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"This document is not an API Standard; it is under consideration within an API technical committee but has not received

all approvals required to become an API Standard. It shall not be reproduced or circulated or quoted, in whole or in part, outside of API committee activities except with the approval of the Chairman of the committee having jurisdiction and staff of the API Standards Dept. Copyright API. All rights reserved."

API MPMS 17.12/HM51 Procedure for Bulk Liquid Chemical Cargo Inspection By Cargo Inspectors
Ballot Draft 22nd August 2007
TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................... 1 1. SCOPE.................................................................................................................. 3 1.1 GENERAL ...................................................................................................... 3 1.2 MEASUREMENT STAGES...................................................................... 3 1.3 QUALITY CONTROL .............................................................................. 3 1.4 SUMMARY OF DATA TO BE REPORTED ............................................ 3 2 DEFINITIONS .................................................................................................. 5 3. GENERAL PRINCIPLES.................................................................................. 9 3.1 THE PURPOSE OF A CARGO INSPECTION.......................................... 9 3.2 GENERAL RESPONSIBILITIES.............................................................. 9 4. SAFETY RECOMMENDATIONS ................................................................. 11 4.1 GENERAL .............................................................................................. 11 4.2 SAFETY ASPECTS OF EQUIPMENT ................................................... 11 4.3 SAFETY AT SAMPLING POINTS......................................................... 11 4.4 STATIC ELECTRICITY ......................................................................... 12 4.5 ENTRY INTO ENCLOSED SPACES ..................................................... 12 5. OPERATION PLANNING (Loading and Discharge) ...................................... 14 5.1 KEY MEETING .................................................................................... 14 5.2 INFORMATION TO BE DETERMINED BEFORE A LOADING OR DISCHARGE OPERATION COMMENCES...................................................... 14 6. MEASUREMENT AND SAMPLING PROCEDURES................................... 16 6.1 MEASUREMENT PROCEDURES - SHORE ......................................... 16 6.2 MEASUREMENT PROCEDURES - SHIP.............................................. 17 6.3 TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT - Ship and Shore ........................... 18 6.4 SAMPLING............................................................................................. 18 6.4.1 Manual Sampling of Shore Tanks......................................................... 18 6.4.2 Sampling On Board Ship...................................................................... 18 6.5 CALCULATION OF QUANTITIES ....................................................... 19 6.6 USE OF VESSEL EXPERIENCE FACTORS ......................................... 19 6.7 BUNKER SURVEY ................................................................................ 19 7. CALCULATION OF QUANTITIES.................................................................. 20 7.1 GENERAL .............................................................................................. 20 7.2 CALCULATION METHODS ................................................................. 20 7.3 EXAMPLES OF SHORE TANK AND MARINE TANK CALCULATIONS .............................................................................................. 21 7.3.2 Weight Calculations.................................................................................... 21 7.4 REPORTING........................................................................................... 22
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"This document is not an API Standard; it is under consideration within an API technical committee but has not received all approvals required to become an API Standard. It shall not be reproduced or circulated or quoted, in whole or in part, outside of API committee activities except with the approval of the Chairman of the committee having jurisdiction and staff of the API Standards Dept. Copyright API. All rights reserved."

8. VESSEL EXPERIENCE FACTOR ............................................................. 24 9.0 PROCEDURES TO CONTROL PRODUCT QUALITY ............................. 25 9.1 Acceptance Procedural Guidelines ................................................................. 25 9.2 Tank Cleaning Information ...................................................................... 26 9.2.1 Tank cleaning operations...................................................................... 26 9.3 Tank Inspection Guidelines..................................................................... 27 9.3.1 Internal Inspection of Tank Surfaces .................................................... 27 9.3.2 Wall Wash Sampling and Testing......................................................... 27 9.4 First Foot Loading and Sampling ............................................................. 28 9.5 Cargo Tank Coating Suitability ................................................................ 29 9.6 Loading Shore Tank.............................................................................. 29 9.7 Pipelines .................................................................................................. 29 9.8 Discharge Port ......................................................................................... 30 9.9 Sample Retention ................................................................................... 30 10. FINAL REPORT ........................................................................................ 31

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"This document is not an API Standard; it is under consideration within an API technical committee but has not received all approvals required to become an API Standard. It shall not be reproduced or circulated or quoted, in whole or in part, outside of API committee activities except with the approval of the Chairman of the committee having jurisdiction and staff of the API Standards Dept. Copyright API. All rights reserved."

1. SCOPE
1.1 GENERAL The purpose this document is to provide systematic cargo measurement procedures for use primarily by cargo inspectors and to specify procedures directed at minimising cargo contamination and losses, in the absence of, or in conjunction with, specific client guidelines, the following document should be considered a summary of best practices used within the industry. Where the term measurement is used in a general sense, it should be taken to include all aspects of cargo inspection including (but not limited to) tank suitability inspection, sampling, laboratory analysis and testing and other superintending activities, as required by the inspectors principals. The points at which cargo inspectors are required to make their measurements are described and definitions of the terms used throughout this document are provided in Section 2. Whenever possible terms approved by API, EI and ISO/TC28 have been adopted. The document also considers the purpose of a cargo survey and summarises general responsibilities which cargo inspectors will be held to accept when they are appointed. Safety matters and related responsibilities are defined and emphasis is placed on the need for cargo inspectors to be continually conscious that safety requirements take precedence over all other considerations. The document describes the detailed procedures which inspectors are required to follow and provides references to the analytical test methods and calculations. Reference is made to alternative methods since the procedures recognise that within the industry opinions may vary regarding the use of test methods, especially where different methods may be specified by parties and contractors. 1.2 MEASUREMENT STAGES The organisation of the detailed procedures in this document are shown in Figure (1) and reflect the fact that when a chemical cargo is transported by vessel from one shore terminal to another, measurements are made for the purpose of establishing: (a) the quantity of cargo loaded (i.e. to confirm the quantity of cargo shown on the Bill of Lading); (b) the quantity of cargo loaded by the vessel; (c) the quantity of cargo discharged by the vessel; (d) the quantity of cargo received by the receiving terminal; (e) the difference between the quantities established under (a) to (d) above. Note; for a particular voyage involving more than one loading port or discharge port, measurements should be made at all such additional ports in order that a reliable comparison can be made between the quantities shown on the Bill of Lading, the cumulative outturn and ships figures. 1.3 QUALITY CONTROL

It is recognised that contamination may occur during the various transfer and transportation stages of cargo movement. Procedures and recommendations for a testing schedule are given which will minimise such contamination risk. 1.4 SUMMARY OF DATA TO BE REPORTED

Because it is recognised that cargo inspection companies and their clients each have their preferred way of recording the data to be reported, particular forms are not prescribed by this standard. However, for information, a listing of the typical information sufficient to define a chemical cargo loading or discharge operation is provided in Section 10. This listing represents a consensus of a number of cargo inspection companies and their clients. Additionally, a listing of typical forms sufficient for a complete analysis of the inspection is given in Section 10. The detailed format of these forms should be agreed with clients when contracts are being arranged.

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TOTAL PHYSICAL AND APPARENT LOSSES (Incl. MEASUREMENT ERROR)

4
2

LOADING TERMINAL TERMINAL (BILL OF LADING) OUTTURN)

LOADING

IN TRANSIT

DISCHARGE

RECEIVERS (SHORE

OVERALL ANALYSES OF OUTTURN LOSS

Supplier (B/Lading) (1)

Tanker after loading (2)

Tanker before discharging (3)

Receiver (Outturn) (4)

Outturn Loss (1 - 4) = (1 - 2) + (2 - 3) + (3 - 4)

Ballot Version created 22nd August 2007 Page 4 of 31

"This document is not an API Standard; it is under consideration within an API technical committee but has not received all approvals required to become an API Standard. It shall not be reproduced or circulated or quoted, in whole or in part, outside of API committee activities except with the approval of the Chairman of the committee having jurisdiction and staff of the API Standards Dept. Copyright API. All rights reserved."

DEFINITIONS

The following definitions apply in general to the measurement of bulk liquids and may not be specifically applicable to chemicals. For the purposes of this document the following definitions apply which incorporate terms which have been approved by ISO/TC28. Clingage: Chemical residues which adhere to the surface of tank walls and structures on completion of discharge. Correction Factors: Factors for correcting volumes back to the standard reference temperature and pressure (15C; 1.01325bara). Please refer to Annex B for further breakdown on terminology. Critical zones: level range through which the floating roof or floating blanket is partially supported by its legs. Note: The zone is usually clearly marked on tank capacity tables. Measurements for custody transfer purposes should not be made within it. Floating roofs may on occasion be fixed at a high or low leg position and both zones will usually be marked on tank capacity tables. Density: mass of the substance divided by its volume. Note: When reporting the density, the unit of density used, together with the temperature, should be explicitly stated, for example kilograms per cubic metre at 15 degrees Celsius (kg/m3 at 15C). In-transit loss: difference between the Total Calculated Volume on board a vessel after loading and the Total Calculated Volume on board before discharge. Inhibitors: A compound (usually organic) that retards, controls, or stops an undesired chemical reaction, such as corrosion, oxidation, or polymerization. Letter of Protest or a Notice of Apparent Discrepancy: a letter issued by any participant in a custody transfer citing any condition in dispute. This serves as a written record that the particular action or finding was questioned at the time of occurrence. Mass: An absolute measure of a particular quantity of matter. Mass is defined in terms of a standard mass, and therefore the mass of an object is simply a multiple of the mass standard. The mass of an object remains constant regardless of its location. The metric unit of mass is the kilogram (kg) 0.001kg = 1 gramme 1000kg = 1 metric tonne (tonne) Outturn: quantity of a cargo discharged from a vessel, measured by a shore terminal. Outturn certificate: statement issued by a receiving terminal certifying the outturn. Outturn loss: difference in the weight or standard volumes of oil between the quantity shown on the Bill of Lading and the quantity shown on the Outturn Certificate. Remaining on board: abbreviated ROB: Refers to material remaining in a vessels cargo tanks, void spaces, and/or pipelines after the cargo is discharged. ROB includes any combination of water, oil, slops, oil residue, oil water emulsions, sludge, and sediment. Samples All-levels sample: A sample obtained by submerging a stoppered beaker or bottle to a point as near as possible to the draw-off level, then opening the sampler and raising it at a rate such that it is approximately three-fourths full as it emerges from the liquid. An all-levels sample is not necessarily a representative sample because the tank volume may not be proportional to the depth and because the operator may not be able to raise the sampler at the variable rate required for proportional filling. The rate of filling is proportional to the square root of the depth of immersion Bottom sample: spot sample taken from the product at or close to the bottom of a tank or container. Clearance sample: spot sample taken at a specified distance below the bottom of the tank outlet. Composite sample (weighted): sample obtained by combining a number of spot samples in defined proportions so as to obtain a sample representative of the bulk of the product Dead bottom sample: spot sample taken from a point on the tank bottom. Note: Such samples require the use of a device with a bottom opening, commonly used for free water samples. Drain sample: sample obtained from the water draw-off point on a storage tank. Ballot Version created 22nd August 2007 Page 5 of 31

"This document is not an API Standard; it is under consideration within an API technical committee but has not received all approvals required to become an API Standard. It shall not be reproduced or circulated or quoted, in whole or in part, outside of API committee activities except with the approval of the Chairman of the committee having jurisdiction and staff of the API Standards Dept. Copyright API. All rights reserved."

first foot sample: sample drawn from a vessel tank early during a cargo loading, when the depth of product in the tank(s) is approximately 300 mm, (one foot). Note: Regulations concerning the dissipation of static charge normally require the cessation of pumping and a relaxation time of thirty minutes before first foot samples are drawn. Lower sample: spot sample taken at a level of five-sixths of the depth of liquid below the top surface Middle sample: spot sample taken at a level of one-half of the depth of liquid below the top surface Multi-tank composite sample: a mixture of individual samples or composites of samples that have been obtained from several tanks or ship/barge compartments containing the same grade of material Running sample: sample obtained with an apparatus which accumulates the sample while passing in both directions through the total liquid height, excluding any free water Note: The apparatus passes through the liquid at such a rate that it is approximately 80% full as it emerges from the liquid. Single tank composite sample: blend prepared from the upper, middle and lower samples from a single tank Skim sample (surface sample): spot sample taken from the surface of the liquid. Spot sample: sample taken at a specific location in a tank or from a pipeline. Suction level sample (outlet sample): sample taken at the lowest level from which liquid hydrocarbon is pumped from the tank. Tap sample: A spot sample taken via a tap, typically located on the side of the shore tank. Top sample: spot sample obtained 150 mm (6) below the top surface of the liquid Upper sample: spot sample taken at a level of one-sixth of the depth of liquid below the top surface Zone sample (core sample, flow through sample): sample taken as that part of the liquid column which is contained within the whole height of the sampler when it is sealed at a single spot location within a tank. Slops: Are oil, oil/water/sediment, and emulsions contained in slop tanks or designated cargo tanks. The mixture usually results from tank stripping, tank washing, or dirty ballast phase preparation. Volume Correction Factor (VCF) (Also termed Ctl in dynamic calculations): See Correction Factors.

Volume meter: A device that when installed in a pipe in which liquid is flowing indicates the volume of liquid that passes through it.
Volume Dynamic Volume, gross: The indicated volume multiplied by the meter factor (MF) for the particular liquid and flow rate under which the meter was proved. Volume, total observed; abbreviated TOV: The total measured volume of all petroleum liquids, sludges, sediment and water, and free water at observed temperature and pressure. Volume, gross observed; abbreviated GOV: The total volume of all petroleum liquids and sediment and water, excluding free water, at observed temperature and pressure. Volume, gross standard; abbreviated GSV: (a) The total volume of all petroleum liquids and sediment and water, excluding free water, corrected by the appropriate volume correction factor (Ctl) for the observed temperature and API gravity, relative density or density to a standard temperature such as 60F or 15C and also corrected by the applicable pressure correction factor (Cpl) and meter factor;

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"This document is not an API Standard; it is under consideration within an API technical committee but has not received all approvals required to become an API Standard. It shall not be reproduced or circulated or quoted, in whole or in part, outside of API committee activities except with the approval of the Chairman of the committee having jurisdiction and staff of the API Standards Dept. Copyright API. All rights reserved."

(b) the gross volume at standard temperature corrected to standard pressure. Gross standard volume = closed meter reading - open meter reading x MF x Ctl, x Cpl. Volume indicated: The change in meter reading that occurs during a receipt or delivery. Volume, net standard; abbreviated NSV: The total volume of all petroleum liquids, excluding sediment and water and free water, corrected by the appropriate volume correction factor (Ctl) for the observed temperature and API gravity, relative density, or density to a standard temperature such as 60F or 15C and also corrected by the applicable pressure correction factor (Cpl) and meter factor. Volume, total calculated; abbreviated TCV: The total volume of all petroleum liquids and sediment and water, corrected by the appropriate volume correction factor (Ctl) for the observed temperature and API gravity, relative density or density to a standard temperature such as 60F or 15C and also corrected by the applicable pressure correction factor (Cpl) and meter factor, plus all free water measured at observed temperature and pressure (gross standard volume plus free water). Volume Static Volume, total observed; abbreviated TOV: The total measured volume of all petroleum liquids, sludges, sediment and water, and free water at observed temperature and pressure. Volume, gross observed; abbreviated GOV: The total volume of all petroleum liquids and sediment and water, excluding free water, at observed temperature and pressure. Volume, gross standard; abbreviated GSV: The total volume of all petroleum liquids and sediment and water, excluding free water, corrected by the appropriate volume correction factor (Ctl) for the observed temperature and API gravity, relative density or density to a standard temperature such as 60F or 15C. Volume, net standard; abbreviated NSV: The total volume of all petroleum liquids, excluding sediment and water and free water, corrected by the appropriate volume correction factor (Ctl) for the observed temperature and API gravity, relative density, or density to a standard temperature such as 60F or 15C. Volume, total calculated; abbreviated TCV: The total volume of all petroleum liquids and sediment and water, corrected by the appropriate volume correction factor (Ctl) for the observed temperature and API gravity, relative density or density to a standard temperature such as 60F or 15C. Vessel Experience Factor: Please refer to API 17.9 / HM 49. Water: Dissolved water: water contained within the petroleum liquid forming a solution at the prevailing temperature. Suspended water: water within the petroleum liquid which is finely dispersed as small droplets. It may, over a period of time, either collect as free water or become dissolved water, depending on the conditions of temperature and pressure prevailing. Free water (FW): the water that exists in a separate phase. Total water: sum of all the dissolved, suspended and free water in a cargo or parcel of petroleum liquid. Water cut or dip: The depth of free water in a container over and above the dip plate. Wall wash test: the procedure for washing selected areas such as the interior bulkheads, tank bottoms and sumps of cargo tanks with an appropriate wash liquid and testing the wash liquid for the presence of material which might contaminate cargo to be loaded. Wall Wash Sample: sample obtained from a wall wash test. Wedge formula A mathematical means of approximating the small quantities of liquid and solid cargo and free water onboard before a vessel is loaded and after its cargo is discharged. The formula is based on cargo compartment dimensions and vessel trim. The wedge formula shall be used only when a wedge exists and when the liquid does not touch all bulkheads of the vessels tank.

Weight conversion factor (WCF): factor, dependent on the density, for converting volume to weightin-air. Such factors should be obtained from the Petroleum Measurement Tables.

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"This document is not an API Standard; it is under consideration within an API technical committee but has not received all approvals required to become an API Standard. It shall not be reproduced or circulated or quoted, in whole or in part, outside of API committee activities except with the approval of the Chairman of the committee having jurisdiction and staff of the API Standards Dept. Copyright API. All rights reserved."

Weight: abbreviated wt: The net force exerted on an objects mass compared with a reference standard. Weight-in-air: The weight in air of a substance is its weight in vacuum, reduced by its buoyancy (in air). Weight-in-vacuo: correctly termed mass. Wipe test: the procedure of physically wiping any interior surface (bulkheads, steam coils, etc) with absorbent white rags. This procedure is used to test the wiped surfaces for possible colour contamination.

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"This document is not an API Standard; it is under consideration within an API technical committee but has not received all approvals required to become an API Standard. It shall not be reproduced or circulated or quoted, in whole or in part, outside of API committee activities except with the approval of the Chairman of the committee having jurisdiction and staff of the API Standards Dept. Copyright API. All rights reserved."

3.

GENERAL PRINCIPLES

3.1 THE PURPOSE OF A CARGO INSPECTION The main purposes of a cargo inspection of a bulk liquid chemical are: When required, inspect the tanks prior to loading to determine if the tanks meet requirements for cargo to be loaded. To advise and assist in minimising the extent to which procedural and/or measurement errors before, during and after the loading or discharge or cargo transfer that could affect the quantity and quality of product recorded on documents issued at the port or place of load or discharge or cargo transfer. To ensure during the loading or discharge or cargo transfer that all practicable steps are taken when bulk liquid chemicals are being transferred so that the bulk liquid chemical cargo is not, and do not become, contaminate When required verify the quality of the cargo to be discharged or loaded or transferred. Upon completion of discharge verify cargo tank condition. Maintain a detailed time log. To identify to all concerned parties in a timely manner any matter that may be relevant to the handling of the cargo. To provide a detailed report that details the quantity and quality of each parcel at the point of load or discharge or cargo transfer in a timely manner 3.2 GENERAL RESPONSIBILITIES To achieve the purpose described above, the cargo inspector shall discharge a number of responsibilities, some of a general nature and others of a highly specialised and clearly defined nature. The general responsibilities are described immediately below and the specialised responsibilities form the subject matter of subsequent sections. 3.2.1 The cargo inspection company shall ensure to the best of their ability and in order to minimise misunderstandings, that clear, written instructions are received from the specific party for whom the inspection is being performed. 3.2.2 The cargo inspection company shall ensure briefed and trained inspection personnel make themselves available on time as appropriate and as specifically required by the principal(s) for whom the inspection is being performed. 3.2.3 Details of the tank inspection, measurement, sampling, site & laboratory analytical methods and certification referred to in these procedures may be specified separately by different parties for whom the inspection is being performed. 3.2.4 A formal protest in writing should be submitted by the cargo inspectors to the terminal and/or the vessel(s) when: Any occurrences conflict with the interests of the specific parties for whom the inspection is being performed. Operational or other restrictions make it impossible for the cargo inspector to follow the procedures detailed in this Standard or the specific requirements of any of the parties for whom the inspection is being performed. A quality or measurement discrepancy occurs, or is suspected, between those determined by the cargo inspector and those determined by other involved parties. Any of the contractual conditions governing the transfer of the cargo, which have been made known to the inspectors, are not met. Such protests should be issued in writing when the occasion for protest is first observed and before the vessel sails from the loading or discharge port. Any additional observations and comments supporting any of the events reported should be included in the cargo inspectors report. 3.2.5 Before any cargo operation commences the cargo inspector shall meet all key personnel concerned with such operation to review and agree on the operational plan and procedures relating to the clean and accurate custody transfer of the cargo (See section 5 for Key Meeting information). 3.2.6 Ballot Version created 22nd August 2007 Page 9 of 31

"This document is not an API Standard; it is under consideration within an API technical committee but has not received all approvals required to become an API Standard. It shall not be reproduced or circulated or quoted, in whole or in part, outside of API committee activities except with the approval of the Chairman of the committee having jurisdiction and staff of the API Standards Dept. Copyright API. All rights reserved."

Any Inspection procedure to be performed either on board a vessel or in the shore terminal must be accomplished with either the vessel(s) or the terminal representatives explicit approval and in the presence of his nominee. 3.2.7 The cargo inspector must comply with all applicable governmental, local port authority and terminal regulations in force at the port of loading or discharge. 3.2.8 The inspector must also perform his required tasks in a safe manner in accordance with Section 4 of this standard, and always in compliance with the inspection companys safety requirements and location specific safety requirements. 3.2.9 Knowledge and experience of the visual inspection and estimation of cargo tank coatings and the determination of coating condition or integrity (% of total coating in place or % breakdown of the coating in place) is required to ensure that the inspection result meets the requirements and expectation of the parties for whom the inspection is being performed. (See Section 9.5 on tank coatings) 3.2.10 Calibration documents shall be available at the location required for all measuring equipment. 3.2.11 Measurement and sampling equipment must be clean, safe, and suitable for use and NOT BECOME a source of cargo or sample contamination. The materials from which the probe, flex and sampling equipment are constructed must be proof against possible corrosive action by the chemical being measured. 3.2.12 Many vessels now operate under a closed or restricted loading or discharging system such that open hatch manual gauging and sampling of cargo tanks may not be possible and is often not permitted. Under such circumstances the use of a portable electronic gauging device (PEGD) is recommended as these devices are designed for use in either closed or restricted gauging applications. Closed and restricted gauging operations will generally require that the portable electronic gauging tape be used in conjunction with a compatible vapour lock valve. Note: In the event that permission for the specified operations to be performed is refused, or there are other reasons why manual measurements cannot be made, written letter of protests should be made with the vessel(s) and/or Terminal Representative and the facts recorded in the cargo inspectors report. 3.2.13 Cargo inspectors shall record each occasion when they are required to take measurements under conditions which are not conducive to custody transfer accuracy. 3.2.14 The Inspection report issued on completion of custody transfer operations should follow the guidelines contained in this Standard and also be in accordance with any specific reporting instructions given by each specific party for whom the inspection is being performed.

Ballot Version created 22nd August 2007 Page 10 of 31

"This document is not an API Standard; it is under consideration within an API technical committee but has not received all approvals required to become an API Standard. It shall not be reproduced or circulated or quoted, in whole or in part, outside of API committee activities except with the approval of the Chairman of the committee having jurisdiction and staff of the API Standards Dept. Copyright API. All rights reserved."

4.
4.1

SAFETY RECOMMENDATIONS
GENERAL

4.1.1 This section makes reference to a wide range of recommendations and requirements designed to enable inspectors to perform their duties in a safe manner. Operating conditions are often beyond the control of attending inspectors. Inspector should decline to perform under unsafe conditions. Particular attention is drawn to the International Safety Guide for Oil Tankers and Terminals (I.S.G.O.T.T.) and inspectors should always refer to this guide. The precautions given below should be taken whenever they do not conflict with local or national regulations which should, in any event, always be followed. Careful consideration should be given to the nature and known hazards of the material being handled. 4.1.2 Personnel should be made aware of the potential hazards and be given instructions in safety precautions to be observed. 4.1.3 All regulations covering entry into hazardous areas should be observed. 4.1.4 Suitable clothing, footwear, facial equipment and any other equipment used to provide protection against all known hazards associated with the operations shall be worn.

4.2

SAFETY ASPECTS OF EQUIPMENT

4.2.1 The inspector should use equipment, which complies with all safety codes. Portable equipment such as mobile phones, pagers and computers, should not be operated except in designated areas. 4.2.2 Sample receivers and containers should be designed to meet the requirements of cargo being sampled. Cleaning and leak testing as appropriate for sample containers should be performed at regular intervals. 4.2.3 Lines and chains used for lowering sampling equipment should be electrically conductive and should not be made from man made or synthetic fibres. Natural fibres such as manila, cotton, or sisal should be used for this purpose. 4.2.4 Lamps, flashlights, and other equipment such as portable electronic thermo probes (PETs) should be intrinsically safe and of an approved type suitable for the electrical classification of the area.

4.3

SAFETY AT SAMPLING POINTS

4.3.1 Sampling points should be provided which enable samples to be taken in a safe manner. 4.3.2 It is the terminal and/or the vessel's responsibility to ensure that safe access ladders, stairways, platforms and handrails are adequately lit and have been maintained in a structurally safe and clean condition (i.e. free of cargo residues to prevent slipping hazards). 4.33 Adequate and safe containment for all draining and flushing requirements should be provided by vessel(s) and/or the terminal. 4.3.4 Any spillages or defects in equipment should be reported immediately. 4.3.5. All equipment and material used by the cargo inspector, especially waste or rags should be removed on completion of the operation.

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"This document is not an API Standard; it is under consideration within an API technical committee but has not received all approvals required to become an API Standard. It shall not be reproduced or circulated or quoted, in whole or in part, outside of API committee activities except with the approval of the Chairman of the committee having jurisdiction and staff of the API Standards Dept. Copyright API. All rights reserved."

4.4

STATIC ELECTRICITY

4.4.1 The following precautions should be taken to avoid danger from static electricity when sampling tanks containing flammable atmosphere. 4.4.2 The contents of storage or ships tanks should not be sampled or measured with portable equipment during filling. An adequate relaxation time period after completion of transfer or loading into each tank should be allowed before introducing any portable or external sampling or measuring equipment into the tank or container. 4.4.3 When sampling and measuring, the sampling lines and measurement tapes should be kept earthed (grounded) at all times, either by earth (ground) connection or by firm contact with the dip hatch, to prevent sparking. 4.4.4 In order to earth (ground) any static charges on the person, an inspector should touch some part of the tank structure immediately before carrying out any measurement or sampling operation. 4.4.5 Measurement and sampling should not be carried out during periods of atmospheric electric disturbance or hail storms. 4.5 ENTRY INTO ENCLOSED SPACES

Because of the possibility of oxygen deficiency as well as the presence of hydrocarbon or toxic gas in a pump room, cargo tank, cofferdam, double bottom tank or any enclosed space, it is the vessel(s) and terminal responsibility to identify such spaces and to establish procedures for safe entry. Inspectors should consult the responsible vessel officer or terminal operator to determine whether entry into such enclosed spaces is permitted and ONLY after the vessel officer or the terminal operator or their designated and exit last representatives have enter the tank first. Inspector shall be accompanied by a representative of the vessel and/or the terminal, as appropriate, at all times. 4.5.1 No-one should enter an enclosed space unless an entry permit has been issued by a responsible vessel officer or terminal operator who has ascertained immediately before entry that the tank atmosphere is in all respects safe for entry. Before issuing an entry permit, the responsible vessel officer or terminal operator should at least ensure that: The appropriate atmosphere checks have been carried out. Effective ventilation will be maintained continuously while men are in the enclosed space. Lifelines and harnesses are ready for immediate use. Where possible, pump room lifelines should be already rigged and an unobstructed direct lift provided. Approved breathing apparatus and resuscitation equipment should be available in an accessible location. Proper personnel protective equipment is being worn. A responsible member of the crew or terminal operations is in constant attendance outside the enclosed space in the immediate vicinity of the entrance and in immediate contact with a responsible vessel officer or terminal operator. A means of communication between persons inside enclosed spaces and those outside should be established and frequently tested.

It is recommended that the foregoing is complied with at all times and upon all occasions. In the event of an emergency, under no circumstances should the attending crew member or terminal operator enter the enclosed space before help has arrived. The lines of communication for dealing with emergencies should be clearly established and understood by all concerned. 4.5.3 Pump rooms, by virtue of their location, design and operation, constitute a particular hazard and therefore necessitate special precautions. No-one should enter a pump room at any time without first obtaining the permission of a responsible vessel officer or terminal operations.

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"This document is not an API Standard; it is under consideration within an API technical committee but has not received all approvals required to become an API Standard. It shall not be reproduced or circulated or quoted, in whole or in part, outside of API committee activities except with the approval of the Chairman of the committee having jurisdiction and staff of the API Standards Dept. Copyright API. All rights reserved."

4.5.4 It is the duty of the responsible officer in charge of cargo operations to ensure that adequate ventilation of the pump room has been accomplished and that the atmosphere is suitable for entry. Approved breathing apparatus and resuscitation apparatus should be available in an accessible location. At no time should a cargo inspector enter a pump room unless accompanied by a responsible member of the ships staff or terminal operations.

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"This document is not an API Standard; it is under consideration within an API technical committee but has not received all approvals required to become an API Standard. It shall not be reproduced or circulated or quoted, in whole or in part, outside of API committee activities except with the approval of the Chairman of the committee having jurisdiction and staff of the API Standards Dept. Copyright API. All rights reserved."

5.

OPERATION PLANNING (Loading and Discharge)

5.1 KEY MEETING Experience shows that chemical transfers are especially liable to involve problems relating to product quality. It is therefore important that before chemicals are transferred, the inspector, shore terminal and vessel personnel should meet to discuss and agree the procedures to be applied for cargo measurement and cargo quality assurance to ensure that: The chemical does not become contaminated. Handling losses are minimised. The operation proceeds with a minimum of delay.

5.2 INFORMATION TO BE DETERMINED BEFORE A LOADING OR DISCHARGE OPERATION COMMENCES The following table gives the type of questions to be asked and the minimum information that should be obtained by the cargo inspector from the vessel and terminal staff prior to carrying out physical checks. LOAD DISCHARGE

Shore

Ship

Shore

Ship

1.

That ship/shore/inspection company are agreed on the quantity/ of cargo to be transferred.

2.

That the advised quantity is available.

3. (a) Identify the tanks involved, and the approximate quantity to be transferred from/into each. (b) That the tank capacity being made available will be sufficient to contain the cargo. (c) The proposed order that the tanks will be loaded/discharged. 4. Whether any tanks contain previous cargoes or residues.

5.

Was there any in-transit movement of cargo?

6.

The nature of the tank histories (a) Previous 5 (vessel) cargoes if available, minimum of 3 (b) Last and current product (shore tank) 7. The planned loading/discharge rate. 8. Tank and line preparation and cleaning procedures, if any, that have been carried out. 9. The materials used for any tank coating and its condition. 10. When the ship cargo tanks are subject to inert gas: (a) What facilities exist for measurement and sampling of cargo tanks? (b) Whether cargo tanks can be separately inerted/ depressurised. (c) What is the quality of inert gas system (for example nitrogen purity)

11.

When carrying multi-grade cargoes, are the venting systems of the different grades positively separated?

12.

Whether any cargo tanks contain recovered washings

Ballot Version created 22nd August 2007 Page 14 of 31

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(slops) which are to be discharged before, during or after the transfer of cargo. If so: (a) What is the nature and quantity of slops involved? (b) Can the shore accept the material? (c) What tank/line cleaning procedures are to be applied after tank washings have been discharged?

13.

14.

15.

16.

Whether the shoreline cargo system to be used for the transfer connects with any other shoreline system. If so: The status of the shoreline, whether full or empty, and method available for verification. For ship and shore lines, Identify: (a) The points were they may be checked. (b) Are the transfer lines empty (c) The previous product through the line system and whether any cleaning and/or pigging was carried out. (d) Identify which line system is to be used. In the case of multi-product cargo transfer: (a) Whether a common line system will be used. (b) Whether blinds or two-valve separation are available for segregation. (c) The order of loading/discharge. (d) Whether simultaneous loading/discharge of two or more product cargos. The location of measurement and sampling points.

17.

Whether consignees loading samples are on board.

18.

Product and Correction factors

19.

Actual Cargo temperature to determine suitability of cargo tank

20.

Cargo heating instructions (Does coil need to be tested or checked)

21.

Any chemical additives or inhibitors to be added

Ballot Version created 22nd August 2007 Page 15 of 31

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6.

MEASUREMENT AND SAMPLING PROCEDURES

A number of similar measurement and sampling procedures may be applied several times during the cargo loading-transportation-discharge cycle. Accordingly, to avoid repetition in these guidelines, these procedures are described in detail in this chapter only. Brief references to them are then made, as necessary, in the subsequent chapters which detail the sequence of procedures to be applied at loading and discharge. * Warning! Refer to section 4.4 Static Electricity before commencing any measurement activity. Chemical cargos may be static accumulating. Take precautions accordingly. * 6.1 MEASUREMENT PROCEDURES - SHORE

6.1.1 Prior to gauging, ascertain whether the shore lines, if any non-dedicated lines involved in the operation, contain product and, if so, what product. A record of what steps were taken to determine that the shore lines were full or empty. In most modern chemical installations there are dedicated lines from tank to jetty, or even to the jetty-head ship-shore connection. 6.1.2 A sample of the shore pipeline contents before load or discharge, where permissible, should always be taken and retained. 6.1.3 Where relevant, the inspector and the terminal shall by mutual agreement arrange for lines and valves to be set so as to prevent the possibility of contamination or loss through other lines or tanks, and any such settings should be visually checked and verified before commencement of operations. 6.1.4 In the event that an apparent shortage is established after loading or discharge has been completed, the inspector and the terminal shall confirm that there have been no changes in the volumes of any static tankage that could have been inadvertently connected to the system in use. 6.1.5 If the shore tank nominated for use has been in service or mixed recently, wait for at least half an hour for the liquid level to become constant before commencing gauging. A minimum of two consistent gauges must be recorded. 6.1.6 By mutual agreement between the parties concerned and subject to acceptance by the local Customs Authorities, automatic tank level gauging and temperature measurement systems may be used for custody transfer. 6.1.7 If automatic systems are used, reference to the terminals gauge proving records should be made and the completeness or otherwise of these records indicated in the general comments section. 6.1.8 Wherever possible, the inspector should take his own measurements. 6.1.9 If floating roof tanks are nominated for bulk chemical operations, check and record whether or not the tank roof is free of excessive quantities of water and debris. Where appropriate, i.e. after loading and before discharge, confirm that the roof is not grounded or in the critical zone, and has undergone no significant change in condition since operations began. 6.1.10 Report the reference heights of the shore tanks recorded in the tank calibration tables. Confirm the reference height by direct, manual measurement and attempt to establish whether the gauging pipe (if fitted) is / is not perforated (slotted). 6.1.11 Ascertain the last time the tank was strapped or calibrated, when the tank was last cleaned or inspected and when any repairs were made to the tank. 6.1.12 Ballot Version created 22nd August 2007 Page 16 of 31

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Water cuts, where appropriate, should be obtained using a portable electronic gauging device (PEGD). Where water is present, either as an extraneous and measurable layer or as contaminating suspension or solution with the material such that its presence will affect the calculation of the final quantity of cargo, then it should be dealt with as per HM-1 Calculation of quantities. Except in the case of aqueous solutions such as caustic soda and urea ammonia, chemicals are, in most cases, shipped as a pure material. Accordingly water measurements are not normally taken or included in the calculation of the final quantity. 6.1.13 Ullage measurements, if utilised for any reason, should always be related to the gauging reference point specified in the tank calibration tables. 6.1.14 Manual gauging shall require obtaining either two consecutive gauge readings to be identical, or three consecutive readings within a range of 3 mm (1/8 in.). If the first two readings are identical, this reading shall be reported to the nearest 1 mm if metric tapes are used, or to the nearest 1/8 in. if customary tapes are used. When three readings are taken, all three readings shall be within the 3 mm (1/8 in.) range and readings averaged to the nearest 1 mm for metric tapes and 1/8 in. for customary tapes. 6.1.15 Inspectors measurements are to be compared with those recorded by the automatic gauge system as shown in 6.1.15. Some terminals do not allow inspectors to take their own measurements. Where this is the case, inspectors should satisfy themselves from the terminals gauge proving records that the gauges are satisfactory, making an appropriate note in the general comments of their report. In cases where inspectors are prevented from conducting a full manual gauging exercise, wherever possible a reading from a local tank read out should be taken. 6.1.16 Provided that auto gauges satisfy the following criteria, readings may be used as the basis for calculating quantities. The difference between the change in the tank level during the transfer measured by automatic level gauge and by manual gauge should be in line with local terminal practice. Where differences are greater than the local terminal practice, manual determinations are recommended. 6.1.17 The materials from which the probe, flex and sampling equipment are constructed must be proof against possible corrosive action by the chemical being measured. 6.2 MEASUREMENT PROCEDURES - SHIP

6.2.1 Where it is safe and physically possible to do so, every effort should be made to read and record the vessels fore, aft and mid-ship port and starboard draft marks, prior to cargo measurement. 6.2.2 For all measurements where vapour locks have been retrofitted, reference should be made to the appropriate documentation issued by the competent authority confirming no physical differences exist between documented and actual reference heights. 6.2.3 Where supplementary tables have been issued following retrofitting, these should be used. If any discrepancies are identified then these should be taken into consideration when making calculations 6.2.4 If automatic level gauges are utilised, check the actual stowed readings against the documented figures, requesting and recording from the vessels personnel, any variances found. If there are no differences in stowed automatic level gauge readings, then automatic gauges may be used for ullages. 6.2.5 Where any form of electronic gauge is used, a means should be sought to verify the accuracy of readings. This should include review and consideration of the vessels calibration records. 6.2.6 Where it is not possible to conduct manual measurements for purposes of verification, then a protest should be issued. Ballot Version created 22nd August 2007 Page 17 of 31

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6.2.7 Local port/terminal and vessel operational requirements with regard to vapour control emissions should be adhered to. 6.2.8 A portable electronic gauging device (PEGD) should be used for all manual liquid measurements, ensuring the correct safety procedures in accordance with ISGOTT are in force. 6.2.9 Whatever method is used; the ullages should be taken and recorded to the nearest graduation (1mm) of the measurement tape/equipment. 6.2.10 Where applicable, water cuts should be obtained from all ship cargo tanks using a portable electronic gauging device (PEGD). If the vessel has any trim, this must be allowed for in the calculations. 6.2.11 In the event that an apparent shortage is established after loading or discharge has been completed, the inspector, vessel, and the terminal shall confirm that there have been no changes in the volumes of any static tankage that could have been inadvertently connected to the system in use.

6.3

TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT - Ship and Shore

6.3.1 It is recommended that a portable electronic thermometer, with a performance traceable to a standard reference thermometer over a suitable temperature range, be used for all temperature measurements. It is further recommended that its accuracy be checked before and after use, (mercury in glass thermometers are a satisfactory as back- up). For depths of 3.5m (10ft) or greater, readings should be taken at three levels. These readings should be taken at Upper, Middle and Lower cargo levels. When cargo depths are less than 3.5m (10 ft), readings should be taken from one level, at the cargo middle level. All temperature readings should be recorded to the nearest 0.1C (0.1F) and averaged. If the inspector is of the opinion that temperature layering is present, then a temperature profile should be obtained by taking temperatures at 1m intervals or less and averaging the results. 6.4 SAMPLING

The inspector is responsible for ensuring that sufficient representative samples are drawn at all appropriate stages for subsequent testing, compositing or retention. Such samples may be retained at the terminal or despatched, often via the vessel, to the receiver, and in all cases shall be distributed in accordance with appointing clients instructions. They should be clearly labelled to identify sample. If the test procedures call for sample handling techniques which could alter composition of the sample sufficiently to affect the results of other tests or if the test method calls for special sample containers, separate samples for these tests should be drawn, and care must be taken to ensure that the correct type of sample container is utilised (e.g. some chemicals are light sensitive). 6.4.1 Manual Sampling of Shore Tanks Each shore tank to be used in the transfer should be sampled in such a manner as to meet the requirements of interested parties and regulatory agencies. Tank samples drawn before commencement or on completion of operations should be analysed according to clients instructions. Samples at various levels may be necessary for products which are suspected of being non-homogeneous. 6.4.2 Sampling On Board Ship At the commencement of a loading take a spot sample from a convenient sample point as near as possible to the vessels manifold. After the time necessary to displace the line content completely, take another sample from the vessels tank floor this is often called a first foot sample. If discrepancies observed, notify all relevant parties and retain samples. Sampling and testing requirements are generally specified by interested parties. On completion of loading take representative samples from each of the vessel tanks so that, if required, composite sample representative of the total cargo may be prepared in the laboratory for appropriate testing. Such composite samples will be prepared by combining the individual vessel tank samples in proportion to the volumes contained in the respective tanks. If free water is present during gauging then a free water sample should be obtained. Ballot Version created 22nd August 2007 Page 18 of 31

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Sufficient samples should be obtained and retained to meet the requirements of interested parties and regulatory agencies. 6.5 CALCULATION OF QUANTITIES

Calculate the quantities loaded/discharged in each tank according to normal chemical quantity calculation procedures noted in section 6.7. 6.6 USE OF VESSEL EXPERIENCE FACTORS Refer to API document (API 17.9 / HM 49) on VEF for single grade cargoes where appropriate. Although vessels experience factors are not normally used for small parcel, multi tank vessels, if applicable then reference to the API document on VEF should be followed.

6.7

BUNKER SURVEY

Bunker surveys should not be a part of the chemical cargo inspection of a chemical tanker. However, it is possible that a client may require a Bunker Survey as part of the inspection.

Ballot Version created 22nd August 2007 Page 19 of 31

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7. CALCULATION OF QUANTITIES
7.1 GENERAL

7.1.1 This section only refers to the calculation of liquid chemical quantities, and not the calculation of quantities of chemical gases, animal or vegetable oil or molasses.

7.2 7.2.1

CALCULATION METHODS

Systems used utilise two broadly similar methods:

a) Correct the volume at the observed temperature to the volume at the standard temperature by applying a VCF after which the weight/mass is obtained by multiplying the standard volume with the density at standard temperature. b) Correct the density/SG at standard temperature with the thermal expansion coefficient to the observed temperature, and multiply this by the volume at observed temperature to obtain mass/weight. (Density/SG refers to vacuum/air - mass/weight).

7.2.2 It is sometimes the case that the quantity of cargo loaded (or discharged) is obtained by other methods, such as road/rail cars over weighbridges. The inspectors report should include full details of the gross and tare weights of all individual units in their report. 7.2.3 Within the above two approaches are various sub-divisions, including, but not limited to: 7.2.3.1 Correction of observed volume using a VCF. A VCF is that factor which a volume of product at one temperature, must be multiplied by to obtain the volume at a standard temperature. These factors can be obtained from; A) API-ASTM-EI Petroleum Measurement Tables (B, C or D) B) ASTM D1555 and 1555M (Metric edition), which tabulates VCFs for various aromatics. C) A volume correction factor, per degree difference in observed temperature. D) Product specific tables of VCF, showing the VCF at observed temperatures, which must be applied to obtain the volume at standard temperature. 7.234.2 Correction to the density at standard temperature using; A) Product specific tables of density at various temperatures. B) A density correction factor, per degree difference in observed temperature. 7.2.4 Because of the above, the following rules should be applied; A) The origin of the density used in the calculation should be clearly stated. B) Standard temperatures are 15oC, 20oC or 60oF. However other temperatures may be used if mutually agreed. C) Unless there are local requirements stating that quantities should be expressed as a mass (i.e. in vacuo), then it is preferable that they are expressed as a weight (i.e. in air). The inspection report should ensure that they clearly state whether such quantity is in air or vacuo.

Ballot Version created 22nd August 2007 Page 20 of 31

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7.3 7.3.1

EXAMPLES OF SHORE TANK AND MARINE TANK CALCULATIONS Volumetric Calculation

Example 1 What is the volume at 60F and weight of a cargo of p-xylene using ASTM D1555 Measured Volume Measured temperature VCF by D1555 Volume at 60F 9280 gallons 88.7F 0.98414 9280 x 0.98414 = 9132.8 gallons

Density at 60F Density at 60F (from Table in Annex A) Weight 9132.8 * 7.2086 = 65834.7 lb (air) 7.2086 lbs/gal

Example 2 What is the volume at 15 C and weight of a cargo of p-xylene using ASTM D1555M Measured Volume Measured temperature VCF by D1555M Volume at 15C Density at 15C kg/l (ait) 1289561 litres 22.3C 0.99278 1289561 x 0.99278 = 1280250 0.8643 kg/l

Weight

1280250 litres * 0.8643 kg/l= 1106520 kg

Example 3 What is the volume at 15C of a cargo of MTBE using ASTM D1250 C Measured Volume Measured temperature Coefficient of thermal expansion VCF by D1250 table 54C Volume at 15C Density at 15C Mass Weight 1289561 litres 22.5C 0.0014202 alpha 15 per C 0.99360 1281308 litres 0.7440 kg/l (vac) 0.7429 kg/l (air)

953293 kg, 953.293 tonnes (vac) 951884 kg, 951.884 tonnes (air)

7.3.2 Weight Calculations

Ballot Version created 22nd August 2007 Page 21 of 31

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Example 4 What is the weight of a cargo of Benzene using density correction coefficients. The Density at standard temperature is converted to Density at Measured temperature. Density at measured temperature is applied to measured volume to give weight.

=
t

+ (t Cs )

Where:

Cs = density correction coefficient

= difference in temperature (standard - measured)


t

t s

= density at measured temperature


= density at standard temperature

Measured Volume Measured temperature Density coefficient Density at 15C Density at 22.5C Weight Litres at 15C

1289561 litres 22.5C 0.00100 kg/l per C 0.8831 kg/l (air) 0.8756 kg/l (air) 0.8756 kg/l * 1289561 l = 1129140 kg weight / Density at 15C (air) 1129140 litres /0.8831 = 1278609 litres

7.4 7.4.1

REPORTING

When compiling an inspection report, the raw data from which the report is derived should be recorded, including the following information:

A) B)

The terminal or tank vessel where the measurements were taken Tank number (s), product description, date and time

Dip or ullage measurement, together with details of any correction to be applied and also the reference heights obtained. The representative product temperature and how temperature was taken (i.e. upper middle lower, electronic hand held or fixed probe, etc.) E) All measurement equipment used by the inspector should be properly calibrated and the relevant references are available on request. F) The density used and the reference temperature at which it applies.

G) The factor used to correct either volume or density and the temperature scale to which it applies (oC or oF). H) The condition of the pipelines before and after measurement, and if it is incorporated into the calculations. I) Any quantity of the pipeline flushing, which is passed into slops, should be recorded.

Ballot Version created 22nd August 2007 Page 22 of 31

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J)

The total quantity of product supplied or received and the units used should be clearly shown.

Ballot Version created 22nd August 2007 Page 23 of 31

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8.

VESSEL EXPERIENCE FACTOR

Refer to Section 6.6

Ballot Version created 22nd August 2007 Page 24 of 31

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9.0

PROCEDURES TO CONTROL PRODUCT QUALITY

Introduction The following procedures provide a summary of chemical cargo loading and discharge operations that inspectors should follow. Under normal operating conditions, vessels will have prepared their tanks for loading during the preceding voyage and, where appropriate, will have followed specific recommendations given to the Master in his voyage instructions or made use of Tank Cleaning Guidance Manuals made available on board by the vessels owners. Any such guidance manuals will also be considered by the Master in conjunction with any restrictions required by the tank coating manufacturers. Vessels will present in what they consider to be a ready-to-load condition and inspectors at a load port will be required to either accept or reject the vessels cargo tanks and associated pumps and lines. Inspectors should be aware that they are not responsible for any cleaning or tank washing procedures aboard the vessel and they should not offer any advice or instruction to the Master in the event that their initial tank inspection results in a rejection requiring further cleaning. Note: There may be an exception to the foregoing where an inspection company might be asked by the vessel owner or charterer, to provide a specialist tank cleaning expert or supercargo to assist the Master. This is a specialised service and no further reference will be made in these guidance notes to that activity.

9.1 Acceptance Procedural Guidelines There are many hundreds of chemicals carried by sea-going vessels and it is not possible in a manual such as this to consider each and every product so far as its particular tolerance to other materials is concerned. In general, petrochemicals are pure substances and tolerance levels for contamination are extremely low. It is the inspectors responsibility to ensure, so far as it is possible to do so, that the vessel is ready to load without risk of contamination. The possible sources of potential contamination include the following: Cargo lines from the loading manifold to the tank bottom including drop lines and stripping lines. Prior cargos Cleaning material residues Pump suctions including deep well pump cofferdams. Vent and inert gas lines. Unbroken blisters in epoxy coated tanks Flaking or broken blisters of the coating Discolouration of tank coating Sea water residues Polymerised materials

The above list is not exhaustive and, in particular, epoxy coated tanks have the propensity to absorb cargo during a loaded passage. Depending on the previous cargo, subsequent desorption may take weeks or months to desorbed or be extracted by a subsequent solvent cargo and the potential for contamination remains. As examples, both styrene monomer and ethylene dichloride are known to be slow to be desorbed from epoxy coated tanks. This phenomenon has been well documented during recent years and avoidance of risk depends on proper cargo sequencing and is outside the remit of the cargo inspector. It is commented on in this section for information only.

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9.2

Tank Cleaning Information

Cargo inspectors are not responsible for the preparation and cleaning of cargo tanks prior to loading. This is entirely the responsibility of the vessels owners and crew. Inspectors should not offer advice to the crew in the event that cargo tanks are not ready to load, other than to give reasons why the tank has been rejected. Cargo inspectors are responsible for inspecting cargo tanks for visual cleanliness and for chemical cleanliness in cases where final acceptance is subject to wall wash testing. These guidance notes may therefore assist the inspector in forming a judgement. Chemical cargoes have a low tolerance to contamination and it is common for various tank cleaning chemicals / detergents to be used during tank washing. Chemicals and cleaning agents may have an affect on the cargo to be loaded. 9.2.1 Tank cleaning operations

In common with all other bulk liquids, the most common tank washing material is sea water. Depending on the previous cargo, the water may have to be applied at elevated temperatures. The crew will take note of any restrictions recommended by the tank coating manufacturers and, in some cases, notably volatile water miscible chemicals water washing cannot be started until the tank has been ventilated to a visible dry state. This may take several days and is necessary because the reaction of water to certain chemicals will result in the formation of acidic compounds. Some of the more commonly carried chemicals (e.g. methanol and ethylene glycol) cannot tolerate the presence of chlorides therefore all salt water washing must be followed by a fresh water wash. Indeed, the quality of fresh water in sufficient quantities for tank cleaning varies at different locations and it is usually the case that ordinary fresh water alone will not be sufficient to render the tank chloride free. Washing with de-ionised water will usually be required. Following water washing, it is likely that a range of chemical additives will be used depending on the previous cargo. Inspectors are reminded that chemical tankers, particularly those in the parcel tanker trade, are likely to have carried other products such as animal and vegetable oils, caustic soda solution and molasses as previous cargoes. The following list of generic chemicals is noted. (a) Degreasing solvents used when previous cargo is a lube oil additive or other petroleum based product. (b) Alkaline detergents used to help removal of animal and vegetable oil residues. (c) Diluted phosphoric acid used to improve the appearance of organic coatings. This is of cosmetic value only and will help to remove visual rust stains caused by pitting or mechanical damage. (d) Hydrocarbon free additives. This may be used when, for example, the next cargo is one that will not tolerate hydrocarbons at any level such as methanol. (e) Strong alkaline products used when hard to remove drying oils were previously carried. (f) Bleach Solutions (Sodium Hypochlorite). Diluted solutions are used to remove odour and will assist in removal of colour staining. This is sometimes present when the vessel has carried a cargo of dyed petroleum products. It also assists in neutralising oxidising agents that may originate from an earlier cargo. (g) Chlorinated solvents. These are used following some noxious or poisonous cargoes such as iso-cyanates. (h) Spraying with MEK or Acetone. Used mainly to get rid of hydrocarbon traces. Application of most of the above is either by circulation through the tank washing or butterworth lines or by spraying with a barrel pump. Inspectors are advised that most tank cleaning chemicals, except mild detergents, will cause cargo tanks to be unsafe for entry without the necessary respiratory masks and all tanks will require thorough removal with fresh water and/or deionised water following use. Inspectors should avoid tank entry unless tanks have been gas freed (See enclosed space Section 4.5) Ballot Version created 22nd August 2007 Page 26 of 31

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It is common for chemical tankers to be equipped with deep well pumps and it is normal practice for the cofferdams around the pump suctions to be purged with air or inert gas immediately prior to loading. This purging operation may reveal the presence of hydraulic oil or previous cargo and inspectors should witness or confirm this operation has been undertaken.

9.3

Tank Inspection Guidelines

Reference has been previously made to the low level of contamination tolerance of petrochemicals to other materials that may have been carried aboard a vessel. Tank inspections by the cargo inspector therefore require a considerably enhanced level of scrutiny than would be the case with, for example, clean petroleum products and tank entry is most often needed. Prior to inspecting tanks, inspectors should obtain details of, at least, the previous three cargoes (or preferably five cargoes) carried in each cargo tank and full details of the cleaning methods employed by the crew following each cargo discharge. These details should be included in the inspectors final report.

There are three main aspects to a pre-loading cargo tank inspection and these are discussed as follows. 9.3.1 Internal Inspection of Tank Surfaces

Chemical tankers will clean the cargo tanks and associated pipeline systems prior to arrival at the load berth. Special attention should be paid to the condition of the tank coating in the case of epoxy coated tanks and, in particular, to the presence of blisters and flaking of the coating. Unbroken blisters may contain residues from an earlier cargo as will loose or flaking coating. Depending on the charterer or shipper requirements, the inspector may be asked to estimate the percentage of coating missing or damaged. Reference to the vessels previous cargoes can have a bearing on the further action required from the crew when determining the likely effect the condition of the coating might have on the cargo to be loaded. Attention should also be paid to the cargo tank, pipes, drop lines, pump casings, suction wells and heating coils. These items can form shadow areas and often receive less than adequate attention during tank washing. Inspectors cannot, of course, visually inspect the internal condition of pipelines for their full length and the inspection report should clearly state the applicable limitations. Vent and inert gas lines are usually visible at the tank entry point and could contain prior cargos, polymerised material, or washing residues, that if present, could contribute to contamination. Deck lines will have drain points and these should be opened in case residues from tank washing operations or prior cargos are present.

9.3.2

Wall Wash Sampling and Testing

Chemical Tankers operate normally subject to switch loading between a very large number of high purity cargoes have no tolerance to contamination from earlier (prior) cargoes. Because of the sensitive nature of certain chemical cargoes, the standard visual tank inspection of the surfaces may not be sufficient to ensure freedom from risk of contamination and acceptance procedures may require further testing of wall wash samples. Wall wash techniques require random washing of tank surfaces over small areas (usually about 1 sq.mtr), either with a sample of the cargo to be loaded or, more commonly, with a laboratory grade methanol (similar solvent) sample. Ballot Version created 22nd August 2007 Page 27 of 31

"This document is not an API Standard; it is under consideration within an API technical committee but has not received all approvals required to become an API Standard. It shall not be reproduced or circulated or quoted, in whole or in part, outside of API committee activities except with the approval of the Chairman of the committee having jurisdiction and staff of the API Standards Dept. Copyright API. All rights reserved."

The purpose of washing small, but representative areas of the tank walls is to identify by chemical analysis, trace amounts of materials that may be detrimental to the cargo. Such contaminants (if any), may have originated from the immediately tank cleaning materials or previous cargo or may have survived through additional intermediate cargoes. This is particularly the case where cargo tanks are epoxy coated. The further purpose of taking and analysing wall wash samples is to allow cargo inspectors, their principals and cargo interests, to make a reasoned judgement of the likely effects of any contaminants detected in the sample on the total quantity of cargo to be loaded in the tank. Refer to API/MPNS 17.8 The most common method of taking a sample is to choose an area(s) of the tank wall about 1 metre wide and about 2 metres from the bottom of each tank. A sample of laboratory grade methanol or, in some cases, of the cargo to be loaded is cascaded over the surface of the tank either directly from a bottle or from a spray bottle where it is allowed to run down the surface. The run down is then collected in a bottle held at a about 1 metre below by use of a flat sided funnel. An alternative method is to allow the cascaded liquid to run over and be absorbed by filter papers. The filter papers are then transferred to a bottle before being tested. Wall wash sampling is easier if there are two inspectors available. Current recommendations for sampling are noted under: Tank surfaces must be dry. Discoloured or broken coating sections on tank walls should be sampled as follows: (a) Where such areas are less than 20% of total surface area (excluding deckheads), the washings should be included with those of the rest of the tank. Non typical areas should be sampled and tested separately. Samples should be tested in a shore based laboratory. The minimum number of areas to wall wash depends on the tank capacity. Tank capacity less than 500 cubic metres 5 areas Tank capacity 500/1000 cubic metres 7 areas Tank capacity greater that 1000 cubic metres 9 areas Inspectors should be aware that wall wash sampling procedures may cause a previously gas free tank to develop an unsafe atmosphere and personal protective gear should always be worn and breathing apparatus may be required.

9.4

First Foot Loading and Sampling

There are limitations on the extent to which inspectors can visually inspect all parts of the loading system, vessel and shore, and should inquire about the steps taken by the vessel and the terminal to avoid or reduce the risk of contamination. Loading/discharge manifolds, vents, and inert gas lines can only be inspected where visually accessible. Extensive areas of the pump and piping systems can only be assessed on the basis of information obtained from the Chief Officer in respect of tank cleaning operations and previous cargoes. Prior to loading first foots, an initial shore line sample should be drawn and visually examined to ensure the cargo is clean and bright and free of suspended matter. Subject to wall wash tests (where applicable) and receiving laboratory clearance, the vessel will then be able to start loading first foots. First Foot samples are required to determine whether any contaminants within the vessels loading systems have survived cleaning regimes that might have a detrimental effect on the cargo to be loaded.

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"This document is not an API Standard; it is under consideration within an API technical committee but has not received all approvals required to become an API Standard. It shall not be reproduced or circulated or quoted, in whole or in part, outside of API committee activities except with the approval of the Chairman of the committee having jurisdiction and staff of the API Standards Dept. Copyright API. All rights reserved."

9.5

Cargo Tank Coating Suitability

The following notes are provided to assist cargo inspectors in understanding potential contamination problems that may arise with chemical cargoes. Zinc silicate, phenolic epoxies and pure epoxies are the most commonly used generic coating systems in cargo tanks for the carriage of chemicals. They vary in their resistance to cargoes and all have limitations in carriage. The principal limitation in the use of zinc silicates is that they are only suitable in a narrow pH range of approximately 5.0 to 9.0. Phenolic epoxies are generally able to carry a wider range of low molecular weight cargoes and have a higher free fatty acid resistance The cargo resistance of coatings of the same generic type can vary between manufacturers and, hence, the manufacturers Resistance Lists usually available aboard the vessel should be consulted should there be any doubts as to suitability of any particular cargo. Some coatings are temperature sensitive. Cargo carriage requirements may require heating, and temperature control should match the coating operability range. Organic epoxy coatings have the propensity to absorb cargoes during a loaded passage. The contamination potential to a subsequent cargo is therefore considerable as: 9.6 large quantities can be retained the amount retained after different time periods is not well defined variable absorption/desorption characteristics are found between different coating types variable absorption/desorption characteristics are found within the same generic types from different manufacturers. Different rates of absorption/desorption are found between different cargoes Factors such as coating thickness, temperature and tank cleaning also have an influence on absorption and desorption. With some chemical cargoes, absorbed material can survive both further intermediate cargoes as well as extensive tank cleaning operations Loading Shore Tank 9.6.1 Prior to attendance at a loading terminal, inspectors should familiarise themselves with all available information on the product to be loaded. Such information should be available in the form of a Material Safety Data Sheet 9.6.2 Before loading from a shore tank, representative samples should be drawn and, where instructed to do so by the principle, tested against specification. 9.7 Pipelines

Owing to the very large number of chemicals shipped, use of dedicated and/or non-dedicated pipelines, it is not possible to provide specific quality control loading procedures in this section for each product. The level of quality control is dictated by end use requirements and inspectors should be guided by procedures at a loading terminal and any special instructions from their principals/clients. To ensure the product is transferred without contamination to the ships tanks, it is recommended that samples are drawn from key points along the pipeline system and, in particular, at the point of custody transfer (normally ships manifold).

Ballot Version created 22nd August 2007 Page 29 of 31

"This document is not an API Standard; it is under consideration within an API technical committee but has not received all approvals required to become an API Standard. It shall not be reproduced or circulated or quoted, in whole or in part, outside of API committee activities except with the approval of the Chairman of the committee having jurisdiction and staff of the API Standards Dept. Copyright API. All rights reserved."

Although there may be some exceptions, chemical tankers will normally be equipped with deep well pumps and each tank will have its own pump. Barges maybe equipped with deep well pumps or deck mounted pumps. To ensure the product is received without contamination it is recommended that samples are drawn from key locations from the vessel hoses, lines, and accessorial equipment at points in loading process such as first foot samples. In the event of any sample not meeting the specification, the principles should be contacted immediately.

9.8

Discharge Port

9.8.1 The procedures described in the foregoing sections for the load port will, to a large extent, be mirrored at the discharge port and are therefore only summarised here. The contents of all shore tanks and associated piping nominated to receive the cargo should be sampled and may be tested per requirements of the principal/clients specifications. 9.8.2 Samples from each ships tank should be drawn and may be submitted for testing. Samples from the load port should be collected and retained by the inspector , an authorised representative of the receiver, or a set of samples reserved for the consignee left on board the vessel. Details of load port samples should be recorded by the inspector including the location where they are stored. 9.8.3 In some instances a line flushing exercise may be undertaken at the dock side and / or tank side, samples drawn and analysed. In all cases, a sample should be drawn at the dock manifold immediately after the start of discharge. 9.8.4 In the event that discharge takes place to barges or other lightering vessels, procedures sections 9.0 are to be followed.

9.9

Sample Retention

All samples drawn or collected should be retained in a suitable storage in line with principals requirements.

Ballot Version created 22nd August 2007 Page 30 of 31

"This document is not an API Standard; it is under consideration within an API technical committee but has not received all approvals required to become an API Standard. It shall not be reproduced or circulated or quoted, in whole or in part, outside of API committee activities except with the approval of the Chairman of the committee having jurisdiction and staff of the API Standards Dept. Copyright API. All rights reserved."

10.

FINAL REPORT

On completion of a cargo inspection, a final report should be compiled. The format of this report depends upon any agreement reached between the various interested parties. In any event, it is recommended that a summary sheet is prepared which should include full details of ship and shore cargo quantities. Notwithstanding the extent of the final report, it is recommended that a copy of all documentation completed and retrieved during the inspection be retained on file for further reference. For the sake of consistency in reporting, it is suggested that a final report may contain the following information. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) Summary report: including Bill of Lading quantity, outturn difference, ship/shore differences (including adjustments by VEF), in-transit variation, change in OBQ/ROB, free water, etc. Time log. Quantity report (including reference height report). Analysis report Vessels ullage report. Vessels OBQ/ROB report. VEF report Slops Report. Ballast/void space report Bunker report Sample report Meter proving report Auto Sampler Performance Report Line verification (API 17.6)

Copies of Letters of Protest, Notices of Apparent Discrepancy and salient supplementary documentation should be attached to the report. A General Note on Operations highlighting any special operational problems that may have been observed either aboard the vessel or ashore.

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