India in Space ___ Bag Full Success | Satellite | Scientific Exploration

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INDIA IN SPACE : A BAG FULL OF SUCCESS

The space activities in the country were initiated with the setting up of Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) in 1962. In the same year, the work on Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station, ( TERLS ) near Thiruvananthapuram was also started. The Indian space programme was institutionalized in November 1969 with the formation of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). The Government of India constituted the Space Commission and established the Department of Space (DOS) in June 1972 and brought ISRO under DOS in September 1972. Department of Space (DOS) has the primary responsibility of promoting development of space science, technology and applications towards achieving self reliance and assisting in all round development of the nation. Both the DOS and ISRO Headquarters are located at Bangalore. The development activities are carried out at the Centres and Units spread over the country. FIRST FEW STEPS TOWARDS SPACE India launched its first experimental satellite, Aryabhatta, in 1975 this was followed by a series of experimental satellites like Bhaskara , Rohini, stretched Rohini satellite series, SROSS. The first Indian experimental satellite, APPLE, was launched. Indian space programme reached the new stage with the launch of the series of INSAT (Indian National 6

Satellite) in1983, we have entered the fourth generation of these satellites. The first generations of INSAT satellites were imported from United States. DEVELOPMENT OF INDIGENOUS TECHNOLOGY India has indigenously developed the subsequent generation of INSAT satellites. The INSAT satellite system was jointly owned by the departments of Telecommunications, Space, All India Radio, Doordarshan, Indian Meteorology department. The super cyclone of Orissa has highlighted the limitation of Indian space programme. This led to the development of exclusive satellites. The first ever exclusive satellite for weather monitoring called METSAT was launched. This was named Kalpana after the Indian born American astronaut Kalpana Chawla who died in Colombia crash.India had launched an exclusive satellite for education called EDUSAT. This has revolutionized the fields of education and health too. The tele education and tele medicine projects got further boost with the successful launching of this exclusive satellite. India launched the series of remote sensing satellites in 1988. The latest in this series was RESOURCE SAT. Apart from satellites and satellite launch vehicles, India developed an impressive space infrastructure. For instance, the Vikram Sarabai Space Centre-VSSC at trivendrum, National Remote Sensing Agency in Hyderabad, Space Application Centre -SAC, in Ahmedabad., Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station - TERLS at Thumba in Kerala. Physical Research laboratories - PRL in Ahmedabad , and a host of satellite tracking ground stations in India and

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Symphony was taken on lease for this purpose.STEP. India conducted the Satellite Instructional Television Experimen t. providing location specific development information.SITE in 1975-76. monitoring of command areas. Design and development of launch vehicles with indigenous technology for access to space and orbiting INSAT. The information revolution and telecommuni-cation revolution were also the result of the INSAT satellites.UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : http://upscportal. Biennial forest surveys are conducted using the data provided by remote sensing satellites. assessing the extent of smoke generated by thermal power stations. These remote sensing satellites can estimate the possible crop yield one month before harvest. with the service provided by these satellites. estimating the crop yield and crop acreage. flood zone mapping. The Vanjuvanka watershed in Anantapur district in Andhra Pradesh is also part of IMSD. tele education. research institutions are also actively associated with the development of space programme in India. Starting with a simple Satellite Launch Vehicle-SLV. India successfully conducted Satellite Telecommuni-cation Experimental Project . We are also conducting Integrated Mission for Sustainable Development-IMSD. developmental education. They include the Exploration of natural resources. etc. These satellites are the most advanced and sophisticated satellites making us leaders in the area of remote sensing. Our remote sensing satellites can provide reasonably accurate data about the extent of crops sown helping us to undertake agricultural plans. etc. drought assessment. Monitoring of command areas using these satellites would ensure supply of irrigation water to the tail end farmers. The speciality of Indian space programme is that it is dedicated to the socio economic development of our country. Even before India had its first experimental satellite. resources survey and space sciences. As a part of this experiment. Several universities.com/civilservices/current-affairs Abroad. This experiment paved the way for the development of television in India. Remote Sensing programme for application of satellite imagery for various developmental purposes. India went on to develop the Augmented Satellite Launch vehicle7 The Space Commission formulates the policies and oversees the implementation of the Indian space programme to promote the development and application of space science and technology for the socio-economic benefit of the country. In 1977-79.UPSCPORTAL.NNRMS using remote sensing data provided by these satellites. desert land identification and reclamation. The myriad hour multi channel television boom would not have been possible without the INSAT satellite system. WWW. tele medicine projects are carried out with the help of INSAT satellites. India is conducting National Natural Resources Management Systems. The American satellite ATS-6 was leased out for this purpose. OBJECTIVES & SPECIALITIES INDIAN SPACE PROGRAMMES OF Research and development in space sciences and technologies as well as application programme for national development. The INSAT satellites provided benefits ranging from television broadcasting to weather prediction. TV broadcasting. IRS spacecraft and space science missions. For instance. The Franco German satellite. Indian National Satellite (INSAT) programme for telecommunications. India developed capabilities in launch vehicle technology too. The very small aperture terminals VSATs were set up to support the national information and communication network. the OCEAN SAT can measure the oxygen quantity in the algae underneath the oceans thereby giving an accurate estimate of marine resources. INDIA IN ELITE LEAGUE & MARKETING PROCESS Apart from satellites. REMOTE SENSING SATELITES The Remote Sensing satellites provide a range of benefits. Telecommunication. Indigenous capability for design and development of spacecraft and associated technologies for communications. meteorology. television programmes were beamed to 2500 villages using satellite.COM . estimating the forest cover.

Four CUBESAT Satellites and Two RUBIN-9 from Sriharikota (Sept. The Geo Synchronous satellite launch vehicle is used in the launching of communication satellites in earth’s Geo Synchronous orbit. ACHIEVEMENTS OF 2011 ♦ PSLV-C16 successfully launches Three Satellites–RESOURCESAT-2. IMS-1 and 8 foreign nano satellites from Sriharikota (April 28.1 & 6.UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : http://upscportal. 2010). 51 Indian Satellite Missions. 23. 2A. the Geo Synchronous Satellite Launch VehicleGSLV . 2009).2 E transponders were leased to INTELSAT. 2010 ♦ GSLV-F06 launched from Shriharikota (Dec 25. 2008). but infact attained international recognition. 2009). ♦ GSLV-D3 launched from Sriharikota (Apr 15. WWW. GSAT-5Pcould not be placed into orbit as the GSLV-F06 mission was not successful. ♦ PSLV-C9 successfully launches CARTOSAT- ISRO SO FAR IN BRIEF So far. India has also entered into an agreement with the European space agency AERIAN space for the marketing of its Launch Vehicle Technology.Against this impressive background. India’s first ever Lunar Mission. and 27 Launches from Sriharikota have been conducted.2008). 2011). India is also becoming part of Russia s GLOSNOS project. The success of Chandrayaan-1 revealed to the world.UPSCPORTAL. India conducted a programme called sharing of experience in space.2 and a picosatellite-STUDSAT from Sriharikota (July 12. GSAT-4satellite could not be placed in orbit as flight testing of the Indigenous Cryogenic Stage in GSLV-D3 Mission was not successful. Indian Space Programme developed many products which are now used in industry.COM . India has also indigenously developed the cryogenic engine used in the GSLV. India has now embarked upon the ambitious programme of lunar mission. The PSLV was also used in the Chandrayan. International Telecommunication Satellite. India’s capability in one of the highly sophisticated areas of science and technology.Namely they are as follows:8 ♦ PSLV-C10 successfully launches TECSAR satellite under a commercial contract with Antrix Corporation (January 21. YOUTHSAT. ♦ PSLV-C15 successfully launches Five Satellites – CARTOSAT-2B. 2009 ♦ PSLV-C14 successfully launches Seven Satellites – OCEANSAT-2. 2010). two nanosatellites-NLS-6. 2008 ♦ PSLV-C11 successfully launches CHANDRAYAAN-1 from Sriharikota (October 22. This helped us to enter into highly competitive global space products market. ALSAT-2A. the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle-PSLV. 2008). A special agency called ANTRIX Corporation was set up for this purpose within the Department of Space. The space programme has several spin off benefits which include production of low weight material used in creation of artificial limbs. shares to train the third world space personnel. The PSLV is used for the launching of remote sensing satellites in earth’s polar orbit. 2010). India has also indigenously developed the VIKAS engine used in the PSLV. India’s INSAT. ♦ PSLV-C12 successfully launches RISAT-2 and ANUSAT from Sriharikota (April 20. India is not only self sufficient in space programme.com/civilservices/current-affairs ASLV. X-SAT from Sriharikota (April 20. We have also reached an agreement with the American Remote Sensing Company SIO SAT for marketing its remote sensing data.

2003). PSLVC5. ♦ Successful launch of INSAT-3C by Ariane from Kourou French Guyana. 2005). 2002 ♦ ISRO’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle.UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : http://upscportal. (January 24. successfully launched CARTOSAT-1 and HAMSAT satellites from Sriharikota(May 5. ♦ Second operational flight of GSLV (GSLV-F02) 2005 ♦ Successful launch of INSAT-4A by Ariane from Kourou French Guyana. (December 22. PSLVfrom SDSC SHAR with INSAT-4C on board. 2007). PSLVC8. 2002). AGILE from Sriharikota (April 23. successfully launched KALPANA-1 satellite from Sriharikota(September 12. IRS-P4 (OCEANSAT). BIRD of Germany and PROBA of Belgium–into their intended orbits (October 22. 2003).2000 C6. ♦ INSAT-3B.UPSCPORTAL. 2001 2006 ♦ ISRO’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle. ♦ The Second developmental launch of GSLVD2 with GSAT-2on board from Sriharikota (May 8. launched byPolar Satellite 9 WWW. Satellite could not be placed in orbit. 2004) 1999 ♦ Indian Remote Sensing Satellite. 2007). Sriharikota (September 20. successfully launched Italian astronomical satellite.successfully launched three satellites — Technology Experiment Satellite (TES)of ISRO. ♦ Successful launch of INSAT-4B by Ariane-5 from Kourou French Guyana. (March 22. 2001). 2003). 2007). PSLVC7 successfully launches four satellites – India’s CARTOSAT-2 and Space Capsule Recovery Experiment (SRE-1) and Indonesia’s LAPAN-TUBSAT and Argentina’s PEHUENSAT-1 (January 10. ♦ ISRO’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle. ♦ Successful launch of INSAT-3A by Ariane from Kourou French Guyana. ♦ Successful recovery of SRE-1 after manoeuvring it to reenter the earth’s atmosphere and descend over the Bay of Bengal about 140 km east of Sriharikota (January 22. Successful launch of INSAT-3E by Ariane from Kourou French Guyana. ♦ ISRO’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle. 2007). C3. 2001). PSLVC4. 2000). the first satellite in the third generation INSAT-3 series.COM . ♦ The first developmental launch of GSLV-D1 with GSAT-1 on board from Sriharikota (April 18.com/civilservices/current-affairs 2007 2003 ♦ Successful launch of GSLV (GSLV-F04) with INSAT-4CR on board from SDSC SHAR (September 2. successfully launched RESOURCESAT1(IRS-P6) satellite from Sriharikota (October 17. (September 28. (March 12. 2007). ♦ ISRO’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle. (April 10. 2003). PSLV. 2002). (July 10. 2004 ♦ The first operational flight of GSLV (GSLVF01) successfully launched EDUSAT from SDSC SHAR. 2005). 2006). launched byAriane from Kourou French Guyana. ♦ ISRO’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle.

♦ Third developmental launch of ASLV with SROSS-Con board (May 20. ♦ Launch of first operational Indian Remote Sensing Satellite. 1993). the second satellite in the INSAT-2 series. 1999). 1995). 1988). 1996). fourth satellite in the INSAT series. IRS-P2. IRS-1A(March 17.UPSCPORTAL. Satellite successfully placed in Polar Sunsynchronous Orbit. on board (September 29. launched (August 30. 1998 ♦ INSAT system capacity augmented with the 1992 readiness of INSAT-2DTacquired from ♦ INSAT-2A. 1993). since renamed INSAT-2DT. ♦ INSAT-2D. 1990). the third satellite in the INSAT-2 series. INSAT-2C. ♦ Fourth developmental launch of ASLV with SROSS-C2. on board (May 4. 1991 ♦ Second operational Remote Sensing satellite. launched by Ariane from Kourou French Guyana. 1992). launched (June 4. Satellite placed in polar sunsynchronous orbit. ♦ First operational launch of PSLV with IRS-1D 1990 ♦ INSAT-1D launched (June 12. 1988 1996 ♦ Third developmental launch of PSLV with IRSP3. on board (March 21. Satellite could not be placed in orbit. IRS-1C(December 28. INSAT-2E. IRS-1B. 1995). launched (July 10. 1997). 10 1983 ♦ INSAT-1B. Satellite placed in orbit.1988). (April 3. 1994). Satellite placed in orbit. 1995 ♦ Launch of third operational Indian Remote Sensing Satellite. the first satellite of the ARABSAT (January 1998). 1992). ♦ INSAT-1C launched (July 21. Satellite could not be placed in orbit. on board (October 15. 1997. Abandoned in November 1989. 1987 1994 ♦ First developmental launch of ASLV with SROSS-1 satellite on board (March 24. 1993 ♦ First developmental launch of PSLV with IRS1E on board (September 20. launched (July 23. Second developmental launch of ASLV with SROSS-2 on board (July 13. launched (August 29. WWW. 1983). 1987). 1991). was acquired in November 1997 to partly augment the INSAT system).com/civilservices/current-affairs Launch Vehicle (PSLV-C2) along with Korean KITSAT-3 and German DLR-TUBSAT from Sriharikota (May 26. 1997). Becomes inoperable on October 4. Satellite could not be placed in orbit ♦ INSAT-2B. launched (December 7. 1999). ♦ Second developmental launch of PSLV with 1984 ♦ Indo-Soviet manned space mission (April 1984).COM . the last satellite in the multipurpose INSAT-2 series. 1997 indigenously-built second-generation INSAT series. Satellite placed in orbit. ARABSAT-1C. 1988). 1994).UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : http://upscportal. (An in-orbit satellite.

1975).Becomes Government Organisation (April 1.UPSCPORTAL. Aryabhata. 1983). (July 18. 1969). Deactivated on September 6. launched (April 19. 1968 1980 ♦ TERLS dedicated to the United Nations (February 2. ♦ Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) formed under Department of Atomic Energy (August 15. ♦ Second Experimental launch of SLV-3. RS-D1 placed in orbit (May 31. ISRO brought under DOS. 1979 ♦ First Experimental launch of SLV-3 with Rohini 1965 Technology Payloadon board (August 10. 1968). 1980). 1981). 1963). 1963 1977 ♦ First sounding rocket launched from TERLS (November 21. 1982). 1975). RSD2 placed in orbit (April 17. Project (STEP) carried out. satellite successfully placed in orbit. ♦ Space Commission and Department of Space set up (June 1. 1969 APPLE.com/civilservices/current-affairs Second developmental launch of SLV-3. 1981)First developmental launch of SLV3. 1975 ♦ ISRO First Indian Satellite. ♦ Space Science & Technology Centre (SSTC) established in Thumba. 1979). ♦ Bhaskara-I. 1972–1976 1982 ♦ Air-borne remote sensing experiments. 1982.COM 11 . 1981). launched (June 7. WWW. 1979). an experimental geo-stationary communication satellite successfully launched (June 19. Source : Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) ♦ Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) conducted. Rohini 1967 ♦ Satellite Telecommunication Earth Station set up at Ahmedabad. an experimental satellite for earth observations. 1972). Satellite could not be placed in orbit. 1981 ♦ Bhaskara-II launched (November 20. ♦ Satellite Telecommunication Experiments 1962 1975–1976 ♦ Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) formed by the Department of Atomic Energy and work on establishing Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS) started.UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : http://upscportal. 1972 ♦ INSAT-1A launched (April 10.

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