000

¼ ¼ 63:302 kN=m2

A 221:16

P My Mx

s¼ x y ð12:C:67Þ

A Iy Ix

2400 6000

s ¼ 63:302 x y ¼ 63:158 1:5269x 0:4745y

6936:31 2395:16

At corner A–4

sA4 ¼ 63:158 þ 0:346 9:7 þ 2:505 5:7 ¼ 80:93 ﬃ BC of soil ð80 kN=m2 Þ

At corner C–4

At corner A–1

At corner C–1

At corner B–4

574 Foundation Design

At corner B–1

sB1 ¼ 63:1580:346 9:7 ¼ 59:943 kN=m2

In the x direction, the raft is divided in three strips, that is three equivalent beams:

2. Beam B–B with 5.0 m width and soil pressure of ð80 þ266:65Þ ¼ 73:32 kN=m2

ð66:65 þ 52:38Þ

3. Beam C–C with 5.0 m width and soil pressure of 2 ¼ 59:52 kN=m2 .

The bending moment is obtained by using a coefficient 1/10 and L as the center to center of

column distance

wL2

þ M ¼ M ¼ ð12:C:68Þ

10

For strip A–A

80 62

Maximum moment ¼ ¼ 288 kNm=m

10

For strip B–B

73:32 62

Maximum moment ¼ ¼ 263:95 kNm=m

10

For strip C–C

59:52 62

Maximum moment ¼ ¼ 214:272 kNm=m

10

2

For any strip in the y direction, take M ¼ wL8 since there is only a two-span equivalent beam.

For strip 4–4

80 52

Maximum moment ¼ ¼ 250 kNm=m

8

The depth of the raft is governed by two-way shear at one of the exterior columns. If the location

of critical shear is not obvious, it may be necessary p

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ toﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

check all possible locations.

Shear strength of concrete, tc ¼ 0:25 fck ¼ 0:25 15 ¼ 0:97N=mm2

For a corner column (say C–1)

Perimeter bo ¼ 2 d2 þ 900 ¼ d þ 1800 mm (Figure 12.C.19(b))

Vu 1:5 800 1000

tv ¼ ¼ ¼ 0:97

bo d ðd þ 1800Þd

1200000

¼ ¼ 0:97

ðd þ 1800Þd

) d 2 þ 1800d1237113:40 ¼ 0

Structural Design of Foundations 575

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

1800 ð18002 þ 4 1 1237113:40Þ

d¼ ¼ 530:773 mm

21

For a corner column (say A–2)

d

Perimeter bo ¼ 2 þ 900 þ ðd þ 400Þ ¼ 2d þ 2200 mm

2

tv ¼ ¼ ¼ 0:97

bo d ð2d þ 2200Þd

d 2 þ 1100d1237113:40 ¼ 0 ð12:C:69Þ

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

1100 ð11002 þ 4 1 1237113:40Þ

)d¼ ¼ 690:811 mm

21

However, adopt an effective depth of 750 mm and overall depth of 800 mm

Reinforcement in the longitudinal direction is given by (considering a 1 m wide strip)

2 sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ3

15 4 4:6 288 106 5

At ¼ 0:5 1 1 1000 750 ¼ 1109:51 mm2

415 15 1000 7502

1109:51

Number of bars ¼ p 2

¼ 3:531 ﬃ 4 bars

4 20

1000 p4 202

Spacing of long bars ¼ ¼ 283:152 mm

1109:51

Provide 4–20 mm F bars for reinforcement @ 260 mm c/c at top and bottom in both directions.

Minimum reinforcement in the slabs ¼ 0:12%

0:12

¼ 800 1000

100

¼ 960 mm2 =m < 1109:51 mm2 =m

Minimum steel governs in the remaining raft. Critical sections in shear.

WINBEF Solution:

WINBEF Input

Young’s modulus of soil, Es ¼ 105 kN=m2 , unit weight of soil, gsoil ¼ 20 kN=m3 .

576 Foundation Design

Young’s modulus of concrete

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Ef ¼ 5000 sck ¼ 5000 15 ¼ 19364:92 N=mm2 ¼ 1:9364 107 kN=m2

B ¼ breadth of foundation ¼ 1.0 m (considering a 1 m wide strip for design).

3 3

Moment of inertia of the concrete beam If ¼ Bd ¼ 1:00:8 ¼ 0:04267 m4 .

h 12 qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ412i

Modulus of subgrade reaction, ks ¼ BðmmÞ

1

0:65 12 EEsfBIf 1n

Es

2.

s

sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

0:65 105 12 105 1:04 59902

ks ¼ ¼ ¼ 59:902 kN=m2 =mm:

1000 1 0:3 2

1:9364 10 0:04267 7 1000

The loading data is shown in Figure 12.C.20.

Note: In the loading diagram, the load coming on to the beam is taken as maximum of A, B

and C strip loads as explained below (see Figure 12.C.19(a)).

The maximum load on strip 1–1: maximum of A1 (600 kN), B1 (800 kN) and C1 (800 kN),

which is 800 kN.

The maximum load on strip 2–2: maximum of A2 (1600 kN), B2 (1800 kN) and C2

(1000 kN), which is 1800 kN.

The maximum load on strip 3–3: maximum of A3 (2000 kN), B3 (2000 kN) and C3

(1200 kN), which is 2000 kN.

The maximum load on strip 4–4: maximum of A4 (600 kN), B4 (1000 kN) and C4 (1000 kN),

which is 1000 kN.

The details of deflection, bending moment, shear force and bearing pressure are shown in

Figure 12.C.21. Please see also comments given in Section 12.C.2.

Structural Design of Foundations 577

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

5.5

6.0

6.5

7.0

7.5

8.0

0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000

Length of the beam (in mm)

(a)

Bending moment (in kN - m)

-600

-400

-200

0

200

400

600

800

1000

0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000

Length of the beam (in mm)

(b)

-1000

-800

-600

Shear force (in kN )

-400

-200

0

200

400

600

800

1000

0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000

Length of the beam (in mm)

(c)

Figure 12.C.21 (a) BEF deflection diagram; (b) BEF bending moment diagram; (c) BEF shear force

diagram; and (d) BEF bearing pressure diagram (Example 12.7).

Design an annular (circular) raft for a circular tank whose outer diameter is 12 m and is

supported by a ring beam of 9 m diameter. The inner diameter of the annulus is 8 m. The

factored soil pressure under the raft is 80 kN/m2 and a linearly varying soil pressure due to

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