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by Toke Lindegaard Knudsen B.Sc., University of Copenhagen, 1997 M.Sc., University of Copenhagen, 2000 B.A., University of Copenhagen, 2008
Submitted in partial fulﬁllment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Department of the History of Mathematics at Brown University
Providence, Rhode Island May 2008
c Copyright 2008 by Toke Lindegaard Knudsen
This dissertation by Toke Lindegaard Knudsen is accepted in its present form by the Department of the History of Mathematics as satisfying the dissertation requirement for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Date Kim L. Plofker, Advisor Union College
Recommended to the Graduate Council
Date Christopher Z. Minkowski, Reader University of Oxford Date Kenneth G. Zysk, Reader University of Copenhagen Date Jan P. Hogendijk, Reader Utrecht University Date Peter M. Scharf, Reader
Date Sheila Bonde, Reader
Approved by the Graduate Council
Date Sheila Bonde Dean of the Graduate School
iii
Curriculum Vitae
Biography Toke Lindegaard Knudsen was born in Køge, Denmark on January 23, 1974, the son of a kindergarten teacher and an engineer. He attended the University of Copenhagen, where he earned a Bachelor of Science degree and a Master of Science degree in Mathematics, and later a Bachelor of Arts degree in Indology. While working towards his Master of Science degree, he felt a desire to broaden the scope of his studies and include the humanities in his study of mathematics. This led him to take a strong interest in the history of mathematics, a topic that he was introduced to while being an exchange student at Monash University in Melbourne, Australia, and he eventually wrote a thesis on mathematical methods in ancient Indian ritual. In order to continue his studies of the mathematics of ancient and medieval India, he began to study Sanskrit at the University of Copenhagen. Finally, his mathematical learning and his knowledge of Sanskrit allowed him to begin a Ph.D. on Indian astronomy in the Department of the History of Mathematics at Brown University. While at Brown University, he has received Fellowships, including a Brown University Dissertation Fellowship, to support his academic pursuits. Publications • “House Omens in Mesopotamia and India,” in From the Banks of the Euphrates: Studies in Honor
of Alice Louise Slotsky , ed. Micah Ross, Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns, 2008, 121–133. Mathematics 38 (May 2006), 5–6.
• “David Pingree (1933–2005),” Bulletin of the Canadian Society for History and Philosophy of • Review of Fran¸ cois Patte, L’œuvre math´ ematique et astronomique de Bh¯ askar¯ ac¯ arya: Le Siddh¯ a
nta´ siroman . i iii, Archives internationales d’histoire des sciences 55 (December 2005), 515–517. ´ • “Square Roots in the Sulbas¯ utra s,” Indian Journal of History of Science 40 (2005), 107–111.
• (with Clemency Williams) “Southcentral Asian science,” Medieval Science, Technology, and and London: Routledge, 2005, 462–465.
Medicine: An Encyclopedia , ed. Thomas Glick, Steven J. Livesey, and Faith Wallis, New York • “On Altar Constructions with Square Bricks in Ancient Indian Ritual,” Centaurus 44 (2002), iv
115–126.
Acknowledgements
This dissertation is dedicated to the memory of my mentor David Edwin Pingree (January 2, 1933–November 11, 2005) and to the memory of my maternal grandfather Hans Espen Poul Hansen (July 27, 1913–November 11, 1996) Both taught me so much in their diﬀerent ways. Both are missed. Completing a Ph.D. is a joyous occasion, but it is nevertheless with some sadness that I put the ﬁnishing touches on this dissertation. My graduation will mark the end of the Department of the History of Mathematics at Brown University, 61 years after it was founded in 1947 and 51 years after the graduation of its ﬁrst Ph.D. student in 1957. (Incidentally, this ﬁrst student was Asger Aaboe, a fellow Dane, so the story of the department’s students begins and ends in Denmark.) While I look forward to new challenges, it is an odd feeling to be the one to turn oﬀ the light. Sadly, not long after I reached candidacy, my advisor and mentor, David Pingree, passed away. I am immensely grateful to Dean Sheila Bonde for all the support that she extended to me during the diﬃcult period that ensued, and I am indebted to the members of my committee, Kim Plofker, Christopher Minkowski, Kenneth Zysk, Jan Hogendijk, Peter Scharf, and Sheila Bonde, for stepping in to help me complete my project. I look forward to their continued advice as I grow to become their colleague. I wish to extend special thanks to John Stillwell for introducing me to the history of Indian mathematics; to Jesper L¨ utzen for encouraging my studies in this ﬁeld; to Kenneth Zysk for all his continued support; to Kim Plofker for a being a friend as well as a teacher; to Alice Slotsky for all her encouragement; to Clemency, Yann, Pierre, and Gabriel Montelle for their friendship which has always made a big diﬀerence; to Micah Ross for his friendship; to Sukriti Issar for her patience and support; and to my family for always being there for me. I further extend thanks to Isabelle Pingree, Ramaswamy Chandrashekar, S. R. Sarma, Takanori Kusuba, Michio Yano, Takao Hayashi, Enrica Garzilli, James Fitzgerald, Susan Alcock, Donna Wulﬀ, Deborah Boedeker, and Kurt Raaﬂaub. That I am not able to present this dissertation to David Pingree, who taught me everything I know about Indian astronomy, ﬁlls me with regret. My hope is that he would have been pleased. vidvadbhir api duh adhyam sa ¯stram . s¯ . jyotih .´ . munistutam / s¯ upadis tam sikam / / .. . tu toke ’pi yena tam . naumi de´ v
Contents
List of Tables List of Figures 1 Introduction 1.1 General background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.4 1.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.3.4 1.3.5 1.3.6 1.3.7 1.4 1.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.3 J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja, the author of the Siddh¯ antasundara . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Historical background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Siddh¯ antasundara . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manuscripts and critical editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The date of J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja and the Siddh¯ antasundara . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Primary source material relevant to J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s family background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Native place of J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Indian astronomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The works of J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The title of the Siddh¯ antasundara . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Structure of the Siddh¯ antasundara . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Special features of the Siddh¯ antasundara . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Importance of the Siddh¯ antasundara . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Description of the available manuscripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stemma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Structure of the edited text and the critical apparatus . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii ix 1 1 2 3 5 7 9 9 11 15 19 22 22 26 28 29 35 46 48 50 50 59 62
J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Siddh¯ antasundara . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The manuscripts of the Siddh¯ antasundara . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
vi
2 gol¯ adhy¯ aya section 1 bhuvanako´ sa ¯dhik¯ ara Cosmology 3 grahagan adhy¯ aya section 1 . it¯ madhyam¯ adhik¯ ara Mean motion 4 grahagan adhy¯ aya section 2 . it¯ spas ta ¯dhik¯ ara .. True motion 5 grahagan adhy¯ aya section 3 . it¯ tripra´ sn¯ adhik¯ ara Three questions 6 grahagan adhy¯ aya section 4 . it¯ parvasambh¯ utyadhik¯ ara Possibility of eclipses 7 grahagan adhy¯ aya section 5 . it¯ candragrahan ¯dhik¯ ara .a Lunar eclipses 8 grahagan adhy¯ aya section 6 . it¯ s¯ uryagrahan ¯dhik¯ ara .a Solar eclipses Bibliography 9 gol¯ adhy¯ aya section 1 bhuvanako´ sa ¯dhik¯ ara Sanskrit text 10 grahagan adhy¯ aya section 1 . it¯ madhyam¯ adhik¯ ara Sanskrit text 11 grahagan adhy¯ aya section 2 . it¯ spas ta ¯dhik¯ ara .. Sanskrit text 12 grahagan adhy¯ aya section 3 . it¯ vii 314 282 253 222 244 203 197 174 135 94 70
tripra´ sn¯ adhik¯ ara Sanskrit text 13 grahagan adhy¯ aya section 4 . it¯ parvasambh¯ utyadhik¯ ara Sanskrit text 14 grahagan adhy¯ aya section 5 . it¯ candragrahan ¯dhik¯ ara .a Sanskrit text 15 grahagan adhy¯ aya section 6 . it¯ s¯ uryagrahan a ¯ dhik¯ ara . Sanskrit text 370 357 353 334
viii
List of Tables
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2.1 3.1 3.2 3.3 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 7.1 J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s genealogy as given in the Siddh¯ antasundara . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contents of the Siddh¯ antasundara according to Pingree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contents of the Siddh¯ antasundara . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The eight astronomical treatises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Geocentric distances of the planets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 30 34 38 89
Astronomical units given in verses 12–17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Revolutions of the planets, apogees, and nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Multipliers and addends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 The Siddh¯ antasundara ’s table of Sines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 The Siddh¯ antasundara ’s table of small Sine diﬀerences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Epicyclical circumferences at the end of quadrants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 ´ıghra anomalies at the occurrences of the ﬁrst and second stations . . . . . . . . . . 159 S¯ Numbers and names of the karan . a s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Rising times of the signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Diameters in yojana s of the discs of the Sun and the Moon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
ix
List of Figures
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.1 3.1 3.2 3.3 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 7.1 Figure on p. 84 in R1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure on f. 9v in R2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure on f. 39v in V1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure on f. 68v in V1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure on f. 71r in V1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stemma for the manuscripts containing the grahagan adhy¯ aya . . . . . . . . . . . . . it¯ Stemma for the manuscripts containing the gol¯ adhy¯ aya . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Misplacement of numerals on f. 5v in B5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Misplacement of numerals on f. 13v in B5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finding the geocentric distance of the Moon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 56 57 57 58 61 62 68 68 91
Determining the eastwest and northsouth lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Computing the declination of the Sun from its zenith distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Computing the corrected circumference of the Earth for the latitude φ . . . . . . . . 134 48 Chords from dividing the circumference into 96 parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 The Chord, Sine, and Versed Sine of an angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 The epicyclical model of Indian astronomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 The kot . iphala and the bhujaphala . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Finding the hypotenuse from the kot . iphala and the bhujaphala . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Finding the ´ s¯ ıghra equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 The rising arcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 The rising arcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Computing the ascendant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Finding the eastwest line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Shadow cast by a gnomon at noon on an equinoctial day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Analemma providing the similar rightangled triangles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Triangle OAH from Figure 5.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 Determining the radius of the shadow of the Earth at the Moon’s distance . . . . . . 209 x
7.2 7.3 7.4 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6
Examples of the obscured part of the lunar disc at mideclipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 Finding the half duration of the eclipse and the half duration of totality . . . . . . . 214 Finding the obscuration at a given time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 Parallax of the Sun and the Moon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 Projection used in computing parallax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Greatest parallax of the Sun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s ﬁgure to ﬁnd the greatest combined parallax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 The greatest combined parallax as a sine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 Projection used in computing the Sine of the zenith distance of the nonagesimal . . 241
xi
Chapter 1
Introduction
1.1 General background
Some years ago, in 2000, I corresponded with David Pingree about my plans for combining my background in mathematics with my studies of Sanskrit to do a Ph.D. in Indian mathematics. In that correspondence, Pingree strongly encouraged me to work with Indian astronomy in the medieval period, a subject that I knew nothing about at the time. Confessing my ignorance, I asked him if he could suggest a project that would be suitable for someone with my background. In response, na ¯nar¯ aja, the last important siddh¯ anta not to have been he wrote: “. . . the Siddh¯ antasundara of J˜ published.”1 A siddh¯ anta is the most extensive type of astronomical treatise in the Indian tradition, which includes theory in addition to mathematical algorithms and formulae. The Siddh¯ antasundara , or the Beautiful Treatise, belongs to this category. Accepting this suggestion was easy. The Siddh¯ antasundara seemed an ideal topic to me in that it would allow me to continue working with Sanskrit manuscripts. I further felt that working through an entire Sanskrit astronomical treatise would be a good way to engage with the tradition in a substantial and comprehensive way. Now, after nearly six years of immersion in the study of Indian astronomy, I can add many more reasons why the Siddh¯ antasundara was a worthwhile choice. It is estimated that some 30 million Sanskrit manuscript survive, of which at least 10% deal with the exact sciences, which here, following Pingree, are deﬁned broadly to include astrology, various kinds of divination, omens and so on. Only a fraction of this material has been published, and what has been published is often not edited properly. Many of the old editions of important texts, while good, do not draw on all of the manuscripts and commentaries that are available now. As such, much of our knowledge of the history of astronomy in India is based on uncertain conclusions drawn from editions of texts that might have omissions. Preparing a careful edition of an important text is therefore a valuable contribution.
1 Letter
from David Pingree dated November 13, 2000.
1
2 The Siddh¯ antasundara , as noted by Pingree, has never been edited and published before, and as such making it available to scholars is a contribution in itself. However, there is more to recommend the Siddh¯ antasundara than this. The Siddh¯ antasundara stands at a unique point in time in the history of Indian astronomy, its composition marking the beginning of what Minkowski calls an early modern period in jyotih sa ¯stra .2 .´ New ideas and perspectives are brought forth in it, and while maintaining tradition, it also breaks from it. The new ideas found in the Siddh¯ antasundara were taken up by writers in the following centuries, and they helped shape the indigenous response to Islamic astronomy. In this section, a brief overview of the Siddh¯ antasundara , its author, and its historical context will be given, some of which will be continued by more detailed discussions in the following sections.
1.1.1
J˜ n¯ anar¯ aja, the author of the Siddh¯ antasundara
The Siddh¯ antasundara was composed by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja,3 a member of a br¯ ahman ara. a family of the Bh¯ dv¯ aja lineage (i.e., a family belonging to the highest class of Hindu society that traces its ancestry to the ancient sage Bh¯ aradv¯ aja) with a long history of learning and scholarship. Besides brief information given in the Siddh¯ antasundara and in some of the works of his son S¯ uryad¯ asa, little is known about his life. At the end of the Siddh¯ antasundara , J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja provides us with a genealogy, in which he traces his ancestry back to a man named R¯ ama, who he says was honored by King R¯ amacandra of the Y¯ adava dynasty (r. 1271–1311 ce). Besides their names and that they are said to have been learned men, we know next to nothing about J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s ancestors. J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s father N¯ agan¯ atha is said by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s son S¯ uryad¯ asa to have been accomplished in jyotih sa ¯stra (the astral sciences, including .´ astronomy and astrology), and since the same is certainly true for J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja as well as for his two sons, it appears that there was a tradition of studying astronomy in the family. We are not told when J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja lived, nor when the Siddh¯ antasundara was composed. However, an epoch (the precise time used as a reference point for computing planetary positions) corresponding to local sunrise on Friday, September 29, 1503 ce is given in the Siddh¯ antasundara , and J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s son S¯ uryad¯ asa writes that he was born in the year 1507 ce or 1508 ce.4 This indicates that J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja ﬂourished around the beginning of the sixteenth century ce and that the Siddh¯ antasundara was composed at that time. This dating is consistent with R¯ ama having ﬂourished during the reign of King R¯ amacandra, as seven generations separate J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja from his ancestor R¯ ama. J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja lived in a town called P¯ arthapura (the modern Pathri in the Parbhani District of Maharashtra) by the God¯ avar¯ ı river near a t¯ ırtha (literally, ford; in the Indian tradition, a t¯ ırtha is a sacred place where people go for pilgrimage) called P¯ urn ırtha. In his genealogy, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja tells . at¯
2 See 3 The
[51 497].
name literally means “king of knowledge”, but is explained as “shining with knowledge” by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s son Cint¯ aman antasundara . . i in his commentary on his father’s Siddh¯ 4 S¯ uryad¯ asa gives the year ´ saka 1430 in the Indian calendar as the year of his birth, which means that he was born in either 1507 ce or 1508 ce.
3 us that R¯ ama lived in P¯ arthapura as well, so the family appears to have been based there for a long time.
1.1.2
Historical background
The Y¯ adavas R¯ ama, the ﬁrst ancestor listed by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja in his genealogy, was honored by a Y¯ adava king. The Y¯ adavas were a powerful dynasty that ruled large parts of the Deccan (a large plateau comprising most of Central and Southern India) in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries ce from their capital Devagiri (the modern Daulatabad in Maharashtra), including the area where J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s family lived.5 The Y¯ adava kings were liberal and generous patrons who provided well for the br¯ ahman .a teachers of their domain. As such they attracted eminent scholars to their kingdom, where a culture of learning ﬂourished.6 This included the study of astronomy.7 Laks ıdhara, the son of the renowned . m¯ astronomer Bh¯ askara ii, was the chief counselor of the Y¯ adava king Jaitrap¯ ala (r. 1193–1210).8 Laks ıdhara’s son Cangadeva ˙ was the court astrologer of Singhan ˙ ala, . m¯ . a ii, the successor of Jaitrap¯ and was involved in the establishment of a mat askara ii . ha dedicated to the study of the works of Bh¯ at P¯ at a (note that this is not the modern Patna in Bihar) on August 9, 1207.9 Through R¯ ama, .n .¯ J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s family and the scholarship of its members were connected to this general culture of learning that ﬂourished in the Y¯ adava kingdom. Islamic rule The Y¯ adavas reached their zenith during the reign of King R¯ amacandra. However, even during his reign, Devagiri was sacked twice by forces from the Islamic Sultanate of Delhi, and after his death the Y¯ adava kingdom was annexed by the Sultanate.10 The area was subsequently ruled by various Islamic dynasties. However, this does not mean that the patronage oﬀered by the Y¯ adavas ended. In addition to being the ancestral home of J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s family, P¯ arthapura (known as P¯ athr¯ ı in Islamic sources) is also the ancestral home of the Niz¯ am Sh¯ ah¯ ıs, the Islamic rulers of the Ahmadnagar kingdom. Ahmad Niz¯ am Sh¯ ah (r. 1490–1509 ce), the founder of the Niz¯ am Sh¯ ah¯ ı dynasty and the Ahmadnagar kingdom, descended from a br¯ ahman arthapura.11 P¯ arthapura, . a family from P¯ however, was governed by the neighboring Islamic kingdom of Berar, and Burh¯ an Niz¯ am Sh¯ ah
5 For 6 See 7 See 8 See
a history of the Y¯ adavas, see [103]. [103 231–233, 255–256]. [103 111, 264] and [56 196].
ala is also known as Jaitugi. For the years of his reign, see [103 368]. [103 184–185] and [65 A.4.299]. Jaitrap¯ For Bh¯ askara ii, see below, p. 4. [103 256] and [65 A.3.39–40]. Cangadeva ˙ ﬂourished ca. 1200/1220 (see [65 A.3.39]), and Singhan ˙ . a ii [103 147–158, 161]. [32 3.116, 130], [38 398], and [5 108].
9 See
reigned 1210–1246 ce (see [103 368]).
10 See 11 See
4 (r. 15091533 ce), Ahmad Niz¯ am Sh¯ ah’s son and successor, fought a number of battles with Berar over the town starting in 1518. Little is known about the extent to which the Islamic rulers of the region oﬀered patronage to Hindu scholars or promoted sciences such as astronomy, but they did to some extent; Ahmad Niz¯ am Sh¯ ah, for example, was a patron of Hindu writers.12 Bh¯ askara ii and his legacy One of the most renowned ﬁgures in Indian astronomy is Bh¯ askara ii (b. 1114 ce).13 A number of important astronomical and mathematical works were composed by him, and, as we saw above, descendants of his, who held high positions at the Y¯ adava court, were instrumental in promoting the study of these works, and of astronomy in general.
14 The most notable astronomical work of Bh¯ askara ii is the monumental Siddh¯ anta´ siroman . i,
which was completed in 1150 ce. As a treatise, it is clear and comprehensive, a testimony to Bh¯ askara ii’s deep understanding of the subject. As noted by Pingree, the most impressive quality of the Siddh¯ anta´ siroman . i is its comprehensiveness,15 a quality that ensured that it (and other of Bh¯ askara ii’s works) became normative in the period following him. In fact, after the composition of the Siddh¯ anta´ siroman . i in 1150 ce, the Indian astronomers moved in a didactic direction, focusing on writing commentaries on existing treatises and composing kos thaka s (astronomical tables meant to facilitate the computation of plan.. etary positions for casters of horoscopes and makers of calendars16 ) rather than writing original treatises.17 A concept central to the work of Bh¯ askara ii is that of v¯ asan¯ a , “demonstration”. A v¯ asan¯ a for an astronomical algorithm or formula is a demonstration of it, i.e., what we can loosely call a proof.18 Bh¯ askara ii’s own commentary on the Siddh¯ anta´ siroman asan¯ abh¯ as . i is called the V¯ . ya (literally, Demonstration Commentary), and it provides demonstrations for the mathematical algorithms and formulae found in the main text.
12 See 13 For
[34 159–160].
askara to avoid Bh¯ askara ii and his works, see [65 A.4.299–326, A.5.254–263]. He is called the second Bh¯ confusion with an earlier astronomer of the same name. edition of the Siddh¯ anta´ siroman . i used here is [87]. [74 26]. [71 41]. [74 26].
14 The 15 See 16 See 17 See 18 It
should be noted, though, that the Indian tradition does not operate with proofs in the Euclidean sense that we use today.
5 The eight siddh¯ anta s A group of minor siddh¯ anta s,19 including the Brahmasiddh¯ anta , the Somasiddh¯ anta , and the Vasis tha.. siddh¯ anta , were composed during the 350year period between the composition of the Siddh¯ anta´ siroman antasundara . Each of these treatises has the form of a . i and the composition of the Siddh¯ discourse on astronomy between a deity or a sage (the teacher) and a sage (the student). According to the Brahmasiddh¯ anta , there are eight such original discourses, through which the science of astronomy was revealed.20 Thus a tradition arose of an eightfold origin of astronomy as a revelation by eight divine personages, recorded in these eight astronomical treatises. As revelations by superhuman personages, these eight siddh¯ anta s possess divine authority, but they are deﬁcient in one respect: they are not accompanied by v¯ asan¯ a s.
1.1.3
The Siddh¯ antasundara
During the period of about 350 years between Bh¯ askara ii composing the Siddh¯ anta´ siroman . i in 1150 ce and the composition of the Siddh¯ antasundara around the beginning of the 16th century ce, no major siddh¯ anta was written. In other words, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s Siddh¯ antasundara was the ﬁrst major siddh¯ anta to be written after the Siddh¯ anta´ siroman . i . As pointed out by Minkowski, to write a major astronomical treatise after a long period of time “. . . is to recuperate the past, but at the same time to break from it. . . ”21 What were the elements that J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja sought to recapitulate, and in which ways did he break from the tradition? J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja states directly that the Siddh¯ antasundara is his own rendering of the contents of the Brahmasiddh¯ anta to which he has added v¯ asan¯ a s.22 One of his aims is therefore to provide v¯ asan¯ as for the texts of eight siddh¯ anta s. in particular the Brahmasiddh¯ anta , in order to make the tradition more deductive and demonstrative, and thus on a par with the tradition of Bh¯ askara ii. Why he chose the Brahmasiddh¯ anta , a somewhat obscure text at his time, as his source is not clear. However, the reason is perhaps to be sought in J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s concern with the authority of sacred texts. In addition to the cosmology of the astronomical tradition, the pur¯ an . a s (a group of texts considered sacred in Hinduism) present a cosmology as well, one that enjoyed a broader acceptance in the greater Hindu tradition. However, the two cosmologies are not consistent with each other. The general approach to this problem among the Indian astronomers had been to incorporate compatible elements from the cosmology of the pur¯ an . a s into their own model, while rejecting other incompatible elements.23 J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja, however, took a diﬀerent route. To him the statements of the pur¯ an . a s could not be contradicted. At the same time, he was working within the framework of the astronomical tradition. His solution was to seek to eradicate the contradictions through reinterpretation of
19 See
[74 26]. 1.9–10. The edition used is [21].
20 Brahmasiddh¯ anta 21 See
[51 498]. 1.1.3.
22 Siddh¯ antasundara 23 See
[52 352–354].
6 statements from both traditions.24 The Brahmasiddh¯ anta stands apart from other astronomical treatises in that in addition to being an astronomical treatise, it also deals with religion; in fact, it contains a whole chapter that reads
25 like a pur¯ an . a , which is presumably where the religious material of the text is found. It is possible
that this was an inspiration for J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja. Thus J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja is bringing the authority of the pur¯ an . a s into the astronomical tradition, and through additions of v¯ asan¯ a s he is ensuring that his treatise meets the standard of the tradition of Bh¯ askara ii. It is also possible that J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja was reacting to the spread of Islamic astronomy. Format of the Siddh¯ antasundara As is the case with all siddh¯ anta s and other types of astronomical treatises, the Siddh¯ antasundara is written in verse. A Sanskrit verse is divided into four p¯ ada s (quarters), referred to as a, b, c, and d, respectively, in the following. The fact that scientiﬁc treatises were written in verse, however, does not mean that they can be considered poetry. Phrasing the material in metrical form aids memorization and also serves to preserve the text better; errors in a metrical text are easier to see than errors in prose. The ﬁnal section of the gol¯ adhy¯ aya is an elaborate and complex poem describing the seasons. Here, again, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja follows the model of Bh¯ askara ii, who also included such a poem in the Siddh¯ anta´ siroman na ¯nar¯ aja’s poem is more than twice as long as that of Bh¯ askara and more . i ; but J˜ intricate. An unusual feature of the Siddh¯ antasundara is the sample problems that J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja have included in the tripra´ sn¯ adhik¯ ara (the section on questions concerning diurnal motion). These are poetic and phrased using double entendre: one level of meaning provides a narrative, the other provides the technical information necessary to solve a given problem. Contents of the Siddh¯ antasundara The Siddh¯ antasundara is divided into three chapters: 1. the gol¯ adhy¯ aya , or the chapter on the sphere, 2. the grahagan adhy¯ aya , or the chapter on mathematical astronomy, and . it¯ 3. the b¯ ıjagan adhy¯ aya , or the chapter on algebra. . it¯ Each chapter is further divided into a number of sections. The b¯ ıjagan adhy¯ aya , while a legitimate part of the Siddh¯ antasundara , stands apart in that it . it¯ has been handed down separately in the manuscript tradition. This is presumably because it deals
24 See 25 See
[52 351–354]. See also “The issue of virodhaparih¯ ara ” on p. 49 in section 1.3.7.
[22 2.49]. Unfortunately, Dikshit does not specify what sort of religious matters the text deals with, and Dhavale, the editor of the critical edition of the Brahmasiddh¯ anta , chose not to include the pur¯ an . a like chapter in
his edition, as he felt that its subject matter did not justify its inclusion in a treatise on astronomy (see [21 ix]).
7 with a diﬀerent topic (pure mathematics) than the other two chapters. For these reasons, it has often been taken as a separate work in the secondary literature. The b¯ ıjagan adhy¯ aya has not been . it¯ the subject of any study here. The division of the astronomical part of the Siddh¯ antasundara into a gol¯ adhy¯ aya and a grahagan adhy¯ aya follows the same division as that found in the Siddh¯ anta´ siroman askara ii.26 It . it¯ . i of Bh¯ separates two subjects: 1. mathematical astronomy, which provides algorithms and formulae for computing planetary positions, eclipses, and so on, and 2. spherics, which undertakes to explain the model on which the algorithms and formulae are based. While this basic division is there in both the Siddh¯ anta´ siroman antasundara , the . i and the Siddh¯ order is diﬀerent. The published editions of the Siddh¯ anta´ siroman adhy¯ aya as . i place the grahagan . it¯ 27 28 the ﬁrst part of the work, but it is the second in the Siddh¯ antasundara .
1.1.4
Manuscripts and critical editing
Photocopies of 20 manuscripts of the Siddh¯ antasundara were kindly made available to me by David Pingree for preparing this dissertation.29 Some of the manuscripts contain only the gol¯ adhy¯ aya , others only the grahagan adhy¯ aya , and yet others both the gol¯ adhy¯ aya and the grahagan adhy¯ aya ; . it¯ . it¯ some have leaves missing and are thus incomplete. All the manuscripts are written in the Devan¯ agar¯ ı script on countrymade paper.30 The earliest dated manuscript was copied on Tuesday, December 25, 1663, and the most recent ones probably date from the early to middle of the 19th century. In the manuscript tradition, when a text is copied, it undergoes changes. These are due to errors made by scribes, to corrections made to the text, and so on. As a result, diﬀerent readings will occur in the diﬀerent manuscripts. Depending on the text in question, its age, its popularity, and so on, these diﬀerences between the various manuscripts can be either substantial or minor.
26 The 27 See,
´ . yadh¯ Siddh¯ anta´ siroman ıvr . i , in turn, is modeled in form on the Sis . ddhidatantra of Lalla (see [74 26]). e.g., [87] and [12].
28 Some
manuscripts places the grahagan adhy¯ aya at the beginning of the Siddh¯ antasundara , an order that has . it¯ become accepted in the secondary literature. However, it is clear from internal evidence that the gol¯ adhy¯ aya commences the work. For more details, see the discussion below on p. 31. reality, though, there are only 18 manuscripts, as 3 of the 20 are parts of the same manuscript. Takao Hayashi also kindly provided me with copies of some manuscripts of the b¯ ıjagan adhy¯ aya . . it¯ material appears to be such from the photocopies, and this is backed up when notes on the material is given in the descriptions in manuscript catalogues.
29 In
30 The
8 Method of collation In order to prepare the edition of the text of the Siddh¯ antasundara , I started by writing out the entire text, noting variant readings from 4–5 manuscripts for both the gol¯ adhy¯ aya and the grahagan adhy¯ aya . Pingree had originally suggested that I establish a preliminary edition from just . it¯ one manuscript, but this proved too diﬃcult. With more manuscripts, it was easier to work out characters that were hard to read in one or more of them, and omissions could be spotted quickly. Of the 4–5 manuscripts that I used, I chose the ﬁrst ones based on their legibility, the rest for variety. In this way, a preliminary edition was established. For the portion of the text included here, I subsequently noted the variant readings from all the available manuscripts. Overall, the preliminary edition that I established was a good one; there are only a few diﬀerences between the preliminary edition and the present edition based on all the available manuscripts. It quickly became clear that the variations in the text between the diﬀerent manuscripts are not major. Some groupings can be discerned due to occasional diﬀerences in the order of certain verses, to the inclusion of an extra verse or the omission of a verse, or to variant readings, but many of the manuscripts do not have an obvious relationship to the rest. Therefore, the attempt to establish a stemma (a tree that shows the relationship between the surviving manuscripts) has not been fully successful.31 Contents of this edition In the following, references to passages in the Siddh¯ antasundara will be given as a.b.c, where a is 1 for the gol¯ adhy¯ aya , 2 for the grahagan adhy¯ aya , and 3 for the b¯ ıjagan adhy¯ aya ; b is the number of . it¯ . it¯ the section in the chapter; and c is the number of the verse. For example, 2.2.8 means grahagan a. it¯ dhy¯ aya , section 2 (spas ta ¯dhik¯ ara ), verse 8. If a reference is to a speciﬁc p¯ ada of the verse, say the .. second, the notation 2.2.8b will be used. The present edition contains the following sections of the Siddh¯ antasundara : 1. the bhuvanako´ sa ¯dhik¯ ara of the gol¯ adhy¯ aya , on cosmology, 2. the madhyam¯ adhik¯ ara of the grahagan adhy¯ aya , on mean planetary motion, . it¯ 3. the spas ta ¯dhik¯ ara of the grahagan adhy¯ aya , on true planetary motion, .. . it¯ 4. the tripra´ sn¯ adhik¯ ara of the grahagan adhy¯ aya , on diurnal motion, . it¯ 5. the parvasambh¯ utyadhik¯ ara of the grahagan adhy¯ aya , on eclipse possibilities, . it¯ 6. the candragrahan ¯dhik¯ ara of the grahagan adhy¯ aya , on lunar eclipses, and .a . it¯ 7. the s¯ uryagrahan ¯dhik¯ ara of the grahagan adhy¯ aya , on solar eclipses. .a . it¯
31 See
the discussion below, p. 59.
9 Together these sections constitute about 60% of the text. The reason for selecting these particular chapters is that the ﬁrst six chapters of the grahagan a. it¯ dhy¯ aya form a suitable unit of chapters dealing with mathematical astronomy, and the ﬁrst chapter of the gol¯ adhy¯ aya is important as it presents J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s sources and introduces new ideas. Principles of editing The principle followed in the editorial process has been that the text should be intelligible and ﬁt the context. Thus, a meaningful reading, even if only attested in very few manuscripts, is chosen over a reading that does not make sense. In a case where more than one meaningful reading is available, a choice is made either according to the grouping of the manuscripts or according to the majority reading. J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s son Cint¯ aman antasundara . Unfortunately, . i wrote a commentary on the Siddh¯ I only have parts of it available to me, but where available, I have paid close attention to how Cint¯ aman . i read the verse in question. The critical apparatus contains all variant readings, even minor spelling errors (although it has not been attempted to include all types of minor spelling errors), which makes it possible to reconstruct the text of each manuscript. Should the reader have doubts about a reading in the edition, he or she will be able to assess all the readings attested in the manuscripts. The need for emendation has been minimal. When I have seen the need to emend the text, this is clearly indicated. Principles of translation Due to the technical nature of the Siddh¯ antasundara , the translation of it has been challenging. I have followed the principle that the translation should reﬂect the established text and be intelligible. While the Siddh¯ antasundara is composed in verse, I found that it would be near impossible to translate it into some sort of versiﬁed English; hence the translation is in English prose. I have attempted to preserve the literal sense of the Sanskrit text while giving a readable and meaningful translation. For translating the double entendre verses mentioned above on p. 6, I can see no other way than providing two separate translations for each of them, which is what I have done. In addition to the translation of a verse, I have provided a header for it, brieﬂy outlining its topic. It is to be noted that these headers do not occur in the original Sanskrit text, but are editorial additions to the English translation.
1.2
1.2.1
J˜ n¯ anar¯ aja
The date of J˜ n¯ anar¯ aja and the Siddh¯ antasundara
There is no speciﬁc information in the Siddh¯ antasundara about the year it was composed, nor about when its author was born or lived. What is given in the treatise, though, are planetary positions
10 deﬁning an epoch, i.e., a point in time with reference to which future computations of planetary positions are made. The point in time deﬁned by the epochal positions is local sunrise on Friday, September 29, 1503 ce.32 While the epoch year has often been taken as the date of the composition of the Siddh¯ antasundara ,33 the two need not necessarily coincide. It is reasonable to assume, though, that the two are not too far removed from each other in time. Also bearing on the date of J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja is a verse at the end of the S¯ uryaprak¯ a´ sa , a commentary on the B¯ ıjagan askara ii composed by S¯ uryad¯ asa, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s son. The ﬁrst half of the verse . ita of Bh¯ reads:34 sas ti´ sakragan sake kr . .. . ite ´ . tam . bh¯ as . yam . indugun . avatsare nije / In [the year] ´ saka 1460, [this] commentary was composed, when I was in my 31st year. According to the verse, S¯ uryad¯ asa composed the commentary in ´ saka 1460 when he was 31 years old. This means that he was born in either ´ saka 1429 or ´ saka 1430,35 i.e., in 1507 ce or 1508 ce.36 Finally, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja gives a list of his ancestors at the end of the Siddh¯ antasundara (the list is given in the next section, p. 11), stating further that R¯ ama, the most remote ancestor mentioned, was honored by King R¯ amacandra of the Y¯ adava dynasty (r. 1271–1311 ce). Assuming a date for J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja around ´ saka 1425 and assigning 30 years to each generation, Dikshit arrives at a date of ´ saka 1215, i.e., 1293 ce or 1294 ce, for J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s ancestor R¯ ama, consistent with the date of King R¯ amacandra.37 Although, as will be shown below, Dikshit’s list of J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s family omits one ancestor, this rough estimate remains valid. Instead of assigning 30 years to each generation, we may assume, say, 27 years per generation, and then still arrive at the time of King R¯ amacandra’s reign despite the extra ancestor. Considering the epochal date, the date of S¯ uryad¯ asa’s birth, and Dikshit’s rough dating of R¯ ama, it is reasonable to date J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja and the composition of the Siddh¯ antasundara to the beginning of the 16th century ce.
32 For 33 See,
more details regarding the dating, see commentary on 2.1.58–64. e.g., [65 A.3.75] and [82 7.334]. parts of the S¯ uryaprak¯ a´ sa have so far been published (see [43] and [61]), but the relevant verse is not therein.
34 Only
It has, however, been quoted in descriptions of the manuscripts of the S¯ uryaprak¯ a´ sa given in [30 1.5.1010, no. 2823] and [62 Extract 529]. In addition, Dikshit gives a paraphrase of the contents of the verse without quoting the Sanskrit (see [22 2.144]).
35 Assuming
incorrectly that S¯ uryad¯ asa was 40 years old when he wrote the Gan amr upik¯ a (a commentary on . it¯ . tak¯ the L¯ ıl¯ avat¯ ı of Bh¯ askara ii) in ´ saka 1463, Dvivedi estimates that the year of S¯ uryad¯ asa’s birth was ´ saka 1423 (see [25 66]).
36 Pingree 37 See
gives S¯ uryad¯ asa’s year of birth as 1507 ce, see [65 A.3.75].
[22 2.141].
11
1.2.2
Primary source material relevant to J˜ n¯ anar¯ aja
In this section, passages from Sanskrit works containing information about J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja, his family, and so on will be given. These will be drawn on in the subsequent discussions. Some shorter passages will not be given here, but will rather be presented in due course. In addition to a passage from J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja himself, the remainder of the passages quoted below come from the works of J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s son S¯ uryad¯ asa, who was a proliﬁc writer on many topics. In his works, he at times gives information pertinent to his family, and relevant extracts are presented below. Note that while there are many verses relevant to S¯ uryad¯ asa himself and his written works to be found in S¯ uryad¯ asa’s works, we will limit ourselves to the verses pertinent to J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja and other ancestors of S¯ uryad¯ asa, as well as to their place of residence. Material from J˜ n¯ anar¯ aja At the conclusion of the b¯ ıjagan adhy¯ aya of the Siddh¯ antasundara , J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja gives four verses that . it¯ contain his genealogy as well as a bit of information about his ancestors and the place where they lived. The text of the b¯ ıjagan adhy¯ aya has not been published, but the verses are quoted in Weber’s . it¯ description of a manuscript of the b¯ ıjagan adhy¯ aya .38 In addition to Weber’s transcription, the four . it¯ verses as rendered below are based on ﬁve manuscripts of the b¯ ıjagan adhy¯ aya :39 . it¯ ´ sr¯ ıgodottarat¯ ırap¯ arthivapure p¯ urn ¯khyat¯ ırthe pare .a ´ sr¯ ımaddevagir¯ ı´ sar¯ amanr anyo vad¯ anyo vid¯ am / . pater m¯ vidv¯ an r¯ ama it¯ ıha tasya tanayah aptavidyodayo . sampr¯ vis ama babh¯ uva ´ sa ¯stranipun sr¯ ın¯ ılakan thas tatah / .n . ur n¯ . ah . ´ .. . / tasm¯ ad vis ut prabh¯ utavibhavo vidy¯ anavadyodayah .n . ur abh¯ . s¯ unus tasya ca n¯ ılakan tha iva yah sr¯ ın¯ ılakan tho ’parah .. . ´ .. . / tatputro ’pi tath¯ a gun ato mah¯ ıman . air agan . itaih . khy¯ .d . ale sv¯ ac¯ arapratip¯ alanaikaniratah sr¯ ın¯ agan¯ ath¯ abhidhah / . ´ . / bh¯ aradv¯ ajakul¯ avatam . savilasadvidyo ’navadyair gun . air yukto ’bh¯ ud vibudho budhopama iti ´ sr¯ ımannr abhidhah . sim . h¯ . / tasm¯ at sarvakal¯ akal¯ apaku´ salah sr¯ ın¯ agan¯ atho ’bhavad . ´ god¯ at¯ ırakar¯ ındrac¯ aruvadanadhy¯ an¯ anuraktah a/ / . sad¯ s¯ unus tasya gaj¯ ananasya kr a´ sr¯ ıj˜ na ¯nar¯ ajah ır . pay¯ . sudh¯ vist¯ ırn ¯d gan arn ad udaharat siddh¯ antasatsundaram / .a . it¯ . av¯ ratnam u. san ımad gun ahin ¯m . bh¯ . ahetave ’tigun . avac chr¯ . agr¯ .a . vidy¯ aratnapar¯ ıks uy¯ at sad¯ asy¯ adar¯ at / / . akes . u vasatir bh¯
38 The 39 The
manuscript is Berlin 833 (see [104 231–232]).
four manuscripts are Berlin 833 (contains all four verses), Benares 35626 (contains only the last two verses), Benares 35629 (contains only the last two verses), Scindia Oriental Research Institute 9396 (contains only the ﬁrst verse), and Scindia Oriental Research Institute 9397 (contains the ﬁrst, third, and fourth verses). Copies of all four manuscripts were kindly made available to me by Takao Hayashi.
12 In P¯ arthivapura, on the left bank of the God¯ avar¯ ı [river], at the greatest t¯ ırtha , bearing the name P¯ urn ama by name, who was honored by King R¯ ama, . a, was a learned man, R¯ the ruler of Devagiri, and who was eloquent among the learned. His son, whose rising of knowledge had been attained, was called Vis .n . u. From him [came forth a son called] N¯ ılakan sa ¯stra s. .t . ha, who was skilled in the ´ From him came forth [a son called] Vis .n . u, whose power was great and in whom there was a faultless [sun]rise of knowledge. He had a son [called] N¯ ılakan .t . ha, who like [the ´ deity] N¯ ılakan was unrivaled. His son, bearing the name N¯ agan¯ atha, was .t . ha [i.e., Siva], celebrated on the Earth due to his innumerable good qualities, and he was guarding his own [religious] practice, which he was singlemindedly engaging in. [His son,] who bore the name Nr . sim . ha, whose learning was playful, and who descended in the Bh¯ aradv¯ aja family, was endowed with faultless good qualities and very learned, like a sage, it is said. From him [came forth a son called] N¯ agan¯ atha, who was expert in the whole collection of arts, and who was always fond of meditating on the smiling face of [the deity] Gan sa [while sitting] on the bank of the God¯ avar¯ ı river. . e´ His son, by the mercy of [the deity] Gan sa, was the intelligent J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja, who extracted . e´ the jewel [called] the Siddh¯ antasatsundara from the wide ocean of computation, [a jewel that] has many qualities and that is lustrous, for the sake of adorning those who appreciate good qualities. May its abode always respectfully be among the examiners of the jewels of knowledge. Material from the S¯ uryaprak¯ a´ sa of S¯ uryad¯ asa The S¯ uryaprak¯ a´ sa is a commentary on the B¯ ıjagan askara ii. No . ita , a work on algebra, of Bh¯ complete edition is available, but parts of the S¯ uryaprak¯ a´ sa have been edited and published.40 The following three verses from the end of the S¯ uryaprak¯ a´ sa are not included in any of the two partial editions that have been published, but they have been quoted in descriptions of manuscripts of the S¯ uryaprak¯ a´ sa :41 gododaktat urn ırthanikat ¯v¯ ase tath¯ a mangal¯ ˙ a. ap¯ . at¯ .a gang¯ ˙ asangamatas ˙ tu pa´ scimadi´ si kro´ sa ¯ntaren . a sthite / ´ sr¯ ımatp¯ arthapure babh¯ uva param¯ ac¯ aro dvijanm¯ agran ır .¯ jyotih sa ¯stravic¯ aravistr sr¯ ın¯ agan¯ ath¯ abhidhah / .´ . tamatih . ´ . / putras tasya kal¯ akal¯ apaku´ salah ap¯ alam¯ al¯ arcitah . ks . m¯ . saujanyaikasudh¯ akarah ks ititale saubh¯ a gyabh¯ a gy¯ a spadam / . . k¯ ırtir yasya digantares akhy¯ ata´ sa ¯str¯ agamair . u vibudhair vy¯ vikhy¯ ato nanu satkavir vijayate ´ sr¯ ıj˜ na ¯nar¯ aj¯ abhidhah / . /
40 See 41 See
[43] and [61]. [30 5.1010, entry 2823] and [62 Extract 529].
13 siddh¯ antam akhyam atake caikam . sundar¯ . grahagan . itavidhau j¯ ekam ahitye g¯ ıta´ sa ¯stre param idam akarod ya´ s caturgrantharatnam / . s¯ tats¯ unuh uryad¯ asah am ıtaye b¯ ıja. s¯ . sujanavidhivid¯ . pr¯ bh¯ as uryaprak¯ a´ sam ad a ¯ditah / . yam . cakre s¯ . svamatiparicay¯ . sopapattim . /
1 In P¯ arthapura, which is located a kro´ sa [a measure of distance is about 2 4 miles, or a 1 kilometers] west of the conﬂuence of the Mangal¯ ˙ a and the Gang¯ ˙ a42 bit more than 3 2
[rivers] in the vicinity of P¯ urn ırtha on the left bank of the God¯ avar¯ ı river, there was . at¯ a man bearing the name N¯ agan¯ atha, who had the highest conduct, who was a leader of the br¯ ahman . a s, and whose extensive intelligence [was engaged in] a reﬂection on jyotih .´ sa ¯stra [i.e., the astral sciences]. His son, who was skilled in all of the arts, who was honored by a succession of kings and who was the one Moon of friendliness, was the abode of happiness and prosperity on Earth. He, the good poet bearing the name J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja, conquers, whose fame is indeed celebrated in other lands by the wise who have written commentaries on the ´ sa ¯stra s and a ¯gama s, and who wrote four works, a siddh¯ anta entitled Sundara on the rule of planetary computation, one on horoscopy, one on rhetoric, and another on the art of singing. His son, S¯ uryad¯ asa, wrote the S¯ uryaprak¯ a´ sa , a commentary on the B¯ ıjagan askara ii] . ita [of Bh¯ along wth demonstrations, beginning from an accumulation of his own understanding for the pleasure of those who know the rules of good people. Material from the Prabodhasudh¯ akara of S¯ uryad¯ asa The Prabodhasudh¯ akara is a work on ved¯ anta , one of the philosophical systems of India, that has not been published. A relevant verse from the text has been quoted from a manuscript by Sarma:43 god¯ ay¯ as t¯ ırabh¯ age hariharanilaye p¯ urn ırthopakan the . at¯ .. gr¯ ame yah akhye gan aman ır j˜ na ¯nar¯ ajah . prastar¯ . akagun . agan . agr¯ .¯ . / tats¯ unuh anidhir adhikal¯ ak¯ avyabh¯ a. sa ¯bhidh¯ ayi . sarvavidy¯ prov¯ ac¯ adhy¯ atmah¯ ardam am ıtaye s¯ uryas¯ urih / . tadanubhavavat¯ . pr¯ . / J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja, the chief of the body of people possessing the qualities of a mathematician, [lived] in a village called Prastara in the vicinity of P¯ urn ırtha, the dwelling place of . at¯ ´ [the deities] Vis avar¯ ı [river]. His son S¯ uryad¯ asa, who .n . u and Siva, on the bank of the God¯ is an ocean of all knowledge, spoke the essence of that which relates to the Self expressed in the language of the arts and poetry for the satisfaction of those who have a feeling for that.
42 Here the word “Gang¯ ˙ a”, which usually means the river Ganges in North India, refers to the God¯ avar¯ ı river, the Ganges of the Deccan. 43 See
[85 224].
14 Material from the Gan amr upik¯ a of S¯ uryad¯ asa . it¯ . tak¯ The Gan amr upik¯ a is a commentary on the L¯ ıl¯ avat¯ ı of Bh¯ askara ii. It has not been published, . it¯ . tak¯ but the following verses from the end of the work are quoted in a manuscript catalogue:44 asti trastasamastados avidarbh¯ ayuteh . anicayam . god¯ . kro´ senottaratah taduttaratat e p¯ a rth¯ a bhidh¯ a nam puram / . . . tatr¯ abh¯ ud gan sa ¯h sr¯ ın¯ agan¯ ath¯ abhidho . akottamah . pr . thuya´ . ´ bh¯ aradv¯ ajakule sadaiva param¯ ac¯ aro dvijanm¯ agran ıh /1/ / .¯ . / putras tasya kal¯ akal¯ apaku´ salah ap¯ alam¯ al¯ arcitah . ks . m¯ . saujanyaikasudh¯ akarah agabh¯ agy¯ aspadam . ks . ititale saubh¯ . / k¯ ırtir yasya digantares a[khy¯ a]nasankhy¯ ˙ agamair . u vividhair vy¯ vikhy¯ at¯ a nanu satkavir vijayate ´ sr¯ ıj˜ na ¯nar¯ aj¯ abhidhah /2/ / . / There is a city called P¯ arthapura, on account of which the entire multitude of faults tremble, one kro´ sa north of the conﬂuence of the God¯ avar¯ ı and Vidarbh¯ a rivers, on the northern bank of it [the conﬂuence]. There [in P¯ arthapura] was a man called N¯ agan¯ atha, the best among mathematicians and of wide renown, who belonged to the Bh¯ aradv¯ aja family, who was always of the highest conduct, and who was a leader of the br¯ ahman . a s. His son, who was skilled in all of the arts, who was honored by a succession of kings and who was the one Moon of friendliness, was the abode of happiness and prosperity on Earth. He, the good poet bearing the name J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja, conquers, whose fame is indeed celebrated in other lands by various texts of mathematics with commentaries. Material from the Nr u of S¯ uryad¯ asa . sim . hacamp¯ The Nr u is a camp¯ u (a poetical work written in mixed verse and prose) narrating the . sim . hacamp¯ 45 story of Nr . sim . ha, one of the incarnations of the deity Vis .n . u. It has been published. At the end of the work, the ﬁrst of the two verses from the end of the Gan amr upik¯ a (possibly with minor . it¯ . tak¯ variations) is given. This verse as given in the printed edition contains many errors, but it has been reproduced better in an entry in a manuscript catalogue.46 Material from the Param¯ arthaprap¯ a of S¯ uryad¯ asa The Param¯ arthaprap¯ a is a commentary on the Bhagavadg¯ ıt¯ a , a very important religious text in Hinduism. At the conclusion of the Param¯ arthaprap¯ a , S¯ uryad¯ asa gives the following verse:47
44 Cited 45 See 46 See
in [30 5.1005, entry 2809].
[88]. arthapura is given as V¯ aryapura, and J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s name is given as J¯ anar¯ ata. [88 79], where, for example, P¯
For the better transcription, see [30 7.1548, entry 4051].
47 See
[49 3.1327].
15 gododaktat urn ırthanikat arth¯ abhidh¯ anam . ap¯ . at¯ . e p¯ . puram . tatra jyotis anvaye samabhavac chr¯ ıj˜ na ¯nar¯ aj¯ abhidhah . ik¯ . / There is a city called P¯ arthapura in the vicinity of P¯ urn ırtha on the left bank of the . at¯ God¯ avar¯ ı [river]. In that [city], in a family of astronomers, [a man] bearing the name J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja was born.
1.2.3
J˜ n¯ anar¯ aja’s family background
As has been stated clearly in passages quoted above by both J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja and S¯ uryad¯ asa, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja was descended from a br¯ ahman aradv¯ aja living in a . a family tracing its descent to the sage Bh¯ city called P¯ arthapura, about 300 miles from Devagiri, the capital of the Y¯ adava dynasty. From the descriptions given, the family was learned and traced its lineage back to an ancestor who was honored by one of the Y¯ adava kings. J˜ n¯ anar¯ aja’s genealogy A passage of four verses coming at the end of the b¯ ıjagan adhy¯ aya in which J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja presents . it¯ his genealogy was given above. Based on Weber’s transcription of the passage, the genealogy is given by Aufrecht in the Catalogus Catalogorum .48 An expanded genealogy based on Aufrecht and communications he had at the end of the 19th century with a descendant of J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja, called ´ astr¯ K¯ a´ s¯ ın¯ atha S¯ ı, is given by Dikshit.49 Dikshit notes that in the genealogical table sent to him by ´ astr¯ K¯ a´ s¯ ın¯ atha S¯ ı, the name of Nr nar¯ aja,50 whose name begins that . sim . ha’s father is given as Daivaj˜ table. Dikshit suggests, reasonably, that presumably N¯ agan¯ atha or an earlier ancestor received the title daivaj˜ nar¯ aja (literally, king among those who knows the destinies of men (astrologers)). Based ´ astr¯ on the information gathered from K¯ a´ s¯ ın¯ atha S¯ ı, Dikshit was able to list descendants of J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja in addition to ancestors,51 but the list of ancestors given by him does not diﬀer from those given by Aufrecht. Finally, Pingree gives expanded genealogies based on Dikshit’s account.52 It is to be noted that the genealogies given by these scholars contain omissions from J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s verses. Rather than reﬂecting diﬀerent sources, these omissions appear to be mere errors: Aufrecht’s genealogy is based on Weber (who, as noted above, quotes J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s four verses in their entirety), ´astr¯ Dikshit’s genealogy is based on Aufrecht and K¯ a´ s¯ ın¯ atha S¯ ı, and Pingree’s sources are Aufrecht and Dikshit.53
48 See 49 See 50 The
ama of P¯ arthapura”]. [2 1.505, under the entry “R¯ [22 2.140]. name is given as Daivaj˜ nyar¯ aja later in the same paragraph. ´ astr¯ gives some brief information about J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s descendants, including K¯ a´ s¯ ın¯ atha S¯ ı, in [22 140, 142].
51 Dikshit 52 See 53 It
[65 A.3.75] and [74 124, table 9]. See also [74 120].
may also be noted that Peterson gives a very deﬁcient genealogy based on Aufrecht in [62 80, entry 1870], listing only R¯ ama, Vis ılakan agan¯ atha, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja, and J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s son S¯ uryad¯ asa. .n . u, N¯ .t . ha, N¯
16 R¯ ama  54 Vis .n .u  N¯ ılakan .t . ha  Vis .n .u  N¯ ılakan .t . ha  N¯ agan¯ atha55  56 Nr . sim . ha  N¯ agan¯ atha  J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja  Cint¯ aman uryad¯ asa . i and S¯ Table 1.1: J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s genealogy as given in the Siddh¯ antasundara A table of J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s genealogy based on the four verses, with J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja and his two sons added at its bottom, is given in Table 1.1. J˜ n¯ anar¯ aja’s ancestor R¯ ama According to J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja, R¯ ama, the most distant ancestor mentioned, was honored by King R¯ ama, the ruler of Devagiri. Gan sa, a member of J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s family who composed two works on astrology, . e´ likewise connects his ancestry with King R¯ ama of Devagiri.57 Aufrecht and Pingree identify this King R¯ ama as King R¯ amacandra of the Y¯ adava dynasty, who reigned 1271–1311 ce.58 Dikshit, referring to Aufrecht, states that R¯ ama ﬂourished at the court of King R¯ amacandra,59 and Minkowski writes that an ancestor of J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja (who must be R¯ ama) served at the court of the
54 Omitted 55 Omitted 56 Omitted 57 Gane´ sa
by Aufrecht, Dikshit, and Pingree. by Pingree in [74]. by Pingree in [74].
ﬂourished in the second half of the 16th century ce (see [65 A.2.107–110, A.3.28, A.4.75–76, A.5.74– . 75], especially [65 A.3.28] for Gan sa’s date). The verses in which Gan sa gives information about himself and . e´ . e´ his family are the two last verses of the T¯ ajikabh¯ u. san aval¯ ıpaddhati 8.12–14, all of which are quoted . a and Ratn¯ [2 1.505, entry “R¯ ama of P¯ arthapura”] and [74 120, fn. 6]. Note that there is only one king named R¯ ama
in [65 A.2.109].
58 See
or R¯ amacandra in the genealogy of the Y¯ adavas of Devagiri given in [103 368].
59 See
[22 2.140]. Aufrecht, however, only says “R¯ ama of P¯ arthapura (under R¯ ama, king of Devagiri), father of
. . . ” (see [2 1.505]).
17 Devagiri Y¯ adavas as a ´ sa ¯strin , or learned scholar.60 However, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja places R¯ ama in P¯ arthivapura, not in Devagiri, the Y¯ adava capital, and does not give more details than that R¯ ama was honored by King R¯ ama. The nature of the honor conferred on R¯ ama by the king is not known, nor are the services that he performed in order to earn it. Other ancestors Other than their names and that they are praised as learned men, we know hardly anything about the ancestors between R¯ ama and J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s father N¯ agan¯ atha. No works composed by any of them are listed by Pingree.61 N¯ agan¯ atha, J˜ n¯ anar¯ aja’s father J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja describes his father N¯ agan¯ atha as a learned man who was fond of meditating on the smiling face of the deity Gan sa at the bank of the God¯ avar¯ ı river. S¯ uryad¯ asa, in the second verse . e´ quoted from the end of the S¯ uryaprak¯ a´ sa and the ﬁrst verse quoted from the Gan amr upik¯ a, . it¯ . tak¯ describes N¯ agan¯ atha as accomplished in jyotih sa ¯stra (the astral sciences) and in computation. .´ The New Catalogus Catalogorum lists N¯ agan¯ atha as the probable author of a work entitled Parvaprabodha .62 This attribution is, however, not given by Pingree in his Census of the Exact Sciences in Sanskrit , where, instead, a Parvaprabodha is given as the work of a later scholar, N¯ age´ sa, who composed it in 1628 ce.63 This is likely the same text, which is thus not a work of J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s father. Note that the meaning of the Sanskrit names N¯ agan¯ atha and N¯ age´ sa is the same. N¯ agan¯ atha is sometimes called by slightly diﬀerent names in manuscript catalogues: for example, N¯ agar¯ aja,64 or N¯ aga.65 In one manuscript colophon, he is furthermore called Rangan¯ ˙ atha.66 These variations are due to minor errors in some colophons or concluding verses of chapters in manuscripts of the Siddh¯ antasundara . J˜ n¯ anar¯ aja’s wife In the S¯ uryodayak¯ avya , a poetical work written in praise of J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s son S¯ uryad¯ asa,67 the name of J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s wife is given as Ambik¯ a.68
60 See 61 See 62 See 63 See 64 See 65 See 66 See 67 See
[51 502] and [52 354]. [74 124, Table 9]. [82 10.4]. [65 A.5.167]. [58 351, no. 1241]. [4 187, no. 452] and [55 85–86, no. 1767]. f. 71r in V2 . [50]. 1.18. The edition used is [50].
68 S¯ uryodayak¯ avya
18 J˜ n¯ anar¯ aja’s sons J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja had (at least) two sons, Cint¯ aman uryad¯ asa,69 who were both learned men and . i and S¯ well versed in astronomy. Cint¯ aman . i is sometimes stated to have been the younger brother of S¯ uryad¯ asa,70 but I have not seen any sources that corroborate this. Pingree states that Cint¯ aman .i ﬂourished in about 1530 ce and that S¯ uryad¯ asa lived 1507–88 ce.71 Cint¯ aman .i The only known work of Cint¯ aman antasundara . i is a voluminous commentary on his father’s Siddh¯
72 entitled Grahagan aman aman aman . itacint¯ . i . In the Grahagan . itacint¯ . i , Cint¯ . i elaborates on and defends his father’s position on the virodhaparih¯ ara issue. He further writes amply on the properties
of objects, and he describes physical experiments. Most important, however, is his attempt at integrating jyotih sa ¯stra (the astral sciences), traditionally on the periphery of the ´ sa ¯stra s, or the .´ “knowledge systems” of India, with the other ´ sa ¯stra s. In particular, he recasts J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s arguments and demonstrations in the language of the philosophical ´ sa ¯stra s.73 S¯ uryad¯ asa Also known as S¯ urya Pan uryadeva, S¯ urya Kavi, S¯ urya Gan urya S¯ uri, Daivaj˜ na Pan .d . ita, S¯ . aka, S¯ .d . ita 74 ¯ S¯ urya, Daivaj˜ na S¯ urya Pan arya S¯ urya, or simply S¯ urya, S¯ uryad¯ asa was a polymath and .d . ita, Ac¯ a proliﬁc writer on many subjects. He is the most widely known member of J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s family. His works include commentaries on the works of Bh¯ askara ii, poetic works, a commentary on religious works such as the Bhagavadg¯ ıt¯ a and the veda s (a group of ancient texts sacred to Hinduism), works on astronomy, and more.75 Minkowski credits him with the invention of a genre of poetry called vilomak¯ avya , in which each verse can be read both from left to right and from right to left, giving two diﬀerent narratives.76 So famed was S¯ uryad¯ asa’s learning that a poetical work entitled S¯ uryodayak¯ avya was written about his life and deeds.77
69 For
information about Cint¯ aman . i, see [65 A.3.49, A.4.94], [51 504–507], and [52 360–364]. For information [102 1.4.94–95, entry 291] and [82 7.58]. [65 A.3.49, A.3.75].
about S¯ uryad¯ asa, see [22 2.144–145], [51 507–508], [52 364–367], and [53 329–330].
70 See 71 See 72 See
[65 A.3.49, A.4.94], [74 30], and [52 360]. Two manuscripts, M3 and V1 , used for the edition of the Siddh¯ antasundara contain the Grahagan aman . itacint¯ . i ; both manuscripts are, however, incomplete. [51 504–506] and [52 361–362]. [43 1]. uryad¯ asa’s written works the works of S¯ uryad¯ asa, see [85 222–224]. A more recent investigation of S¯
73 See 74 See
75 Regarding
is [35].
76 See 77 See
[53].
[50]. No thorough study of this text has been undertaken here, but such a study would presumably add much valuable information to what we know about S¯ uryad¯ asa and P¯ arthapura. I am thankful to Neal Delmonico for drawing my attention to this text.
19
1.2.4
Native place of J˜ n¯ anar¯ aja’s family
The place where J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s family lived has been identiﬁed by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja and S¯ uryad¯ asa both by name and by proximity to other locations. The family later relocated to Bid, a nearby town.78 P¯ arthapura According to the ﬁrst of the four verses quoted from the b¯ ıjagan adhy¯ aya above, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s family . it¯ (or at least R¯ ama, the ﬁrst ancestor mentioned) resided in a city (pura ) called P¯ arthivapura. In the verses quoted from the works of S¯ uryad¯ asa, N¯ agan¯ atha, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s father, is said to have lived in P¯ arthapura. Presumably it is understood that J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja did as well. However, in the verse quoted from the Prabodhasudh¯ akara , S¯ uryad¯ asa says that J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja lived in a village (gr¯ ama ) called Prastara. Goodwin is probably correct when he suggests that this is the village outside P¯ arthapura where J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja lived.79 Regarding other sources, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s city is called P¯ arthav¯ alapura in the S¯ uryodayak¯ avya ,80 P¯ athar¯ ı by the astronomer Kamal¯ akara (ﬂ. about 1658 ce),81 and P¯ athr¯ ı in Islamic sources. P¯ urn ırtha . at¯ Both J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja and S¯ uryad¯ asa make reference to a t¯ ırtha (ford or place of pilgrimage) called P¯ urn ırtha, which is in the proximity of P¯ arthapura. In a list of t¯ ırtha s, Kane notes that P¯ urn ırtha . at¯ . at¯
82 is mentioned in the Brahmapur¯ an an . a . The Brahmapur¯ . a , a sacred Hindu text, contains a long sec
tion, the Gautam¯ ım¯ ah¯ atmya , that praises sacred places and locations along the God¯ avar¯ ı river. In that section, a chapter is devoted to praising the glories of P¯ urn ırtha and other sacred places.83 . at¯ According to the Brahmapur¯ an urn ırtha is on the left (northern) bank of the God¯ avar¯ ı, is . a , P¯ . at¯ ´ the dwelling place of the deities Vis n u and Siva, and is at the conﬂuence of the Ma ngal¯ ˙ a and the .. God¯ avar¯ ı rivers.84 The location of P¯ arthapura About the location of P¯ arthapura we are told the following by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja and S¯ uryad¯ asa: 1. J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja states that P¯ arthivapura is on the left (northern) bank of the God¯ avar¯ ı river at P¯ urn ırtha (see p. 11). . at¯
78
[22 2.143]. According to the S¯ uryodayak¯ avya , S¯ uryad¯ asa went to Bid, so probably it was with him that the family (or part of it) moved there (see [50 iii]).
79 See
[35 36]. 1.15.
80 S¯ uryodayak¯ avya 81 See 82 See
akara, see [65 A.2.21–23, A.3.18, A.4.33, A.5.22]). [22 2.151–152]. For Kamal¯ [45 4.793]. . 122 (Gautam¯ ım¯ ah¯ atmya 53). The edition used is [90]. 122.1–2 and 122.100 (Gautam¯ ım¯ ah¯ atmya 53.1–2 and 53.100). .
83 Brahmapur¯ an a 84 Brahmapur¯ an a
20 2. In the ﬁrst of the verses quoted above from the end of S¯ uryad¯ asa’s S¯ uryaprak¯ a´ sa (see p. 12), it
1 is stated that P¯ arthapura is located at a distance of one kro´ sa (about 2 4 miles, or a bit more 1 than 3 2 kilometers) to the west of the conﬂuence of the Mangal¯ ˙ a and the God¯ avar¯ ı on the left
(northern) bank of the God¯ avar¯ ı85 near P¯ urn ırtha.86 . at¯ 3. In the ﬁrst of the verses quoted above from the end of S¯ uryad¯ asa’s Gan amr upik¯ a (see . it¯ . tak¯ p. 14), P¯ arthapura is located on the left (northern) bank of the God¯ avar¯ ı at a distance of one kro´ sa north of the conﬂuence of the God¯ avar¯ ı and the Vidarbh¯ a. 4. In the verse quoted from the Prabodhasudh¯ akara (see p. 13), S¯ uryad¯ asa says that the village Prastara, where he says that J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja lived, is near P¯ urn ırtha on the bank of the God¯ avar¯ ı. . at¯ There has been some confusion about the rivers mentioned by S¯ uryad¯ asa. Dikshit believes that the Vidarbh¯ a is the same river as the Mangal¯ ˙ a,87 and in the Catalogue of the Sanskrit Manuscripts in the Library of the India Oﬃce , the Mangal¯ ˙ agang¯ ˙ a mentioned by S¯ uryad¯ asa at the end of the S¯ uryaprak¯ a´ sa is taken as one river and identiﬁed with the Vidarbh¯ a.88 However, the word mangal¯ ˙ agang¯ ˙ a is not to be read as indicating just one river, but rather as indicating two, as Gang¯ ˙ a here refers to the God¯ avar¯ ı river. Furthermore, the Brahmapur¯ an a and . a clearly considers the Vidarbh¯ the Mangal¯ ˙ a to be two separate rivers. Whereas the Mangal¯ ˙ a river is mentioned in connection with P¯ urn ırtha, the conﬂuence of the Vidarbh¯ a and the God¯ avar¯ ı is praised in a separate chapter.89 It . at¯ is clear, though, that the two rivers are not far from each other. Identiﬁcation of P¯ arthapura From the discussion of the location of P¯ arthapura above, it is clear that P¯ arthivapura, P¯ arthapura, and P¯ arthav¯ alapura must be diﬀerent names of the same city. It is not clear, however, why the city is referred to by all of these three names. According to Kher, P¯ arthapura is named after Arjuna, one of the protagonists of the Mah¯ abh¯ arata , a wellknown Sanskrit epic.90 Arjuna is known by the matronymic P¯ artha (after his mother Pr a), but he is not called P¯ arthiva, a word that generally . th¯ means “king” in Sanskrit. Both of the words p¯ artha and p¯ arthiva are ultimately derived from the Sanskrit etymological root pr . th , “to extend, to be broad”, which could possibly be a clue to the meaning of the name of the city.
85 The God¯ avar¯ ı river is considered to have the same source as the river Ganges in North India (see [42 299]). Hence texts from the region of this river often call it Gang¯ ˙ a, the Sanskrit name for the Ganges. Thus the Gang¯ ˙ a in the verses quoted from S¯ uryad¯ asa does not refer to the Ganges in North India, but to the God¯ avar¯ ı river in the Deccan. 86 For 87 See 88 See
P¯ urn ırtha, see below. . at¯ [22 2.141]. ˙ agang¯ ˙ a as referring to [30 5.1004, entry 2809] and [30 5.1010, entry 2823]. Goodwin similarly takes Mangal¯ . 121 (Gautam¯ ım¯ ah¯ atmya 52).
the Vidarbh¯ a (see [35 36]).
89 Brahmapur¯ an a 90 See
[46 6]. Kher gives the second edition of Dikshit’s Bharatiya Jyotish Shastracha Itihas (in Marathi) published in Pune in 1931 as the source of this claim. I have not been able to consult this work, but there is no mention in the English translation of Dikshit’s work (see [22]) of P¯ arthapura being named after Arjuna.
21 Dikshit identiﬁes P¯ arthapura as the modern Pathri, which Pingree places in the Parbhani District of Maharashtra.91 Lalye similarly identiﬁes P¯ arthav¯ alapura with Pathri.92 This identiﬁcation seems certain. History of P¯ arthapura P¯ arthapura is not only the ancestral home of J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s family, it is also the ancestral home of the Muslim Niz¯ am Sh¯ ah¯ ı dynasty that ruled the Ahmadnagar kingdom. As Islamic sources refer to P¯ arthapura as P¯ athr¯ ı, we will use that name in the following historical account. According to the Muslim historian Firishta (ﬂ. about 1560–1620 ce), Ahmad Niz¯ am Sh¯ ah (r. 1490–1509),93 the founder of the Niz¯ am Sh¯ ah¯ ı dynasty, was the son of a br¯ ahman ıma . a named T¯ (or Timapa), who received the name Malik Hasan Bahr¯ ı when he converted to Islam. He was the son of Bhairava, a Kulkarni (a hereditary village accountant) br¯ ahman athr¯ ı.94 . a from P¯ Ahmad Niz¯ am Sh¯ ah was succeeded by his son Burh¯ an Niz¯ am Sh¯ ah (r. 1509–1553),95 who was approached by his relatives in P¯ athr¯ ı who “. . . wished to enjoy the protection and patronage of their royal kinsman.”96 At that time, P¯ athr¯ ı was on the frontier between the Islamic kingdoms of Ahmadnagar and Berar, but belonged to the latter. In keeping with his relatives’ desire, Burh¯ an Niz¯ am Sh¯ ah oﬀered ‘Al¯ audd¯ ın ‘Im¯ ad Sh¯ ah, the king of Berar, a favorable exchange for the town of P¯ athr¯ ı. The request was denied, however, and ‘Al¯ audd¯ ın ‘Im¯ ad Sh¯ ah began fortifying the town. Burh¯ an Niz¯ am Sh¯ ah subsequently, in 1518, invaded and conquered P¯ athr¯ ı, which he held until 1527, when ‘Al¯ audd¯ ın ‘Im¯ ad Sh¯ ah retook the city.97 The army of Berar was, however, unable to hold it, and in that same year it fell again to Burh¯ an Niz¯ am Sh¯ ah. Firishta writes that Burh¯ an Niz¯ am Sh¯ ah destroyed the fort of P¯ athr¯ ı after a siege lasting two months, and proceeded to give the district in
98 charity to his br¯ ahman audd¯ ın . a relations there, who kept it until the time of Emperor Akbar. ‘Al¯
‘Im¯ ad Sh¯ ah appealed for help to the king of Gujarat,99 whose intervention forced Burh¯ an Niz¯ am Sh¯ ah to agree to a peace agreement, according to which he was, among other things, to return P¯ athr¯ ı to Berar. This, however, never happened.100 In 1596, the Mughal army led by ‘Abd alRah ım, who had been awarded the title Kh¯ ani Kh¯ an¯ an, .¯
91 For 92 See 93 See 94 See 95 See 96 See
Dikshit’s identiﬁcation, see [22 2.141]. For Pingree, see [74 120]. [50 iii]. [38 704]. [32 3.116, 130], [38 398], and [5 108]. For the Kulkarni title, see [32 3.130, fn. 93]. [38 704]. [38 435]. According to Firishta, they desired to have their ancestral rights (i.e., the position as Kulkarni)
restored (see [32 3.130]).
97 See 98 See 99 See 100 See
[38 435]. [32 132]. [38 324]. [38 325, 436].
22 defeated the army of Ahmadnagar at P¯ athr¯ ı.101 These events took place after the composition of the Siddh¯ antasundara , but during the times when J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s sons, Cint¯ aman uryad¯ asa, were writing their works. The events further . i and S¯ illustrate the situation in the area at the time: general unrest between rivaling Islamic kingdoms.
1.3
1.3.1
The Siddh¯ antasundara
Indian astronomy
Before proceeding to a discussion of the Siddh¯ antasundara and its contents, a brief overview of Indian astronomy will be helpful. The Indian astronomical system seeks to describe planetary motion, compute lunar and solar eclipses, and so on. The model employed is geocentric, and uses epicycles to describe the motion of the planets (in accordance with ancient terminology, here and in the following the word “planet” will denote either one of the two luminaries, i.e., the Sun and the Moon, or one of the ﬁve planets known to the ancient Indians, i.e., Venus, Mercury, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn; if it necessary to distinguish further, the former are called luminaries and the latter starplanets). An epicycle is a circle that moves around the Earth with its center always at the same distance from the Earth’s center. In the case of the two luminaries, the planet moves on the epicycle, whereas in the case of the starplanets, two epicycles are used to describe the planet’s motion (one accounting for the fact that the planet orbits the Sun, not the Earth, and the second for the fact that the orbit is not circular but elliptical). The model is a prePtolemaic Hellenistic model following certain Aristotelian principles that was transmitted to India in the ﬁrst half of the ﬁrst millennium ce, but also contains certain distinct Indian features, such as supernatural beings causing the motion of the planets using cords of wind. Unlike ancient Greek astronomy, Indian astronomy operates with a sidereal zodiac. This means that the position of the Sun and the other planets is measured with respect to the ﬁxed stars, not, as in the tropical zodiac of Greek astronomy, with respect to the vernal equinox. The Indian astronomical system operates with lunar months, i.e., a month is the period from one conjunction of the Sun and the Moon to the next. During such a lunar month, the Moon moves further from the Sun until catching up with it. When the Moon has moved 12◦ away from the Sun, a time period known as a tithi has passed. When the Moon has moved another 12◦ away from the Sun (i.e., when the angular distance between the two luminaries is 24◦ ) another tithi has passed, and so on. There are thus 30 tithi s in a lunar month. A civil day, i.e., the period from one sunrise to the next, or from one midnight to the next (depending on which school of Indian astronomy one follows) is divided into 60 ghat a s. Each ghat a , in turn, is divided in 60 pala s. . ik¯ . ik¯
101 See
ani Kh¯ an¯ an, see [57]. [77 84]. For the life of the Kh¯
23 Classical schools of Indian astronomy Indian astronomical texts are generally divided according to a number of paks . a s, or schools. The diﬀerent paks . a s diﬀer in certain details, such as some astronomical parameters. For example, a day begins at sunrise in the br¯ ahmapaks ¯rdhar¯ atrikapaks . a , but at midnight in the a . a and the saurapaks . a. 102 The br¯ ahmapaks the oldest of the paks . a, . a s, is believed to be a revelation of the deity Brahman, and its founding text is a treatise entitled the Pait¯ amahasiddh¯ anta ,103 which survives only in corrupted form in a larger compilation, the Vis an ahmapaks .n . udharmottarapur¯ . a . Important br¯ . a texts include Brahmagupta’s Br¯ ahmasphut anta 104 and Bh¯ askara ii’s Siddh¯ anta´ siroman . asiddh¯ . i. 105 ¯ The a ¯ryapaks was founded by Aryabhat .a . a, one of the most famous astronomers in Indian 106 ¯ ¯ history, and its main text is his Aryabhat ıya . Like the br¯ ahmapaks .¯ . a , Aryabhat . a credits Brahman with a revelation of astronomy.
107 ¯ The a ¯rdhar¯ atrikapaks is like the a ¯ryapaks .a . a founded by Aryabhat . a, but its founding text is now lost. The name of the school is derived from its use of a midnight (ardhar¯ atra ) epoch. 108 The saurapaks is based on a S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta from the late 8th or early ninth century ce. .a J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s Siddh¯ antasundara belongs to the saurapaks . a.
The cosmology of the pur¯ an . as The pur¯ an . a s are a class of sacred texts in Hinduism. Their content is encyclopedic, encompassing mythology, religion, divination, cosmology, ancient legends, and much more. Due to the sacred nature of these works, and the subsequent acceptance of their cosmology in the larger Hindu world, it is necessary brieﬂy to outline their cosmology (according to Pingree, the source of cosmological
109 material in the pur¯ an . a s probably dates from the early centuries ce ). Many of the concepts of the cosmology of the pur¯ an . a s were incorporated into the cosmological model of the astronomers.
According to the pur¯ an . a s, the Earth is a ﬂat disc at the center of which is a huge mountain, Meru. A circular region called Jamb¯ udv¯ ıpa surrounds Meru, and at the southern part of Jamb¯ udv¯ ıpa is Bh¯ aratavars udv¯ ıpa is surrounded by an annular ocean of salt water, .a, that is, India. Jamb¯ and this ocean is, in turn, surrounded by alternating annular regions and oceans. There are seven annular oceans in total. The planets revolve above the Earth around an axis through Meru, with the Sun closer to the Earth than the Moon. When the Sun is behind Meru, it is night, when it is in front, it is day.
102 For 103 See 104 For 105 For 106 For 107 For 108 For 109 See
the br¯ ahmapaks . a , see [71 555–589]. [65 A.4.259–260]. Brahmagupta and the Br¯ ahmasphut anta , see [65 A.4.254–257, A.5.239–240]. . asiddh¯ the ¯ aryapaks . a , see [71 590–602]. ¯ Aryabhat . a, see [64], [65 A.1.50–53, A.2.15, A.3.16, A.4.27–28, A.5.16–17] and [79]. the ¯ ardhar¯ atrikapaks . a , see [71 602–608]. the saurapaks . a , see [71 608–618]. [71 554–555].
24 As is clear, the cosmology of the pur¯ an . a s is inconsistent with the cosmology of the astronomical tradition. The traditional approach to this on the part of the astronomers was to incorporate certain elements of the cosmology of the pur¯ an . a s into their model while rejecting others. As we shall see below in the section “The issue of virodhaparih¯ ara ” on p. 49, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s approach was to seek a synthesis without rejecting outright elements from the tradition of the pur¯ an . a s. Types of astronomical treatises A number of diﬀerent types of astronomical treatises were composed in India. The most extensive of them are called siddh¯ anta s. A siddh¯ anta generally contains theory as well as mathematical algorithms and formulae. A siddh¯ anta bases its computations on the beginning of creation, that is the beginning of the kalpa (a kalpa is a period of 4,320,000,000 years during which the universe exists; for the world ages, see 2.1.2–3). Comparable to a siddh¯ anta , a tantra also contains theory, but bases its computations on the beginning of the current kaliyuga (the last age in a kalpa , spanning 432,000 years). The line between a siddh¯ anta and a tantra is not always clearly deﬁned. For example, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja refers to his Siddh¯ antasundara , a siddh¯ anta , as a tantra numerous times.110 A karan anta . a is a smaller astronomical work. It does not contain theory the way that a siddh¯ does, and its formulae are geared towards ease of practical application. The computations are based on an epoch close in time to the date of the composition of the karan . a. A kos thaka is an astronomical table meant to facilitate astronomical computations for casters of .. horoscopes and makers of calendars.111 Representation of numbers in Indian mathematics and astronomy Expressing numbers is unavoidable in an astronomical treatise. In Sanskrit astronomical and mathematical texts, numbers are generally expressed using a system known as bh¯ utasankhy¯ ˙ a (literally, objectnumeral).112 The bh¯ utasankhy¯ ˙ a system assigns a numerical value to certain Sanskrit words. For example, the Sanskrit word danta (tooth) represents the number 32, the Sanskrit word s¯ agara (ocean) represents the number 4 (after the four oceans in the Indian tradition), and the Sanskrit word ´ sara (arrow) represents the number 5 (after the ﬁve arrows of K¯ amadeva, the Indian god of love).113 Larger numbers can be created by combining two or more such words in a compound, which is read numerically from right to left. Using hyphens to separate the members of each compound for the sake of clarity, we have that ´ saradanta means 325, dantas¯ agara´ sara´ sara´ sara means 555432, and danta´ saradantadantas¯ agara´ sara means 543232532.
110 See, 111 See 112 See 113 For
e.g., 1.1.79. [71 41]. [86 38–41]. a list of Sanskrit words corresponding to a given number, as well as a list of Sanskrit words and their
corresponding number, see [86 59–69].
25 Integral numbers are expressed using the same decimal system that we use today. As such, 47326 is written simply as
¿¾ , and 51908 as ½ ¼ . Fractional parts of numbers, however, are not
expressed using the decimal system, but rather by using sexagesimals. In other words, in the Indian tradition, a number a is represented as a=n+ mk m2 m1 + 2 + ...+ k, 60 60 60 (1.1)
27 36 23 = 82.46 is represented as 82 + 60 + 60 number 82 50 2 . In Sanskrit texts, the integral part of a number
where n, m1 , m2 , . . . , mk are integers, and 0 ≤ mi < 60 for i = 1, 2, . . . , k . To give an example, the
and its sexagesimal parts are usually separated by the symbol º , which is called a dan .d . a (literally, 36 27 stick). The number 82 + 60 + 602 is thus written ¾º ¾ º ¿ .
Numerals in astronomical manuscripts In addition to expressing numbers using the bh¯ utasankhy¯ ˙ a system, Sanskrit astronomical and mathematical manuscripts often insert numerals interspersed with the bh¯ utasankhy¯ ˙ a words.114 To give an example from the Siddh¯ antasundara :115 s¯ uryasaumyasitaparyay¯ a yuge p¯ urn urn agar¯ ah . ap¯ . akhakhadantas¯ . 4320000 / sat saragiryages . . suratri´ . avah . 57753336 ´ s¯ ıtara´ smibhagan ¯ budhaih ah / .a . smr . t¯ . / In a [mah¯ a ]yuga there are fullfullspacespacetoothocean (i.e., 4,320,000) revolutions of the Sun, Mercury and Venus. The revolutions of the Moon are given by the wise as sixgodthreearrowmountainmountainarrow (i.e., 57,753,336). Two numbers are given in the verse. The ﬁrst, 4,320,000, is the number of revolutions of the Sun, Mercury, and Venus in a mah¯ ayuga (a period of time spanning 4,320,000 years), and the second, 57,753,336, is the number of revolutions of the Moon in a mah¯ ayuga . Both numbers are expressed using the bh¯ utasankhy¯ ˙ a system, where “full’ and “space” both denote 0, “tooth” denotes 32, “ocean” denotes 4, “god” denotes 33, “arrow” denotes 5, and “mountain” denotes 7. However, in addition, the numbers are written out using numerals.116 The inclusion of the numerals is meant as an aid to the reader. They make it easier to extract astronomical parameters or other numbers while glancing over the text. Occasionally, numbers are inserted in the absence of a bh¯ utasankhy¯ ˙ a word or compound. An example is 2.1.5, which discusses a concept called ´ sr ti´ saradah .s .. . (creationperiod). In the saurapaks . a, this is considered to be a period of 47,400 divine years (a divine year is 360 of our years) between
114 See
[86 38]. 2.1.18.
115 Siddh¯ antasundara 116 In
this case, the numbers are placed after the bh¯ utasankhy¯ ˙ a compounds. Though more rare, the numbers are also sometimes written above the bh¯ utasankhy¯ ˙ a compound.
26 the start of the kalpa and the commencement of planetary motion. The number 47,400 is not given in the text of the verse, but the scribe generally inserts it after the word pr¯ agukta´ s. r. s. ti´ saradah .. A quick glance over the critical apparatus of the Siddh¯ antasundara in this dissertation reveals that there is no consistency between the manuscripts when it comes to inserting numerals, nor is there even consistency within any individual manuscript. Did J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja himself include the numerals when he wrote the Siddh¯ antasundara , or were they added later by scribes copying the text? There is no way that we can know for sure. In manuscript M3 , which has the commentary of Cint¯ aman . i, there is a near absence of numerals in the verses of the Siddh¯ antasundara , but they are present in Cint¯ aman . i’s comments. This might indicate that the numerals were added later, by commentators or scribes. Finally, it is worth noting the numbers in the prose solutions provided for the problems phrased using double entendre in the tripra´ sn¯ adhik¯ ara . These numbers are not expressed using words, but simply given in the text as numerals; without them, the solutions are useless. The numbers must therefore have been there from the beginning. Still we ﬁnd that some of the numbers are omitted in some manuscripts. Some scribes must have missed their importance and omitted them, showing us that just as numerals could ﬁnd their way into the text, they could also be omitted.
1.3.2
The works of J˜ n¯ anar¯ aja
When examining manuscript catalogues or other modern works, one generally sees two works attributed to J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja, which are listed separately: the Siddh¯ antasundara and a work on mathematics referred to as the B¯ ıj¯ adhy¯ aya ,117 or the Sundarasiddh¯ antab¯ ıja .118 A somewhat ambiguous relationship exists between the Siddh¯ antasundara and this mathematical work, and it is not clear from the modern sources whether the mathematical work is a part of the Siddh¯ antasundara , or whether it is an independent work. Taking a cursory glance at the manuscript evidence, it is not diﬃcult to see why the relationship between the Siddh¯ antasundara and the mathematical work is not entirely clear, for the scribal tradition, which preserved and copied the two works, has consistently handed them down separately. There is no single manuscript that I am aware of that contains them both. However, a careful examination of the manuscripts reveals that the mathematical work is in fact a part of the Siddh¯ antasundara . As a section of the Siddh¯ antasundara , it is referred to as the b¯ ıjagan adhy¯ aya in the following. . it¯ In addition to the Siddh¯ antasundara and the b¯ ıjagan adhy¯ aya , the Catalogus Catalogorum and . it¯ the New Catalogus Catalogorum both attribute a third work, entitled Yavanaj¯ ataka , to J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja. References from primary sources A verse in the S¯ uryodayak¯ avya makes a brief mention of jyotih sa ¯stra works by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja:119 .´
117 See, 118 See
for example, [74 64]. In [65 A.3.75], the work is referred to as “. . . a B¯ ıj¯ adhy¯ aya for the Siddh¯ antasundara .” [91 94]. 1.17.
119 S¯ uryodayak¯ avya
27 jyotih sa ¯stre sundarasiddh¯ ant¯ adiprakartur . . . .´ According to this, in the ﬁeld of jyotih sa ¯stra , J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja is the author of “the Siddh¯ antasundara and .´ so on.” It is possible that the “and so on” of the verse refers to the b¯ ıjagan adhy¯ aya , but there is . it¯ no evidence that J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja authored other jyotih sa ¯stra treatises than the Siddh¯ antasundara . .´ Of greater interest is the ﬁrst half of a verse from the end of S¯ uryad¯ asa’s S¯ uryaprak¯ a´ sa already quoted above on p. 13: siddh¯ antam akhyam atake caikam . sundar¯ . grahagan . itavidhau j¯ ekam ahitye g¯ ıta´ sa ¯stre param idam akarod ya´ s caturgrantharatnam / . s¯ Here S¯ uryad¯ asa credits his father with writing four works: an astronomical treatise entitled Siddh¯ antasundara , as well as three unnamed works on, respectively, horoscopy (j¯ ataka ), rhetoric (s¯ ahitya ), and the art of singing (g¯ ıta´ sa ¯stra ). When it comes to the two unnamed works on rhetoric and song, nothing can be said beyond what is contained in the statement of S¯ uryad¯ asa. I have not been able to ﬁnd any other references to works by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja on these topics. However, regarding a work on horoscopy authored by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja, some things can be said. As noted above, the Catalogus Catalogorum attributes a work entitled Yavanaj¯ ataka to J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja,120 an attribution that is repeated in the New Catalogus Catalogorum .121 In the latter, it is further stated that this Yavanaj¯ ataka of J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja is quoted in the Praud a of Div¯ akara (b. 1606 . hamanoram¯ ce), a commentary on the J¯ atakapaddhati , an astrological work composed by Ke´ sava (ﬂ. 1496/1507 ce).122 No further information is given, but the attribution must be based on the following passage from the Praud a :123 . hamanoram¯ j˜ na ¯nar¯ ajakr atake . tayavanaj¯ l¯ agn¯ ı da´ sa ¯ j¯ ıvada´ sa ¯pray¯ at¯ a datte nar¯ an ¯m ani saukhyam / .a . sudhan¯ sakhyam a cetyevam¯ adi . . . . narendren . a vivekat¯ In the Yavanaj¯ ataka composed by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja [it is written]: . . . Here Div¯ akara quotes part of a verse and attributes it to a Yavanaj¯ ataka written by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja. This attribution is very interesting. Div¯ akara was a member of a learned family that ﬂourished in Banaras in the 17th century. All of the members of the family, including Div¯ akara, studied the Siddh¯ antasundara , and both J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja and the Siddh¯ antasundara are mentioned in their works. This includes the Praud a , in which Div¯ akara shows his familiarity with the Siddh¯ anta. hamanoram¯ sundara , as well as with the works of Cint¯ aman uryad¯ asa. For example, Div¯ akara mentions . i and S¯
120 121
[2 2.43]. [82 7.334]. ﬂourished in Nandigr¯ ama, the modern Nandod in Gujarat (see [65 A.2.65–74; A.3.24; A.4.64–66; A.5.56–
122 Ke´ sava
59] and [68]). Div¯ akara wrote the Praud a in 1626 (see [65 A.3.106–110; A.4.111; A.5.141–142] . hamanoram¯ and [74 125, Table 11]). For editions of the J¯ atakapaddhati with the Praud a , see [100] and [54]. . hamanoram¯
123 The
Praud a on J¯ atakapaddhati 33 (see [100 126]). . hamanoram¯
28
124 J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja as the author of the Siddh¯ antasundara and Cint¯ aman . i’s commentary on the same, 125 comments on a passage in the Siddh¯ antasundara that critiques a rule in the Siddh¯ anta´ siroman . i,
and mentions S¯ uryad¯ asa as J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s son.126 As promising as this attribution may seem, as it turns out, the verse quoted by Div¯ akara can be traced to the Vr ataka of M¯ ınar¯ aja.127 In other words, the passage quoted in the . ddhayavanaj¯ Praud a is not from a work by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja. . hamanoram¯ Without consulting manuscripts, it is not possible to decide whether the reading “J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja” is correct, or whether it is a scribal (or editorial) mistake for “M¯ ınar¯ aja”. Whatever the case may be, I am not aware of any Indic script in which the syllables j˜ na ¯ ( agar¯ ı script) are easily confused. (Ñ in the Devan¯ in the Devan¯ agar¯ ı script) and m¯ ı
1.3.3
The title of the Siddh¯ antasundara
S¯ uryad¯ asa calls his father’s astronomical treatise siddh¯ antam akhyam anta entitled . sundar¯ . , “a siddh¯ Sundara (literally, Beautiful).” In the two verses of the Siddh¯ antasundara in which J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja mentions his treatise by name, it is called Siddh¯ antasatsundara ,128 which can be understood as “a true and beautiful one among the siddh¯ anta s” or “a truly beautiful one among the siddh¯ anta s”. Two variant titles, Siddh¯ antasundara and Sundarasiddh¯ anta , are used in the manuscripts, as well as in secondary sources, though Siddh¯ antasundara is most often encountered in manuscript colophons.129 There appears to be no particular reason why one title is preferred over the other. We will refer to the treatise consistently as the Siddh¯ antasundara . It may be noted also that Patte uses the title Siddh¯ antasundaraprakr . ti , which he translates as le plaisant fondement du Siddh¯ anta (the pleasant base of siddh¯ anta ).130 Since none of Patte’s sources about J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja131 use this title, and since it is not attested anywhere in the manuscripts of the Siddh¯ antasundara that I have seen, I assume that the title Siddh¯ antasundaraprakr . ti is derived from a passage found in some manuscripts of the S¯ uryaprak¯ a´ sa , in which S¯ uryad¯ asa quotes the method for computing a square root given in the Siddh¯ antasundara . Before the quoted verse, we ﬁnd the words asmatt¯ atacaran antasundare ,132 which could be taken as indicating that the . aih . prakr . tisiddh¯ title of the work composed by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja is Prakr antasundara . However, the variant reading . tisiddh¯ svakr . ta (literally, selfmade or made by himself) for prakr . ti is noted the critical apparatus, yielding
124 See 125 See 126 See
[100 56]. [100 112]. For this passage, see 2.3.45. [100 38, 102]. ﬂourished around the ﬁrst quarter of the 4th century ce (see [65 A.4.427–429; A.5.310], [73 1.24,
127 M¯ ınar¯ aja
fn. 75], and [80]). The verse quoted in the Praud a is Vr ataka 7.61 (see [70 1.54]). . hamanoram¯ . ddhayavanaj¯ 128 See 1.1.2. The second verse mentioning the title of the text has already been cited above from the b¯ ıjagan adhy¯ aya . . it¯
129 Sundarasiddh¯ anta 130 See 131 The 132 See
occurs in the colophon of 1.1 in R1 .
[61 2.28]. sources mentioned by Patte are [3] and [65]. [61 1.174] for the Sanskrit text, and [61 2.293] for the French translation.
29 the possible reading asmatt¯ atacaran antasundare . This reading is used by Jain in . aih . svakr . tasiddh¯ 133 her edition of parts of the S¯ uryaprak¯ a´ sa .
1.3.4
Structure of the Siddh¯ antasundara
Table 1.2 shows the contents of the Siddh¯ antasundara according to Pingree.134 The same list, with a few minor variations in the titles of some chapters, is given by Sen.135 There are similar lists in some manuscript catalogues, but these are based on single manuscripts and will not be considered here. According to Pingree’s table, the Siddh¯ antasundara has two main divisions: the grahagan a. it¯ 136 dhy¯ aya (or simply gan adhy¯ aya , which is how Dvivedi refers to this part ) and the gol¯ adhy¯ aya . . it¯ The former consists of 12 sections and constitutes the ﬁrst part of the text, while the latter consists of 6 sections and constitutes the second and last part of the text. While this structure is indeed what we ﬁnd in some manuscripts, a careful investigation of all the available manuscripts shows that it is not that simple. Some manuscripts contain only the gol¯ adhy¯ aya , others only the grahagan adhy¯ aya , but among the manuscripts that contain both, some . it¯ begin with the grahagan adhy¯ aya , others with the gol¯ adhy¯ aya . In other words, there is no consensus . it¯ in the tradition itself as to the order of the two parts. That the gol¯ adhy¯ aya and the grahagan adhy¯ aya have sometimes been handed down separately in . it¯ the manuscript tradition is not surprising. They can be read separately, and the same phenomenon
137 occurs for the grahagan adhy¯ aya and the gol¯ adhy¯ aya of the Siddh¯ anta´ siroman . it¯ . i. In the following, we will discuss and settle the order of the gol¯ adhy¯ aya and the grahagan adhy¯ aya . it¯
in the text, discuss the contents of each, brieﬂy discuss the b¯ ıjagan adhy¯ aya , and ﬁnally establish . it¯ the textual structure of the Siddh¯ antasundara . Before doing so, however, it is important to bring attention to a passage bearing on the structure of the Siddh¯ antasundara in the commentary Grahagan aman aman . itacint¯ . i of Cint¯ . i. Right at the beginning of his commentary on the ﬁrst chapter of the grahagan adhy¯ aya , Cint¯ aman adhy¯ aya contains six chapters and the next section . it¯ . i says that the gol¯ (what we are calling the grahagan adhy¯ aya ) contains ten chapters, and it is furthermore clear that . it¯ Cint¯ aman adhy¯ aya constitutes the ﬁrst part of the Siddh¯ antasundara .138 . i considers that the gol¯
133 See 134 See 135 See
[43 45 of Sanskrit text], as well as [43 95 of apparatus] for the variant readings. [65 A.3.75].
[91 93]. Sen writes that the chapters of the Siddh¯ antasundara are classed mainly under two headings, namely p¯ at¯ adhy¯ aya and gol¯ adhy¯ aya , but this must be an error, as the p¯ at¯ adhy¯ aya is a chapter of the text, not a larger section. [25 57]. [65 A.4.299–326, A.5.254–263].
136 See 137 See 138 The
passage is on f. 1v of manuscript M3 . It is quoted in the catalogue entry of the manuscript (see [102 1.4.94–95, entry 291]). The Sanskrit word used by Cint¯ aman ara . . i rendered as “section” here is adhik¯
30
grahagan adhy¯ aya . it¯
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
gol¯ adhy¯ aya
1 2 3 4 5 6
madhyam¯ adhik¯ ara (on mean motion) spas t¯ ıkaran ¯dhy¯ aya .. .a (on true motion) tripra´ sn¯ adhy¯ aya (on diurnal motion) parvasambh¯ uti (on the occurrence of eclipses) candragrahan ¯dhik¯ ara .a (on lunar eclipses) s¯ uryagrahan ¯dhik¯ ara .a (on solar eclipses) grahoday¯ ast¯ adhik¯ ara (on rising and settings of the planets) naks ay¯ aghat ıs¯ adhan¯ adhik¯ ara . atracch¯ .¯ (on time from the shadows of stars) ´ sr ˙ ara . ngonnatyadhik¯ (on elevation of the horns of the Moon) grahayog¯ adhy¯ aya (on planetary conjunctions) t¯ ar¯ ach¯ ay¯ abhadhruv¯ adya (on stars, shadows, and the polestars) p¯ at¯ adhy¯ aya (on the occurrence of p¯ ata s) bhuvanako´ sa ¯dhik¯ ara (on cosmology) madhyabhuktiv¯ asan¯ adhy¯ aya (the rationale of true motion) chedyake yukti (on drawing projections) man .d . alavarn . ana (description of the great circles) yantram¯ al¯ a (on astronomical instruments) r . tuvarn . ana (description of the seasons)
Table 1.2: Contents of the Siddh¯ antasundara according to Pingree
31 Chapters of the Siddh¯ antasundara Each chapter of the Siddh¯ antasundara ends with a verse, the three ﬁrst quarters of which are: ittham sr¯ ımann¯ agan¯ ath¯ atmajena . ´ prokte tantre j˜ na ¯nar¯ ajena ramye / granth¯ ag¯ ar¯ adh¯ arabh¯ ute prabh¯ ute Thus [ends suchandsuch a section] in the beautiful and abundant tantra composed by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja, the son of N¯ agan¯ atha, which is the foundation of [any] library. The fourth line gives the title of the chapter, although in a few instances, due to the amount of text needed to present the chapter, the third line is used for this purpose as well. In the following, we will refer to such a verse as the concluding verse of the relevant chapter. While the term adhy¯ aya is used for the main division of the text into the gol¯ adhy¯ aya , the grahagan adhy¯ aya , and the b¯ ıjagan adhy¯ aya , it is also used interchangeably with the synonym adhik¯ ara . it¯ . it¯ for the individual sections of the work. This has caused some confusion, such as whether the p¯ at¯ adhy¯ aya is a main division of the text or merely a chapter.139 In the following, the term adhy¯ aya will consistently be used for the main divisions of the work, while the term adhik¯ ara will be used for the sections of each division. This conforms to Cint¯ aman . i’s usage when, as noted above, he states that the gol¯ adhy¯ aya consists of six adhik¯ ara s and the next section of ten adhik¯ ara s. The title of a chapter given in the chapter colophon often diﬀers from what is given in J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s concluding verse, and there is variation between the colophons of the diﬀerent manuscripts as well. Numbering of chapters is sometimes found in the chapter colophons, but it is not consistent. Order of the gol¯ adhy¯ aya and the grahagan adhy¯ aya . it¯ Let us ﬁrst consider the order of the gol¯ adhy¯ aya and the grahagan adhy¯ aya in the manuscripts used . it¯ for the edition, and then proceed to internal evidence from the text. Note that descriptions and details regarding the manuscript will be given below on p. 50. Of the manuscripts containing both the gol¯ adhy¯ aya and the grahagan adhy¯ aya , three begin with . it¯ the gol¯ adhy¯ aya , namely R1 , V2 , and V5 (but note that V5 has an unusual structure), while A, B1 , L, M1 , and M2 begin with the grahagan adhy¯ aya . For R3 it is unclear which part begins the . it¯ manuscript, but it is probably the grahagan adhy¯ aya . On the case of B3 , B4 , and R2 , which are in . it¯ fact parts of the same manuscript, the situation is also unclear. The following additional remarks may be made: 1. B2 has a table of contents on f. 19v. The names gol¯ adhy¯ aya and grahagan adhy¯ aya are not . it¯ used, but what corresponds to our grahagan adhy¯ aya is called p¯ urv¯ ardha , “initial half”, while . it¯ what corresponds to our gol¯ adhy¯ aya is called uttar¯ ardha, “latter half”.
139 See,
e.g., [4 187, no. 452].
32 2. R1 begins with the gol¯ adhy¯ aya , which is called p¯ urv¯ ardha , “initial half”. The grahagan a. it¯ dhy¯ aya is not named as such, but merely called uttar¯ ardha, “latter half”. 3. The abbreviated title given in the margins of R2 reads si·s¯ u·p¯ u·, where the syllable p¯ u most likely stands for p¯ urv¯ ardha , “initial half”. The abbreviated title in the margins of B3 , which is part of the same manuscript as R2 , are si·sum . ·go·, or variations thereof. Note that the 4. In R3 , the two sections are both numbered starting with 1, but the abbreviated titles in the margins are as in B3 and R2 : for the grahagan adhy¯ aya it is si·s¯ u·p¯ u·, where the syllable . it¯ p¯ u most likely stands for p¯ urv¯ ardha , “initial half”, and for the gol¯ adhy¯ aya it is si·s¯ u·go·, or
numbering of both the gol¯ adhy¯ aya and the grahagan adhy¯ aya starts with 1 in this manuscript. . it¯
variations thereof.
While most of the available manuscripts from which an order can be inferred consider the grahagan adhy¯ aya as the ﬁrst part of the text, the manuscripts B1 , L, M1 , and M2 are closely related, . it¯ and thus numbers alone cannot be used as evidence. In addition, Cint¯ aman . i’s testimony that the gol¯ adhy¯ aya comes ﬁrst should not be taken lightly. Cint¯ aman na ¯nar¯ aja’s son, and one . i is, after all, J˜ would expect that he knew how the Siddh¯ antasundara was structured. Indeed, the following two pieces of evidence from the Siddh¯ antasundara itself establish that Cint¯ aman . i is right. 1. The gol¯ adhy¯ aya opens with a number of invocatory and introductory verses that one would expect at the beginning of the work.140 In contrast, the grahagan adhy¯ aya only has a single . it¯ 141 invocatory verse at its beginning. 2. One of the early verses of the grahagan adhy¯ aya states that the 47,400 divine years between . it¯ the beginning of the kalpa and the commencement of planetary motion was mentioned earlier in the work.142 While no previous mention of this is to be found in the grahagan adhy¯ aya , it . it¯ is discussed in the gol¯ adhy¯ aya . It is thus established that the gol¯ adhy¯ aya constitutes the ﬁrst part of the Siddh¯ antasundara . The question remains why the tradition became confused about the order of the two sections. The reason is probably that it is unusual to commence a traditional siddh¯ anta with its gola section, and some readers and/or scribes must have felt that the grahagan adhy¯ aya was primary. . it¯ The gol¯ adhy¯ aya To separate the sections belonging to the gol¯ adhy¯ aya from the rest of the work is easy, for each has in its concluding verse the word gol¯ adhy¯ aye , “In the gol¯ adhy¯ aya ”. There are precisely six such sections, in agreement with Cint¯ aman . i’s statement. Furthermore, these six sections are as given in Table 1.2. The only exception to this is manuscript V5 , which contains only ﬁve sections with
140 See 141 See 142 See
1.1.1–3. 2.1.1. 2.1.5.
33 the word gol¯ adhy¯ aye in the concluding verse (the sixth such chapter is omitted altogether in that manuscript), although including many more chapters under the general heading of gol¯ adhy¯ aya . The structure of V5 will be discussed on p. 35. The titles given to these six sections by Pingree (see Table 1.2) are correct, although some variations occur in the colophons of the manuscripts. The grahagan adhy¯ aya . it¯ Determining what exactly constitutes the grahagan adhy¯ aya is more diﬃcult. To start with, the . it¯ term grahagan adhy¯ aya hardly occurs in the manuscripts. None of the concluding verses contain . it¯ such a designation. In fact, the only occurrence of the term gan adhy¯ aya is in B4 and R2 (which . it¯ are, in fact, two portions of the same manuscript), where a colophon for each chapter containing the word gan adhy¯ aye , “In the gan adhy¯ aya ”, has been added in the margins by a diﬀerent person than . it¯ . it¯ the main scribe. It is thus not clear that J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja intended that there should be a larger grouping of chapters under the heading grahagan adhy¯ aya , although it is likely so, as such a grouping is . it¯ common in Indian siddh¯ anta s.143 Nevertheless, it is convenient to have the grahagan adhy¯ aya as a main division of the text, and . it¯ we will use it as such in the following. It is reasonable to assign all of the sections not belonging to the gol¯ adhy¯ aya (or the b¯ ıjagan adhy¯ aya ) to the grahagan adhy¯ aya , but doing so poses a problem: . it¯ . it¯ following Cint¯ aman . i, we would expect to have ten sections in this section, but Pingree lists twelve sections in the grahagan adhy¯ aya . One of these, however, can quickly be eliminated: the 11th . it¯ section listed by Pingree. This section is found only in one group of manuscripts (B1 , L, M1 , and M2 ), and it turns out to consist of merely the last 13 verses of section 8. For some reason, these verses must have been copied twice and came to be regarded as a section in their own right in that group, whereas they actually belong to an already existing section.144 This leaves us with 11 sections. As the present critical edition and translation does not cover all of the sections in the grahagan adhy¯ aya , it is not possible to decide here whether one of them is interpolated, whether . it¯ two of them belong together as one section, or whether all 11 are authentic. The planned complete edition of the Siddh¯ antasundara will address this issue in detail. The b¯ ıjagan adhy¯ aya . it¯ No careful study of the b¯ ıjagan adhy¯ aya has been undertaken, but some notes arguing that the text . it¯ is a part of the Siddh¯ antasundara will be presented here. 1. According to Dikshit, there is a statement in the Grahagan aman anta. itacint¯ . i that the Siddh¯ 145 sundara contains the b¯ ıjagan adhy¯ aya , and S¯ uryad¯ asa makes a similar statement in the . it¯
143 See, 144 As
´ . yadh¯ for example, the Sis ıvr svarasiddh¯ anta (the . ddhidatantra (the editions used are [11] and [11]), the Vat . e´ editions used is [94]), and the Siddh¯ anta´ siroman . i. none of them are among the sections critically edited and translated here, a careful study has not been undertaken, and thus the exact relationship between section 8 and section 11 cannot be ascertained with absolute certainty. [22 2.142].
145 See
34 gol¯ adhy¯ aya 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 bhuvanako´ sa ¯dhik¯ ara madhyabhuktiv¯ asan¯ a chedyake yukti man .d . alavarn . ana yantram¯ al¯ adhik¯ ara r adhik¯ ara . tuvarn . an¯ madhyam¯ adhik¯ ara spas ta ¯dhik¯ ara .. tripra´ sn¯ adhik¯ ara parvasambh¯ utyadhik¯ ara candragrahan ¯dhik¯ ara .a s¯ uryagrahan ¯dhik¯ ara .a grahoday¯ ast¯ adhik¯ ara naks ay¯ adhik¯ ara . atrach¯ ´ sr ˙ ara . ngonnatyadhik¯ grahayutyadhik¯ ara p¯ at¯ adhik¯ ara 79 31 23 17 50 36 90 50 46 7 42 16 19 23 18 9 17 verses verses verses verses verses verses verses verses verses verses verses verses verses verses verses verses verses
grahagan adhy¯ aya . it¯
Table 1.3: Contents of the Siddh¯ antasundara
S¯ uryaprak¯ a´ sa .146 2. The concluding verses of the sections in the b¯ ıjagan adhy¯ aya have the same format as those . it¯ for the Siddh¯ antasundara described above. They do not identify the sections as belonging to a b¯ ıjagan adhy¯ aya , though. . it¯ 3. The chapter colophons of the b¯ ıjagan adhy¯ aya state that the text is a part of the Siddh¯ anta. it¯ sundara . 4. The ﬁnal verses of the b¯ ıjagan adhy¯ aya (cited on p. 11) state directly that the title of the . it¯ work is Siddh¯ antasundara , and these verses are furthermore clearly the concluding verses of the work as a whole, i.e., the concluding verses of the Siddh¯ antasundara . It is clear from these observations that the b¯ ıjagan adhy¯ aya is a part of the Siddh¯ antasundara , . it¯ and furthermore constitutes the ﬁnal part of that work. Structure of the Siddh¯ antasundara based on the available manuscripts The structure of the Siddh¯ antasundara based on the available manuscripts is presented in Table 1.3, where the number of verses in each section is also given.147
146 See
[43 45 of Sanskrit text].
147 Note
that for the sections not edited here the number of verses may need to be revised in the complete edition of the Siddh¯ antasundara .
35 The structure of manuscript V5 The order and allocation of the chapters in manuscript V5 are substantially diﬀerent from all other manuscripts. The gol¯ adhy¯ aya of V5 consists of the following chapters: (1) bhuvanako´ sa ¯dhik¯ ara , (2) madhyabhuktiv¯ asan¯ a , (3) chedyake yukti , (4) man al¯ adhik¯ ara , (6) graho.d . alavarn . ana , (5) yantram¯ day¯ ast¯ adhik¯ ara , (7) naks ay¯ adhik¯ ara , (8) grahayutyadhik¯ ara , and (9) p¯ at¯ adhik¯ ara . At the con. atrach¯ clusion of the p¯ at¯ adhik¯ ara , the manuscript has es adhy¯ ayah adhy¯ aya . a gol¯ . , indicating that the gol¯ ends there. The grahagan adhy¯ aya of V5 consists of the following chapters: (1) madhyam¯ adhik¯ ara , . it¯ (2) spas ta ¯dhik¯ ara , (3) tripra´ sn¯ adhik¯ ara , (4) parvasambh¯ utyadhik¯ ara , (5) candragrahan ¯dhik¯ ara , (6) .. .a s¯ uryagrahan ¯dhik¯ ara , and (7) ´ s. rngonnatyadhik¯ ˙ ara . .a It is clear that V5 contains all of the chapters of the Siddh¯ antasundara given in Table 1.3 with the exception of the r adhik¯ ara . Some of the chapters from the grahagan adhy¯ aya are . tuvarn . an¯ . it¯ furthermore found in the gol¯ adhy¯ aya of V5 . Considering that none of the other manuscripts have this structure, which contradicts the evidence from Cint¯ aman anta. i regarding the structure of the Siddh¯ sundara , it is likely that the structure of V5 is the result of a scribal problem. While V5 is the only one of the available manuscripts that has this structure, another manuscript described by Pingree appears to have the same structure. This manuscript is Khasmohor 5591.148 Like V5 , it begins with the gol¯ adhy¯ aya , has the words es adhy¯ ayah . a gol¯ . at the conclusion of that section, and ends with the ´ sr ˙ ara . To establish with certainty that the manuscript . ngonnatyadhik¯ displays the same structure as V5 , however, an examination of it would be necessary.
1.3.5
J˜ n¯ anar¯ aja’s sources
Right at the beginning of the Siddh¯ antasundara , J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja explicitly gives his main source, as well as other treatises considered authoritative by him:149 yan n¯ arad¯ aya gaditam ananena . catur¯ j˜ na ¯nam upam agryam / . graharks . agatisam . sthitir¯ ´ sa ¯kalyasa˜ nj˜ namunin¯ a nikhilam . nibaddham . padyais tad eva vivr n omi sav¯ a sanam svaih / .. . . / brahm¯ arkenduvasis tharomakapulasty¯ ac¯ aryagarg¯ adibhis .. tantr¯ an ta kr ani tes arikarmakramah . y as .. . t¯ . u gahanah . khec¯ . / tadratn¯ akarav¯ asan¯ ambutaran antapot¯ ah ah . e siddh¯ . kr . t¯ . ´ sr¯ ımadbhojavar¯ ahajis aryasadbh¯ askaraih / .n . ujacaturved¯ . / The topmost knowledge concerning the nature of the motion of the planets and the stars that was related to N¯ arada by the fourfaced [Brahman] was written down in its entirety ´ akalya. In my own verses, I am presenting precisely that by the sage bearing the name S¯ [knowledge], accompanied by demonstrations.
148 Described 149 See
in [78 18–19, no. 41].
1.1.3–4.
36 Eight tantra s were written by Brahman, S¯ urya, Candra, Vasis .t . ha, Romaka, Pulastya, Br . haspati, and Garga. The diﬃcult method of planetary computations is [given] in them. For crossing over the ocean [of this diﬃcult science] by means of demonstrations [of the formulae] of their [i.e., the tantra s’] mine of jewels, boats [in the form] of siddh¯ anta s were made by Bhojar¯ aja, Var¯ ahamihira, Jis udaka.n . u’s son [Brahmagupta], Caturveda [Pr . th¯ ¯ sv¯ amin], Aryabhat a, and the good Bh¯ a skara [ ii ]. . A verse from the grahagan adhy¯ aya is important as well:150 . it¯ brahm¯ a pr¯ aha ca n¯ arad¯ aya himagur yac chaunak¯ ay¯ amalam . m¯ an aya vasis thasa˜ nj˜ nakamunih uryo may¯ ay¯ aha yat / .d . avy¯ .. . s¯ pratyaks a ¯ gamayukti´ s a ¯ li tad idam ´ s a ¯ stram vih¯ a y¯ a nyath¯ a . . . yat kurvanti nar¯ a na nirvahati tad vij˜ na ¯na´ su ¯ny¯ a´ s ciram / / ´ The pure [teaching] that Brahman spoke to N¯ arada, Candra spoke to Saunaka, the sage Vasis an urya spoke to Maya is full of reasoning based on .t . ha spoke to M¯ .d . avya, and S¯ perception and traditional teachings. Whatever men do diﬀerently after abandoning this science, that ceases to produce correct results over time, because they are devoid of [proper] knowledge. ´akalyasam The Brahmasiddh¯ anta of the S¯ a . hit¯ ´akalya that J˜ ´akalyasam The S¯ na ¯nar¯ aja refers to in the ﬁrst verse is the legendary author of a S¯ a. . hit¯ ´ The lecture of Brahman to N¯ arada, which S¯ akalya is said to have recorded, is the professed contents of an astronomical treatise bearing the title Brahmasiddh¯ anta . According to the colophons of the Brahmasiddh¯ anta , the text is the second pra´ sna (literally, question, but also used for a short section 151 ´ ´akalyasam of a work) of the S¯ akalyasam a. No other parts of a S¯ a are known. . hit¯ . hit¯ J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja explicitly says in the ﬁrst of the verses cited from the gol¯ adhy¯ aya that what he has put into his own verses and augmented by adding v¯ asan¯ a s is the astronomical knowledge that was ´ akalya. This shows that spoken by Brahman to the sage N¯ arada and written down by the sage S¯ J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s main source for composing the Siddh¯ antasundara is the Brahmasiddh¯ anta . The tradition of the eight siddh¯ anta s The Brahmasiddh¯ anta mentions eight personages as the authorities from whom the science of astronomy originated:152 etac ca mattah s¯ ıt¯ am soh . ´ .´ . pulasty¯ ac ca vivasvatah . /
150 See 151 See
2.1.8. [65 A.4.259]. 1.9–10.
152 Brahmasiddh¯ anta
37 romak¯ ac ca vasis th¯ ac ca .. garg¯ ad api br / . haspateh . / as tadh¯ a nirgatam sa ¯stram .. . ´ . ... This science [of astronomy] has come forth in eight ways: from me [Brahman], from Candra, from Pulastya, from S¯ urya, from Romaka, from Vasis .t . ha, from Garga, and from Br . haspati. What is alluded to here is a tradition that the science of astronomy was originally given to mankind by eight deities and ancient sages in eight treatises. J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja names the same eight deities and ancient sages as the originators of eight tantra s: (1) Brahman, (2) S¯ urya, (3) Candra, (4) Vasis .t . ha, (5) Romaka, (6) Pulastya, (7) Br . haspati, and (8) Garga. Certain manuscripts of the Brahmasiddh¯ anta furthermore connect these eight names to sections ´ in the S¯ akalyasam a , of which the Brahmasiddh¯ anta considers itself to be the second pra´ sna . While . hit¯ examining a South Indian manuscript of the Brahmasiddh¯ anta , Dhavale discovered that it contained a large number of verses not found in the North Indian manuscripts at his disposal.153 Among these ´akalyasam verses, he found some giving details about eight pra´ sna s of the S¯ a as follows.154 The . hit¯ ﬁrst pra´ sna pertains to S¯ urya, the second to Brahman, the third to Puli´ sa (or Pauli´ sa), the fourth to Soma (i.e., Candra), the ﬁfth to Roma´ sa, the sixth to Garga, the seventh to Br . haspati, and the eight to Vasis .t . ha. The names Pulastya and Puli´ sa or Pauli´ sa are often used interchangeably when referring to certain Sanskrit astronomical treatises. The Pulastya mentioned by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja is thus likely the same as the Puli´ sa to which the third pra´ sna of the Brahmasiddh¯ anta is ascribed. Similarly, the names Romaka and Roma´ sa are used interchangeably. For identifying the eight treatises, the following can be said. One of them, of course, is the Brahmasiddh¯ anta , the identity of which is established without a doubt by the ﬁrst verse quoted from the gol¯ adhy¯ aya . Furthermore, the verse quoted from the grahagan adhy¯ aya helps us identify . it¯ ´ three more of the eight treatises, for a lecture on astronomy by Soma to Saunaka is recorded in a treatise entitled the Somasiddh¯ anta . Similarly, astronomical lectures by Vasis an .t . ha to M¯ .d . avya and by S¯ urya to Maya are recorded in the Vasis thasiddh¯ anta and the S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta , respectively. .. The titles of the remaining four treatises would then be Romakasiddh¯ anta , Pulastyasiddh¯ anta , Br anta , and Gargasiddh¯ anta , assuming that they, like the ﬁrst four, are called siddh¯ anta s . haspatisiddh¯ in the tradition. Note, however, that the latter three are rather doubtful, as will be seen in the descriptions of each treatise below. Table 1.4 gives a list of the eight treatises ordered according to ´akalyasam the pra´ sna s of the S¯ a . The deity or sage refers to the eight names given by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja, . hit¯
153 See 154 See
[20 37].
[20 38]. Aufrect cites a passage from the Saurabh¯ a. sya of Nr uryasiddh¯ anta , . sim . ha, according to which the S¯ the Brahmasiddh¯ anta , the Pauli´ sasiddh¯ anta , and the Somasiddh¯ anta are the ﬁrst, second, third, and fourth
pra´ sna s, respectively, of an unnamed work (see [1 43, entry R. 15. 103.]).
38 Pra´ sna 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Deity or sage S¯ urya Brahman Pulastya Soma Romaka Garga Br . haspati Vasis .t . ha Treatise S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta Brahmasiddh¯ anta Pulastyasiddh¯ anta Somasiddh¯ anta Roma´ sasiddh¯ anta Gargasiddh¯ anta Br anta . haspatisiddh¯ Vasis t hasiddh¯ a nta .. Teacher S¯ urya Brahman — Soma Vis .n .u — — Vasis .t . ha Student(s) Maya N¯ arada — ´ Saunaka Vasis sa .t . ha and Roma´ — — M¯ an .d . avya
Table 1.4: The eight astronomical treatises
and the treatise to the corresponding astronomical text. Finally, where known, the teacher and student(s) of each treatise is given. The number eight is signiﬁcant in Indian history. There are, for example, eight limbs in the system of yoga , eight limbs in the system of a ¯yurveda (traditional Indian medicine), and eight as taka s (literally, eighths) of the R .. . gveda (an ancient collection of hymns sacred in Hinduism). It is therefore possible that the three doubtful treatises, the Pulastyasiddh¯ anta , the Gargasiddh¯ anta , and the Br anta never existed, but were added to the list to bring the number of treatises up . haspatisiddh¯ to the signiﬁcant number eight. However, it is also possible that they did exist, but perhaps never gained great popularity and hence are no longer extant. It should be noted that there is sometimes more than one treatise with the same name. Var¯ ahamihira, in his Pa˜ ncasiddh¯ antik¯ a , describes ﬁve astronomical works, among which are a S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta , a Pauli´ sasiddh¯ anta , a Romakasiddh¯ anta , and a Vasis thasiddh¯ anta .155 These are not .. the same treatises as those referred to by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja. For this reason, the S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta relevant to us is often referred to as the modern S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta . The distinction between apaurus . eya and paurus . eya The authors of the eight treatises that are taken as authoritative by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja are deities or ancient sages, and hence divine. This means that the treatises are considered apaurus . eya , or not derived from human beings. The works composed by Brahmagupta, Bh¯ askara ii, and others, said by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja to be ancillary to the eight apaurus . eya treatises, are considered paurus . eya , or derived from human beings. J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja draws a clear distinction between the two. The former are authoritative, the latter merely aiding us in understanding them. It should be noted, though, that the terms
156 apaurus but not by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja. . eya and paurus . eya are used by Dikshit, It is interesting that J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja refers to the eight apaurus . eya treatises as tantra s, while calling
the paurus anta s. As we will see below, the divine treatises in question are generally . eya works siddh¯ called siddh¯ anta s, not tantra s. Perhaps J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja used the term tantra to highlight clearly the
155 See 156 See
[74 11]. [22 2.27].
39 distinction between the two categories. Brief notes on each of the eight treatises will now be given. The modern S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta The S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta is a wellknown Sanskrit astronomical treatise from about 800 ce.157 It has been edited and published many times,158 and English translations of the text are available as well.159 It has the form of a lecture on astronomy by the sungod S¯ urya to Maya, and is the primary text of
160 the saurapaks . a.
The Brahmasiddh¯ anta The Brahmasiddh¯ anta has been edited and published twice.161 While its title suggests that it belongs
162 to the br¯ ahmapaks It is not clear when the Brahmasiddh¯ anta was . a , it is in fact a saurapaks . a text.
written, but Pingree suggests that it was in the period between the composition of the Siddh¯ anta´ siroman askara ii and the composition of the Siddh¯ antasundara .163 As noted by Dikshit, . i of Bh¯ the Brahmasiddh¯ anta treats the subject of religion, an unusual feature for an astronomical treatise, although he does not specify exactly what this entails.164 The Pulastyasiddh¯ anta It was noted above that the names Pulastya and Puli´ sa are used interchangeably. Therefore, the title of this treatise could also be Pauli´ sasiddh¯ anta . Apart from the Pauli´ sasiddh¯ anta mentioned by Var¯ ahamihira in the Pa˜ ncasiddh¯ antik¯ a , there is a later Pauli´ sasiddh¯ anta , but Pingree notes that
165 this is an a ¯rdhar¯ atrikapaks Pingree mentions . a text, and thus likely not the text referred to here.
a Paulastyasiddh¯ anta in Census of the Exact Sciences in Sanskrit , but he considers it “[p]robably ﬁctional . . . ”166
157 See 158 See, 159 See, 160 See 161 The
[74 23]. e.g., [39]. e.g., [9]. [71 608–609]. Brahmasiddh¯ anta was ﬁrst edited and published by Dvivedi in [26], and later a critical edition was published
by Dhavale in [21]. See also [20], [22 2.49–50], [71 613], and [65 A.4.259–260, A.5.240–241].
162 See 163 See 164 See 165 For 166 See
[74 26] and [65 A.4.259]. [74 26]. [22 2.49]. the later Pauli´ sasiddh¯ anta see [63]. Pingree says that it is an ¯ ardhar¯ atrikapaks . a text (see [63 173]. [65 A.4.223].
40 The Somasiddh¯ anta
168 The Somasiddh¯ anta has been edited and published once.167 It belongs to the saurapaks Like . a. the Brahmasiddh¯ anta , Pingree believes that it was composed in the period between the composition
of the Siddh¯ anta´ siroman askara ii and the composition of the Siddh¯ antasundara .169 A com. i of Bh¯ mentary on the text was composed in about 1400 ce.170 It has the form of a lecture on astronomy ´ by the moongod Candra (also known as Soma) to the sage Saunaka. The Romakasiddh¯ anta The Romakasiddh¯ anta , also known as the Roma´ sasiddh¯ anta , has never been published, but Dikshit gives a description of the work.171 Photocopies of three manuscripts of the Romakasiddh¯ anta are available to me thanks to Pingree.172 The treatise has the form of the deity Vis .n . u instructing the 173 two sages Vasis sa in astronomy. .t . ha and Roma´ The Gargasiddh¯ anta Various works on divination, astrology, and astronomy are ascribed to the sage Garga,174 among which a Gargasam a in the form of a dialogue between Bh¯ aradv¯ aja and Garga might be relevant . hit¯ 175 here. When it comes to a Gargasiddh¯ anta , Pingree believes that it probably never existed.176 The Br anta . haspatisiddh¯ Pingree does not list a Br anta , nor a B¯ arhaspatyasiddh¯ anta (b¯ arhaspatya meaning “re. haspatisiddh¯ lating to Br a , also called . haspati”) in Census of the Exact Sciences in Sanskrit . A Br . haspatisam . hit¯ B¯ arhaspatya , in the form of a conversation between Br arada, is listed,177 but this work . haspati and N¯
167 See 168 See 169 See 170 See 171 See 172 The 173 See
[26]. [71 612]. [74 26]. [71 612]. [22 2.34–35,48]. See also [65 A.5.517–519]. three manuscripts are Pingree 42, Pingree 43, and Pingree 44 (see [65 A.5.518]).
[22 2.34–35] and [21 xvii]. Pingree gives the speaker of the treatise as N¯ arada or N¯ ar¯ ayan ar¯ ayan . a (N¯ .a A.5.518 ] ). However, is another name of the deity Vis n u) and the student as Vasis t ha Roma´ s amuni (see [ 65 .. .. while the manuscripts Pingree 43 and Pingree 44 open with N¯ arada speaking (the manuscript Pingree 42 opens with N¯ ar¯ ayan anta is quoted and . a speaking), it is clear from what follows (the beginning of the Romakasiddh¯ translated by Dikshit in [22 2.34–35]) that it is the deity Vis n u that is instructing Vasis t ha and Roma´ sa (not .. .. Vasis samuni, as one person). .t . ha Roma´ [65 A.2.116–120]. [65 A.2.118]. [65 A.2.120]. [65 A.4.249–250, A.5.235–236].
174 See 175 See 176 See 177 See
41 deals with divination.178 According to Aufrecht, a Br anta is cited in the Saurabh¯ as . haspatisiddh¯ . ya 179 of Nr . sim . ha. The Vasis thasiddh¯ anta .. There are two extant Vasis thasiddh¯ anta s that are relevant to us:180 a Vr thasiddh¯ anta and .. . ddhavasis .. a Laghuvasis thasiddh¯ anta (vr .. . ddha meaning “larger” and laghu meaning “shorter”). The latter is often referred to simply as the Vasis thasiddh¯ anta , and we will follow that convention here. Both .. 181 texts have been edited and published once. The Vr thasiddh¯ anta has the form of a . ddhavasis ..
182 dialogue between V¯ amadeva and Vasis while the Vasis thasiddh¯ anta has the form of a lecture .t . ha, .. 183 on astronomy given by Vasis an Since J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja refers to a lecture by Vasis .t . ha to M¯ .d . avya. .t . ha to
M¯ an thasiddh¯ anta , not the Vr thasiddh¯ anta . .d . avya, it is clear that he is referring to the Vasis .. . ddhavasis .. Other traditions of siddh¯ anta s According to another Indian tradition, there are nine canonical siddh¯ anta s. As noted by Burgess,184 ´ the Sabdakalpadruma , a Sanskrit encyclopedia, lists nine astronomical treatises under the entry siddh¯ anta :185 (1) the Brahmasiddh¯ anta , (2) the S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta , (3) the Somasiddh¯ anta , (4) the Br anta , (5) the Gargasiddh¯ anta , (6) the N¯ aradasiddh¯ anta , (7) the Par¯ a´ sarasiddh¯ anta , . haspatisiddh¯ (8) the Pulastyasiddh¯ anta , and (9) the Vasis t hasiddh¯ a nta . Except that the Romakasiddh¯ a nta is .. removed and siddh¯ anta s of N¯ arada and Par¯ a´ sara are added, this list corresponds to the names given in the Brahmasiddh¯ anta .186 Pingree writes that N¯ arada is the “[a]lleged author of a N¯ aradasiddh¯ anta ”187 and that the Par¯ a´ sarasiddh¯ anta is a conversation between some sages and Par¯ a´ sara.188 There are, in addition, other similar siddh¯ anta s, such as the Vy¯ asasiddh¯ anta .189
178 See 179 See 180 See 181 For
[74 76]. [1 43]. [74 26] and [65 A.5.607–609].
the edition of the Vr thasiddh¯ anta , see [27]. For the edition of the Vasis thasiddh¯ anta , see [28]. There . ddhavasis .. .. is also an article by Rai dealing with the Vr thasiddh¯ anta (see [83]). . ddhavasis .. [65 A.5.608]. [65 A.5.608]. [9 418].
182 See 183 See 184 See 185 See
[101 5.351]. This list in the same order is also mentioned by Das (see [14 200–201]), who says that it is ¯ ıni Akbar¯ ¯ ıni given in the A’¯ ı of Abu’lFazl (1551–1602), the vizier of Emperor Akbar. However, while the A’¯ Akbar¯ ı mentions the S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta (see, for example, [33 2.326, 2.332]), I have not been able to ﬁnd mention of the remaining titles in Gladwin’s translation (see [33]).
186 For
the Par¯ a´ sarasiddh¯ anta , see [65 A.4.198]. It is cited in the Saurabh¯ a. sya of Nr . sim . ha (see [1 43]). For the [65 A.3.149]. [65 A.4.198]. asasiddh¯ anta , see [65 A.5.754] and by Bhˆ au Dˆ ajˆ ı (see [13 398]). For more information on the Vy¯
N¯ aradasiddh¯ anta , see [65 A.3.149].
187 See 188 See
189 Mentioned
[52 360].
42 Other sources for the Siddh¯ antasundara Other than the Brahmasiddh¯ anta and the other related treatises, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja mentions a number of other writers of astronomical texts: ¯ ¯ 1. Aryabhat .a, a famous Indian astronomer who was born in 476 ce, is the author of the Arya190 bhat ıya and the originator of the a ¯ryapaks ¯rdhar¯ atrikapaks .¯ . a and the a . a, 2. Brahmagupta, another famous Indian astronomer born in 598 ce, and author of the Br¯ ahmasphut anta ,191 . asiddh¯ 3. Bhojar¯ aja, who ﬂourished in the ﬁrst half of the 11th century ce, and is the author of a now ¯ lost Adityaprat¯ apasiddh¯ anta and a karan ajamr anka ˙ ,192 . a entitled R¯ . g¯ 4. Var¯ ahamihira, who ﬂourished around 550 ce, and who wrote extensively on astronomy and astrology,193 5. Bh¯ askara ii, who was born in 1114 ce, and the other of many important works on astronomy and mathematics,194 6. Pr udakasv¯ amin, who ﬂourished in 864 ce, and who wrote an important commentary on . th¯ Brahmagupta’s Br¯ ahmasphut anta ,195 and . asiddh¯ 7. D¯ amodara.196 ¯ While Aryabhat aja, Brahmagupta, and Var¯ ahamihira are mentioned as examples of . a, Bhojar¯ authors of astronomical treatises, there are no indications that their works were used by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja while composing the Siddh¯ antasundara ; he presumably mentioned them due to their status in Indian astronomy. J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja must have read the Br¯ ahmasphut anta of Brahmagupta, though, for the . asiddh¯ commentary by Pr udakasv¯ amin on this text is cited.197 J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja clearly read the Siddh¯ anta´ siro. th¯ man askara ii. Both Bh¯ askara ii and the Siddh¯ anta´ siroman . i of Bh¯ . i are mentioned by name, and the 198 Siddh¯ anta´ siroman In the Siddh¯ antasundara , J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja cites some b¯ ıja corrections from . i is cited. D¯ amodara (see 2.1.83–84 and the commentary thereon).
190 See 191 See 192 See 193 See 194 See 195 See
[64], [65 A.1.50–53, A.2.15, A.3.16, A.4.27–28, A.5.16–17], and [79]). [65 A.4.254–257, A.5.239–240]. The editions of the Br¯ ahmasphut anta used are [29] and [41]. . asiddh¯ [65 A.4.336–339, A.5.266–267]). [65 A.5.563–595], [69], and [81]. [65 A.4.299–326, A.5.254–263].
[65 A.4.221–222, A.5.224]), wrote an important commentary on Brahmagupta’s Br¯ ahmasphut anta , . asiddh¯ parts of which have been edited (see [41]).
196 See [22 2.125–127]. See also [71 614], where Pingree says that the b¯ ıja s of D¯ amodara are mentioned in the Siddh¯ antas¯ arvabhauma ; J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja is mentioned in the commentary to Siddh¯ antas¯ arvabhauma 119–120. 197 See 198 See,
1.1.23. for example, 1.1.32.
43 Mathematical sources When it comes to the mathematics of the b¯ ıjagan adhy¯ aya , Datta notes that J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja refers his . it¯
199 readers to the B¯ ıjagan avatam ar¯ ayan In addition, J˜ na ¯na. it¯ . sa , a work on algebra by N¯ . a Pan .d . ita. ´ ıdhara, who ﬂourished r¯ aja repeats a method for solving quadratic equations originally given by Sr¯ ´ around 750 ce and is the author of a now lost mathematical work (Sr¯ ıdhara’s method is also given by
Bh¯ askara ii and S¯ uryad¯ asa).200 Furthermore, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja gives the same methods as Bh¯ askara ii for solving quadratic equations.201 For the kut taka (literally, pulverizer), a method for solving indeter.. minate equations of the form a×x−b×y = ±c, where a, b, and c are given positive integers, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja gives a rule similar to those of previous writers such as Brahmagupta and Bh¯ askara ii.202 For solving simultaneous indeterminate equations, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja gives a rule similar to one given by Bh¯ askara ii.203 For the vargaprakr ala (that is, respectively, the indeterminate equation N × x2 +1 = y 2 , . ti and cakrav¯
204 J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja gives rules similar to those given by Bh¯ askara ii and N¯ ar¯ ayan . a Pan .d . ita.
where N is a given positive integer that is not a square, and its solution through a “cyclic method”),
Islamic inﬂuence in the Siddh¯ antasundara As we have seen, the region in which J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja lived had been under Islamic control for a long time when the Siddh¯ antasundara was written. Prior to the time of J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja, Islamic inﬂuence on Indian astronomy was either computational (i.e., the only inﬂuence was on computation in formulae), as seen in the works of Mu˜ nj¯ ala (ﬂ. about ´ 932 ce) and Sr¯ ıpati (ﬂ. between 1039 and 1056 ce) from the 10th and 11th centuries ce, or related to the introduction of the astrolabe into Western India in the 14th century ce.205 In a survey of sixteenth century Sanskrit astronomical treatises, including the Siddh¯ antasundara , from Western and Northern India, Pingree ﬁnds no reﬂections of Islamic astronomy, and he further notes that the next wave of Islamic inﬂuence on Indian astronomy occurred under the Moghuls, after the time of J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja.206 However, when he engaged me in working on the Siddh¯ antasundara , he told me that he was curious whether a careful investigation would reveal Islamic inﬂuence. On the whole, my research has shown that Pingree’s assessment is correct: J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja follows the Indian tradition both when it comes to mathematical formulas and theories about the cosmos. There are, however, two passages of interest, one dealing with what we today call Heron’s method for ﬁnding square roots, the other with a cosmological idea involving a crystalline sphere.
199 See 200 See 201 See 202 See 203 See 204 See 205 See 206 See
ıjagan avatam [16 476]. For an edition and English translation of the B¯ . it¯ . sa , see [40]. [17 65]. [17 69]. [17 92–93, 116]. [17 128]. [17 144, 148]. ´ ıpati, see [74 25]. [72 317–318]. For Mu˜ nj¯ ala, see [65 A.4.435–436, A.5.312]. For Sr¯ [72 319].
44 Heron’s method Twice in the Siddh¯ antasundara , J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja gives a verse containing a method for computing the square root of any given positive number, once in the grahagan adhy¯ aya 207 and once in the b¯ ıja. it¯ 208 gan adhy¯ aya . The verse, as found in the grahagan adhy¯ aya , reads: . it¯ . it¯ a ¯sannam¯ ulena hr at svavarg¯ al . t¯ labdhena m¯ ulam . sahitam . dvibhaktam / bhavet tad a ¯sannapadam . tato ’pi muhur muhuh at sphut ulam evam / / . sy¯ . am¯ An [approximate value of the desired] square root is increased by the result of the division of the given square [i.e., the number whose square root we are seeking] by the approximate square root. [The result] is divided by 2. That is the [new] approximate square root. Then [the process is repated] again and again. In this way, the correct square root [is found]. For the mathematical explanation of the verse, which is cited (from the b¯ ıjagan adhy¯ aya ) by . it¯ S¯ uryad¯ asa in the S¯ uryaprak¯ a´ sa ,209 the reader is referred to the commentary on it. Here we will restrict ourselves to its historical signiﬁcance. The method described in the verse is an ancient one given by Heron of Alexandria in his Metrica ;210 we will refer to it in the following as Heron’s method. Heron’s method allows one to compute the square root of any given positive number by means of an initial approximation and iteration. In J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s verse describing the method, iteration is prescribed until the square root is exact. This verse has often been mentioned in modern studies,211 and from modern surveys of methods for computing square roots in India, it is found that the Siddh¯ antasundara is the ﬁrst Indian treatise to record the method.212 Before J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja, the methods given in various mathematical works were not based on iteration, but were closed formulae. Noting that J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja ﬂourished at a time when Islamic culture penetrated into India, Chakrabarti suggests that J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja borrowed the method “. . . from the Arabs.”213 Regarding Islamic involvement with the method, Smyly, without giving any references, says that the method “. . . was known
207 See 208 See
2.2.22.
[43 13–14] for the details on the occurrence of the verse in one manuscript of the b¯ ıjagan adhy¯ aya (Berlin . it¯ 833). [43 45 of Sanskrit text] and [61 1.174]. [6 35].
209 See 210 See 211 See,
e.g., [17 2.28] (where an English translation is given, but no Sanskrit or other reference) and [3 101] (Sanskrit given with a mistake). Note that Datta and Singh seems to have been ﬁrst to cite the verse, and later studies refer to them. [15], [18], and [19].
212 See 213
[10 56].
45 by the Arabs, but seems to have been subsequently forgotten,”214 and Smith notes that Rhabdas215 followed an “Arabic method” when computing a square root using Heron’s method.216 However, I cannot ﬁnd any statement to the eﬀect that the method is “Arabic” in the source referred to by Smith.217 In fact, Youschkevitch, in his survey of Arabic mathematics, does not mention any methods for extracting square roots based on iteration,218 and Berggren says that he is not aware of evidence that Islamic writers used Heron’s method.219 In conclusion, it is highly unlikely that J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja learned Heron’s method from Islamic sources. First of all, as shown above, this particular method was not used by Islamic mathematicians, and secondly, formulae for computing square roots as well as iterative methods have been known in India since early times. Crystalline spheres There is a passage in the Siddh¯ antasundara in which J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja betrays a knowledge of foreign cosmology:220 kecit k¯ acasam¯ acchabh¯ utalacaladgol¯ an samant¯ ad bhuva´ s candraj˜ na ¯sphujidarkabhaumavibudh¯ ac¯ ary¯ arkibh¯ an¯ am . jaguh . / tatpaks sa ¯n n¯ ıcoccap¯ at¯ adikam . e pratiman .d . alasthitiva´ . yojyam agaurav¯ at / / . tadbhraman . am . dhruven . a na matam . nah . kalpan¯ In the verse, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja tells us that some people hold the idea that for each of the planets and for the stars there are spheres that are transparent like crystal rotating around the Earth.221 Using weight as his argument, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja rejects this idea of crystalline spheres. Who these “some people” are is not revealed by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja, and, unfortunately, Cint¯ aman . i’s commentary on the verse is not very helpful. Cint¯ aman ta ¯rtham , “The meaning . i merely says: spas .. 222 is clear.”
214 See
[96 18]. Rhabdas was a Byzantine mathematician who ﬂourished in the 14th century ce (see [6 35]). Chakrabarti,
215 Nicolas
curiously, writes Kabd¯ as instead of Rhabdas in [10 56].
216 See
[95 254–255]. source is [97 185].
217 Smith’s 218 See 219 See
[108 76–80].
220 Siddh¯ antasundara 221 Since
[6 35]. Berggren further says that Rhabdas and other Byzantine mathematicians possibly learned Heron’s method from Heron’s work. It may be worth noting as well that Berggren reports that √ AlQalas ¯d ı, a ﬁfteenth.a .¯ r once century Muslim mathematician from Granada, recommends iterating the approximation a2 + r = a + 2× a √ 2 (r/(2×a)) r 2 when r > a, yielding the new approximation a + r = a + 2×a − 2×(a+r/(2×a)) (see [6 34]). 1.2.9. The passage is the topic of [48]. J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja says that the spheres are “transparent like crystal” indicates that they are not made of crystal, but merely share the quality of transparency with crystal. based on V1 (f. 50v).
222 Reading
46 Although neither J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja nor Cint¯ aman . i identiﬁes the source(s), it is clear that the idea expressed in the verse is derived from a foreign tradition. First of all, the idea of crystalline spheres is not found in the Indian tradition. Secondly, the idea of a crystalline sphere has been identiﬁed as being yavana (originally Ionian or Greek, but later a person from the regions west of India) by Nr asan¯ av¯ arttika commentary on Bh¯ askara ii’s Siddh¯ anta´ siroman . sim . ha in his V¯ . i , and Pingree identiﬁes yavana as Islamic.223 Whatever the case may be, it is clear that the Indian tradition itself considered this idea to have come from outside. Regarding Nr . sim . ha’s discussion of the idea, to be more precise, he argues that the yavana idea that there is a crystalline sphere supporting the sphere of the constellations and enabling it to rotate daily from east to west is incorrect. His argument against it is that the crystal could not bear such a weight. It is worth noting the word paks . a in the verse. While it may mean “an opinion,” it is also used to refer to the Indian schools of astronomy, such as the br¯ ahmapaks . a or the saurapaks . a . It is not clear which the word refers to here. I am not aware of any Indian school of astronomy or members of such that subscribes to the idea of one or more crystalline spheres, so presumably the intended meaning is merely “an opinion.” The problem is that there is no reference to a crystalline sphere or crystalline spheres in the Islamic literature.224 The idea that one of the spheres (the 9th) is crystalline is a European idea, based on an interpretation of a passage in Ezekiel.225 The word yavana could refer to Europeans, although a reference to Muslims is more likely. Still, this opens up the intriguing possibility that J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja was aware of a European cosmological idea.
1.3.6
Special features of the Siddh¯ antasundara
As we have seen, the Siddh¯ antasundara has the same structure as older siddh¯ anta s, especially the Siddh¯ anta´ siroman . i , but there are some unique features as well. One such unique feature is the inclusion of peculiar problems in the tripra´ sn¯ adhik¯ ara . As explained on p. 6, these sample problems that J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja has included in the tripra´ sn¯ adhik¯ ara are poetic and phrased using double entendre: one level of meaning provides a narrative, the other provides the technical information necessary to solve a given problem. Problems are not otherwise found in siddh¯ anta s, indicating that there was not a tradition of including them, but these problems stand out beyond their mere presence. They are phrased poetically using double entendres (´ sles . a ). Each problems poses a question that is to be answered based on the remainder of the verse. However, the remainder has two layers of meaning: one provides a narrative, the other technical information. This is best illustrated by an example:226 sim asan¯ as¯ ınam inatvam a ¯ptam . h¯ .
223 See
[72 320–321], but note that the title of Nr ıci in [72 321, . sim . ha’s commentary is given incorrectly as Mar¯ fn. 34] (Mar¯ ıci is the title of Mun¯ ı´ svara’s commentary on the Siddh¯ anta´ siroman . i ). communications with Jamil Ragep and others. [36 160–162] for the crystalline sphere in Europe. 2.3.17.
224 Personal 225 See 226 See
47 mitram adyutir uttar¯ a´ sa ¯m / . viditv¯ y¯ ato ’bhavat p¯ urvanr . paprabho yas tasy¯ a´ supum anam¯ anam / / . so vada y¯ [Narrative translation:] Tell [me] the length of the journey of the swift man, who, upon learning that his friend had gained kingship and was sitting on the lion’s seat [i.e., the throne], deprived of luster went north [to a place where] he had the luster of a former king. [Technical translation:] Tell [me] the measure of the journey of the swift man, who, upon learning that the sun had attained lordship sitting in the lion’s seat [i.e., was in Leo], cast no shadow and who went north [until] he had a shadow of [length] 16 [falling] towards the east. As can be seen, the narrative itself does not provide the information needed to solve the question posed; to solve it, the words of the verse have to be interpreted diﬀerently, yielding the technical translation given, which provides the necessary information. For the technical aspects of the verse and the solution to the problem, the reader is referred to the translation and commentary (see p. 183). As a further example, consider the ﬁrst quarter of another such verse:227 nakramukhe ’stamite sati ham . se [Narrative translation:] When the good goose perished in the mouth of a crocodile. . . [Technical translation:] When the sun, being in the beginning of Capricorn, was setting. . . The r adhik¯ ara . tuvarn . an¯ Bh¯ askara ii was the ﬁrst astronomer to include a poetic description of the seasons in an astronomical treatise.228 The poem in the Siddh¯ anta´ siroman ara (literally, Exposition . i is based on the R . tusam . h¯ of the Seasons) by the renowned poet K¯ alid¯ asa. Following Bh¯ askara ii, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja also included a poetic description of the seasons in the Siddh¯ antasundara , namely the . rtuvarn adhik¯ ara . The . an¯ r adhik¯ ara is more than twice as long as the similar poem in the Siddh¯ anta´ siroman . tuvarn . an¯ . i , and more intricate.229 Here, too, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja uses the technique of double entendre; each verse can be read in two ways, one praising a season, the other a deity.230
227 See
2.3.19. . gol¯ adhy¯ aya , r . tuvarn . ana .
228 Siddh¯ anta´ siroman i , 229 See 230 The
[52 355].
r adhik¯ ara of the Siddh¯ antasundara has not been studied here, but much work has been done on it . tuvarn . an¯ by Christopher Minkowski; these notes are based on his work.
48
1.3.7
Importance of the Siddh¯ antasundara
In the period of about 350 years between Bh¯ askara ii composing the Siddh¯ anta´ siroman . i in 1150 ce and the composition of the Siddh¯ antasundara around the beginning of the 16th century ce, the Indian astronomers moved in a didactic direction, focusing on writing commentaries on existing treatises, as well as composing kos thaka s.231 A number of minor siddh¯ anta s, namely the Brahmasiddh¯ anta , .. the Somasiddh¯ anta and the Vasis thasiddh¯ anta , all of which were discussed above, were composed in .. this period, but no important siddh¯ anta was written.232 In other words, the Siddh¯ antasundara was the ﬁrst major siddh¯ anta to be written after the inﬂuential Siddh¯ anta´ siroman . i. J˜ n¯ anar¯ aja and the astronomical tradition Writing the ﬁrst major work after some 350 years naturally entails a critical look at and a reassessment of the tradition. This is so in the case of J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja, and a direct statement as to what shape such a reassessment took in the Siddh¯ antasundara can be found right at the beginning of the text. J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja says there that what he has written in the Siddh¯ antasundara is the astronomical teachings ´ akalya, with v¯ of Brahman to N¯ arada, as recorded by the sage S¯ asan¯ a s added. Two signiﬁcant points regarding J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s motivations for writing the Siddh¯ antasundara are raised here: 1. J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja takes as his main source the somewhat obscure Brahmasiddh¯ anta , and 2. his contribution to astronomy is his addition of demonstrations to the science as it is given in the Brahmasiddh¯ anta . The Brahmasiddh¯ anta , as well as related texts such as the Somasiddh¯ anta , are considered authoritative by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja due to their being authored by divine beings and ancient sages. By accepting the Brahmasiddh¯ anta as his primary source, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja emphasizes, in addition to emphasizing the Brahmasiddh¯ anta itself, the fact that it is attributed to a deity. This emphasis is further strengthened when he makes a clear division between the eight divine originators of astronomy and the human beings who subsequently wrote treatises on the topic. The divine works are primary, human works secondary. However, as per the second point above, while J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja makes no claims to be anything but an ordinary human being, he argues that he is making a contribution, namely adding v¯ asan¯ a s. What all this implies is that J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja is seeking to bring the Brahmasiddh¯ anta and similar treatises into the mainstream of Indian astronomy. As was discussed before, with the exception of the S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta , the eight treatises mentioned by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja are somewhat obscure. By composing a treatise emphasizing these texts, in particular the Brahmasiddh¯ anta , and providing v¯ asan¯ a s and rationales that they are lacking, the texts are drawn into the mainstream of Indian astronomy, to be discussed on the same level as, say, Bh¯ askara ii’s Siddh¯ anta´ siroman . i.
231 See 232 See
[74 25–26]. [74 26].
49 Why is J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja following the Brahmasiddh¯ anta in particular? No answer is given in the Siddh¯ antasundara , but we may venture an explanation here. As we will see below on p. 49 regarding the virodhaparih¯ ara issue, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja is concerned with traditional religious teachings. He is willing to reinterpret passages from sacred texts, but not willing to question their authority. Dikshit notes that the Brahmasiddh¯ anta treats the subject of religion, a subject not met with in astronomical texts.233 Unfortunately, however, he does not specify this further. No indepth study of the Brahmasiddh¯ anta is available, but it seems likely that this particular text matched J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s agenda, or perhaps that J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja was inspired by its approach. Primacy of the gol¯ adhy¯ aya We established previously that despite many manuscripts placing the grahagan adhy¯ aya at the be. it¯ ginning of the Siddh¯ antasundara , the text actually begins with the gol¯ adhy¯ aya . In earlier siddh¯ anta s, ´ such as the Sis ıvr svarasiddh¯ anta , and the Siddh¯ anta´ siroman . yadh¯ . ddhidatantra , the Vat . e´ . i , the gola section is placed at the end of the work.234 In addition, the authors of these works found it necessary to preface their gola sections with arguments for why this section is to be studied.235 In contrast, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja does not ﬁnd it necessary to justify his gol¯ adhy¯ aya , he simply begins with it. Importance was put on the gola material by all the great Indian astronomers, but to J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja it was central: a study of astronomy commenced with a study of the gol¯ adhy¯ aya . This, of course, aided his endeavor to add v¯ asan¯ a s to the material in the gan adhy¯ aya , and also gave his readers . it¯ the theoretical understanding necessary to engage with questions such as that of virodhaparih¯ ara . The issue of virodhaparih¯ ara By virodhaparih¯ ara (literally, removal of contradiction) is meant the endeavor to create a synthesis between the cosmology of the pur¯ an . a s on the one hand, and the cosmology of the astronomical tradition on the other. The astronomers’ approach to the inconsistencies between the two cosmologies was to incorporate compatible elements into their own system, while rejecting contradictory elements. Thus, as noted, Meru found its place on the north pole of the spherical Earth and the annular oceans and continents were placed on the southern hemisphere, while notions such as the Earth being ﬂat and the Sun being closer than the Moon were rejected. The approach changed with J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja. Rather than accepting certain elements and rejecting others, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja considered the pur¯ an . a s authoritative and sought to create a synthesis in which both cosmologies could be true. This entailed reinterpreting ideas from both traditions, but never
236 rejecting any elements from the pur¯ an . a s.
233 See 234 At
[22 2.49].
least this is how the printed editions organize the texts (see [11], [94], and [87]). 235 See, e.g., Sis ´ . yadh¯ ıvr svarasiddh¯ anta (gola ) 1.1–5, and Siddh¯ anta´ siroman a. ddhidatantra 24.2–6, Vat . e´ . i (gol¯ dhy¯ aya ) 1.2–5.
236 See
[52].
50
1.4
The manuscripts of the Siddh¯ antasundara
The structure of the following descriptions of
Photocopies of twenty manuscripts were made available to me by Pingree for the preparation of the critical edition of the Siddh¯ antasundara . the manuscripts conforms to the format used in Pingree’s catalogue of the Sanskrit astronomical manuscripts in the Maharaja Man Singh II Museum in Jaipur.237 The manuscript descriptions mention certain features peculiar to the manuscript in question, but this is not to imply that they occur consistently in the given manuscript, only that they occur. A folio (or page) number in angle brackets means that this is the appropriate number, but the particular folio (or page) was not numbered by the scribe. If there are two folia (or pages) with the same number, say 29, the notation 29a and 29b is used. If a manuscript has two parts, α and β will be used to distinguish them.
1.4.1
Description of the available manuscripts
¯ A — Anand¯ a´ srama 4350 Catalogue description: not available to me.238 Two parts, α and β . α: 47 pages, paginated <1>, 2–17, 20–49 (pp. 18–19 missing in the photocopy). β : 32 pages, paginated <1>, 2–32. 21 cm by 16 cm (based on photocopy, so uncertain). 16 lines per page. Devan¯ agar¯ ı script. α is dated mandav¯ asara , tithi 13 of the dark paks tha , . a of jyais .. ´ saka 1810 = Saturday, July 7, 1888 ce. β is dated budhav¯ asara , tithi 11 of the dark paks tha , . a of jyais .. ´ saka 1810 = Wednesday, July 4, 1888 ce. Incomplete (due to two missing pages in α): α contains the grahagan adhy¯ aya , and β the gol¯ adhy¯ aya . In the photocopy, α comes ﬁrst, but β was copied . it¯ before α by the scribe. I am unable to determine whether or not the two parts are in the right order in the photocopy. From the photocopy available to me, it appears that the manuscript was organized as a European book. It is paginated rather than foliated, the page numbers being placed at the center of the page above the text. The manuscript contains many errors and has been of limited use. It should be noted, though, that this is the manuscript used by Dikshit for his notes on the Siddh¯ antasundara in his Bharatiya Jyotish Sastra .239 B1 — Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute 283 of Vi´ sr¯ ama (i) Catalogue description: [58 350–351, no. 1240].
237 See 238 The
[78].
manuscript is listed by Pingree in [65 A.3.75] with reference to a handwritten list of the manuscripts in ¯ ¯ the Anand¯ a´ srama, Poona, in possession of V. Raghavan (see [65 A.1.26, under Anand¯ a´ srama]). Unfortunately, I was unable to locate this in the collection of the late David Pingree, and have not been able to ﬁnd it elsewhere either. [22].
239 See
51 39 leaves, foliated <1>, 2, <3>, 4–10, <11>, 12, <13>, 14, <15>, 16, <17>, 18, <19>, 20, <21>, 22, <23>, 24, <25>, 26, <27>, 28, <29>, 30, <31>, 32, <33>, 34–35, <36>, 37–38, <39>.
1 1 11 2 by 33 2 cm. 8–9 lines per page. Some marginalia. Devan¯ agar¯ ı script. Complete: begins with
the grahagan adhy¯ aya and ends with the gol¯ adhy¯ aya . . it¯ The leaves are foliated in the top left corner and the bottom right corner of the recto. F. 32 was originally foliated 31; a correction is made in the lower right corner, but not in the upper left corner. F. <39> is blank except for title of the work. The manuscript catalogue states that the manuscript consists of 38 leaves, presumably discounting f. <39>. The manuscript catalogue provides the following additional information: modern paper with watermarks, borders ruled in double red lines, and yellow pigment and white chalk used for corrections. The manuscript is further described as “modern” in the catalogue. B2 — Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute 219 of A 1882–83 Catalogue description: [58 349–350, no. 1239]. 19 leaves, foliated 1, <2–5>, 6–7, <8>, 9, <10>, 11–14, <15>, 16–19 in the lowerright corners,
1 1 by 12 2 cm. as well 25–29, <30>, 31, <32–37>, 38–41, <42>, 43 in the upperleft corners. 27 2
10–13 lines per page. Marginalia. Devan¯ agar¯ ı script. Not dated. The manuscript belonged to R¯ amakr adhy¯ aya . .s .n . a Jyotirvid. Complete: contains the gol¯ The manuscript catalogue notes that the handwriting is somewhat careless but legible and uniform. While this is correct, the photocopying process has made much of the text hard to read, especially the marginalia, parts of which are unreadable. In addition, some folia are torn and have damage to the text. Other additional information noted in the manuscript catalogue: country paper, appears to be fairly old, borders ruled in double black lines, red pigment used for marking verse number and colophons, yellow pigment used for corrections, and edges extremely worn and motheaten. A list of chapters of the work and the folia on which they commence is given on f. 19v (according to the ﬁrst numbering given above). The list begins with the 11 chapters of the grahagan adhy¯ aya , . it¯ which is called p¯ urv¯ ardha , “initial half”, beginning on a folio 1; the gol¯ adhy¯ aya , which is called uttar¯ ardha , “latter half”, follows beginning on a folio 25. In other words, the list of chapters follows the second numbering. However, it is not clear which of the two numberings is original, nor whether the grahagan adhy¯ aya part referred to in the index was originally part of the manuscript. In the . it¯ critical apparatus, folio references are to the ﬁrst numbering. Peculiarities of B2 include writing simply is written instead of both
´Ì and É .
´Ú instead of Ú (in the word Ø Ú). Furthermore, ´
B3 — Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute 880 of 1884–87 Catalogue description: [58 352, no. 1242].
1 1 20 leaves, foliated 1–20. 27 2 by 12 2 cm. 9–10 lines per page. Marginalia. Devan¯ agar¯ ı script.
Not dated (but see below and note that R2 is dated). Complete: contains the gol¯ adhy¯ aya .
52 F. 1r is not extant in the photocopy; it is presumably blank. The marginalia consist of occasional variant readings and other annotations added by a second hand. Additional remarks made in the manuscript catalogue: thick country paper, not very old in appearance, borders ruled in double red lines and edges in single, red pigment used for marking verse numbers and colophons, and yellow pigment and white chalk used for corrections. The three manuscripts B3 , B4 , and R2 were copied by the same scribe, and the annotations in each are made by the same second hand. It is certain that B4 and R2 really are two parts of the same manuscript, for R2 commences precisely where B4 breaks oﬀ. Considering that B3 is in the same hand and has marginalia by the same second hand, it is highly likely that B3 is part of the same manuscript, consisting of the gol¯ adhy¯ aya , while B4 and R2 together contain the grahagan adhy¯ aya . . it¯ A diﬀerence between B3 on the one hand, and B4 and R2 on the other, should be noted, though. In B3 , the chapter colophons are written right after the concluding verse of each chapter by the scribe himself, but the scribe did not include chapter colophons in B4 and R2 , where they were added in (or minor variations thereof). That the abbreviated title in the topleft margins of B4 and R2 is si·sum u· (or minor variations thereof) indicates that the grahagan adhy¯ aya was considered the . ·p¯ . it¯ ﬁrst part (p¯ urv¯ ardha , initial half) of the work. Peculiarities of B3 include writing simply the margin by the second hand. The abbreviated title given in the topleft margins is si·sum . ·go·
´Ú instead of Ú (in the word Ø Ú).
B4 — Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute 881 of 1884–87 Catalogue description: [58 351, no. 1241].
1 by 12 cm. 9 lines per page. Marginalia. Devan¯ agar¯ ı script. Not 8 leaves, foliated 1–8. 27 2
dated (but see below and note that R2 is dated). Incomplete: starts from the beginning of the grahagan adhy¯ aya (verse 2.1.1), and ends in verse 2.2.3 (extant part of the verse: a ¯´ sa ¯m . it¯ . ka ). F. 1r is not extant in the photocopy; it is presumably blank. The marginalia consists of occasional variant readings and other annotations (including chapter colophons) added by a second hand. Additional remarks made in the manuscript catalogue: country paper, not very old, borders ruled in double red lines and edges in single, red pigment used for marking verse numbers, and yellow pigment and white chalk used for corrections. B4 and R2 are parts of the same manuscript. For more details, see the description of B3 .
´Ú instead of Ú (in the word Ø Ú), and there is no distinction between and , which are both written . Sometimes à is written (as in instead of à ).
Peculiarities of B4 include writing simply B5 — Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute 860 of 1887–91 Catalogue description: [58 352–353, no. 1243].
1 1 cm by 28 2 . 7–10 lines per page. 27 leaves, foliated <1>, 2, 3a , 3–8, <9>, 10–25, <26>. 8 2
Devan¯ agar¯ ı script. Dated ´ saka 1686 = 1764 ce or 1765 ce. Complete: contains the grahagan a. it¯ dhy¯ aya .
53 F. <26>v is not extant in the photocopy; it is presumably blank. Ff. 2, 3a are by a diﬀerent hand, added to replace a missing leaf (the manuscript catalogue notes that in addition to the handwriting, the paper is diﬀerent as well). The photocopy is quite dark and often hard to read. Additional remarks made in the manuscript catalogue: country paper, old in appearance, borders not ruled, red pigment used for marking colophons, and edges of the leaves worn out. Peculiarities of B5 include writing simply ´Ú instead of for both
Ú, ¹ for ¹Ì, and , â for , ´ for both ´Ì, and ¹ for ¹Ì.
instead of à,
for É ,
I — India Oﬃce Library 2114b Catalogue description: [30 1.5.1029, no. 2902].
1 37 leaves, foliated 1–37. 11 2 cm by 24 cm. 6–13 lines per page. Devan¯ agar¯ ı script. Dated bhauma
v¯ asara , 5 kr sn sr¯ avan .. . apaks . a of ´ . a in sam . vat 1839 = Tuesday, September 27, 1782 ce. Complete: contains the grahagan adhy¯ aya . . it¯ F. 1r not extant in the photocopy. The original folio numbers, generally placed in the top left corners of the versos of the leaves, are not extant on all leaves. However, another hand has added the numbers in the top right corner in Arabic numerals, including the leaves where the original number is visible. The manuscript was copied by several hands according to the manuscript catalogue, but it is diﬃcult to determine where one scribe takes over from another in the photocopy. Peculiarities of I include writing ,
´ for ´Ì, ¢ for ¢ ,
for
¹ for ¹Ì, instead of à, â for , , and ¹ for ¹Ì.
for
É ,
for both
and
L — British Museum Add. 14,365p . Catalogue description: [4 187, no. 452].
1 cm.240 13 lines per page. Devan¯ agar¯ ı script. Not 28 leaves, foliated 1–27, <28>. 21 by 12 2
dated. Complete: contains the grahagan adhy¯ aya and the gol¯ adhy¯ aya (in that order). . it¯ F. <28>v is not extant in the photocopy; presumably it is blank. Ff. 26v, 27r were copied poorly and are nearly illegible. The manuscript does not appear to be very old. M1 — Asiatic Society of Bombay 289 Catalogue description: [102 1.4.94, no. 289].
1 15 leaves, foliated 1–13, <14>, 15. 38 by 23 2 cm. 19–22 lines per page. Devan¯ agar¯ ı script. Not
dated. Complete: contains the grahagan adhy¯ aya and the gol¯ adhy¯ aya (in that order). . it¯ Due to an error in the copying process, most of the text on ﬀ. <14>v, 15r, 15v does not appear in the photocopy. The manuscript does not appear to be very old. Peculiarities of M1 include writing both
240 This
and ,
´Ú for Ú, ´ for , ´ for ´Ì, ¢ for ¢ , and for .
instead of
à, â for ,
for
É ,
for
information is not given in the manuscript catalogue, and the dimensions given are those of the photocopy.
54 M2 — Asiatic Society of Bombay 290 Catalogue description: [102 1.4.94, no. 290]. 20 leaves, foliated 1–7, <8–10>, 11, <12–16>, 17–20. 17 lines per page. Devan¯ agar¯ ı script. Not dated. Complete: contains the grahagan adhy¯ aya and the gol¯ adhy¯ aya (in that order). . it¯ The manuscript does not appear to be very old. Peculiarities of M2 include writing both and ,
¢ for ¢ , ¹ for ¹Ì, and
´Ú for Ú, ´ for ,
for .
instead of
à, â for ,
for
É ,
for
M3 — Asiatic Society of Bombay 291 Catalogue description: [102 1.4.94–95, no. 290].
1 by 11 cm. 10–13 lines per page. Deva53 leaves, foliated 1–32, <32a >, 33a , 33–50, <51>. 31 2
n¯ agar¯ ı script. Not dated (manuscript incomplete). The manuscript contains the Grahagan a. itacint¯ man i , Cint¯ a man i’s commentary on the Siddh¯ a ntasundara , in addition to the text of the Siddh¯ a nta. . sundara . Incomplete: contains the text and commentary on the madhyam¯ adhik¯ ara and part of the spas ta ¯dhik¯ ara , ending in the commentary on verse 2.2.34 (numbered 35 in the manuscript). .. Ff. 1r, <51>v are not extant in the photocopy; they are presumably blank. F. <51>r ends abruptly halfway into the ﬁrst line. F. <32a > has only four lines on one page, and the other page is blank. It is not clear to me at present whether this leaf, though clearly in the same hand as the rest, belongs here. F. 33a and f. 33 commence at the same place in the text, but f. 33 contains four syllables more of the text than f. 33a . For this reason, it is f. 33 that connects with f. 34. For the edition, f. 33 has been used, and not f. 33a . Peculiarities of M3 include writing and ,
¢ for ¢ , and ¹ for ¹Ì.
´Ú for Ú, Ø for
,
instead of
à,
for
É ,
for both
O — Oxford d. 805(5) Catalogue description: [75 8, no. 21].
1 18 leaves, foliated <1>, 2–18. 11 2 by 26 cm. 7–12 lines per page. Devan¯ agar¯ ı script. Not dated
(manuscript incomplete). Incomplete: starts at the beginning of the gol¯ adhy¯ aya and ends in verse 26 of the r adhik¯ ara (extant part of the verse: yanmitrasya karaprat¯ apanihat¯ as t¯ u ). . tuvarn . an¯ Ff. 14–18 were originally foliated 12–16, but corrected to 14–18. Peculiarities of O include writing
¢
for
¢ , and
´Ú for Ú, for ´Ì, ¹ for ¹Ì. At times Í is used for Ù.
for
à,
for
É ,
for both
and ,
R1 — Rajasthan Oriental Research Institute (Kota) 981 Catalogue description: [99 484–485, no. 4306]. 111 pages, paginated 1–45, 46a , 46b , 47–110. 12 cm by 26 cm. 9 lines per page. Copied by Trav¯ ad ıbhat an ıvan asy¯ agr¯ ama (?). Dated bhr asara , tithi 10 of the dark paks .¯ .t . a Pr¯ . aj¯ . a in Kot . h¯ . guv¯ . a of m¯ agha , sam adhy¯ aya (which . vat 1834 = Friday, February 20, 1778 ce. Complete: begins with the gol¯
55
Figure 1.1: Figure on p. 84 in R1
is called p¯ urv¯ ardha , “initial half”) and ends with the grahagan adhy¯ aya (which is not named, but . it¯ called uttar¯ ardha , “latter half”). Most of the foliation numbers are not present on the photocopy due to the left and right borders being truncated in the copying process, and those which are still visible are partially destroyed. The page numbers given above are in Arabic numerals in the hand of Pingree. According to the catalogue description, there are 57 leaves, meaning that 3 (presumably blank) pages are not included in the photocopy. P. 110 is placed at the beginning of the photocopy. There is a ﬁgure on p. 84, which illustrates verse 2.5.10. A scan of the ﬁgure is given in Figure 1.1. The manuscript contains numerous errors, but also meaningful readings not found elsewhere. Peculiarities of R1 include writing
â for , Ó for
Ó, ¢ for ¢ ,
´Ú for Ú,
for
for both
and , and
¹ for ¹Ì.
´Ì,
for
,
for
à,
for
É ,
for
,
R2 — Rajasthan Oriental Research Institute 4733 Catalogue description: [44 310–311, no. 5535].
1 by 12 cm. 9 lines per page. Marginalia. Copied by Br¯ ahman 23 leaves, foliated 9–31. 27 2 .a
Harisus asara , tithi 10 of the bright paks ¯´ svina , sam . a (i.e., Harisukha). Dated somav¯ . a of a . vat 1843/´ saka 1708 (year given as current year) = Monday, October 2, 1786 ce. Incomplete: begins in verse 2.2.3 (from bhuva in p¯ ada a) and ends at the end of the grahagan adhy¯ aya . . it¯ The marginalia consists of occasional variant readings and other annotations (including chapter colophons) added by a second hand. F. 31v contains only two verses cited from the Siddh¯ antas¯ arvabhauma .241 There is one ﬁgure in the manuscript. It is on f. 9v by the right margin beneath the text. It illustrates the explanation of the Sines in 2.2.6–9 (the text visible in Figure 1.2 belongs to verse 2.2.9). There is a ﬁgure on f. 9v, which illustrates verses 2.2.6–9. A scan of the ﬁgure is given in Figure 1.2.
241 Siddh¯ antas¯ arvabhauma
1.143–144 (see [98 1.115]).
56
Figure 1.2: Figure on f. 9v in R2
B4 and R2 are parts of the same manuscript. For more details, see the description of B3 . Peculiarities of R2 include writing Furthermore, and
´Ú for Ú,
for
É ,
for both
and
, and
for
.
are indistinguishable in this manuscript.
R3 — Rajasthan Oriental Research Institute (Jodhpur) 37247 Catalogue description: [92 344–345, no. 3079].
1 Two parts, α and β . α: 15 leaves, foliated 1–15. β : 24 leaves, foliated 1–24. 26 cm by 12 2 cm. 242 12 lines per page. α is dated somav¯ asara , tithi 14 of the dark half of a ¯s ¯d sam .a . ha , . vat 1843 = Monday, July 24, 1786 ce. β is dated bhr guv¯ a sara , tithi 8 of the bright half of bh¯ a drapada , sam . . vat
1843/´ saka 1708 (year given as current year) = Friday, September 1, 1786 ce. Complete: α contains the gol¯ adhy¯ aya and β the grahagan adhy¯ aya . . it¯ The photocopy made available to me by Pingree is organized into two parts. The ﬁrst, labeled “RORI (Jodhpur) 37247 Siddh¯ antasundara of J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja pt. I” (with “RORI (Jodhpur) 37733” written but crossed out beneath “RORI (Jodhpur) 37247”) by Pingree, consists of β ﬀ. 1v–16r, and the second, labeled “RORI (Jodhpur) 37247 Siddh¯ antasundara of J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja pt. II” by Pingree, consists of α ﬀ. 1v–15r followed by β ﬀ. 16v–24r. Since β f. 16r and β f. 16v are separated in the photocopy, the misplacement of part of β cannot be explained by a disarrangement of leaves in the original manuscript, but must be due to a misplacement of pages in the photocopy. According to the catalogue description, the manuscript has 24 leaves, indicating that only the leaves of β are included. α f. 1r, β f. 1r, and β f. 24v not extant in the photocopy. Peculiarities of R3 include writing V1 — Benares 35318 Catalogue description: [60 96–97, no. 35318].
1 1 by 12 2 cm. 12 lines per page. Some marginalia. Devan¯ agar¯ ı 67 leaves, foliated 12–78. 28 2
´Ú for Ú,
for
É ,
for both
and , and
for
.
script. Not dated (manuscript incomplete). The manuscript contains the Grahagan aman . itacint¯ . i,
242 Possibly
this is to be read as tithi 4, but this does not work so well with the weekday given.
57
Figure 1.3: Figure on f. 39v in V1
Figure 1.4: Figure on f. 68v in V1
Cint¯ aman antasundara , in addition to the text of the Siddh¯ antasundara . . i’s commentary on the Siddh¯ Incomplete: begins in the commentary on 1.1.19 and ends in the commentary on 1.4.7. There are three ﬁgures in the manuscript, on f. 39v, f. 68v, and f. 71r, respectively. The ﬁrst, belonging to the commentary on 1.1.72, is shown in Figure 1.3; the second, belonging to the commentary on 1.3.5, is shown in Figure 1.4; and the third, belonging to the commentary on 1.3.11–13, is shown in Figure 1.5. As ﬁgures are rare and recent, the manuscript is probably not that old; the handwriting also point towards the manuscript not being very old, probably from the 19th century. V2 — Benares 35566 Catalogue description: [60 120–121, no. 35566].
58
Figure 1.5: Figure on f. 71r in V1
1 cm. 9–11 lines per page. Some marginalia. Deva73 leaves, foliated 1–41, 43–74.243 20 by 11 2
n¯ agar¯ ı script. Not dated. Incomplete (due to a missing leaf): contains the gol¯ adhy¯ aya and the grahagan adhy¯ aya (in that order); f 41v ends with 2.1.85 and f. 43r begins in 2.2.6. . it¯ instead of Peculiarities of V2 include writing ´Ú for Ú, ¹ for ¹Ì, ´ for ´Ì, ´ for ,
â for ,
for
É ,
for both
244
and
,
´
for
´Ì, ¢ for ¢ , and
à,
for
. The manuscript has
occasional pr tham¯ atr¯ a s. .s ..
V3 — Benares 35627 Catalogue description: [60 124–125, no. 35627]. 22 leaves, foliated 1–4, 6–7, 11–14, 16–27. 26 by 12 cm. 10–14 lines per page. Devan¯ agar¯ ı script. Dated sam . vat 1845 = 1788 ce or 1789 ce. Incomplete: contains a partial (due to missing leaves) grahagan adhy¯ aya . . it¯ Peculiarities of V2 include writing
´
for
´Ì,
for
à,
for both
´Ú for Ú, £ for ´ £ (in the word Ø´ £Ô), ¹ for ¹Ì, Ø for , and , for É , and ´ for ´Ì. There are a few occurrences of
243 The 244 A
manuscript catalogue does not indicate that f. 42 is missing; it is not, however, found in my copy.
a ), to substitute pr tham¯ atr¯ a is the use of the vertical stroke , normally used to indicate a long avowel (¯ .s .. for a diagonal diphtongstroke above the line. For example, Þ » for Þ £» (no misreading possible because Þ is not meaningful as a unit by itself) or × ¦Ø× Ö (later scribes might misread this as ¦ Ö for × ¦Ø× ¦ £ siddh¯ antasund¯ ara instead of the correct siddh¯ antasundare ), Ö Ö Ñ for Ö ÓÖ Ñ (later scribes might misread Ö ×Ó Ö for Ö×Ç Ö (later scribes might misread this as ´ sar¯ agar¯ ama instead of the correct ´ saragor¯ ama ), and this as ¯ ar¯ asori instead of the correct ¯ arasauri ). Such pr tham¯ atr¯ a s are mainly conﬁned to older manuscripts, but .s .. can occur in more recent manuscripts as well.
59 pr s. tham¯ atr¯ a s. .. V4 — Benares 36902 Catalogue description: [60 242–243, no. 36902].
1 by 14 cm. 7 lines per page. Devan¯ agar¯ ı script. Not dated. Complete: 36 leaves, foliated 1–36. 27 2
contains the grahagan adhy¯ aya . . it¯ F. 1r is not extant in the photocopy; presumably it is blank. Peculiarities of V4 include writing
´Ú for Ú,
for both
and ,
for
É , and â for . The
scribe consistently uses proper nasals rather than anusv¯ ara s. V5 — Benares 36907 Catalogue description: [60 242–243, no. 36907].
1 1 by 10 2 cm. 15 lines per page. Copied by L¯ ala Candra in R¯ abha24 leaves, foliated 1–24. 24 2
n¯ agara (?). Dated bhaumav¯ asara , tithi 10 of the dark paks arga´ s¯ ırs saka 1586 . a of m¯ . a , sam . vat 1721/´ (current year, not expired year) = Tuesday, December 25, 1663 ce (Julian date: December 15, 1663 ce). Complete: contains the gol¯ adhy¯ aya and the grahagan adhy¯ aya (in that order), but the order . it¯ 245 of the sections is unusual. F. 24v not extant in the photocopy; presumably it is blank, as the text ends on f. 24r. The manuscript has been worked over by a second hand working with another manuscript as well. Using rounded brackets, the second hand has marked passages that are not found in his other manuscript and inserted passages from it not found in V5 in the margins. The other manuscript used by the second hand appears to be very similar to I, although there are variants recorded that are not found in I.246 Peculiarities of V5 include writing and , for
É , and â for . The scribe has the peculiar habit of writing an a ¯ vowel that does not ﬁt at the end of a line as a Ö at the beginning of the next line. Similarly, a visarga that does
not ﬁt at the end of a line is written at the beginning of the next line. Furthermore, pr tham¯ atr¯ as .s .. are frequently used (see fn. 244 on p. 58).
´Ú for Ú, ¢ for ¢ ,
for
à, ´ for ´Ì, ¹ for ¹Ì,
for both
1.4.2
Stemma
A stemma is a family tree showing the relationship between the available manuscripts. It is based on the principle that sharing of common readings implies a common origin. In other words, if two manuscripts share a suﬃcient number of common readings, we may assume that they both derive from a common source. We will not enter a detailed discussion of stemmatics here, but the construction of a stemma is nevertheless desirable for the assessment of the available manuscripts of the Siddh¯ antasundara .
245 The 246 See,
structure of V5 was discussed above (see p. 35). for example, the variant reading noted in the margin for 2.1.86a.
60 Let us begin by recapitulating the distribution of manuscripts. For the edition of the gol¯ adhy¯ aya , altogether 13 manuscripts were available: (1) A, (2) B1 , (3) B2 , (4) B3 , (5) L, (6) M1 , (7) M2 , (8) O, (9) R1 , (10) R3 , (11) V1 , (12) V2 , and (13) V5 . For the edition of the grahagan adhy¯ aya , altogether . it¯ 16 manuscripts were available: (1) A, (2) B1 , (3) B4 , (4) B5 , (5) I, (6) L, (7) M1 , (8) M2 , (9) M3 , (10) R1 , (11) R2 , (12) R3 , (13) V2 , (14) V3 , (15) V4 , and (16) V5 . From the distribution of manuscripts, it is clear that it is necessary to present separate stemmata for the gol¯ adhy¯ aya and the grahagan adhy¯ aya . Since only one section from the gol¯ adhy¯ aya has been . it¯ edited, but six from the grahagan adhy¯ aya , we will start the discussion with the grahagan adhy¯ aya . . it¯ . it¯ Stemma for the grahagan adhy¯ aya . it¯ A clearly distinct group is formed by B1 , L, M1 , and M2 . For one thing, they stand apart in that they have 12 rather than 11 sections in the grahagan adhy¯ aya . In addition, they share readings and . it¯ lacunae to such an extent that a close relationship between them is certain. Of the four manuscripts, B1 and M1 follow each other closely, and the same is true of L and M2 ; however, based on lacunae in the manuscripts, the only possibility for a direct copying is that L is a copy of M2 , though whether this is indeed the case cannot be established with certainty. Related to this group is A. While A has 11 sections in the grahagan adhy¯ aya and has variant . it¯ readings diﬀering from B1 , L, M1 , and M2 , other traits are shared, such as a structure commencing with the grahagan adhy¯ aya . All ﬁve manuscripts are recent and very legible. . it¯ Another distinct group is formed by B4 , R2 , and R3 . It was noted in the manuscript descriptions that that B4 and R2 are two parts of the same manuscript, and that B3 forms the gol¯ adhy¯ aya part of it. For that reason, we will use the symbol B⋆ to denote these as one manuscript.247 Similarities establish clearly that B⋆ and R3 are related. In fact, it is likely, though I cannot establish this with certainty, that either B⋆ is a copy of R3 , or they are both copies of the same manuscript. A third group, though more loosely connected, consists of I, V2 , and V4 . These three manuscripts share certain characteristics that set them apart from the rest, including shared readings, order of verses in the text, and so on. The remaining manuscripts are hard to group together. In a general grouping, they belong with the B1 LM1 M2 and B⋆ R3 groups, but establishing a closer relationship has not been possible. R1 has some unique characteristics, such as the ordering of some verses in the tripra´ sn¯ adhik¯ ara , but not enough to set it fully aside from the B⋆ R3 group. The stemma for the grahagan adhy¯ aya manuscripts is shown in Figure 1.6. The original copy . it¯ 248 of the Siddh¯ antasundara is given as α. From α come two main branches, β and γ . To γ belong I, V2 , and V4 . As can be seen in the stemma, while all three manuscripts descend from γ , the exact relationship between them is unclear. The remaining manuscripts all ﬁnd their place on the β branch. Between β and A and B1 LM1 M2 and B⋆ R3 is inserted δ in order to show that these
247 This 248 Note
convention will only be followed here; in the critical apparatus, B3 , B4 , and R2 will be used.
that it is not certain that there was one original manuscript of the text. It is entirely possible that J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja revised a ﬁrst text, and that diﬀerent versions were circulating.
61
α
β
γ
δ
B5
B⋆ R3
M3
R1
V3
I
V2
V4
A
B1 L M1 M2 Figure 1.6: Stemma for the manuscripts containing the grahagan adhy¯ aya . it¯
two groups derive from a common source. The remainder of the manuscripts belong more generally to β . B⋆ and R3 are grouped together due to the close relationship described. Note that M3 is included in the stemma. This manuscript contains Cint¯ aman . i’s commentary, which makes it unique in the group, but when it comes to the text of the Siddh¯ antasundara itself, M3 groups with the remaining manuscripts in this way. Not included in the stemma is V5 . V5 is structurally diﬀerent from all the other manuscripts, and thus very diﬃcult to place in the stemma. However, when it comes to readings and ordering of verses, V5 lines up with the β branch. The manuscript which a second scribe used when annotating V5 , on the other hand, belongs to the γ branch, and is most similar to, though not identical with, I. Stemma for the gol¯ adhy¯ aya The situation for the gol¯ adhy¯ aya is more complicated. As before, A and B1 LM1 M2 , on the one hand, and B⋆ R3 , on the other, group together. However, no clear pattern emerges when it comes to the remaining manuscripts. The stemma for the manuscripts of the gol¯ adhy¯ aya is shown in Figure 1.7. The β and γ branches are maintained here based on the evidence from the grahagan adhy¯ aya ; there is nothing in the . it¯ evidence from the gol¯ adhy¯ aya alone that justiﬁes separating V2 from the rest of the manuscripts. Similarly, O is arbitrarily placed in the β group; there is no evidence to the eﬀect that it does not belong in the γ group. As such, the stemma for the gol¯ adhy¯ aya is not satisfactory. It is hoped that when I ﬁnish editing the entire Siddh¯ antasundara this diﬃculty will be solved.
62
α
β
γ
δ
B2
B⋆ R3
O
R1
V1
V2
A
B1 L M1 M2
Figure 1.7: Stemma for the manuscripts containing the gol¯ adhy¯ aya
Note also that as in the case of the grahagan adhy¯ aya , V1 , which contains Cint¯ aman . it¯ . i’s commentary, is included in the stemma. Placing this manuscript in the β group is based on M3 ’s connection with that group in the case of the grahagan adhy¯ aya ; however, more evidence is needed before it . it¯ can be placed there ﬁrmly. As before, V5 , which is structurally diﬀerent from the other manuscripts, is not included in the stemma. Manuscripts used for the critical edition Due to the clear relationship between B1 , L, M1 , and M2 , it was felt unnecessary to incorporate all of these manuscripts for the edition. As such, only M1 and M2 were used. In addition to B1 and L, A, which is a recent and unreliable manuscript that shares similarities with the B1 LM1 M2 group, was not utilized for the edition. Besides these, however, all other manuscripts were used. Thus for the gol¯ adhy¯ aya , B2 , B3 , M1 , M2 , O, R1 , R3 , V1 , V2 , and V5 were utilized. For the grahagan adhy¯ aya , . it¯ B4 , B5 , I, M1 , M2 , M3 , R1 , R2 , R3 , V2 , V3 , V4 , and V5 were used.
1.4.3
Structure of the edited text and the critical apparatus
The sole exception to the verse format of the Siddh¯ antasundara is a few passages in the tripra´ sn¯ adhik¯ ara .249 In the text of the Siddh¯ antasundara established in this edition, each verse is given in four lines with one p¯ ada (a quarter of a verse) on each of the lines. Every line has a number, but only every ﬁfth line is numbered in the margin.
249 These
prose passages provide solutions for the problems given in that section.
63 Page changes in the manuscripts In order that the reader will be able to know on which page of any of the manuscripts a given passage is found, page changes in the manuscripts are noted in the edition. A “  ” is used in the text to indicate a place where there is a page change in one or more manuscript with further details being given in the margin. If more than one manuscript has a page change in the same line, the ﬁrst marker corresponds to the manuscript mentioned ﬁrst, and so on. To give an example, in the established text, 2.2.17c reads
ÇÑ

ÐÒ Ø £ ùÚÐÝ

¸
Ö ¦Ý èÒÓ ¾¿ º
and p. 64 begins with
and “f. 4r M1 , p. 64 R1 ” is given in the margin. This means that in M1 , f. 3v ends with f. 4r begins with
Ð. Similarly, in R1 , p. 63 ends with ÚÐÝ £
ÇÑ and ¸.
In the case of 2.1.31a, which in the established text reads
ÑÝ
¸ ¹Ý Ð ¹Ô  Ø¹Ø 
the “f. 3r R3 & f. 35r V2 ” in the margin indicates that a page change occurs at the place of the “  ” in both R3 and V2 . Some manuscripts have two parts, called α and β in the descriptions, one containing the gol¯ adhy¯ aya and the other the grahagan adhy¯ aya . Since no confusion arises from omitting the α or the . it¯ β in the margin when a page change in the manuscript in question occurs, such omissions are made consistently. Similarly, when a leaf of a manuscript has no foliation number, the angle brackets used to indicate this in the description of the manuscript have been omitted in the marginal notes indicating page changes. This is done due to space constraints in the margins. In 2.2.25d, which reads

Ø Ñ¦ ÈÐ Ú £´¹È ÎÑÐ
»Ñ»
Ñ £
¾ Ø Ñ¦ ÈÐ after a break in
the “f. 11r b V3 ” in the margin means that in V3 , f. 11r begins with
the manuscript, i.e., the “b” (for break) indicates that f. 10 is not extant in V3 (in fact, ﬀ. 8–10 are missing). Similarly, “f. 11v e V3 ” (where the “e” is for end) would have meant that f. 11v ends here, and that f. 12 is not extant. The notation “f. 7v g M1 ” (the “g” is for gap), which is not an example from the text, means that there is a gap here caused by the actual page break falling within a colophon, for example, or in a verse not found in other manuscripts. In this case, the precise point where the page change occurs should be sought in the apparatus. Editorial additions Editorial additions to the text are enclosed between angle brackets (“ ” and “ ”). Such additions are, however, used only for chapter heading and for numerals not given in any of the manuscripts (for the latter, see below).
64 Structure of the critical apparatus As noted above, each line of the established text is given a number and contains a p¯ ada of a verse. In the apparatus, the beginning of each verse is noted in bold. After this follow notes on the numbering of the verse in the manuscripts, if there are any diﬀerences with the number that the verse has been given in the established text. At this point, other notes might also be found, such as whether a manuscript has a heading for the given verse, and so on. Then follow the variant readings, which are presented as follows. The ﬁrst variant noted for a given line is preceded by the number of that line. If a variant reading stretches over more than one line, this is indicated also. Now to the variant readings themselves. First a lemma, i.e., a number of syllables from the established text for which there is a variant in at least one of the manuscripts, is given. After the lemma follows a “]”. Then follows the variant reading or readings, each followed by the manuscript or manuscripts in which they are found. For example, in the apparatus for verse 2.2.1a, we ﬁnd
ÒÒ ]
Ò Ò M3 , Ò V4 ÒÒ. In place of ÒÒ, M3 has Ò Ò, and V4 has Ò (meaning
Here the lemma is the three syllables
that the scribe left out a syllable by mistake). When the abbreviation “om.” is given after a lemma, it means that the lemma is omitted in the manuscript or manuscripts in question. The variant readings are listed alphabetically according to the manuscript represented by the earliest letter of the alphabet and the lowest number having the particular variant reading. For example (not an example from the text of the Siddh¯ antasundara ):
× ¡ ÝÇ ] ¦ × ¡ ÝÇ B2 B4 R2 ,
Ò ¡ B3 IV2 V5 , ¦
Ò ¡ M1 M2 V4
If there are more syllables in a variant than in its lemma, it means that the scribe wrote a larger portion of text in place of the lemma, not that the extra syllables are part of the neighboring text (the neighboring text might have variants as well, but if so, it is noted with another lemma); if there are fewer syllables, it means that the scribe omitted them. The only exception to this is when the lemma is a number; for this, see the section below on representation of numerals in the edition. Note that a lemma need not be a word. It can be a word, a part of a word, a word and a part of another word, parts of two words, and so on. In other words, it might be necessary in some places to take note of other variants in the verse to see how a speciﬁc word diﬀers from the established text in a given manuscript. The reason that variants are noted in this way rather than word by word is that Sanskrit words often bind themselves to their neighbors through sandhi operations (phonetical
Ø â Ò ¡ ¦Ý æÖÑ in verse 2.1.8 , where conjunct syllables unite the words ØØ and Ú Ò ¡ ¦Ý¸, and the words Ú Ò ¡ ¦Ý¸ and
ÖÑ. Were we to list a variant for the word
ÖÑ by itself, we would have to separate the conjunct æ into and
, but no manuscript does this. While other approaches could have been followed
combination of letters in sentences of Sanskrit words). An example is
d
without creating major confusion, it is felt that the approach adopted is more true to the text as it appears in the manuscripts.
65 Principles followed in establishing the text of the Siddh¯ antasundara In the critical apparatus, the following principles have been followed: 1. Variations such as sandhi errors, sandhi variations, and other minor spelling irregularities, such as
¹ for ¹Ì, ¢ £Ô for ¢ £Ô,
or
´ for ´Ì, and
for
É , have not been recorded. If ¦Ø and
such variations are common in a manuscript, it is noted in the description of it. 2. Scribes almost always use an anusv¯ ara for the proper classnasal, and thus write as
Ø and
. The established text always has the proper classnasal, but variants
with an anusv¯ ara are not recorded in the critical apparatus. 3. Omissions or inclusions of avagraha s have not been recorded, unless where two diﬀerent interpretations are possible. 4. Corrections to the text of any kind, as well as any kind of marginalia have been recorded. If it is possible to determine whether the correction or marginalia were done by another hand, this has been noted. 5. When numerals are found in a manuscript, the apparatus will record precisely how they are represented (see the notes below on scribal representation of numerals and the representation of numerals in the established text). The variant given after a lemma in the critical apparatus is precisely what is found in the particular manuscript cited. In other words, no sandhi corrections and the like have been applied to the variant; they are precisely as they read in the manuscripts. Notations used in the critical apparatus Round brackets around one or more syllables in a variant reading indicate that these syllables were added as an afterthought at some point in the copying process. The subscript of the ﬁnal bracket indicate where the addition is made: “marg” means in the margin, “supl” above the line, and “subl” below the line. If there is no subscript, the addition is made in the line itself. When the subscript is followed by “s”, the addition was made by another hand. No “s” means that the addition was made by the scribe, or that it is not possible to determine whether it was made by the scribe or by someone else. Square brackets around one or more syllables indicate that the syllables in question have been erased. In many cases it is impossible to say whether the scribe or someone else did the erasing, so no attempts are made to clarify this. Note that syllables are erased in various ways by scribes, such as blotting out the syllable, marking it as erased by a stroke, and so on. In the ﬁrst case, it might be impossible to make out the original syllable. The character “x” in a variant reading indicates an illegible syllable. The character “z” indicates a syllable that is unreadable due to the photocopying process (i.e., if it is faint in the photocopy; it was originally highlighted with, say, yellow pigment that now obscures it in the photocopy; and so
66 on), and the character “w” indicates a syllable that is unreadable due to damage to the manuscript (i.e., a hole, a tear, and so on). A raised question mark, i.e., a “? ”, after a syllable indicates that this seems to be the most likely reading, but that the syllable is unclear and the reading thus uncertain. When a scribe was not able to read a syllable in the manuscript that he was copying from, he generally wrote in its place a short horizontal line, i.e., the horizontal line of a Devan¯ agar¯ ı character without a character attached. In the apparatus, this is represented by a “ ”. Examples of the notations used In order to make the description of the notations used in the critical apparatus more clear, a number of examples will be given here. None of them is from the text of the Siddh¯ antasundara , M1 being used just as an example. 1.
× ¡ ÝÇ ] ( × ¡ ÝÇ ]
)marg,s × ¡ ÝÇ M1 were added in the margin by another hand;
means that the syllables 2.
(× ¡ )marg ÝÇ M1
means that the syllable
× ¡ was added in the margin by the scribe (or that it is not possible to × ¡ ÝÇ M1
was added above the line by another hand;
say for sure whether or not it was added by the scribe or someone else); 3.
× ¡ ÝÇ ] ( )supl,s
means that the syllable
4.
Ò ¡ ]( × ¡ ÝÇ )marg,s M1 Ò means that the scribe wrote ¡ , but that
[ in the margin to replace it;
× ¡ ÝÇ ]
Ò ¡ was erased, and another hand wrote × ¡ ÝÇ
5.
× ¡ ÝÇ ]
( )
[ ]× ¡ ÝÇ M1
means that the scribe originally wrote i vowel mark added to replace it; 6. to 7.
× ı vowel mark was erased and an ¡ ÝÇ, but the the ¯
× ¡ ÝÇ ] × ¡ ÝÇ; × ¡ ÝÇ ] × ¡ ÝÇ ] × ¡ ÝÇ ]
[ ]
× ¡ ÝÇ M1 × ¯ vowel was erased, thus correcting the reading ¡ ÝÇ, but the a
means that the scribe wrote
x
× ¡ ÝÇ M1 × ¡ ÝÇ M1 × ¡ ÝÇ M1
means that the second syllable is illegible; 8. z
means that the second syllable is unreadable due to the copying process; 9. w
means that the second syllable is unreadable due to damage to the manuscript;
67 10.
× ¡ ÝÇ ]
[x]× ¡ ÝÇ M1 and
means that an illegible syllable was erased between
× ¡ ÝÇ (note that the illegibility of
the syllable can be due either to its being unclear or to its being crossed out); 11.
× ¡ ÝÇ ] × ¡ ÝÇ ]
× ¡ ? ÝÇ M1 × ¡ is uncertain; and
 ÝÇ M
means that the reading of the syllable 12.
1
means that the scribe, unable to read the third syllable, wrote a “ ” in its place. In addition to these conventions, more detailed verbal explanations are used to describe the variant readings when necessary. Scribal representation of numerals The occurrence of numerals in the manuscripts and their relationship with the text have already been discussed. At this point, the way numerals are inserted in the text by scribes and how numerals are handled in the established text and in the critical apparatus will be discussed. When representing numbers in the following, we will use a system introduced by Otto Neugebauer, in which a semicolon is used to separate a sexagesimal number’s integral and fractional parts, and commas to separate the individual sexagesimal digits.250 As such, written as 0;48,5,37,19, ½¾
º ½º ¾º ¿½ as 1297;1,2,31, and ½ º ¼º ¿ as 15;0,3.
¼º
º º ¿ º ½ will be
Scribes insert numerals in the text in a number of ways. There is no consistent rule followed by all. In fact, most often there is no consistent way that numerals are inserted within any given manuscript. The most common way that numerals are added to the text in the manuscripts is to write them directly in the lines of the text at an appropriate place. An example (not taken from the Siddh¯ antasundara ) is:
Ö ¦Ø ¿¾
However, numerals are sometimes written above the word to which they belong:
¿¾ Ö ¦Ø
A number with a fractional part, such as 31;40, is generally inserted in the text as in this example from 2.2.17a:
Ý ÓÒ ¸ Ý ÓÒ ¸
250 See
ÒÓ Ö ¸ ¿½º ¼ ÒÓ Ö ¸ ¿½ ¼
However, scribes sometimes also write the integer and sexagesimal parts in a column:
[59 12–13].
68
Figure 1.8: Misplacement of numerals on f. 5v in B5
Figure 1.9: Misplacement of numerals on f. 13v in B5
A list of numbers is generally given by the scribes as in this example from 2.1.3c:
Ý £¦ Ý Ð
¸ º ¿º ¾º ½ Ô ¢Ì º ¿º ¾º ½ does not mean 4;3,2,1, but rather “4, 3, 2, and 1”.
Note that here the string
When a nonintegral number is represented by placing the integer part and the sexagesimal parts on top of each other in a column, it can happen that the lower entries of the column are misidentiﬁed as belonging to a diﬀerent line. Figure 1.8 shows an example of this taken from f. 5v of B5 . The example spans 2.1.65–66. In the manuscript that the scribe of B5 was copying from, the number 182;37,45 in 2.1.65c must have been written
½ ¾ ¿
However, this was misread by the scribe, who, thinking that the lower rows of the column belonged to another line, kept
½ ¾ in 2.1.65c, but placed ¿ at the end of 2.1.66a. ¾¼ and
are written. As they stand, it appears as if they and
Figure 1.9 shows a second example of this taken from f. 13v of B5 . Above certain words in the third line of the scan, the numbers belong to words in the third line, but in reality they belong, respectively, to the numbers
½½ in the second line, which actually should be
how numerals are represented in the manuscripts.
º ¾¼ (i.e., 64;20) and ½½ º
(i.e., 117;48).
This is one of the reasons that it is important that the critical apparatus documents precisely Another usage of numerals should also be noted here. When a scribe has written two successive syllables in the wrong order (such as instead of , written by the scribe of B5 in 2.1.4d), a
69 correction is sometimes made by placing a
¾ over the ﬁrst syllable and a ½ over the second so as to
indicate the order in which they are to be read. For example, we ﬁnd the following in B5 :
¾ ½
Representation of numerals in the established text of the Siddh¯ antasundara In the established text of the Siddh¯ antasundara , numerals are always placed in the text after the word to which they belong (most often a bh¯ utasankhy¯ ˙ a word or compound), and fractional parts are separated using dan .d . a s. In other words, they are always given as follows (example taken from a 2.2.17 ):
Ý ÓÒ ¸
ÒÓ Ö ¸ ¿½º ¼
Ø× Ø £» ÝÓ ¾
èÒÓ ¾
In some places there will be a bh¯ utasankhy¯ ˙ a word or compound for which none of the manuscripts gives numerals. In this case, for the sake of consistency, numerals are generally added in angle brackets, such as in this example from 2.1.58a:
é ØÝÓ
Ò £ ¸ ½¾
Chapter 2
gol¯ adhy¯ aya section 1 bhuvanako´ sa ¯dhik¯ ara Cosmology
∼ Invocation ∼
I praise [Gan sa of] auspicious form, primeval and imperishable, dear . e´ to his devotees [or to whom his devotees are dear], and on whose forehead the Moon is [resting], on whose temples a line of black bees are congregated in search of nectar, on whose throat a serpent is shining fervently, at whose two feet the hearts of the gods [dwell], and whom even Brahman, desiring to create the three worlds, served for the sake of unhindered success.
(1) J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja opens the Siddh¯ antasundara with an invocation praising the elephantheaded deity Gan sa. . e´ ´ The verse could also be taken to refer to the deity Siva, although the reference to bees on the temples of the deity seeking nectar seems to indicate Gan sa, as the sweat from an elephant’s forehead is . e´ considered to attract bees in the Indian tradition.
∼ Invocation ∼
I, J˜ n¯ anar¯ aja, am composing the Siddh¯ antasatsundara , which gives bliss to the learned, and which is ingenious and correct, after bowing down to my teachers as well as to [the goddess] Bhuvane´ svar¯ ı, [whose] worshipper
(2) 70
71
[though ﬁlled with] inner night may become one who has destroyed [his] darkness and possessed of increasing arts through the raylike syllables of her name, which sound as they occupy his body [in a yantra , i.e., an object or a symbol used for worship, or as they are deposited on the worshipper’s body ritually] in sequence.
In this verse, there is a distinct ﬂavor of Tantrism, a term covering a number of esoteric traditions in India whose teachings are given in texts known as tantra s (not to be confused with the tantra s of the astronomical tradition). Here J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja invokes Bhuvane´ svar¯ ı, a Hindu goddess worshipped in certain forms of Tantrism.
¯ntasundara ∼ ∼ The source of the Siddha
The foremost knowledge concerning the nature of the motion of the planets and the stars that was related to N¯ arada by the fourfaced [Brah´akalya. man] was composed in its entirety by the sage bearing the name S¯ In my own verses, I am presenting precisely that [knowledge], accompanied by demonstrations.
(3) Here the source of the Siddh¯ antasundara is given as the Brahmasiddh¯ anta , a treatise claiming to ´ akalya. have been narrated by the deity Brahman to the sage N¯ arada and recorded by the sage S¯ This has been discussed in the Introduction (see p. 36).
¯ntas ∼ ∼ Tantras and siddha
Eight tantra s were written by Brahman, S¯ urya, Soma, Vasis .t . ha, Romaka, Pulastya, Br . haspati, and Garga. The diﬃcult method of planetary computations is [given] in them. For crossing over the ocean [of this diﬃcult science] by means of demonstrations [of the formulae] of their [i.e., the tantra s’] mine of jewels, boats [in the form] of siddh¯ anta s were made by Bhojar¯ aja, Var¯ ahamihira, Jis .n . u’s son [Brahmagupta], Caturveda ¯ [Pr udakasv¯ amin], Aryabhat askara [ii]. . th¯ . a, and the good Bh¯
(4) J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja here supports the tradition that the science of astronomy was received through eight revelations written down in eight treatises. These eight treatises are normally called siddh¯ anta s, but J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja here calls them tantra s, reserving the term siddh¯ anta for the subsequent treatises written by human beings. See the Introduction (p. 38).
72 ¯stra in the rites of the vedas ∼ ∼ Importance of jyotih sa .´
This triad of veda s came forth for the sake of rites such as sacriﬁces and so on. For computing that which relates to direction and time [in the performance of these rites], this ´ sa ¯stra , which is to be studied by the twiceborn, was taught by the ancient sages.
(5) In the rites prescribed in the veda s and ancillary literature, correct timing and orientation with respect to the cardinal directions is very important. This is one of the topics of jyotih sa ¯stra . .´
∼ Importance of correct timing ∼ (6)
It is said by the ancient sages that he who begins his religious ob
servances during any forbidden time, such as during the intermission of study, is not a twiceborn. [And the ancient sages have also said that] a woman who has the same ghat a is a sister [i.e., she is not marriageable, and to marry her is to . ik¯ commit incest]. And an action [performed] in confusion about direction [i.e., which direction is east] is fruitless, and so are observances on the [special] tithi s and so on [i.e., they are fruitless when done in the wrong direction].
That a woman has the same ghat a as a given man means that she has the same ascendant (the . ik¯ ascendant is the point on the horizon where the ecliptic is rising) in her birth chart as the man. In this case, the woman is to be considered a sister, and the marriage between the two is forbidden. However, whether this is the case can only be known through the science of astronomy, the importance of which is thus emphasized.
¯ngas ˙ ∼ The six veda ∼
The lord of the gods in the form of the veda conquers to protect the world. That which is his mouth is vy¯ akaran . a ; nirukta is said to be his ear; likewise, his nose is ´ siks ¯ ; jyotis .a . a is his eye; his pair of hands is kalpa ; and his pair of lotuslike feet is chandas . In this way the sixlimbed personiﬁed veda is to be understood with reference to meaning and recitation.
(7) The ved¯ anga ˙ s (literally, limbs of the veda ) are six auxiliary disciplines through which the veda can be properly understood. Together these disciplines are said to form the body of the veda , as it is
73 through them that the a person understands the veda and becomes able to practice its doctrines. The ﬁrst ved¯ anga ˙ mentioned by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja is vy¯ akaran . a , the science of grammar, which is considered the face of the embodied veda ; the second, nirukta , the science of the etymology of the words of the veda , is considered the ear; the third, ´ siks ¯ , the science of correct pronunciation of the words of the .a veda , is considered the nose; the fourth, jyotis . a , is considered the eye; the ﬁfth, kalpa , the science of ritual, is considered the hands; and the sixth, chandas , the science of poetic meters in the veda , is considered the feet. Note that there is more than one meaning of the Sanskrit word kalpa . Here it refers to the science of ritual, but it also (as in verse 8 and verse 12) denotes a world age of duration 4,320,000,000 years. This span of time is the life span of the world. At the beginning of the kalpa , the world is created, and at its end it is destroyed. The kalpa corresponds to a day in the life of the creatorgod Brahman. The world ages will be explained in 2.1.2–3 and the commentary thereon.
∼ The division of jyotis .a ∼
Jyotih sa ¯stra has three divisions: astronomy, astrology, and omens. .´ The computation of the planets [i.e., of planetary motion] is the foremost part of the [astronomical treatises called] tantra s. A siddh¯ anta is [a treatise] where the nature of the nectar relating to the planets as well as their motions and measures in a kalpa [is given], and computation is given as well with demonstrations.
(8) The division of jyotih sa ¯stra given here is a traditional one.1 In this verse, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja explains in more .´ detail his distinction between tantra s and siddh¯ anta s: a tantra contains the computational matters, whereas a siddh¯ anta contains demonstrations (v¯ asan¯ a s) as well. When J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja speaks of the “nectar relating to the planets, and so on”, he is using what is a common metaphor in India. The meaning is either that the siddh¯ anta s present the best of the science of astronomy, or that this science is nectar, i.e., a high and important science.
¯nkhya ˙ ∼ Creation according to Sa ∼ (9–10)
First, the principle of intellect arose from a combination of original nature and self for the creation of the three [worlds]. The sense of “I” arose from the this source. From that the basic element of sound arose. From that the sky arose. From that the basic element called contact arose. [From that] the wind arose. From the wind the basic element of form arose. From that light arose. From that the basic element of taste arose. [From
1 See
[74 1].
74
that] water arose. From water the basic element of smell arose. From that earth arose. From the joining together of these this [world] arose.
S¯ ankhya ˙ is one of the schools of classical Indian philosophy. It is a dualist philosophy that
2 regards the world as being composed of two eternal elements: purus . a (self) and prakr . ti (nature). The unfolding of creation according to this system of philosophy is here brieﬂy outlined by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja.
It is the ﬁrst of three creation accounts that he will present.
¯kta of the R ∼ Creation according to the purus . asu . gveda ∼ (11–12)
The universe is resting in the belly of the AllCreator. From his two feet the Earth [came to be]; from his navel the [intermediate] region known as the atmosphere [came to be]; from his head the heaven [came to be]; from his mouth [the deities] known as Indra and Agni [came to be]; and the deity of wind [V¯ ayu] arose from his breath. Thus it is said in the veda . The Moon is dwelling in his heart; the Sun dwells in his eye; from his ear all the cardinal directions arose. This is the path of creation in the present kalpa .
This account of creation is taken from a famous creation hymn, the purus ukta , of one of the . as¯ 3 most sacred texts of Hinduism, the R . gveda .
´ ¯hman ∼ Creation according to the Satapathabr a .a ∼ (13–19)
Awakened by the middle vital air, the seven vital airs, which merged
into the Primeval Person [i.e., the deity Vis .n . u] during the previous pralaya [destruction], created seven Persons. By them, having become one, the Expansive Person [i.e., Brahman] was created. He appeared from a lotus. As all this [i.e., the universe] is fashioned by him, it is called his creation. At ﬁrst, Brahman created the waters from his own speech. [Then] he entered [the waters] along with the triple [sacred science] by means of a portion of himself. An egg arose. From [the embryo of] that [egg] Agni [the god of ﬁre] arose here. After [Brahman] pressed the pair of [half]shells [of the egg] together and put them in the water, the Earth was created. Then
2 See
[89]. 10.90.13–14.
3 Rgveda
.
75
he joined with that [Earth] possessing a portion of Agni. An egg arose, and V¯ ayu [the god of wind] arose from within that [egg]. At that very place, the atmosphere came to be from the shell of the egg. Joining with that [sky], having joined his own portion with V¯ ayu [the god of wind, or merely wind], he made an an egg. This Sun arose from that [egg]. In that place, the heaven was [born] from the shell of that egg and the sunbeams [arose] from the juice sticking to the halfshell. Joining with that [sky] by means of his own portion [and] along with a portion of the Sun, an egg appeared. The Moon arose from within that egg. The multitude of stars arose from the water ﬂowing in this place. The cardinal directions [arose] from the halfshell of that [egg], and the intermediate directions [arose] in like manner from the matter sticking to that [shell]. Having created the worlds from the combination of speech and mind, the AllCreator created the eight [deities known as the] Vasus by means of eight months. Likewise, the [deities known as the] Rudras, as well as ¯ the twelve [solar deities known as the] Adityas, and the [deities known as the] Vi´ sve Devas. The Creator placed Agni [ﬁre] and the Vasus on the Earth, [deities known as] the Maruts and the group of [deities known as] Rudras in the ¯ atmosphere, the Adityas associated with the Sun in the sky, and the Moon accompanied by the Vi´ sve Devas in the cardinal directions. Thus it is taught in the text of the beginning of the sixth k¯ an .d . a [sec´ tion] of the Satapathabr¯ ahman . a . Here [in this work] a particular path of creation is given. There is oneness of both creation [accounts when examined] with laudable reﬂections. If [however] there is a diﬀerence in some place, it is to be understood through kalpabheda .
´ The most voluminous of the three creation accounts presented is this one from the Satapatha4 br¯ ahman . a.
The term pralaya refers to the destruction of the universe. This is followed by a new creation. ´ The association of the eight Vasus with months in verse 17 is unclear; the Satapathabr¯ ahman .a has drapsa , “drop”, instead of m¯ asa , “month”.5
4 Satapathabr¯ ´ ahman a
.
(M¯ adhyandina recension) 6.1.1.1–6.1.2.10. 6.1.2.6.
5 Satapathabr¯ ´ ahman a
.
76 The term kalpabheda (literally, diﬀerent kalpa ) is often used by the interpreters of the pur¯ an . a s. If inconsistencies occur in two accounts of the same story, they are explained by saying that the two accounts took place in two diﬀerent world ages (kalpa s). What this means is that certain events are considered to take place in every creation, i.e., in every kalpa , but the details might diﬀer. As such, inconsistencies in myths or religious narratives given in diﬀerent sacred texts can ´ ıdharasv¯ be explained without invalidating any of them. Sr¯ amin, the renowned commentator on the
6 Bh¯ agavatapur¯ an . a , invokes kalpabheda twice. Here, of course, the word kalpa refers to the world age
of 4,320,000,000 years (see commentary on verse 7).
∼ The period of creation ∼
The circle of the Earth, the oceans, the mountains, the planets, and so on were created in order in 474 times 100 divine years [i.e., 47,400 divine years] commencing at the beginning of the kalpa . Then all the planets were placed on the circle of stars.
(20) That a period of 47,400 divine years, during which the Earth, planets, and so on are created,
7 occurs at the beginning of the kalpa is a basic idea of the saurapaks . a . Since a divine year is equal to 360 of our years, the period is equivalent to 17,064,000 years. This period is called ´ s. rs tik¯ ala in ..
Sanskrit. It should be noted that since the planets are being created during this period, there is no planetary motion during the ´ sr tik¯ ala (see also 2.1.7, which condemns the idea that planetary .s .. motion begins at the beginning of the kalpa ).
∼ Sphericity and support of the Earth ∼ (21)
The Earthsphere is indeed globular.
The oceans are located as
girdles on that [Earthsphere] on which, in the middle, on the top, and at the bottom, there are gods, men, demons, mountains, and trees. Just as the protuberance of a kadamba ﬂower is supporting its ﬁlaments, so this preeminent [Earthsphere], which is holding [all these gods, men, and so on], rests immovable in space, its great weight supported by the avat¯ arapurus . a s.
In the Indian tradition, there are a number of ringshaped oceans situated on the Earth as girdles (see verse 41). The avat¯ arapurus . a s are the incarnations of the deity Vis .n . u that, according to the Indian tradition, hold up the Earth. The kadamba (anthocephalus cadamba ) ﬂower is shaped as
6 Commentary 7 See
on Bh¯ agavatapur¯ an . a 5.16.27–28 and 12.11.39 (the edition used is [93]). See also [52 355].
S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta 1.24.
77 a ball with tiny white petals that point in all directions. The analogy with the Earth, which has people, and so on, all over is clear.
∼ An argument for the sphericity of the Earth ∼ (22–23)
Since a planet located [directly] above the city of Lank¯ ˙ a is [due]
south on the horizon of [the mountain] Meru, [due] west on the horizon for a person in Yamakot . i, [due] east on the horizon in Romakapura, and [due] north on the horizon from Vad anala, therefore the Earth indeed . av¯ has the form of a sphere. Since this good argument for the sphericity of the Earth which Pr udaka. th¯ sv¯ amin gives is not acquired by means of the pram¯ an . a s, therefore lowminded people do not value it.
Lank¯ ˙ a, Romakapura, Siddhapura, and Yamakot . i are four imagined cities on the terrestrial equator, each being 90◦ from its two neighbors. Lank¯ ˙ a is famous in Indian mythology as the capital of the demonking R¯ avan ama. Meru, the legendary mountain of . a, who was killed by the deity R¯ Indian mythology, is on the north pole, and Vad anala is an underwater ﬁre at the south pole. . av¯ An argument for the sphericity of the Earth, given by Bh¯ askara ii and Pr udakasv¯ amin,8 is the . th¯ following. When a planet is directly above Lank¯ ˙ a, it is on the horizon for someone at Meru (note that the southern direction is not uniquely determined at Meru, and the northern direction is similarly not uniquely determined at Vad anala), due east on the horizon for someone in Romakapura, due . av¯ west on the horizon for someone in Yamakot anala. . i, and on the horizon for someone at Vad . av¯ In Indian philosophy, the pram¯ an an . a s are ways of acquiring knowledge. The number of pram¯ . as varies in diﬀerent texts, but the list generally includes direct observation, logical inference, and supernatural authority. That the argument given in the verse is weak due to its not being based on the pram¯ an na ¯nar¯ aja.9 . a s is explicitly noted by J˜
∼ Another argument for the sphericity of the Earth ∼ (24)
For a traveler who is facing the polestar [i.e., traveling north or south] or facing horizontally [i.e., traveling east or west], for each yojana [traveled] the Earth is said to create, in order, an elevation of the nonmoving [polestar] situated far from the Earth, or to produce the comparable experience of sameness [of elevation]. For this very reason, it is like a ball.
8 Prth¯ udakasv¯ amin
.
presents this argument in his commentary on Br¯ ahmasphut anta 21.1. . asiddh¯
9 For
the defects of the argument and Cint¯ aman . i’s treatment of it, see [51 505].
78 A yojana is a measure of distance used in the Indian tradition. The value of a yojana diﬀers in
1 various contexts, but is generally considered to be between 2 2 miles and 9 miles.
The idea of the verse is that if one travels east or west, no no change in altitude (elevation) above the horizon is perceptible for the polestar is seen, whereas a change in altitude is seen when traveling north or south.
∼ Elevation of the polestar ∼
For a traveler who is 14 yojana s north of his own region the circle of the naks . atra s [i.e., the ecliptic], which is directed towards the polestar, is depressed from the zenith towards the south, and the polestar has an altitude of 1 degree above the horizon.
(25) According to the verse, when traveling 14 yojana s north, the polestar is elevated 1◦ . Let c be the circumference of the Earth in yojana s. Since c corresponds to 360◦ , we get the proportion 1 360 = , 14 c which yields c = 14 × 360 = 5040. given as 5059 yojana s. (2.2) (2.1)
For this result, see also 2.3.18. Later in this chapter (verse 74), however, the circumference will be
∼ Earth’s circumference via a thought experiment ∼
When the Sun was on the eastern horizon [i.e., when it was rising] a swiftmoving man commenced an eastward journey of 10 yojana s holding a sand clock in his hand. Learning that the time [of sunrise at his destination] was 7;12 pala s less than sunrise at his origin [on the day before], the Earth was understood by him to indeed be in the form of a sphere measuring 5000 [yojana s in circumference].
(26) Here J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja presents a thought experiment. At sunrise, a man carrying a sand clock in his hand travels 10 yojana s eastward. When the next sunrise occurs, he notes that it does so 7;12 pala s ghat a , see the Introduction, p. 22) earlier than on the previous day. . ik¯ Since this diﬀerence in time corresponds to the 10 yojana s that he traveled, the man is able to (a unit of time equal to compute the circumference of the Earth. The text literally says ses sa ¯dripal¯ adhikam . vam .´ . tu samayam . , “time greater by 7;12 pala s”, but the meaning must be that sunrise occurred 7;12 pala s earlier at his destination than at his origin on the previous day, as reﬂected in the translation.
1 60
79 The value of the circumference comes out from a simple proportion. Let c be the circumference of the Earth. There are 3600 pala s in a nychthemeron (i.e., a day and a night, or 24 hours), and so c 3600 = , 10 7;12 which gives us that 10 × 3600 = 5000. 7;12 Note that this holds true only if the man was traveling along the terrestrial equator. c= (2.3)
(2.4)
¯n ∼ Critique of misrepresentation of the pura . as ∼
[Even] after seeing the word bh¯ ugola [Earthsphere] being used in the pur¯ an . a s as well as the phrase “Meru is north of all [places]”, people who are disposed to obstinacy say that the entire Earth is [ﬂat] like the surface of a mirror. But none of them know the meaning of the pur¯ an . a s, nor that the spherical nature of the Earth is established by excellent demonstrations.
(27) The word bh¯ ugola , which literally means “Earthsphere”, is used ﬁve times in the Bh¯ agavata10 pur¯ an That it occurs in the pur¯ an na ¯nar¯ aja’s argument that the author of . a. . a s is the basis of J˜ 11 these texts knew that the Earth is spherical.
∼ The Earth only appears flat ∼ (28)
The likeness to the surface of a mirror mentioned in the pur¯ an . as [applies only] to a onehundredth part of the Earth, not the [entire] sphere of the Earth. A onehundredth part of the circumference [of the Earth] is seen [as being straight] like a stick. Therefore the sphere of the Earth appears as if it is ﬂat to human beings.
The statement of the pur¯ an . a s that the Earth is ﬂat is not to be taken literally. It merely reﬂects that a small section of it appears ﬂat to a human being.
∼ Establishing that the Earth has support ∼ (29–30)
11 Pingree
It is said in the treatise of Bh¯ askara [ii] that the logical ﬂaw of
10 Bh¯ agavatapur¯ an a
. 3.23.43, 5.16.4, 5.20.38, 5.25.12, and 10.8.37. told me that he believed that the term had spread from the astronomical tradition to the greater tradition and thus should simply be taken as “Earth” when occurring in the pur¯ an . a s.
80
inﬁnite regression arises when an embodied supporter of the Earth is assumed, and that therefore ﬁrmness should be taken as an inherent quality of the Earth, just as heat is a quality of ﬁre and ﬂuidity of water. That [argument] is not correct. ´ a and the others, who are mentioned in the pur¯ Let Ses an . . a s, be holding steady the motion of the Earth. Since they are mentioned in the veda s regarding the motion of the planets and the cage of the stars, what is the fault with them [as being the support of the Earth]? Moreover, if there is a quality characterized by ﬁrmness in the Earth, [then] why [is that] not [so] in its parts, just as there is ﬂuidity in drops of water, heat in sparks of ﬁre, and so on?
According to Bh¯ askara ii, if we assume a support of the Earth, we end up with an inﬁnite regress. For what is the support of the support, and the support of the support’s support? It is better, says Bh¯ askara ii, to assume that the Earth has an inherent quality of ﬁrmness, just as ﬁre has the quality of heat and water that of ﬂuidity. In other words, the Earth is its own support.12 J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja disagrees. If the Earth has the quality of ﬁrmness, why is this not so for its parts? If we place a piece of earth in the air it will fall. However, even small drops of water and sparks of ﬁre have the respective qualities of ﬂuidity and heat. ´ . a is the incarnation of Vis Ses arapurus .n . u in the form of a serpent. He is one of the avat¯ . as mentioned in verse 21. In 30a, it is perhaps better to read bh¯ ara instead of c¯ ara , and translate the passage as: “Let ´ . a and the others, who are mentioned in the pur¯ Ses an . a s, be supporting the weight of the Earth.” However, all manuscripts but one have c¯ ara , and furthermore this reading is the one commented upon by Cint¯ aman . i, who glosses it as calana and adhogamana , the latter meaning “downwards ´ . a and other divine beings prevents the Earth motion”. The meaning is, then, that the support of Ses from falling downwards.
∼ A further argument for the Earth having support ∼
A vulture, which has only little strength, rests in the sky holding a snake in its beak for a prahara . Why can [the deity] in the form of a tortoise, who possesses an inconceivable potency, not hold the Earth in the sky for a kalpa ?
(31) A prahara is a period of time equal to about 3 hours. The description given of the vulture ﬁts
12 See
Siddh¯ anta´ siroman adhy¯ aya , bhuvanako´ sa , 4–5. . i , gol¯
81 the serpent eagle better than the vulture, which does not eat snakes.13 The tortoise referred to is the incarnation of Vis arapurus .n . u in the form of a tortoise, one of the avat¯ . a s of verse 21.
∼ Another argument for the Earth having support ∼ (32)
The statement that the Earth has a power of attraction is not [correct], since a dense object reaches the Earth fast, but a light object becomes attracted fast [?]. How can the Earth be unmovable without support?
While the verse is not clear, the idea seems to be that a lighter object is more responsive to attraction, as it has less inertia.
∼ The nature of “up” ∼
Half of the sphere of the Earth is above the ocean of salt. Meru is where the gods always stay. Indeed, it [Meru] alone has “upness”. The lower station is said in the good pur¯ an . a to be in the place where the demons [stay].
(33) The ocean of salt is located along the equator (beneath it, in the southern hemisphere, are a number of ringshaped oceans of other liquids (see verse 39)). The half of the sphere of the Earth above the ocean of salt is the northern hemisphere. J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja holds that only Meru is “up”, i.e., that “up” is an absolute entity, namely from the south pole towards the north pole. This diﬀers from the astronomical tradition, which holds that “down” is always from one’s feet towards the center of the Earth. J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja is here following and reinterpreting the tradition of the pur¯ an . a s, according to which the demons are “below”. For the cosmology of the pur¯ an . a s, see Introduction, p. 23.
∼ Doubt with regard to the nature of “up” ∼ (34)
If this is so, why do these mountains, oceans, rivers, and men that are located below not fall into space? An inanimate, heavy object that is not supported is seen to fall down.
If “up” is absolute, then why do beings and objects on the southern atmosphere not fall “down” into space? We see that an inanimate object always falls “down” towards the ground when left without support.
13 See
[52 363–364, fn. 50].
82 ∼ Rationale behind the absolute nature of “up” ∼ (35–38)
What has been said is not to be doubted. Certain objects with
qualities characterized by speciﬁc potencies can be diﬀerent according to circumstances and place, just as Moon Stones, which are stones, melt [when exposed to moonlight] and the appearance of ﬁre in Sun Stones, which are also stones. [Similarly,] diamonds ﬂoat on water and a magnet attracts iron that is located very far from itself. Since the water in the ocean is very high like a mountain, ah! regions have multiple qualities. On this half [of the sphere of the Earth, i.e., the northern hemisphere], a diﬀerence in language, appearance, conduct, and ability is seen in diﬀerent regions. How much more [would this not be the case] for people in the other half [i.e., on the southern hemisphere]? Therefore, they possess a potency called “ﬁxity”. What is the use for us to go on at length talking in vain? The heavy, ﬁrm, and wide Earth is supported in space by the Deity, incarnated for the sake of preventing motion of the Earth. It is evident that he holds on everything that is located on the lower part of the Earth.
The rationale given here is, put brieﬂy, that certain things have unusual properties. People are also diﬀerent in diﬀerent regions, and thus J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja postulates that a peculiar feature of people in the southern hemisphere is that they possess “ﬁxity”, which allows them to remain on Earth and not fall “down” into space. Sun and moonstones are mythical stones that exhibit certain unusual qualities when exposed to the light of the Sun and the Moon, respectively. The former becomes ﬁery in sunlight, the latter melts in moonlight.
∼ The ringshaped oceans ∼
The Ocean of Milk [lies] after the Ocean of Salt Water. The Ocean of Ghee [lies after the Ocean of] Yoghurt [which lies after the Ocean of Milk]. [Then comes] the Ocean of Sugarcane Juice and [then] the Ocean of Liquor. After that [lies] the Fresh Water Ocean.
(39) According to the geography of the pur¯ an . a s, there are seven ringshaped oceans ﬁlled with various 15 liquids.14 The order of the oceans given here follows that given in the Siddh¯ anta´ siroman . i . This
14 See
[71 554]. . gol¯ adhy¯ aya , bhuvanako´ sa , 22–23.
15 Siddh¯ anta´ siroman i ,
83 account diﬀers from that in the pur¯ an . a s.
∼ The submarine fire and the origin of lightning ∼ (40)
In the center of the Ocean of Fresh Water lies Vad agni. From that . av¯ [place], which is submerged into a large body of water, columns of smoke arise, which are carried in every direction in the sky. They dissolve when scorched by the rays of the Sun becoming the sparks of lightning.
On the south pole, in the center of the ocean of fresh water, lies Vad agni, a submarine ﬁre. . av¯
¯dv¯ ∼ Jambu ıpa and the islands of the southern hemisphere ∼
Jamb¯ udv¯ ıpa is on the top part of the Earth north of the Ocean of Salt Water, which is lying [around it] like a girdle. Thus in the southern half [of the Earth], there are six islands located each between two oceans.
(41) Jamb¯ udv¯ ıpa, the region of the lands known to human beings, is on the northern hemisphere. In the southern hemisphere are six islands, each between two of the ringshaped oceans. These islands are thus also ringshaped.
¯dv¯ ∼ Islands of the southern hemisphere and regions of Jambu ıpa ∼ (42)
´akadv¯ ´almaladv¯ [The six islands, in order, are:] S¯ ıpa, S¯ ıpa, Kau´ sadv¯ ıpa,
Krau˜ ncadv¯ ıpa, Gomedadv¯ ıpa, and Pus ıpa. . karadv¯ The regions inside of Jamb¯ udv¯ ıpa are called vars . a s, or they are indicated by it [Jamb¯ udv¯ ıpa].
The vars udv¯ ıpa. . a s are the diﬀerent regions of Jamb¯
∼ The imagined cities on the equator ∼
The city of Lank¯ ˙ a is in the ocean [the Ocean of Salt Water], which extends 130 yojana s. To the east of it at [the distance of] a quarter of [the circumference of] the Earth is Yamakot . i. [East] of that [city at the same distance] is Siddhapura. And [east] of that [at the same distance] is Romakapura.
(43)
84 The ocean of salt water extends 65 yojana s on each side of the equator. The four cities mentioned earlier, i.e., Lank¯ ˙ a, Romakapura, Siddhapura, and Yamakot . i, are located in the middle of it. For these imagined cities, see also verses 22–23.
∼ The geography of the northern hemisphere ∼ (44–49)
Vad agni indeed is south of them and Meru is to the north of . av¯ them. Such indeed are the six regions. North of the city of Lank¯ ˙ a is [the] Him¯ alaya [mountain]. Then [the]
Hemak¯ ut . a [mountain], and then [the] Nis . adha [mountain]. ´ . ngavat Likewise, [north] from Siddhapura is [the] Sr ˙ [mountain], [the] ´ Sukla [mountain], and [the] Sun¯ ıla [mountain, in that order]. [These mountains] meet the ocean [the Ocean of Salt Water] in the east and the west by their length [i.e., the lengthwise ends meet the ocean as described]. Between them [i.e., the mountains] is the location of the [diﬀerent] vars . a s. Bh¯ aratavars ˙ a and [the] Him¯ alaya . a is located in the region between Lank¯ [mountain range]. [Then, north] from that [city of Lank¯ ˙ a,] reaching up to [the] Hemak¯ ut . a [mountain range] is Kinnaravars . a. [The region] extending up to [the] Nis . adha [mountain range] is given as Harivars . a by the wise. Similarly, north of Siddhapura are Kuruvars . a and Hiran . mayavars . a. [And north] from them is Ramyakavars . a. Thus six [vars . a s are described]. I will now explain the three western [vars . a s]. The M¯ alyavat mountain is north of Yamakot adana . i, while the Gandham¯ mountain is [north] from Romakapura. The two of them meet [the] Sun¯ ıla and Nis . adha [mountains]. [The region] between these four mountains is called Il¯ avr . tavars . a, the ground of which is beautiful, being covered with jewels and gold. Meru, which resembles a lotus, is in its [i.e., Il¯ avr . tavars . a’s] center, surrounded by mountain ranges on all sides.
Similar geographies are described in the Siddh¯ anta´ siroman an . i and in the pur¯ . a s. Some of these regions can be identiﬁed as actual regions in the area of India. For example, the Him¯ alaya mountains are a wellknown mountain range. Other regions and mountain ranges, however, cannot easily be identiﬁed. The region known as Bh¯ aratavars .a is India.
85 ∼ Description of Meru ∼ (50–51)
[The mountain Meru, which is] the abode of the gods is made up
of gold and jewels; it pierces the Earth, appearing [above the surface] in both ends [i.e., at the north pole and at the south pole]. At its peak the gods sport. At its bottom the calm multitude of demons [dwell]. The three peaks on the mountain of the gods are multicolored, full of shimmering gold and jewels, and the three cities [are located there]. In ´ these [cities] Siva, Vis .n . u, and Brahman [dwell] always. Beneath them are the eight cities of the divine rulers of the directions.
¯n ∼ Differences with the account of the pura . as ∼ (52) It is said that Bhadr¯ a´ svavars . a extends from the city of Yamakot . i up to the M¯ alyavat mountain. Ketum¯ alavars a indeed extends from Romaka. pura to [the] Gandham¯ adana [mountain]. However, this is not how it is explained by those who are learned in the pur¯ an . a s. The description given in the pur¯ an agavatapur¯ an . a s (for example, the Bh¯ . a ) is indeed diﬀerent than the one given here by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja, who is following the account of Bh¯ askara ii in the Siddh¯ anta´ siroman . i.
∼ The mountains of the northern hemisphere ∼ (53)
The Mandara mountain and the Sugandha mountain are lying east and south, respectively, from the abode of the gods [i.e., the mountain Meru]. The Sup¯ ar´ sva and Vipula mountains are north and west, respectively, from the abode of the gods.
Since Meru is at the north pole, it does not make sense to talk about something being east, north, or west of Meru.
∼ The major trees of the northern hemisphere ∼ (54)
The good banners on the peaks of [these four] mountains are, in order, a kadamba tree, a jamb¯ u tree, a pippala tree [the sacred ﬁg tree],
86
and a vat . ti, Nandana, and Caitraratha are the . a tree. Vaibhrajaka, Dhr groves to be known, respectively.
The modern botanical names of the trees mentioned are adina cordifolia for the kadamba tree, syzygium cumini for the jamb¯ u tree,16 ﬁcus religiosa for the pippala tree, and ﬁcus indica for the vat . a tree. The latter is commonly known as the banyan tree.
∼ The lakes of the northern hemisphere ∼ (55–56)
In the groves on the mountains are lakes: the Arun . a, and after that the M¯ anasa, and the Mah¯ ahrada, and Sitajala. [Sitajala] is auspicious by virtue of its lotuses, and it is crowded with a multitude of geese playing on its waters. The delightfully charming young women in the groves that are the abode of the god of love, [women] whose very dark eyes are like a multitude of restless bees [i.e., their glances are like restless bees] and whose faces are lovely and round like golden lotuses, stay in the water with the gods.
¯nad¯ ∼ The Jambu ı river ∼ (57) The Jamb¯ unad¯ ı [river] springs from the streams of ﬂuid ﬂowing from the jamb¯ u fruits there. Mixed with soil, it becomes the gold known as J¯ amb¯ unada. This island [i.e., Jamb¯ udv¯ ıpa] is named after the pleasant abode of these celebrated trees. When the fruits from the jamb¯ u trees there fall to the ground they break and release their juice, which forms a river. The liquid of this river is then mixed the soil and a type of gold known as J¯ amb¯ unada is formed from this combination.
˙ a ¯∼ ∼ The descent of the Gang (58) The [heavenly] Gang¯ ˙ a fell from the sky onto [the] Meru [mountain], ﬂowed into the lakes on the peak [of Meru] high upon the supporting mountains, [and then] ﬂowed into Bhadr¯ a´ svavars alavars . a, Ketum¯ . a, Kuruvars aratavars . a, and Bh¯ . a; it gives liberation even in kaliyuga to those who
16 While
the jamb¯ u tree, after which Jamb¯ udv¯ ıpa is named, is almost always identiﬁed with the rose apple tree (syzygium jambos ), Wujastyk has shown that it actually is a plum tree (syzygium cumini ) (see [106]).
87
submerge themselves in it.
The stream of the heavenly Gang¯ ˙ a ﬂows into the four regions mentioned after landing on the peak of Meru. The stream that enters Bh¯ aratavars .a is the river Ganges in India, a river considered sacred in Hinduism. For the kaliyuga , see commentary on 2.2–3.
¯ratavars ∼ The nine divisions of Bha .a ∼
Now, the interior of Bh¯ aratavars . a is said [to be composed of nine] divisions, [namely] Aindra, Ka´ seru, T¯ amraparn arika, . a, Gabhasti, Kum¯ Saumya, N¯ aga, V¯ arun andharva. . a, and G¯
(59)
¯ratavars ∼ The mountain ranges of Bha .a ∼
The [seven] mountains [i.e., mountain ranges] in Bh¯ aratavars . a are ´ M¯ ahendra, Sukti, Malaya, R ariy¯ atra, Sahya, and Vindhya. [In . ks . aka, P¯ this way] all the divisions on the surface of the Earth with their great mountains, towns, forests, lakes, and so on are described. Afterwards [the interior of the Earth] from the p¯ at¯ ala s are narrated.
(60) The Sahya and Vindhya mountain ranges are actual mountain ranges in India. The identiﬁcation of the others, however, is not straightforward. The seven p¯ at¯ ala s are subterranean worlds, the names of which will be given in the next two verses.
∼ The subterranean worlds ∼ (61–62)
In the hemisphere of the Earth, in the interior, are seven hollow
spaces; they are called p¯ at¯ ala s. In these, the world of serpents see due to the sun[bright] light of the gems on the hoods of the great serpents. The seven p¯ at¯ ala s are [as follows]. Atala, Vitala, and the one beginning with ni [i.e., Nitala]. Below these is another called Gabhastimat. The next two are the ones beginning with mah¯ a and su , [respectively, i.e., Mah¯ atala and Sutala]. [The last one is] P¯ at¯ ala [or P¯ at¯ alatala].
88 ¯ta ¯las ∼ ∼ Colors in the pa
In the p¯ at¯ ala s there are the [colors] black, white, red, yellow, gravelly, stony, and golden.
(63a–b)
∼ The serpent supporting the Earth and the cause of earthquakes ∼
´ . a], who on the underside supports the Earth, who This serpent [Ses is resting on the tortoise, who stepped with his foot across the Earth’s surface, sometimes [becomes] one with his head bent down by the weight of the Earth, and then there is an earthquake. This is the view of the sam a s. . hit¯
(63b–d) ´ . a, one of the avat¯ Ses arapurus . a s mentioned in verse 21, supports the Earth from below. When the weight of the Earth causes his head to move, earthquakes occur. The sam a s mentioned here . hit¯ are treatises on divination of various kinds.
∼ The seven winds ∼
[The wind called] Bh¯ uv¯ ayu abides 12 yojana s from [the surface of] the ¯ Earth. The clouds [exist] in it. After that is [the wind] called Avaha. After
(64)
that is the wind called Pravaha, which has a westward motion. After that are the Udvaha and Sam . vaha [winds]. Two other winds are the Parivaha and the Par¯ avaha. The multitude of stars along with the planets move amidst these [winds] [pushed] by the Pravaha [wind].
This verse describes the seven cosmic winds. In the Indian astronomical tradition, it is considered that these winds are the cause of planetary motion, moving the planets and the stars. ¯ In the Siddh¯ anta´ siroman uv¯ ayu and Avaha are considered the same wind, and Suvaha is . i , Bh¯
17 inserted between Sam . vaha and Parivaha.
∼ The two polestars ∼ (65)
The two polestars are in the sky at the top and bottom of Meru. The circle of stars is rotating, being between the polestars. As if situated like
17 Siddh¯ anta´ siroman i ,
.
gol¯ adhy¯ aya , madhyagativ¯ asan¯ adhik¯ ara , 1.
89 Planet Moon Mercury Venus Sun Mars Jupiter Saturn The stars Geocentric distance in yojana s 51,566 166,032 424,088 689,377 1,296,619 8,176,538 20,319,071 41,362,658
Table 2.1: Geocentric distances of the planets
a piece of iron between two stones named loadstones, which are in the sky, the circle of stars does not fall down.
∼ Geocentric distances of the planets ∼
The Creator placed the disc of the Moon, which is an ornament in the form of a sphere of water, at 51,566 [yojana s] from the center of the Earth; Mercury at 166,032 [yojana s from the center of the Earth]; Venus, which consists of light, at 424,088 [yojana s from the center of the Earth]; the Sun at 689,377; Mars at 1,296,619 [yojana s from the center of the Earth]; Jupiter at 8,176,538 [yojana s from the center of the Earth]; Saturn at 20,319,071 [yojana s from the center of the Earth]; and the circle of the stars, which is evenly marked with invisible constellations beginning with A´ svin¯ ı and bound to the pair of polestars, in the sky far from [the orbits of] all [the planets] at 41,362,658 [yojana s from the center of the Earth].
(66–68) As noted in the Introduction (see p. 22), planetary motion is described using epicycles in Indian astronomy. As such, the planets do not move on a perfect circle around the Earth. However, each planet has a mean distance to the Earth, and it is these distances that are given here by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja. The geocentric distances of the planets as presented here are shown in Figure 2.1.
∼ Method for finding the geocentric distances ∼ (69–75)
The demonstration by Bh¯ askara [ii], Pr udakasv¯ amin, and others . th¯ is not given here in our tantra . I am presenting a [demonstration] that is eﬀective in counteracting the opinions of adversaries, is the opinion of nobleminded people, and is very pleasing.
90
The time between the rising and the setting of the Moon on the local horizon is one’s own “day”; it is established by means of a water clock. Whatever is [arrived at] in this case [as the ghat a s] in the “day” from . ik¯ the motion of the Moon by means of the method in the tripra´ sn¯ adhik¯ ara , that is the measure of the “day” for a person in the center of the Earth. If yojana s corresponding to the radius of the Earth multiplied by two times [the motion of] the Moon are [arrived at] by means of the diﬀerence in ghat a s of the two [times], then what is [arrived at] by means of the . ik¯ ghat a s of one’s own “day and night” [i.e., the period between one Moon. ik¯ rise and the next]? By means of a proportion, the answer is the orbit in yojana s of the Moon. Alternatively, this is to be computed from a syzygy with the Sun. If this orbit of the Moon is [arrived at] by means of the true velocity [of the Moon], then what [is arrived at] by means of the mean velocity? In this case, [the answer is] the mean [orbit]. The product of that and the revolutions of the Moon [in a kalpa ] is the orbit of heaven. That [orbit of heaven] divided by the revolutions of a planet [in a kalpa ] is [the planet’s] own orbit. The orbits [of the planets] multiplied by the radius and divided by the minutes of arc in the degrees of a revolution [i.e., 21600 minutes of arc] are the geocentric distances in yojana s. The diameter [of a circle] is approximately the square root of [the result of] the division of the square of the circumference [of the circle] by 10. The accurate [value is found as follows]. The [trigonometric] radius multiplied by two [is the divisor when the 21600 minutes of arc] in the circle of stars [is the dividend], [all of which is multiplied by the circumference]. The total motion of a planet in a [mah¯ a ]yuga is 18,712,080,864,000 yojana s. The Earth has a circumference of 5,059 [yojana s]. Thus the geocentric distances in yojana s known through a good demonstration are given, as well as the measure of the circumference of the Earth agreed to by [both] demonstration and the a ¯gama s.
Consider Figure 2.1. The small circle in the center is the Earth and the larger circle the apparent path of the Moon around the Earth in its daily rotation. The center of the Earth is O and the given location is P . The line CP B is the horizon at P , and the line DOA is a parallel line through the
91
C D
P O
B A
Figure 2.1: Finding the geocentric distance of the Moon
center of the Earth, at which point J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja imagines an “observer”. For a person at P , the Moon rises when it is at the point B and sets when it is at the point C . Let us assume that this takes t ghat a s (for the the unit ghat a , see the Introduction, p. 22). . ik¯ . ik¯ Now, if we compute the times for the rising and the setting of the Moon according to the methods given in this work, because the Earth is considered a point, the times will be valid for J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s imagined “observer” at the center of the Earth, but not for an observer displaced from the center at P . For J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s imagined “observer”, the Moon “rises” when it is at the point A and “sets” when it is at the point D. Clearly the time it takes for the Moon to travel from A to D is greater than t ghat a s. Let us say it is t + τ ghat a s. . ik¯ . ik¯ Now, the extra distance traveled by the Moon from A to D is the arc AB and the arc CD. Each of these arcs is roughly equal to the distance OP , which is the radius of the Earth, as can be seen on the ﬁgure. Hence the two arcs are together roughly equal to two Earth radii. Let m be the circumference of circle ABCD and σ the duration from one rising of the Moon to the next. J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja uses a simple proportion to relate the time τ for traversing the two arcs and the time σ for traversing the whole circle as follows: σ τ = , 2 × OP  m and thus m= (2.5)
2 × OP  × σ . (2.6) τ The circle ABCD is equal to the size of the Moon’s true orbit at the given time, because the Moon is located at the distance of its orbital radius. The time between two successive observed Moonrises determines the true velocity of the Moon, whereas using the Moon’s mean velocity to calculate σ and τ gives us a value for m that represents the size of the mean orbit of the Moon.
92 The product of the Moon’s orbit and the revolutions of the Moon in a kalpa is the orbit of heaven. This is because the cosmology of the siddh¯ anta s assume thateach planet travels the same number of yojana s in a kalpa , namely 18,712,080,864,000 yojana s,18 which is also the orbit of heaven.19 So, by dividing the orbit of heaven by the revolutions of a given planet, we can ﬁnd the orbit of that planet. To ﬁnd the geocentric distance g of the planet, we note that g is the orbital radius of a circle of circumference c. Since 2 × π ≈
21600 20 3438 ,
we have that c
21600 3438
g≈ The ﬁrst is equivalent to the expression
=
3438 × c . 21600
(2.7)
J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja gives two methods for computing the diameter d of a circle from its circumference c. c2 , (2.8) d= 10 √ which is an approximation and based on π ≈ 10. The second, which he uses to compute g , is d=
3438 × c , (2.9) 21600 which is based on 2 × π ≈ 21600 na ¯nar¯ aja says that this latter method is exact, but it is in fact 3438 . J˜ √ also approximate, because it also uses an approximate value of π . Taking π = 10 in cosmological computations is common; the approximation is also found in the mathematics of the Jain community of India. The value given for the circumference of the Earth is 5,059 yojana s.
equivalent to the expression
∼ Explaining cosmological differences ∼ (76)
The shapes, measures, and motions of the Earth, planets, and stars given by the followers of the pur¯ an . a s, which are ultimately true, are indeed for another kalpa . Now, [in this present kalpa ,] the [shapes, and so on of the Earth, and so on] given in the treatises that give knowledge of time [i.e., jyotih sa ¯stra ] are to be thoroughly studied by the wise. .´
The contradictions between the cosmology of the pur¯ an . a s and the cosmology of the astronomical tradition are here explained by kalpabheda (see verse 19).
∼ Knowledge of the cosmos as a means to liberation ∼ (77)
He who knows the variegated body of the Cosmic Being that comprises
same value of the orbit of heaven is given in S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta 12.90. [71 556]. will be discussed in greater detail in the spas t¯ adhik¯ ara , the beginning of which deals with trigonometry. ..
18 The 19 See
20 This
93
everything and is spoken about by the ancient sages attains intimate union with the Supreme Being; thus is the meaning of the words of Vedavy¯ asa, [the compiler of the pur¯ an . a s].
˙ ∼ The world as a ´ sivalinga ∼
Whose bodyencircler [i.e., the lower part of a ´ sivalinga ˙ ] is the Earth with its oceans, whose ultimate [upward] staﬀ [i.e., the upper, phallic part of a ´ sivalinga ˙ ] is [the mountain] Meru, whose base is the tortoise [i.e., one of the avat¯ arapurus . a s supporting the Earth], for its bath the clouds which are moving abodes of water, and for its fruits and ﬂowers for worship the stars, Moon, and planets, and for its waving of the sacred lamp the Sun, may that jyotirlinga ˙ worshipped by Brahman be even within me.
(78) ´ A´ sivalinga ˙ (called jyotirlinga ˙ in the verse) is a phallic symbol used to worship the deity Siva. In the verse, the world is portrayed as a ´ sivalinga ˙ worshipped by the creatorgod Brahman. Note that the verse does not describe the tusk of the elephantheaded deity Gan sa. . e´
∼ Concluding verse ∼
[Thus] the form of the universe in the gol¯ adhy¯ aya is explained in the beautiful and abundant tantra composed by J˜ n¯ anar¯ aja, the son of N¯ agan¯ atha, which is the foundation of [any] library.
(79)
Chapter 3
grahagan adhy¯ aya section 1 . it¯ madhyam¯ adhik¯ ara Mean motion
∼ Invocation ∼
I salute Gan sa, whose ﬁve lofty faces are the elephants of the quarters, . e´ in whose belly is the whole universe, whose crestjewel is a necklace of thousands of mountains, who has the blue sky as his garment, who takes away the inner darkness, who is bearing the crescent Moon, whose beauty is resplendent like tens of millions of Suns, whose carrier is like a boar, and who is the greatest bestower of good.
(1) J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja is here praising Gan sa, the deity whom he worships, in a verse seeking to highlight . e´ Gan sa as the supreme deity. . e´
∼ The astronomical time periods defined ∼ (2–3)
Now, [the duration of the reign of] a manu is [measured] by 71
[mah¯ a ]yuga s. There are 14 manu s in a day of Brahman. [The duration of] 1,000 [mah¯ a ]yuga s is [measured] by [the duration of] those [14 manu s] increased by [the duration of] the sandhi s [that each are] equal to the
94
95
years in a kr . ta [yuga ] [and are situated] at the three [types of] junctures. [Such 1,000 mah¯ ayuga s constitute] a day [of Brahman]. A [mah¯ a ]yuga is [measured] by 4,320,000 [saura ] years. Its four parts, the ﬁrst being the kr . ta [yuga ], span, respectively, 432,000 saura years multiplied by 4, 3, 2, and 1.
Indian astronomy operates with a number of world ages (yuga s) of long duration, which are measured in saura years. A saura (literally, solar) year is what in modern terminology is called a sidereal year. It is the time that it takes for the Sun to return to the same position with respect to the ﬁxed stars when viewed from the Earth. The beginning of a saura year occurs when the Sun enters the sign Aries. It should be noted here that the zodiac in Indian astronomy is sidereal (see Introduction, p. 22). A mah¯ ayuga (literally, great world age) is a period of 4,320,000 saura years. It is divided into four smaller yuga s: a kr ayuga of 1,296,000 saura years, a . tayuga of 1,728,000 saura years, a tret¯ dv¯ aparayuga of 864,000 saura years, and a kaliyuga of 432,000 saura years. Notice that these yuga s are, respectively, of the duration of a mah¯ ayuga . Of these four ages, the kr . tayuga is considered to be a golden age. As the ages progresses, they get worse (morality deteriorates, greed and other bad qualities become dominant, the life span of human beings decreases, and so on), and the kaliyuga is the worst of them all. According to the Indian tradition, we are currently in a kaliyuga . The system of the yuga s is not original to the Indian astronomical tradition, but has incorporated into it from the cosmology of the pur¯ an . a s (see Introduction, p. 23). A kalpa is a day of the creator god Brahman. It consists of 1,000 mah¯ ayuga s, or 4,320,000,000 saura years. At the end of the kalpa , when Brahman’s night begins, the universe is partially destroyed, and at the dawn of Brahman’s next day, there is a new creation. A manu is a mythical progenitor and ruler of the Earth. There are 14 manu s during a kalpa , each reigning for a period of 71 mah¯ ayuga s. The three types of junctures (sandhi ) mentioned in the verse are the time periods that occur before the reign of the ﬁrst manu of the kalpa , between the reigns of two consecutive manu s, and at the end of the reign of the last of them. There are thus altogether 15 such junctures, and each has the same duration as a kr . tayuga , i.e., or 1,728,000 saura years. 15 ×
4 10 4 10 3 2 4 10 , 10 , 10 ,
and
1 10
of a mah¯ ayuga ,
The reigns of the 14 manu s together span 14 × 71 = 994 mah¯ ayuga s and the 15 junctures span
= 6 mah¯ ayuga s. The sum of these durations gives us the total duration of Brahman’s day,
the kalpa . As we shall see later in verses 18–24, the planets make a whole number of revolutions (a revolution of a planet is its journey around the Earth, from a given point with respect to the ﬁxed stars to the same point) during a mah¯ ayuga , but this is not the case with the apogees and nodes. However, during a kalpa , the planets, the apogees, and the nodes all make a whole number of revolutions. In other words, the kalpa corresponds to the Platonic idea of the Great Year, a period at the end of
96 which everything returns to the same positions they had at its beginning.
∼ Time elapsed since the commencement of planetary motion ∼ (4–5)
In this day of Brahman, 6 manu s, 27 [mah¯ a ]yuga s, 3 parts of a
[mah¯ a ]yuga , and 3, 179 [saura ] years of the kali [yuga ] [i.e., the fourth part] ´aliv¯ had passed at the commencement of the ´ saka [era] of the good S¯ ahana. [When] the [47,400 divine] years mentioned earlier multiplied by 360 [is] subtracted from what has elapsed of the day of Brahman, [we get the years] that have elapsed since [the commencement of] planetary motion. They are 1,955,883,179 at the commencement of the ´ saka [era]. [These 1,955,883,179 years] along with the [elapsed years] of the ´ saka [era] are the given years [i.e., the years from the commencement of planetary motion to the present].
J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja now proceeds to tell us how much of the present kalpa has elapsed. The ´ saka era, ´ aliv¯ which is said to have been instituted by King S¯ ahana, began in 78 ce according to our calendar. At the commencement of the ´ saka era, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja tells us, the reigns of 6 manu s, as well as 27 mah¯ ayuga s, a kr ayuga , a dv¯ aparayuga , and 3,179 saura years of a kaliyuga of the seventh . tayuga , a tret¯ manu have elapsed. Note that we are currently in a kaliyuga . The 6 manu s, including their 7 corresponding junctures, spanned a period of 6 × 71 × 4,320,000 + 7 × 1,728,000 = 1,852,416,000 saura years. The 27 mah¯ ayuga s, the kr ayuga , and the dv¯ aparayuga that have elapsed during . tayuga , the tret¯ the reign of the seventh manu until the beginning of our present kaliyuga spanned a period of 27 × 4,320,000 + saura years. Finally, 3,179 saura years have elapsed from the beginning of the kaliyuga to the commencement of the ´ saka era, giving a total of 1,852,416,000 + 120,528,000 + 3,179 = 1,972,947,179 saura years from the beginning of the kalpa to the commencement of the ´ saka era. However, according to the saurapaks na ¯nar¯ aja follows, planetary . a , the school of astronomy that J˜ motion did not commence at the begin of the kalpa . Rather, as explained in the gol¯ adhy¯ aya ,1 a
1 See
(3.1)
9 × 4, 320,000 = 120,528,000 10
(3.2)
(3.3)
1.1.20.
97 period of 47,400 divine years, called ´ sr tik¯ ala (literally, time of creation), passed from the beginning .s .. of the kalpa until the commencement of planetary motion. A divine year is a year of the gods. According to the Indian tradition, such a year equals 360 saura years, so the 47,400 divine years equal 360 × 47,400 = 17,064,000 (3.4)
saura years. When this period is subtracted from the above result, we get the saura years that have elapsed between the commencement of planetary motion and the commencement of the ´ saka era, namely 1,972,947,179 − 17,064,000 = 1,955,883,179 saura years, as stated in the verse. After the 17,064,000 saura years of the ´ s. rs tik¯ ala have elapsed, all the planets, apogees, and nodes .. commence their motion starting from Aries 0◦ , the beginning of the sign Aries (see verse 6). Why does the saurapaks . a postulate that a period of 17,064,000 saura years has elapsed between the beginning of the kalpa and the commencement of planetary motion? There is no reason for this to be found in the religious and mythological texts of India. In fact, the idea is a mathematical trick. By insisting that such a period elapsed before planetary motion commenced, one is ensured that a mean planetary conjunction occurs at the beginning of our present kaliyuga .2 Note that other numbers than 17,064,000 can be found that fulﬁll this requirement as well, and it is not clear why this particular number was chosen. Note that the ´ s. r. s. tik¯ ala prevents the kalpa from acting fully as a Great Year. At the end of the kalpa , when there is a partial destruction of the universe, the planets, the apogees, and the nodes original positions at Aries 0◦ . will only have moved for 4,320,000,000 − 17,064,000 saura years, and will thus not be back at their (3.5)
∼ Planetary positions at the commencement of motion ∼ (6)
[When the longitudes of] the planets, apogees, and nodes computed for the beginning of a [given] saura year [are] diminished by the motion [of the planet, apogee, or node] in a year multiplied by the saura years elapsed [since the commencement of planetary motion], they are situated at the beginning of Aries.
What the verse is essentially saying is that when planetary motion began at the end of the
´ s. rs tik¯ ala , the position of each planet, each apogee, and each node was Aries 0◦ . .. Let m be a positive integer. In the following we will use the mathematical notation that a ≡m b example, 737 ≡360 17 since 737 − 17 = 2 × 360.
2 See
means that a and b diﬀer only by a multiple of m, i.e., that a − b = k × n for some integer k . For
[71 609].
98 Suppose that exactly n saura years have elapsed since the commencement of planetary motion, and let v be the mean motion of a given planet during a saura year. During the n saura years of motion, the mean planet moved the angular distance n × v (measured in degrees), which thus, except ¯ , the planet’s mean longitude (i.e., the longitude of the mean planet) for a multiple of 360◦ , equals λ at that time. In other words, there is an integer k such that ¯ n × v = k × 360◦ + λ, or, equivalently, ¯ ≡360 n × v. λ (3.7) ¯ − n × v gives us the starting point of motion, i.e., the zero point on the ecliptic. This tells us that λ (3.6)
What the verse further tells us is that the starting point is the same for all of the planets, the apogees, and the nodes, namely Aries 0◦ .
∼ Criticism of other astronomical schools ∼
It has been said that the planets, being simultaneously in one place, commence their eastward motion at the beginning of Brahman’s day. Those [who say this] are opposed to the veda s, [because the idea] differs from the opinion of Brahman, S¯ urya, Candra, and others.
(7) The idea of the ´ s. rs tik¯ ala , used in the saurapaks .. . a to ensure a mean conjunction of the planets at the beginning of our kaliyuga , is not universally agreed upon in the Indian astronomical tradition. The br¯ ahmapaks . a , the oldest of the schools of classical Indian astronomy, does not employ it, but rather has the planets, the apogees, and the nodes commence their motion right at the beginning of the kalpa . Here J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja attacks this opinion for being opposed to the opinion of divine personages recorded in the sacred texts. The authorities whose opinions J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja appeals to here are the deities considered to be the narrators of the astronomical texts considered divinely and scientiﬁcally authoritative by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja: the Brahmasiddh¯ anta , the S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta , the Somasiddh¯ anta , and so on. These texts all belong to the saurapaks s. rs tik¯ ala . . a , and advocate the idea of the ´ .. This verse together with the following two (verses 8–9) is cited in the Siddh¯ antas¯ arvabhauma of Mun¯ ı´ svara.3
∼ Importance of adhering to authoritative teachings ∼
The pure [teaching] that Brahman spoke to N¯ arada, Candra spoke ´ to Saunaka, the sage Vasis an urya spoke to .t . ha spoke to M¯ .d . avya, and S¯
(8)
3 See
[98 1.19–20].
99
Maya is full of reasoning based on perception and traditional teachings. Whatever men do diﬀerently after abandoning this science, that ceases to produce correct results over time, because they are devoid of [proper] knowledge.
An astronomical model with errors in the parameters or elsewhere might prove fairly accurate around the time when it was established, but over long periods of time the errors will reveal themselves as predicted planetary positions and so on start to deviate more and more from what is observed. J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja maintains that such will be the case when men deviate from the science as taught by deities and sages, their teaching being not only based on the sacred tradition, but also full of sound reasoning. ´ The knowledge given by Brahman to N¯ arada, by Candra to Saunaka, by Vasis an .t . ha to M¯ .d . avya, and by S¯ urya to Maya is the contents of, respectively, the Brahmasiddh¯ anta , the Somasiddh¯ anta , the Vasis thasiddh¯ anta , and the S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta .4 .. This verse together with the previous verse and the following verse (verses 7 and 9) is cited in the Siddh¯ antas¯ arvabhauma of Mun¯ ı´ svara.5 It is further found in the Siddh¯ antatattvaviveka of Kamal¯ akara.6 Kamal¯ akara does not attribute this verse to J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja or the Siddh¯ antasundara , and the last p¯ ada is diﬀerent. The ﬁrst half of the verse is cited by Dikshit from the Siddh¯ antatattvaviveka ,7 but due to J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja not being mentioned, Dikshit erroneously attributes it to Kamal¯ akara.
∼ How to deal with a defect found in the teachings of the sages ∼
If somewhere something diﬀerent from what is taught by the sages is perceived by men, then that alone is to be corrected. Everything is not to be done diﬀerently.
(9) J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja now opens up the possibility that some defect might be found in the teachings of the ancient sages. If that should happen, one is not to reject the teachings entirely, though, but rather correct the defect while maintaining the overall system and theory. This verse together with the two previous verses (verses 7–8) are cited in the Siddh¯ antas¯ arvabhauma of Mun¯ ı´ svara.8
4 See 5 See 6 See 7
introduction, p. 35. [98 1.19–20]. [24 19].
[22 2.46–47]. [98 1.19–20].
8 See
100 ∼ How to deal with a defect found in the teachings of the sages ∼
Just as [when] no strength is found somewhere in the mantra s enunciated in the veda s, one should perform their pura´ scaran . a . Everything is not to be done diﬀerently.
(10) A pura´ scaran . a is a procedure for making a mantra (a sacred verse, phrase, or mystical syllable, usually in Sanskrit, used for spiritual practice) eﬀective.9 The main part is repetition of a mantra , but it also includes other things, such as ﬁre oﬀerings and feeding of br¯ ahman . a s (the class of priests and intellectuals in the Hindu tradition). It is a practice from the tradition of the tantra s (not to be confused with the astronomical treatises known as tantra s, the tantra s mentioned here are esoteric texts outlining various spiritual practices; see also commentary on 1.1.2) known in both Hindu and Buddhist contexts, but the mantra s employed in the procedure can also be mantra s from the veda s.10 Around the time of J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja, the practice of pura´ scaran . a gravitated into the ritual world of the veda s. J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s point here is that when a mantra from the veda s is seen to lack strength or energy (v¯ ırya ), i.e., if it is seen to be ineﬀective for some reason, it is not rejected. Rather, a pura´ scaran . a of the mantra is carried out in order to make it eﬀective. A pura´ scaran . a can, for example, be carried out to infuse mantra s from the veda s with power via methods from the tantra s. In this example, mantra s from the veda s are considered not to be independently powerful, but require charging through Tantric practices. So, similarly, if a defect is found somewhere in the science of astronomy, one ought not to discard the whole science, but rather try to correct the defect.
∼ Acceptance of the teachings of the sages ∼ (11)
The knowledge which is the opinion of the sages, which since ancient times has constantly been perceived as agreeing with observation, and which is to be understood through v¯ asan¯ a s, that is agreed to by us.
This verse paraphrases J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s approach to astronomy. The science that he subscribes to is one that comes through the authority of ancient sages, but beyond being merely the opinion of authoritative ﬁgures, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja holds that it agrees with observation and can be understood through various methods. As such, this knowledge is not mystical.
9I
am indebted to Gudrun B¨ uhnemann, Christopher Minkowski, and Frederick Smith for explaining the idea of the pura´ scaran . a via personal communications. the pura´ scaran . a in the context of the tantra s, see [7 301–305] and [8].
10 For
101 ∼ Some astronomical units and methods for computing them ∼ (12–17)
There are 1,593,336 intercalary months and 25,082,252 omitted tithi s
in a [mah¯ a ]yuga . The number of lunar months [during a given period of time] is the diﬀerence between the revolutions of the sun and the moon [in that same period]. During a [mah¯ a ]yuga , [the number of lunar months] is given by 53,433,336 according to the sages. There are 1,555,200,000 saura days in a [mah¯ a ]yuga . The number of tithi s is 1,603,000,080. In a [mah¯ a ]yuga there are 1,577,917,828 civil days and 1,582,237,828 sidereal days. The knowledgable ones always say that the omitted tithi s [in a mah¯ ayuga ] are the diﬀerence between the civil days and the tithi s, and that the tithi s in the intercalary months are the diﬀerence between the number of saura days and the number of tithi s. The number of days of a planet [i.e., the time between two consecutive risings of the planet] [in a mah¯ ayuga ] is measured by the revolutions of the stars diminished by the revolutions [of the planet in a mah¯ ayuga ]. In this case, because it is widely known, the method is not given; it is [arrived at] by intellect and one’s own understanding alone.
In our modern calendar we insert a leap year every four years in order to keep the calendar year and the astronomical year synchronized. This is necessary because astronomical events do not repeat after an integer number of days, and hence a drift occurs between the event and the calendar day on which it occurs. For example, the season of spring would commence at diﬀerent dates over time. The Indian tradition inserts an intercalary month at times for the same purpose, though this procedure is not done after as simple a scheme as in our calendar. A lunar month is the time between one conjunction of the Sun and the Moon and the next. There are 30 tithi s in a lunar month, the ﬁrst ending when the Moon has gained 12◦ over the Sun in longitude, the second when the Moon has gained a further 12◦ , and so on. Since the velocities of the Sun and the Moon vary, the duration of a tithi is not constant. The duration of a tithi varies between about 22 hours and about 26 hours. There are 12 saura months of the same duration in a saura year, and 30 saura days, again of the same duration, in a saura month. In the Indian astronomical tradition, a civil day is either time between two consecutive sunrises or between two consecutive midnights. J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja follows a midnight system, and hence the latter is the case in the Siddh¯ antasundara . A civil day is roughly 24 hours. When a tithi occurs entirely between one midnight and the next (or between one sunrise and the next, depending on which astronomical school one follows), it is called omitted. The units in a mah¯ ayuga presented here by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja are given in Table 3.1 together with the
102 Unit Intercalary months Omitted tithi s Lunar months Saura days Tithi s Civil days Sidereal days Symbol A U M S T C Number in a kalpa 1, 593, 336 25, 082, 252 53, 433, 336 1, 555, 200, 000 1, 603, 000, 080 1, 577, 917, 828 1, 582, 237, 828
Table 3.1: Astronomical units given in verses 12–17 symbols that we will use to designate them in the following.11 The units are based on the number of revolutions of the planets that he will give subsequently in verses 18–24. Let us assume that two planets, P1 and P2 , make r1 and r2 revolutions, respectively, during a given period of time, and that P1 is the faster of the two. If they are at the same position at the beginning of the period, the faster planet will catch up with the other planet r1 − r2 times during the period. We can prove this result mathematically as follows. Suppose that the planet P1 moves with the velocity v + u (measured in degrees per unit time), making r1 revolutions in a period of time of length t. Suppose similarly that the planet P2 moves with the velocity v , making r2 revolutions in the same period of time. Finally, suppose that the two planets are at the same position at the beginning of the period. Then t × (v + u) = 360 × r1 and t × v = 360 × r2 , and therefore t × u = 360 × (r1 − r2 ). In order for the two planets to have the same position at a time τ with 0 ≤ τ ≤ t, we must have τ × (v + u) ≡360 τ × v , i.e., that there is a positive integer k , so that τ × u = 360 × k . This means
that if n is chosen so that 360 × n ≤ t × u < 360 × (n + 1), P1 catches up with P2 a total of n times therefore the integer part of r1 − r2 . This completes the proof.
during the given period of time. But t × u = 360 × (r1 − r2 ), so n ≤ r1 − r2 < n + 1, and n is As a lunar month is the period from one conjunction of the Sun and the Moon to the next,
we can use this result to ﬁnd the number of lunar months in a mah¯ ayuga . According to verse 18 below, the Sun and the Moon make, respectively, 4, 320, 000 and 57, 753, 336 revolutions during a mah¯ ayuga . Hence there are 57,753,336 − 4,320,000 = 53,433,336 lunar months in a mah¯ ayuga , as stated in the verse. Since a saura year is one sidereal revolution of the Sun starting at Aries 0◦ and a mah¯ ayuga consists of 4,320,000 revolutions of the Sun, there are 4,320,000 saura years in a mah¯ ayuga . A saura year comprises 12 saura months, each of which, in turn, comprises 30 saura days. Hence there are 30 × 12 × 4,320,000 = 1,555,200,000 saura days in a mah¯ ayuga .
11 The
(3.8)
(3.9)
symbols are the same as those used by Pingree in [71].
103 Since there are 53,433,336 lunar months in a mah¯ ayuga , there are 30 × 53,433,336 = 1,603,000,080 The number of civil days is found as the revolutions of the stars in a mah¯ ayuga diminished by the revolutions of the Sun in a mah¯ ayuga . The revolutions of the stars in a mah¯ ayuga is, of course, the number of sidereal days in a mah¯ ayuga . The omitted tithi s are the excess of tithi s compared to civil days in a mah¯ ayuga , which is 1,603,000,080 − 1,577,917,828 = 25,082,252. We can ﬁnd the number of tithi s in the intercalary months in a mah¯ ayuga as the diﬀerence
47,800,080 30
tithi s in a mah¯ ayuga .
1,555,200,000 = 47,800,080. The number of intercalary months can then be found as 1,593,336.
between the tithi s in a mah¯ ayuga and the saura days in a mah¯ ayuga . These are 1,603,000,080 − =
Civil days are determined by the Sun’s progress around the Earth. We can deﬁne days of other planets in precisely the same way. If we do so for a given planet, the number of days of that planet in a mah¯ ayuga are found exactly like the number of civil days in a mah¯ ayuga ; we just use the revolutions of that planet rather than the revolutions of the Sun.
∼ Revolutions of the planets, the apogees, and the nodes ∼ (18–24)
In a [mah¯ a ]yuga there are 4, 320,000 revolutions of the Sun, Mer
cury and Venus. The revolutions of the Moon are given by the wise as 57,753,336. The number of revolutions of Mars in a [mah¯ a ]yuga is 2,296,832. The revolutions of Mercury’s ´ s¯ ıghra are 17,937,060. The number of revolutions of Jupiter is considered to be 364,220. The revolutions of Venus’ ´ s¯ ıghra in a [mah¯ a ]yuga is 7,022,376. The number of revolutions of Saturn is 146,568. The number of revolutions of the lunar apogee is 488,203. [All of the these move] with an eastward motion in the sky. In the case of the moon’s node, [known as] R¯ ahu, the revolutions are understood to be 232,238 in the opposite direction. These [numbers] multiplied by 1,000 give [the revolutions] during a kalpa . Now, the revolutions of the sun’s manda apogee in a kalpa are 387. Beginning with Mars, [the revolutions] produced by the manda apogees [of the starplanets] are 204, 368, 900, 535, and 39. In a kalpa [the revolutions] of the nodes, which are moving in the opposite direction, are, beginning with Mars, 214, 488, 174, 903, and 662.
These verses give the number of revolutions of each planet, each apogee, and each node during either a mah¯ ayuga or a kalpa .
104 Body the Sun manda apogee the Moon manda apogee node Mars manda apogee node Mercury ´ s¯ ıghra apogee manda apogee node Jupiter manda apogee node Venus ´ s¯ ıghra apogee manda apogee node Saturn manda apogee node Revolutions in a mah¯ ayuga 4,320,000 57,753,336 488,203 −232,238 2,296,832 Revolutions in a kalpa 4,320,000,000 387 57,753,336,000 488,203,000 2,296,832,000 204 −214 4,320,000,000 17,937,060,000 368 −488 364,220,000 900 −174 4,320,000,000 7,022,376,000 535 −903 146,568,000 39 −662
4,320,000 17,937,060
364,220
4,320,000 7,022,376
146,568
Table 3.2: Revolutions of the planets, apogees, and nodes When authors of Indian astronomical texts say “starting from Mars”, the order is understood to be Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, and Saturn. This is the order of the weekdays, Tuesday being the day of Mars, Wednesday the day of Mercury, Thursday the day of Jupiter, Friday the day of Venus, and Saturday the day of Saturn. Sunday is the day of the Sun, and Monday the day of the Moon. Now, the number of revolutions given here are the revolutions of the mean planets. The mean planet is not something found in reality, but is a construct used in the astronomical model. Each planet moves with variable speed around the Earth, but each planet also has a average velocity. Assume that there is a body moving with this constant velocity around the Earth along a perfect circle and that the body and the actual planet were at the same position when planetary motion began. Then this body is the mean planet corresponding to the planet in question. The planetary theory of Indian astronomy will be explained in the next chapter (though see Introduction, p. 22). For now it suﬃces to say that each of the starplanets has two epicycles, each with an apogee. These two epicycles are called manda (slow) and ´ s¯ ıghra (fast). We can think of the manda epicycle as accounting for the fact that the planets do not move around the Earth in perfect circles, and the ´ s¯ ıghra epicycle as accounting for the fact that the Earth orbits the Sun rather than the Sun orbiting the Earth. Table 3.2 shows the revolutions as given by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja. They are identical with those given in
105 the S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta .12
∼ Revolutions based on both authority and a method ∼ (25)
These are the very revolutions agreed upon in the tantra s [treatises]
[composed/spoken] by Brahman, S¯ urya, Candra, Vasis .t . ha, Pulastya, and so on. Here [in this work] I will now present a method that is pure, easy, unprecedented, and that provides understanding of the computation of the revolutions.
Dikshit notes that the revolutions given in the S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta , the Somasiddh¯ anta , the Vasis tha.. siddh¯ anta , the Romakasiddh¯ anta , and the Brahmasiddh¯ anta (the astronomical treatises spoken by
13 S¯ urya, Candra, Vasis .t . ha, Vis .n . u, and Brahman, respectively) are identical and lists them in a table.
With the exception of the revolutions of the node of Saturn, which Dikshit gives as 60, the values agree with those given by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja. However, the 60 revolutions given by Dikshit for the node of Saturn may be a misprint, as the S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta gives 662 revolutions like J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja.14 As has been noted, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja is concerned with providing demonstrations that establish the validity of the divine knowledge that he is presenting. In keeping with that concern, a method by which the revolutions can be found through observation is given in the following.
∼ Determining the eastwest and northsouth lines ∼
The shadow of a gnomon that is straight and positioned on ground that has been made even by means of water [falls along the] southnorth [line] at [the time of] the ghat a s of midday. The east and west directions . ik¯ are produced from the tail and head of [a ﬁgure in the shape of] a ﬁsh produced from it [the northsouth line].
(26) The construction described is straightforward. It is based on the fact that at noon, i.e., when the Sun is on the local meridian (i.e., the great circle connecting the north and the south poles and passing through the local zenith), the shadow cast by a gnomon will be aligned along the northsouth line. On Figure 3.1, G is the gnomon and A is the tip of the shadow cast by the gnomon at noon. The line GA is then the northsouth line. Drawing two intersecting circles with the same radius
12 See 13 See
[71 608, table VIII.1; 609, table VIII.5] for tables of the revolutions according to the S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta . [22 2.27–28]. 1.44. See also [71 608, 609, table VIII.5].
14 S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta
106
B
G
A
C
Figure 3.1: Determining the eastwest and northsouth lines
centered around G and A, respectively, let B and C be the two points of intersection between the circles. The line BC is then the eastwest line. We have now determined the cardinal directions. The intersection of the two circles, which has the appearance of a ﬁsh, is called a “ﬁsh ﬁgure” in Indian astronomy. So, here a ﬁsh ﬁgure is used to determine the eastwest line. J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja does not directly address the question of how to determine when precisely it is noon, but by expressing “noon” as “the ghat a s of midday,” he hints that this is to be done by keeping . ik¯ track of time. If we know how many ghat a s there are between noon and (presumably) sunrise on . ik¯ the day in question, we can use a water clock to determine when it is noon. This verse is given again later in the text (2.3.2).
∼ Determining the Sun’s declination using a sighting tube ∼ (27–29a)
On the southnorth [line] one should place the bottom edge of
a post that is made from beautiful wood, [so that the post] is perfectly perpendicular and very straight. [First,] having ﬁxed a peg on the upper part [of the post] and a ﬂexible sighting tube on the peg [so that it falls along the] southnorth [line], then, observing the Sun with that [sighting tube], determining the number of degrees of the altitude [of the Sun] from an instrument such as the quadrant, and subtracting [this number] from 90 [degrees], the degrees of the zenith distance [of the Sun] is the result. The diﬀerence or sum of that [zenith distance] and one’s own latitude, when the directions are the same and diﬀerent, respectively, are the degrees of the declination [of the Sun].
107
Z
E S
S Z
E
O
O
Figure 3.2: Computing the declination of the Sun from its zenith distance
The setting up of the sighting tube is clear from the verse. When the sighting tube is aligned with the northsouth line, it can be used to observe the Sun when it is on the meridian. However, looking directly at the Sun through the sighting tube could damage the eyes of the observer, so perhaps the intended procedure is let sunshine pass through the sighting tube onto the surface of water in a vessel. A quadrant (turyayantra , or simply turya ) is an astronomical instrument used to measure the altitude of the Sun, i.e., the angular distance of the Sun above the horizon.15 Presumably, when the sighting tube points to the Sun, its orientation is used to determine the altitude of the Sun via the quadrant. Let α be the altitude of the Sun. The Sun’s “zenith distance” z is its angular distance from the zenith, which is 90◦ above the horizon, so z = 90◦ − α. The local latitude φ equals the angular distance of the zenith above the celestial equator, while the Sun’s declination δ represents its own angular distance from the equator. Thus δ is given by combining z and φ, as described below. This is illustrated in Figure 3.2. In both the analemmas of the ﬁgure the circle is the meridian, the horizontal line the local horizon, the vertical line the prime vertical, and the oblique line through the entire the equator. In both cases, the Sun, being the point S , is on the meridian. The point Z is the local zenith, and the point E is the intersection between the celestial equator and the local meridian. The point O is the center of the Earth. In the ﬁrst case, the Sun’s zenith distance is the angle SOZ , and the local latitude is the angle ZOE . It is clear that the Sun’s declination, δ , is δ = SOE = SOZ − ZOE = z − φ,
15
(3.10)
[31 205–206].
108 i.e., the Sun’s zenith distance diminished by the local latitude. In the second case, we similarly have that δ = SOE = SOZ + ZOE = z + φ. (3.11)
In this way the declination of the Sun can be found from its zenith distance and the local latitude.
∼ Finding the Sun’s tropical longitude ∼ (29b–d)
[When] the Sine of that [declination] is divided by the Sine of 24
[degrees] and multiplied by the Sine of 90 [degrees], the arc [corresponding] to that [resulting quantity] is the degrees of the arc of the Sun [measured from the vernal equinox, i.e., the Sun’s tropical longitude] on that day. At the beginning of the night, after observing a star, one should ﬁx its [the Sun’s] position.
The ﬁrst part of the verse gives a formula for computing the tropical longitude of the Sun (i.e., the longitude of the Sun measured with respect to the vernal equinox, which is the intersection between the ecliptic and the celestial equator at which the Sun crosses from the southern to the northern hemisphere) from its declination and the obliquity of the ecliptic. The formula involves the sine function, which will be properly introduced by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja in the beginning of the next chapter. For now it suﬃces to say that the Indian tradition operates with a sine function with a nonunity trigonometrical radius. If α is any angle, we will denote the Indian sine of α by Sin(α). This equals R × sin(α), where R is the trigonometrical radius (J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja uses R = 3438; for more information, see the commentary on 2.2.2–5). When speaking of an Indian sine, we will write “Sine” rather than “sine”. The obliquity of the ecliptic is the angle between the ecliptic and the celestial equator. It is taken to be 24◦ in the Indian tradition, and is what the 24◦ of the verse refers to. It is denoted by ε in the following. If λ∗ is the tropical longitude of the Sun and δ the declination of the Sun, the formula given can be written as Sin(λ∗ ) = R × Sin(δ ) . Sin(ε) (3.12)
This is, of course, simply the formula known as the “method of declinations”, i.e., Sin(δ ) =
Sin(λ∗ )×Sin(ε) , R
by which the declination of the Sun can be found from its tropical longitude and
the obliquity of the ecliptic (i.e., the angle between the ecliptic and the celestial equator). The idea of the last part of the verse seems to be as follows. At sunset, when the sun is setting on the western horizon, one should observe what star is rising in the east. The Sun will be 180◦ from that star, so the Sun’s sidereal longitude can be determined in this way.
109 ∼ Determining the longitude of the solar apogee ∼
In this way, having ﬁrst observed the precessional [longitude of the] true Sun [on a given day], next [the same procedure is to be followed] on another day. The true motion [of the Sun between the two days] is the diﬀerence between the two [longitudes of] the Sun. As much as the [longitude of] the sun is when that [true motion] is at a minumum, [the longitude of] its apogee is equal to that.
(30) By precessional (s¯ ayana ) longitude is meant the Sun’s longitude corrected for precession, i.e., its tropical longitude. If we observe the Sun at noon on two consecutive days, we get two tropical longitudes. The diﬀerence between these is the angular distance traveled by the Sun between noon on the ﬁrst day and noon on the second day. Continuing this process, a table of daily velocities of the Sun is produced. On the day that the Sun’s velocity is at its minimum, it is understood that the Sun is at its apogee, i.e., it is the furthest from the Earth that it gets.16 In other words, the longitude of the solar apogee can be found as the longitude of the Sun when its minimum daily velocity is attained.
∼ To find the mean motion, the mean longitude, and the equation ∼ (31–32)
The mean motion [of the Sun] is half of the sum of the smallest
and the greatest true motions. When the greatest motion occurs, then [the longitude of] the mean Sun is equal to the true [longitude]. Having determined that [longitude of the mean Sun] in signs and so on, then each day one should make the mean [Sun] move with the mean velocity according to the interval of time [elapsed from the time corresponding to the known mean longitude]. The equation [of the Sun] is the diﬀerence between its mean and true [longitudes].
The mean Sun is a theoretical construct forming part of the model of solar motion. It moves with constant velocity on a circle with the Earth as its center. Let v1 and v2 be the maximum and minimum velocities of the Sun, respectively, and let v be the mean velocity of the Sun. J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja takes the mean velocity to be the average of the maximum
16 For
the model governing solar motion and the reason for the solar velocity being at its minimum when the Sun is at its apogee, see the next section on true motion.
110 velocity and the minimum velocity:
v1 + v2 . (3.13) 2 We saw before that when the Sun travels with its minimum velocity, it is at its apogee. Similarly, v=
when it travels with its maximum velocity, it is at its perigee (the point opposite, i.e., 180◦ from, the apogee). At both the apogee and the perigee (J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja only speciﬁes the perigee indirectly by saying that the solar velocity is maximal), the Sun’s mean longitude is equal to its true longitude. As we know the true longitude, we now have a point in time where the Sun’s mean longitude is ¯. known. Let this longitude be λ Starting with this point in time, we can now compute the position of the mean Sun at any given time. The mean Sun moves with the constant velocity v , so if a period of time of length t has elapsed since the point in time at which we knew the Sun’s mean longitude, the mean longitude aafter this ¯ + t × v. period of time has elapsed is λ
Knowing both the true and the mean longitude of the Sun at a given time, we can ﬁnd the
equation, which is the diﬀerence between the two (this will be discussed in greater detail in the next section).
∼ To find the greatest equation and the epicyclical radius ∼ (33)
Wherever there is equality of the mean and true velocities, [there] is
the greatest equation. It is to be understood that the radius of the epicycle is equal to the Sine of that [greatest equation].
The greatest equation is the greatest possible angular distance between the true planet and the mean planet. It occurs when the Sun is traveling with its mean velocity and is roughly equal to the radius of the solar epicycle.
∼ To find the number of revolutions in a kalpa ∼ (34)
In this way, as great as the [longitude of] the Sun is in signs, degrees,
and so on, so great is it due to the [passing of civil] days and their parts [such as ghat a s], [these elapsed days being] referred to as “stareaten.” . ik¯ If one revolution is achieved by means of [a certain number of] these [civil days], then [how many revolutions] are achieved by means of the civil days in a kalpa ? [It is explained] by the wise that those [revolutions in the result] are the revolutions [of the Sun] in a kalpa computed thus from a proportion.
111 The position of the Sun changes with time, elapsed time being called “stareaten”, though I am not sure of the exact interpretation of this. We can ﬁnd the time it takes for the Sun to make one revolution. Say that this takes a civil days. Let C be the number of civil days in a kalpa . Then 1 r = , a C revolutions in a kalpa can be determined by means of a proportion. (3.14)
where r is the number of revolutions of the Sun in a kalpa . In this way, the number of solar
∼ To find the meridian ecliptic point when the Moon is on the meridian ∼ (35–36a–b)
Having observed the Moon when it is on the meridian with a
quadrant as explained earlier, it is to be understood that its declination is corrected for the lunar latitude. Regarding the corrected ghat a s as the lapsed ghat a s of the night . ik¯ . ik¯ at that time by means of an instrument, the accurate [longitude of the] meridian ecliptic point is to be computed from [the longitude of] the Sun by means of the rising times at Lank¯ ˙ a using the method given subsequently. It is said by the ancients that the moon with the visibility correction applied is equal to that [longitude of the meridian ecliptic point].
The declination of the Moon is the angular distance between the celestial equator and the Moon’s position on the ecliptic. However, the Moon is not on the ecliptic, but rather on its own inclined orbit. The angular distance between the ecliptic and the Moon’s position on its inclined orbit is called the lunar latitude. When the Moon is observed in the sky, what is seen is its actual position on its inclined orbit. Hence, as is stated, the Moon’s declination is corrected for the lunar latitude; its angular distance to the celestial equator is the combination of its declination and the lunar latitude. If we know how many ghat a s has elapsed of the night when the Moon is seen on the meridian, for . ik¯ example by measuring the time with a waterclock, we can compute the longitude of the Sun at that time, and from that the longitude of the meridian ecliptic point (the intersection of the meridian and the ecliptic) can be found by means of the rising times of the signs (given by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja in 2.2.39–40). When the Moon is seen on the meridian, its position with corrections applied is that of the longitude of the meridian ecliptic point.
∼ To find the lunar latitude ∼
The latitude of the moon [when on the meridian] is the diﬀerence between the corrected declination [of the Moon] and the declination of the
(36cd)
112
meridian ecliptic point.
The declination of a point is its angular distance to the ecliptic. The meridian ecliptic point is, of course, on the ecliptic, but the Moon is not. The Moon is on its own inclined orbit. The angular distance between the Moon and the ecliptic is called the lunar latitude. J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja notes that in the given situation, the lunar latitude can be found as the diﬀerence between the declinations of the meridian ecliptic point and the corrected declination of the Moon (corrected in the sense that lunar latitude and so on has been applied). This is correct if the meridian ecliptic point is considered to coincide with the nonagesimal, i.e., the point on the ecliptic between the ascendant and the descendant (the ascendant is the point on the horizon where the ecliptic is rising at a given time, and the descendant is similarly the point where it sets at that time). However, as is most often the case, these two points do not coincide, in which case the declination of the meridian ecliptic point and the corrected declination of the Moon have slightly diﬀerent directions than the lunar latitude, and the formula is thus only approximately correct.
∼ To find the longitude and the velocity of the ascending node ∼ (37)
Whenever the southern latitude vanishes, [the longitude of] the Moon
subtracted from a rotation is [the longitude of] the [ascending] lunar node. Having again [at another time] determined [the longitude of] that node, its velocity can be computed from the diﬀerence in time [between the two observations].
What is meant here is that at the point in time when the southern latitude vanishes, the latitude becoming 0◦ , the Moon crosses the ecliptic moving from the southern hemisphere to the northern hemisphere. There are two intersections between the inclined orbit of the Moon and the ecliptic, both of which are called nodes. The node at which the Moon crosses to ecliptic into the northern hemisphere is called the ascending node, the other the descending node. If we know the longitude of the Moon when it is at the ascending node, we can ﬁnd the longitude of the ascending node by subtracting the longitude of the Moon from a rotation, i.e., 360◦ . The reason for the subtraction is that the node moves in the opposite direction of the Moon. If this procedure is carried out twice, we can ﬁnd the velocity of the ascending node.
¯yuga ∼ ∼ To find the revolutions of the Moon in a maha (38)
The manda apogee of the Moon is to be found like the apogee of the Sun, and likewise its [the Moon’s] [mean] motion. The revolutions [of the Moon] in a mah¯ ayuga or a kalpa is to be computed by means of this
113
[motion].
Following the same procedure as for the Sun, the longitude of the manda apogee of the Moon can be found, and from the mean velocity of the Moon. The number of revolutions of the Moon in a mah¯ ayuga or in a kalpa can then be found from that mean velocity.
∼ To find the revolutions of a starplanet in a kalpa ∼
Going ahead as before, the number of days in one revolution of a [star]planet from the beginning of its retrogradation [is to be found through observation]. [Then] one should compute half of the sum of the maximum and the minimum of that. [Finally,] one should compute [the starplanet’s] revolutions in a kalpa by means of that [quantity].
(39) The normal direction of a planet is eastward. The Sun and the Moon always move eastward, but the ﬁve starplanets occasionally change their direction and go westward for some time. A planet that is traveling eastward is said to be in prograde motion. A planet that is traveling westward is said to be in retrograde motion. During prograde motion, the planet’s longitude steadily increases, whereas it steadily decreases during retrograde motion. When a planet is about to change its direction, it appears to stand still in the sky for a period of time. When an eastwardmoving planet stands still in the sky before moving westward, it is said to be at its ﬁrst station. Similarly, when a westwardmoving planet stands still before moving eastward, it is said to be at its second station. Through observation, one can ﬁnd the number of days in a revolution of starplanet from when it commenced its retrograde motion. Repeating this over time, one can ﬁnd the mean velocity of the planet by taking the average of the largest and the smallest number of days found. In this way, the revolutions of the starplanet in a kalpa can be found.
∼ Effects of the manda and ´ s¯ ıghra equations ∼ (40–41)
The combination of [the eﬀects of] the manda and ´ s¯ ıghra equations
is always the diﬀerence between the [star]planet as established by observation and the mean [starplanet]. When [this combination] is corrected by the reverse of the ´ s¯ ıghra equation, only the manda equation remains. Even though there is no [´ s¯ ıghra ] equation when [the longitude of] a [star]planet is equal to [the longitude of] its own ´ s¯ ıghra perigee or apogee, the true [longitude of the star]planet is not equal to the mean [longitude in this case]. Therefore the manda apogee of the planet [contributes] a
114
little bit else [to the planet’s equation].
A starplanet has two epicycles. The diﬀerence between the mean planet and the observed planet is precisely the eﬀect of these two epicycles. If the eﬀect from the ´ s¯ ıghra epicycle is removed, only the eﬀect from the manda epicycle remains. Note, however, that removing the eﬀect of the ´ s¯ ıghra epicycle is generally not nearly as easy as J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja makes it out to be here. The reason that the mean and true planets do not coincide even when there is no ´ s¯ ıghra equation is that the manda epicycle also has an eﬀect, albeit smaller than that of the ´ s¯ ıghra epicycle.
∼ The mandacorrected planet ∼
There is no ´ s¯ ıghra equation in the case of planets [whose longitudes] are equal to their own ´ s¯ ıghra perigees or apogees. In that case, the true [planet] is the manda corrected [planet], and the diﬀerence between that [manda corrected planet] and the mean [planet] is the manda [equation].
(42) When the mean planet is corrected by the manda equation, it is called the manda corrected planet. When there is no ´ s¯ ıghra equation, the true planet is the manda corrected planet, and the diﬀerence between the true and the mean planets is the manda equation.
∼ The ´ s¯ ıghra apogee of the superior planets ∼
When Saturn, Mars, or Jupiter are located in front of the sun, the longitude of the true planet is seen to be less than [the longitude of] the mean planet, [whereas] when they are located behind [the sun], it is seen as greater. Therefore it is pointed out by the ancients that [the longitude of] the ´ s¯ ıghra apogee of [these] three [planets] is equal to [the longitude of] the [mean] sun.
(43) In the case of the superior planets, i.e., Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn, the longitude of the ´ s¯ ıghra apogee is always that of the mean Sun.17
∼ To find the longitude of a planet ∼
Knowing that when there is no manda equation, [the longitude of] a planet is equal to [the longitude of its] manda perigee or apogee, its
17 See
(44a–b)
[71 557].
115
measure is to be computed.
It is not quite clear how the longitude of the planet is to be computed from the knowledge that it is equal to the longitude of the manda perigee or apogee when there is no manda equation.
∼ To find the velocities of Mercury and Venus ∼
[The true longitudes of] Venus or Mercury are to be determined [when the planets are] on the horizon, [so that their longitudes are] equal to [the longitude of] the ascendant. Their velocities are to be computed from those [longitudes].
When Mercury or Venus are on the horizon, their longitudes can be taken to be equal to that of the ascendant (as the two planets are on their own inclined orbits, their positions will generally not coincide with that of the ascendant, but we can assume that they approximately are). Repeating this observation, we can ﬁnd their velocities.
(44c–d)
∼ To find the revolutions of Mercury and Venus in a kalpa ∼
For as long a time as [Mercury and Venus] are located in front of the sun, so long are they always located behind [it]. Therefore, for the sake of computing [the longitudes of] Mercury and Venus it is to be known that [their] revolutions during a kalpa are equal to the revolutions of the sun [in the same period of time].
(45) Since Mercury and Venus are seen as much in front of the Sun as behind it, it can be inferred that their mean motion is identical to that of the Sun. Hence they have the same number of revolutions in a kalpa as the Sun.
∼ Finding the revolutions of Venus and Mercury ∼ (46–49)
The number of ghat a s elapsed since the rising of Venus is pro. ik¯ duced by means of its own shadow and by means of computation. Since that is what has elapsed of the day [of Venus] for a person at the center of the Earth, so one’s own [time] is easily computed by a water clock. [Verse unclear, translation needs revision.] If the yojana s measured by the radius of the earth [are attained] by means of the diﬀerence between the two elapsed [parts] of the day, then
116
what [is attained] from the measure of ghat a s in a nychthemeron? The . ik¯ result in this case is [the yojana s in] the orbit by means of a proportion. Half of the sum of the maximum and minimum [values of] that [orbit] is the mean orbit of the ´ s¯ ıghra apogee of Venus. The orbit of the sky divided by that is the number of revolutions of the ´ s¯ ıghra apogee of Venus [in a kalpa ]. In this very way one should [also] compute the revolutions of the ´ s¯ ıghra [apogee] of Mercury. Thus is the excellent method taught. The revolutions of the manda [apogees], the ´ s¯ ıghra [apogees], the [mean] planets, and the nodes are correct as per the words of the ancient sages.
The phrasing of verse 46 is not clear. However, given the contents of verse 47, the meaning has to be the following. The time that Venus rises on the local horizon is not the same as the computed time, which is found with respect to the center of the Earth. We have to ﬁnd the time between the computed time and the time since rising on the local horizon. The diﬀerence of these two times corresponds to Venus moving a distance roughly equal to the radius of the Earth. This is completely analogous to the procedure described in 1.1.69–75. It is clear that the average between the greatest orbit and the smallest orbit yields the mean orbit. In addition, since we are dividing the orbit of the sky with the number found, we get the ´ s¯ ıghra motion of the inferior planet in question.18
∼ To compute the day count ∼ (50–51)
The number of years elapsed since the commencement of [planetary] motion is multiplied by 12 and increased by the elapsed months [of the current year]. [The result] is multiplied by 30 and increased by the [elapsed] tithi s [of the current month]. [This result is written down] separately [in two places]. [The ﬁrst place] is multiplied by the given [number of] intercalary months [in a mah¯ ayuga ]. [The second place] is increased by the elapsed intercalary months multiplied by 30, [the elapsed intercalary months being found as] the result of the division of [the ﬁrst result] by the saura days [in a mah¯ ayuga ]. [This result is written down] separately [in two places]. [The ﬁrst place] is multiplied by the omitted tithi s in a [mah¯ a ]yuga . [The second place] is diminished by the elapsed omitted tithi s [found as] the result of the division of [the ﬁrst result] by the [number of] tithi s [in a mah¯ ayuga ].
18 See
[71 556].
117 This formula for computing the elapsed civil days between the commencement of planetary motion and the present is common and found in all siddh¯ anta s. Let y be the number of elapsed saura years between the commencement of planetary motion and the present, let n be the number of elapsed saura months between the commencement of planetary motion and the present, let m be the number of elapsed lunar months in the current year, let t′ be the number of elapsed tithi s in the current month, let s be the number of elapsed saura days between the commencement of planetary motion and the present, let a be the number of elapsed intercalary months between the commencement of planetary motion and the present, let t be the number of elapsed tithi s between the commencement of planetary motion and the present, let u be the number of elapsed omitted tithi s between the commencement of planetary motion and the present, and let c be the number of elapsed civil days between the commencement of planetary motion and the present. We want to compute c. The computation proceeds as follows: 12 × y = n = s = a = t = u = c (3.15) (3.16) (3.17) (3.18) (3.19) (3.20)
30 × (n + m) + t′ A s× S s + 30 × a U t× T t−u
Notice that in (3.16) we treat the elapsed lunar months as saura months and the elapsed tithi s of the current month as saura days, which is incorrect, but always done in Indian astronomical texts. The computations in (3.18) and (3.20) follow from 2.1.12–17.
∼ To find the weekday from the day count ∼ (52)
The day count, which arises from the measure of the mean days of
the sun, begins with a Sunday. One should subtract the part when it is larger from the residue of the omitted tithi s and the intercalary months [?].
A civil day is called a day of the Sun because it is the time between two consecutive sunrises. The ﬁrst day after the planets begin their motion is a Sunday. The last half of the verse is not clear.
∼ To compute the day count ∼ (53)
[When] the number of lapsed saura years [since the beginning of
118
planetary motion] are multiplied by 12 and [then] increased by the [lapsed] months [of the current year] starting with caitra , [the result is the lapsed saura months since the beginning of planetary motion]. [When the number of lapsed saura months is] multiplied by 30 and [then] increased by the [lapsed] tithi s [of the current month], the [lapsed] saura days [since the beginning of planetary motion] are [the result]. Having computed the [lapsed] adhim¯ asa s [since the beginning of planetary motion] by means of those [lapsed saura days] put down in two places, [the lapsed saura days] are increased by those [lapsed adhim¯ asa s] converted into tithi s. [The result] is the [number of lapsed] tithi s [since the beginning of planetary motion], which is put down in two places. [The number of lapsed tithi s] diminished by the omitted tithi s [since the beginning of planetary motion], which are found by means of a proportion, is [the number of lapsed] civil [days since the beginning of planetary motion].
This is the same formula for computing the day count as was given in verses 50–51.
∼ Two alternative day counts ∼ (54–55)
The beginning of the saura year [occurs] at [the Sun’s] entry into
Aries. The epact is the diﬀerence between that [point in time] and the beginning of the month of caitra . By means of that [epact] subtracted from the beginning of the saura year, [we get,] in a diﬀerent way, a day count commencing from the beginning of the bright [paks . a ] of caitra . The residue of the omitted tithi s is always found as the diﬀerence between midnight and the end of the tithi . By means of that [residue] subtracted from the time of [mid]night, [we get] a day count [commencing at the end of a given tithi ], and the computation of [the mean longitudes of] the planets [can be accomplished] from that.
The month in which the Sun enters the sign Aries is called caitra . The Sun’s entry into Aries marks the beginning of the saura year, and caitra is the ﬁrst month of the year. In general, the beginning of caitra does not coincide with the Sun’s entry into the sign Aries. The time between the two is called the epact (´ suddhi ). When the epact is subtracted from the beginning of the saura year, i.e., from the time of the Sun’s entry into Aries, we get the time of the beginning of caitra . This point in time can be used as the starting point for a day count instead of the commencement of planetary motion. The remainder of the accumulated omitted tithi s is the diﬀerence between midnight and the end
119 of the tithi . We can ﬁnd the end of a given tithi from the time of midnight and knowledge of this remainder, and we can use this point in time for a day count. However, why one would want to use the end of a tithi for this purpose is unclear.
∼ To find the mean planet from the day count ∼ (56)
The result from [the division of] the given day count multiplied by
the revolutions [of a given planet in a mah¯ ayuga ] by the civil days [in a mah¯ ayuga ] is the rotations and so on [of the planet during the day count]. [The longitude of] the planet [found from a given day count] is [for] when it is midnight at [Lank¯ ˙ a,] the city of the tenheaded [R¯ avan . a,] as determined by the mean Sun.
Let r be the number of revolutions of the given planet in a mah¯ ayuga . If d is the day count starting from the commencement of planetary motion, then it is clear that 360 × r × d C (3.21)
is the number of degrees traveled by the planet during the day count d. Subtracting the largest possible multiple of 360 from this, we get the planet’s longitude. The saurapaks . a employs a midnight system rather than a sunrise system. Thus the longitude determined is the planet’s longitude at midnight in Lank¯ ˙ a on the day given by the day count.
∼ To find the dhruva of a planet ∼ (57)
´aliv¯ The number of [elapsed] years in the ´ saka [era] of S¯ ahana is diminished by 1425. [The result] multiplied by the multiplier of a [given] planet and increased by the addend [of the planet] is the dhruva for the [present] year.
The multipliers and the addends are given in the following verses by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja, and are discussed in the notes on these verses. Put simply, the multiplier of a planet is the distance it travels during a saura year, and the addend of a planet is its position at a particular time in the year ´ saka 1425. The point in time corresponding to the addends of the planets is called the epoch. Let g and a be the multiplier and the addend of a given planet. If n years have elapsed since
´ saka 1425, we compute (n − 1425) × g + a. The result gives us the position of the planet exactly n saura years after the epoch. This position is called the planet’s dhruva for that year. As we shall see in the notes to the next verses, the epochal date corresponds to sunrise on a particular day. However, the positions found for an integral number of saura years after the epochal
120 date do not correspond in a simple manner to sunrise (or any other given time of a nychthemeron), and are thus of limited use.
∼ Multipliers and addends ∼ (58–64)
In the case of the moon, the multiplier in rotations and so on is
4 [signs], 12 [degrees], 46 [minutes], 40 [seconds, and] 48 [thirds]. In the case of Mars, [it is] 6 [signs], 11 [degrees], 24 [minutes], 9 [seconds, and] 62 [i.e., 36 thirds]. In the case of [the ´ s¯ ıghra of] Mercury, [it is] 1 [sign], 24 [degrees], 45 [minutes], 18 [seconds, and 0 thirds]. The multiplier of Jupiter is 1 [sign], 0 [degrees], 21 [minutes], 6 [seconds, and 0 thirds]. The multiplier of [the ´ s¯ ıghra of] Venus is 7 [signs], 15 [degrees], 11 [minutes], 52 [seconds, and] 48 [thirds]. For Saturn, [it is] 0 [signs], 12 [degrees], 12 [minutes], 50 [seconds, and] 24 [thirds]. In the case of the lunar apogee, [it is] 1 [sign], 10 [degrees], 41 [minutes], 0 [seconds, and] 54 [thirds]. For the lunar node, [it is] 0 [signs], 19 [degrees], 21 [minutes], 11 [seconds, and] 24 [thirds]. In the case of the Lord of the Year, this [multiplier] in [civil] days and so on is 1;15,31,31,24. In the case of the lunar epact, the multiplier in tithi s and so on is 11;3,53,24. The multipliers are [to be computed as] the revolutions [of the planets in a kalpa ] divided by the years in a kalpa . The addends [are as follows]. [The addend] of the sun is 6 [signs], 0 [degrees], 14 [minutes, and] 47 [seconds]. In the case of the moon, [it is] 9 [signs], 9 [degrees], 35 [minutes, and] 42 [seconds]. In the case of Mars, [it is] 1 [signs], 3 [degrees], 34 [minutes, and] 43 [seconds]. In the case of the ´ s¯ ıghra of Mercury, [it is] 4 [signs], 0 [degrees], 24 [minutes, and] 14 [seconds]. In the case of Jupiter, [it is] 2 [signs], 14 [degrees], 16 [minutes, and] 12 seconds. In the case of the ´ s¯ ıghra of Venus, 10 [signs], 4 [degrees], 35 [minutes, and] 30 [seconds]. In the case of Saturn, [it is] 2 [signs], 19 [degrees], 22 [minutes, and] 17 [seconds]. In the case of the [lunar] apogee, [it is] 7 [signs], 7 [degrees], 35 [minutes, and] 14 [seconds]. In the case of the [lunar] node, [it is] 0 [signs], 11 [degrees], 39 [minutes, and] 53 [seconds]. In the case of the Lord of the Year, [it is] 4;18,53,0 in [civil] days and so on. In the case of the epact, [it is] 2;29,34,0 in tithi s and so on.
In these verses, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja gives the multipliers and addends for the planets, the lunar apogee,
121 Planet the sun the moon Mars Mercury (´ s¯ ıghra ) Jupiter Venus (´ s¯ ıghra ) Saturn Lunar apogee Lunar node Lord of the Year Epact Multiplier — 4s 12◦ 46′ 40′′ 48′′′ 6s 11◦ 24′ 9′′ 36′′′ 1s 24◦ 45′ 18′′ 0′′′ 1s 0◦ 21′ 6′′ 0′′′ 7s 15◦ 11′ 52′′ 48′′′ 0s 12◦ 12′ 50′′ 24′′′ 1s 10◦ 41′ 0′′ 54′′′ 0s 19◦ 21′ 11′′ 24′′′ 1;15,31,31,24 11;3,53,24,0 Addends 6s 0◦ 14′ 47′′ 9s 9◦ 35′ 42′′ 1s 3◦ 34′ 43′′ 4s 0◦ 24′ 14′′ 2s 14◦ 16′ 12′′ 10s 4◦ 35′ 30′′ 2s 19◦ 22′ 17′′ 7s 7◦ 35′ 14′′ 0s 11◦ 39′ 53′′ 4;18,53,0 2;29,34,0
1s 3◦ 42′ 35′′ 4s 0◦ 25′ 20′′ 10s 4◦ 35′ 29′′
0s 11◦ 40′ 9′′ 4;18,53,25,36 2;29,33,36
Table 3.3: Multipliers and addends
the lunar node, the Lord of the Year, and the epact. The epact was deﬁned earlier (verses 54–55). The multiplier for the epact is the epact accumulated during a saura year, while the addend for the epact is the accumulated epact at the beginning of ´ saka 1425. The Lord of the Year for a given year is the time in days between the Sun’s entry into Aries (which marks the beginning of the year) and the end of the preceding week. As such, it determines the weekday that begins the current year, and it is called “Lord of the Year” because the deity associated with this weekday is said to rule that year. The addend for the Lord of the Year is the Lord of the Year for ´ saka 1425, and its multiplier is the excess of an integral number of weeks accumulated during a saura year. Note that for the epact and the Lord of the Year, the addends correspond to the beginning of ´ saka 1425 rather than to the epoch later in that year. Why this is so is clear from the deﬁnitions of the two. The multipliers and the addends are listed in table 3.3. The entries in the third row give my computation of the addends; if an entry is blank, it is because there is no diﬀerence with the value given by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja. The multiplier of a planet is the angular distance traveled by the mean planet during a saura degrees during a mah¯ ayuga .19 Therefore, the number of degrees that the planet moves during a saura year is
360×Rp . Y
year. If Rp is the number of revolutions of the planet in a mah¯ ayuga , it moves a total of 360 × Rp
Depending on the planet, this number might exceed 360 degrees. If so, we
diminish the result by the largest multiple of 360 contained in it, which leaves us with a number g get g = 2s 29◦ 1′ 23′′ 12′′′ (1rot is one rotation, i.e., 360◦, and 1s is a sign, i.e., 30◦ ). This number g is moves during a saura year. Since
19 While
satisfying 0 ≤ g < 360. For example, if the planet travels 1rot 2s 29◦ 1′ 23′′ 12′′′ in a saura year, we
the planet’s multiplier. It gives the degrees in excess of a whole number of rotations that the planet
360×603 Y
= 18, any given multiplier for a planet (or for the Moon’s apogee and node) will
J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja says that the multiplier of a planet is to be found as the revolutions of the planet in a kalpa divided by the saura years in a kalpa , the revolutions and saura years in a mah¯ ayuga will do just as well. Also, more precisely, the ratio has to be multiplied by 360, as we want the multiplier expressed in degrees, not in rotations.
122 have at most three sexagesimal places. In fact, all the planetary multipliers as given by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja are exact. Similarly, the values of the Lord of the Year and the epact are both exact. Now, the addends are mean planetary positions (as well as the accumulated Lord of Year and epact) corresponding to a given point in time, the epoch, as explained in the commentary to verse 57. We know that the epoch falls in the year ´ saka 1425. The addend of the Sun, which is the mean longitude of the Sun at the epoch, will help us to determine it precisely. Since the addend of the Sun is 6s 0◦ 14′ 47′′ , the mean Sun is 0◦ 14′ 47′′ into the sign Libra at the time of the epoch, or, equivalently,
6;0,14,47 12
of a saura year (based on mean motion) has elapsed between the beginning of the year ´ saka
1425 and the epoch. This is slightly more than half a saura year. From verses 4–5, we know that 1, 955, 883, 179 saura years elapsed between the commencement of planetary motion and the commencement of the ´ saka era. Therefore, 1,955,883,179 + 1425 = 1,955,884,604 (3.22)
saura years elapsed between the commencement of planetary motion and the beginning of the year ´ saka 1425. If R Moon is therefore denote the revolutions of the Moon in a mah¯ ayuga , the longitude of the mean 1,955,884,604 ×
R = 29◦ 54′ 43′′ 12′′′ (3.23) Y at the beginning of ´ saka 1425 (the Sun’s mean longitude at the beginning of ´ saka 1425 is, of course, 0s 0◦ 0′ 0′′ 0′′′ ). Furthermore, since the mean Moon moves 1 360 × R × 2 Y = 6rot 8s 6◦ 23′ 20′′ 24′′′ (3.24)
during half of a saura year, it is easy to see that the mean Moon will overtake the mean Sun 6 times between the beginning of ´ saka 1425 and the epoch. In J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s system, a month begins at a conjunction of the Sun and the Moon, and the beginning of a saura year takes place in the month of caitra . Hence the month current at the time of the epoch is a ¯´ svina . Furthermore, noting that the diﬀerence between the mean longitudes of the Moon and the Sun at the time of the epoch are 9s 9◦ 35′ 42′′ − 6s 0◦ 14′ 47′′ = 3s 9◦ 20′ 55′′ = (8 × 12 + 3)◦ 20′ 55′′ , and (3.25)
3◦ 20′ 55′′ = 0;16,44,35, (3.26) 12 we see that about 8;16,45 tithi s have elapsed of the month of a ¯´ svina at the time of the epoch. A computation of mean longitudes based on the S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta shows that the epoch corresponds to local sunrise in J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s area on Friday, September 29, 1503 ce.20 Since 1,955,884,604 years have elapsed between the beginning of planetary motion and the beginning of the year ´ saka 1425, the accumulated Lord of the Year for that time can be found as 1,955,884,604 × 1;15,31,31,24 =
20 I
664735254025007 ≡7 4;18,53,25,36 270000
(3.27)
am grateful to Michio Yano for running this computation for me.
123 and the accumulated epact as 1,955,884,604 × 11;3,53,24,0 = 32462305743739 ≡30 2;29,33,36. 1500 (3.28)
∼ A day count for the epochal date ∼
The day count [for the beginning of the year] is the tithi s elapsed since the beginning of caitra diminished [ﬁrst] by tithi s of the epact and [then] by the ghat a s of the Lord of the Year. The weekday is [counted] . ik¯ from the Lord of the Year. The day count is to be imagined as follows the diﬀerence between half a saura year and the day count for the sake of the computation of [the mean longitudes of] the planets.
(65) The day count is here deﬁned as the elapsed tithi s since the beginning of the month of caitra diminished by two quantities: the accumulated epact and the ghat a s, i.e., the fractional part, of . ik¯ the Lord of the Year. By subtracting the accumulated epact from the elapsed tithi s, we arrive at the time of the Sun’s entry into Aries, which is the beginning of the year. However, the Sun does not necessarily enter Aries right at the beginning of a weekday. By the deﬁnition of the Lord of the Year, if we subtract the ghat a s of the Lord of the Year from the previous result, we get the point . ik¯ in time of the beginning of the weekday during which the Sun’s entry into Aries occurred. In the case of the year ´ saka 1425, the Sun’s entry into Aries occured 4;18,53 civil days after the beginning of the previous Sunday. Subtracting the ghat a s of the Lord of the Year, i.e., 18;53 ghat a s, from . ik¯ . ik¯ the time of the Sun’s entry into Aries, we get the beginning of the weekday during which the Sun entered Aries in ´ saka 1425. Although it is not made clear, it appears that what J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja intends to do with this verse is to establish a day count starting from the epochal date. Assuming that more than half of ´ saka 1425 has passed, if the day count established for the beginning of the year is subtracted from half a year, we get a new day count starting from the epochal date. This is peculiar, though, as the epochal date corresponds to local sunrise, whereas the saurapaks . a operates with a midnight system. Note that what is translated merely as “epact” in the verse is really given as vigatartu´ suddhi . The word vigatartu is literally “elapsed season,” but it is not clear how exactly it is to be interpreted here.
∼ Mean longitude of the Sun from the day count ∼ (66)
The degrees of [the mean longitude of] the Sun [are found as follows].
The day count is diminished by its own sixtieth part, [and then the result is] increased in its ﬁrst sexagesimal place by its own seventh part and decreased in its second sexagesimal place by onefourth of the day count.
124
The result is a negative and positive contribution to the planets depending on the hemisphere that the sun [is in].
This and the following seven verses give formulae for computing the mean longitudes of the planets from the day count. Note that in order for the formulas to work properly, the day count in question has to start from the commencement of planetary motion (or at least from a point in time where the mean planets are all at Aries 0◦ ). The last part of the verse (its fourth p¯ ada ) seems out of place here. What is translated in that part as “result”, is the Sanskrit word phala , which could also be taken as “equation of center”. At any rate, this passage does not make any sense where it is found. Now, if the day count is a, then the angular distance in degrees traveled by a planet during the day count s is 360 × Rp , (3.29) C ¯p ≡360 s, where λ ¯p is where Rp is the number of revolutions of the planet in a mah¯ ayuga . Clearly, λ s=a× the longitude of the mean planet. ¯ ⊙ be the mean longitude of the Sun and R⊙ be the revolutions of the Sun in a mah¯ Let λ ayuga . Then according to the verse we have ¯ ≡360 a × 1 − 1 + 1 − 1 λ ⊙ 60 60 Since × 1 1 − 7 × 60 4 × 602 =a× 99349 . 100800
(3.30)
From this, the mean velocity of the Sun during one civil day comes out to be
99349 100800
= 0;59,8,10,42,51◦. (3.31)
360 × R⊙ 99349 99573493 − = < 0;0,0,0,33, 100800 C 39763529265600 we see that this is a good approximation.
∼ Mean longitude of the Moon from the day count ∼ (67)
The day count is multiplied by 13 and put down in two places. [One place is] multiplied by 10 and divided by 737, [and then] added to the result [in the other place]. [The result of] that with its second sexagesimal place diminished by the eighth part of the day count is [the mean longitude of] the Moon in degrees and so on.
When J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja says that a quantity, say x, is to be subtracted from the second sexagesimal
x place of another quantity, say y , what is intended is y − 60 2. ¯ Let λ be the mean longitude of the Moon and R be the number of revolutions of the Moon
in a mah¯ ayuga . The formula given for the mean longitude of the moon is ¯ λ ≡360 a × 13 + 13 × 10 1 − 737 8 × 602 =a× 279676063 . 21225600 (3.32)
125 This gives a mean velocity of the Moon during one civil day as 13;10,34,52,54,25,24◦. Since 13 + 13 × 10 1 − 737 8 × 602 − 360 × R C = 32693993791 < 0;0,0,0,51, 8373063162499200 (3.33)
this is a good approximation.
∼ Mean longitude of Mars from the day count ∼ (68) Half of the day count [is] increased by its own twentyﬁrst part. [Then] the day count diminished by a quarter [of itself] is added to the second sexagesimal place [of the result]. [This is] the [mean longitude of] Mars in degrees and so on. ¯ be the mean longitude of Mars and R be the number of revolutions of Mars in a Let λ ♂ ♂ mah¯ ayuga . The formula given is ¯ ≡360 a × λ ♂ Since 360 × R♂ − C 1 3 1 + + 2 2 × 21 4 × 602 = = 5869 . 11200 (3.34)
this is again a good approximation.
1 3 1 + + 2 2 × 21 4 × 602
6722867 < 0;0,0,0,20, 4418169918400
(3.35)
∼ Mean longitude of Mercury’s ´ s¯ ıghra apogee from the day count ∼
[To compute] the degrees of [the mean longitude of] the ´ s¯ ıghra apogee of Mercury, the day count is multiplied by 4, [the result is ﬁrst] increased in its ﬁrst sexagesimal place by what is obtained [as the quotient of the division of] 9 into the day count multiplied by 50, [and then] diminished by the [day] count in the second sexagesimal place.
(69) ¯ be the mean longitude of the ´ Let λ s¯ ıghra apogee of Mercury and R be the number of revolutions of the ´ s¯ ıghra apogee of Mercury in a mah¯ ayuga . The verse gives the formula ¯ ≡360 a × 4 + λ Since 360 × R C 1 50 − 9 × 60 602 50 1 − 2 9 × 60 60 =a× 44197 . 10800 (3.36)
− 4+
< 0;0,0,0,41,
(3.37)
this is a good approximation.
126 ∼ Mean longitude of Jupiter from the day count ∼
In the case of [the mean longitude of] Jupiter, [the procedure is as follows]. [First] the day count is multiplied by 3 and divided by 20, and [the result] is subtracted from the day count. [This quantity is applied] negatively [to] the second sexagesimal place [of] the minutes of arc and so on that are given by the day count multiplied by 5.
(70) ¯ Let λ be the mean longitude of Jupiter and R be the revolutions of Jupiter in a mah¯ ayuga . 5983 . 72000
The formula given for the mean longitude of Jupiter is ¯ λ Since ≡360 a ×
3 1 − 20 5 − 60 602
=a×
(3.38)
3 360 × R 1 − 20 5 − − 2 60 60 C we again have a good approximation.
=
24991231 < 0;0,0,0,12, 28402520904000
(3.39)
∼ Mean longitude of Venus’ ´ s¯ ıghra from the day count ∼
In the case of [the mean longitude of] the ´ s¯ ıghra [apogee] of Venus, the result for the sun by increased by its own half is [further] increased by the eighth part of the [day] count diminished by [its own] onehundredth part.
¯♀ be the mean longitude of the ´ Let λ s¯ ıghra apogee of Venus and R♀ be the number of revolutions of the ´ s¯ ıghra apogee of Venus in a mah¯ ayuga . The formula for the mean longitude of the ´ s¯ ıghra apogee of Venus is ¯♀ λ ≡360 = Since a× 1− 21533 13440 1 1 + 1− 60 60 × 1 1 − 7 × 60 4 × 602 × 3 +a× 2 1 1 − 8 8 × 100 (3.40)
(71ab)
21533 360 × R♀ 60137981 − = < 0;0,0,3, 13440 C 5301803902080 this is a good approximation.
(3.41)
∼ Mean longitude of Saturn from the day count ∼
[The mean longitude of] Saturn in degrees and so on is the day count divided by 30 with its ﬁrst sexagesimal place increased by the onehundredth and sixtieth part of the [day] count.
(71cd)
127 ¯ Let λ be the mean longitude of Saturn and R be the number of revolutions of Saturn in a 107 . 3200
mah¯ ayuga . For the mean longitude of Saturn, we are given the formula ¯ ≡360 a × λ Since − C this is a good approximation. 360 × R 1 1 + 30 60 × 160 = = (3.42)
1 1 + 30 60 × 160
2282101 < 0;0,0,0,24, 1262334262400
(3.43)
∼ Longitude of the lunar apogee from the day count ∼
[The longitude of] the lunar apogee in degrees and so on [can be computed as follows]. The day count divided by 10. In the ﬁrst sexagesimal place [the result] is increased by the day count diminished by its own third part and increased by the fortyﬁrst part [of the day count diminished by its own third part].
Let λA be the longitude of the lunar apogee and RA be the number of revolutions of the lunar apogee. The longitude of the lunar apogee can be found from the formula λA ≡360 a × Since 1 1 + × 10 60 1− 1 3 + 1 1 × 1− 41 3 =a× 137 . 1230 (3.44)
(72a–c)
137 386491 360 × RA − = < 0;0,0,0,11, C 1230 485209732110 it is a good approximation.
(3.45)
∼ Longitude of the lunar node from the day count ∼ (72d–73)
[Now,] according to the regular order, I will explain the [formula
for] the lunar node. The day count [is ﬁrst] multiplied by 10 and divided by 3, [and then that quantity is] diminished by its own twentysecond part. [The result is the mean longitude of] the lunar node in minutes of arc and so on. [The mean longitudes of] the planets are [equal to] their own dhruva s at [sun]rise.
Let λ be the longitude of the lunar node and R 10 1 10 − × 3 22 3 be the number of revolutions of the lunar 7 1 =a× . 60 132
node in a mah¯ ayuga . The longitude of the lunar node can be found from the formula λ ≡360 a × × (3.46)
128 Since
1 10 10 − × 3 22 3
×
360 × R 1 − 60 C
=
2368759 < 0;0,0,10, 52071288324
(3.47)
it is a good approximation. The last part of the verse is not clear.
∼ To find the mean longitude of a planet ∼
The [mean] velocity of a planet [which has a mean longitude] that is not known is multiplied by the known [mean longitude of another] planet and divided by the [mean] velocity of the planet [who has a mean longitude] that is known. The result is the [mean longitude of the] planet [who has a mean longitude] that was not known [previously].
(74) The above attempt at a literal translation of the verse does not read well, but the idea is as ¯1 and follows. Given two planets, say P1 and P2 , let their mean longitudes and mean velocities be λ ¯ 1 and v 2 , respectively. Assuming that λ ¯1 , v 1 , and v 2 are known, the verse states that λ ¯2 v 1 , and λ can be found as ¯ ¯ 2 = v 2 × λ1 . λ (3.48) v1 As can be easily seen, this formula does not work. For example, in verses 58–64, we had a ¯ ⊙ = 180◦ 14′ 47′′ and the mean longitude of the situation where the mean longitude of the Sun is λ ¯ = 279◦35′ 42′′ . Assuming that the Sun is the planet whose mean longitude is known, Moon is λ ¯ ×λ ⊙ = 13;10,34 × 180;14,47 = 15389652979 ≡ 360 249;45,14. v⊙ 0; 59, 8 6386400
the formula gives us, incorrectly, that ¯ λ = v (3.49)
The reason for the failure of the formula in the above example is that we have not taken into account that each planet has moved a certain number of whole rotations since the commencement of planetary motion. If we instead of longitudes between 0◦ and 360◦ use the total angular distance traveled by the planet since the commencement of planetary motion, the formula works.
∼ Insertion of an intercalary month ∼
If an unattained intercalary month is attained, then the epact is diminished by 30 [and] the day count is to be computed from that at the middle of the year. Then the [number of] elapsed intercalary months is diminished by 1.
(75)
129 The idea is as follows. Gradually, over time, a residue of an intercalary month accumulates. When this residue reaches 1, it contains a full intercalary month, which is then inserted. It is not clear why the number of intercalary months should be diminished by 1, though.
∼ Definition of regular, omitted, and intercalary months ∼
A normal lunar month [occurs] when it contains a sankr¯ ˙ anti . When this is not the case, an omitted [month] or an intercalary [month] is produced.
(76) A sankr¯ ˙ anti is the passage of the Sun from one zodiacal sign to the next. If such a passage occurs during a lunar month, that month is said to be a regular month, or a normal month. The majority of months fall in this category. If no sankr¯ ˙ anti occurs during a month, that month is called an intercalary month. If two sankr¯ ˙ anti s occur during a month, that month is called an omitted month.
∼ Order of the months ∼
The lunar month during which the entry of the sun into Aries takes place is called madhu . [The months] m¯ adhava and so on occur with [the entry of the sun into] Taurus and so on.
(77) The ﬁrst month of the year, caitra or madhu , is the lunar month during which the Sun enters the sign Aries. Similarly, during the second month the Sun enters Taurus, and so on. The names of the months are, in order: madhu , m¯ adhava , ´ sukra , ´ suci , nabha , nabhasya , is ¯rja , saha , sahasya , . a, u tapa , and tapasya . In addition to these descriptive names, the months are also named after the naks . atra , or constellation in the path of the Moon, at which the full moon in that month occur. In this system, the names of the months are: caitra , vai´ sa ¯kha , jyais tha , a ¯s ¯d sr¯ avan adrapada , .. .a . ha , ´ . a , bh¯ a ¯´ svina , k¯ arttika , m¯ arga´ s¯ ırs agha , and ph¯ alguna . . a , paus . ya , m¯
∼ The duration of a saura year ∼
Since a saura year is [measured] by 12 lunar months, 11 tithi s, 3 ghat a s, and 53 pala s, whatever is greater than the increase of the year, . ik¯ that is an intercalary month [measured] by 32;16. 30 tithi s is a mean [intercalary month].
(78) The ﬁrst part is clear, for 66389 T − 12 × 30 = = 11;3,53,24. Y 6000 (3.50)
130 We thus have the duration of a saura year measured in tithi s. However, the second part of the verse is not clear (but compare the next verse).
∼ Concerning types of months ∼
If one civil day [comes about] by means of the mean motion of the Sun, then what [arises] in a sign? A saura month, and the lunar month is [found] in the diﬀerence of the velocities. If there is one civil day of the Sun, then what is in a revolution? A saura [month] is greater than a lunar month, and an intercalary month is [measured] by 32; 16.
(79) The verse is not clear (but compare the previous verse).
∼ Definition of a month ∼
A month [begins] from a conjunction [of the Sun and the Moon] and ends at the [next] conjunction. If there is an entry of the Sun into a sign during that [time], [the month] is a regular one, otherwise it is an intercalary one.
(80) The signiﬁcance of the word man ad antam ada a is not clear to me and is not included .d . alan¯ . ik¯ . in p¯ in the translation. Otherwise, the verse is clear. A month is the duration from one conjunction of the Sun and the Moon to the next. Normally the Sun will enter a sign in that time, in which case the month is a regular month. However, if this is not the case, the month is either omitted or intercalary, see verse 76. Here only the intercalary option is given.
∼ Surface of the Earth as reference point for conjunctions ∼ (81–82)
Whatever has been stated [in the preceding] with respect to those
at the center of the Earth I will now explain with respect to those on the surface of the Earth. The computed time of conjunction [of the Sun and the Moon] is corrected [when] rectiﬁed by the longitudinal parallax. Since at the corrected time of conjunction [of the Sun and the Moon], the Sun and the Moon are certainly situated on the [same] line of vision, those who know the sphere say that.
131 Note that we have to imagine that there is an “observer” or “observers” at the Earth’s center. If such an observer is postulated, he will see the conjunction of the Sun and the Moon at a diﬀerent time than an observer on the surface of the Earth. This is due to parallax, a topic that is dealt with exhaustively in the section on solar eclipses beginning on p. 222.
¯modara’s b¯ ∼ Da ıjas ∼ (83–84)
Whatever has elapsed of the kali [yuga ] is divided by 180000. The
smaller of what has elapsed and what is to come of it [kaliyuga ] is multiplied [separately] by 1, 2, 3, 24, 22, 30, 90, and 7 [the result corresponding to the seven planets]. [The longitudes of] the Sun, Saturn, and Mars are increased by [the result expressed in] degrees divided by 90000, and [the longitudes of] the others [i.e., the Moon, Mercury, Venus, and Jupiter] are diminished [by it]. The intelligent D¯ amodara says that in this way, by means of this [correction], there is true identity with what is observed for the planets.
J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja here follows a set of b¯ ıja (literally, seed) corrections given by D¯ amodara.21 Unfortunately, D¯ amodara’s work has not been published. A b¯ ıja correction often converts between data from one paks . a , or astronomical school, to another, but is equally often obscure. It is not clear what purpose these b¯ ıja s of D¯ amodara serve, or why J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja chose to include them here.
∼ Locations and distances on the prime meridian ∼
Kany¯ a is located 125 yojana s from Lank¯ ˙ a [to the north]. K¯ ant¯ ı is [north of Kany¯ a] by 32 [yojana s]. Sv¯ am¯ ı is [north of K¯ ant¯ ı] by 80 [yojana s]. Sagara is [north of Sv¯ am¯ ı] by 20 [yojana s]. Mall¯ ari is [north of Sagara] by 15 [yojana s]. Paryal¯ ı is north [of Mall¯ ari] by 8 yojana s. The city [of] Vatsagulma is [north of Paryal¯ ı] by 10 [yojana s]. The city of Ujjayin¯ ı is [north of Vatsagulma] by 50 [yojana s]. Kuruks etra is [north of] that [place] . by 110 [yojana s]. [The mountain] Meru is [north of] that [place] by 825 yojana s. In this way the prime meridian of the Earth is explained.
(85–86)
21 For
D¯ amodara, see [22 2.125–127].
132 In Indian astronomy, the prime meridian passes through Ujjayin¯ ı (the modern Ujjain in Madhya Pradesh). In other words, the prime meridian is the great circle from the north pole to the south pole that passes through Ujjayin¯ ı. These two verses lists a number of locations on the prime meridian, as well as the distance in yojana s between two successive locations. The list starts from Lank¯ ˙ a in the south and proceeds to Meru in the north. Lank¯ ˙ a is on the terrestrial equator and Meru is on the north pole, so the locations mentioned span exactly one quarter of the Earth’s circumference. The circumference of the Earth is 5059 yojana s,22 and thus one quarter of the circumference is
5059 4 3 = 1264 4 yojana s. However, if we add up the distances given, we get
125 + 32 + 80 + 20 + 15 + 8 + 10 + 50 + 110 + 825 = 1275
(3.51)
yojana s. We use a rule given in the tripra´ sn¯ adhik¯ ara ,23 according to which the diﬀerence between the latitudes of two locations on the same meridian is to be multiplied by 14 to get the yojana s between the locations. Using this rule to ﬁnd the diﬀerence in latitude between two locations 1275 yojana s apart on the same meridian, we get 1 1275 = 90 ≈ 90;4, 14 14 (3.52)
which is fairly close to the expected 90◦ . Cint¯ aman . i makes reference to this rule in his commentary, saying that it can be used to compute the distance between locations on the prime meridian and giving one example. In some manuscripts, Kany¯ a is called Devakany¯ a, and K¯ ant¯ ı and the distance of 32 yojana s between K¯ ant¯ ı and Kany¯ a are omitted. This gives a total of 1275 − 32 = 1243 yojana s, which is less accurate than the previous total. (3.53)
∼ To find the longitudinal correction ∼ (87)
The daily motion of the planets is multiplied by the yojana s between a city on the prime meridian and the given city, [the two being on the same latitude circle], and divided by the corrected circumference of the Earth. The minutes of arc of the result are applied positively or negatively to the mean planet according to whether the given city is located west or east [of the prime meridian].
As we have seen, the planetary positions computed for a given day correspond to midnight at Lank¯ ˙ a. If we are on the prime meridian, they will correspond to our midnight as well. However, if
22 See 23 See
1.1.74. 2.3.18.
133 we are not on the prime meridian, the positions need to be adjusted in order to correspond to our local midnight. The correction that is carried out to achieve this is called the longitudinal correction (de´ sa ¯ntara ). Suppose that the given location, P1 , is d yojana s from a location on the prime meridian, P2 , along a latitude circle (a circle through all locations with the same latitude). If we are not on the terrestrial equator, the circumference of our latitude circle will be smaller than the circumference of the Earth. The circumference of our latitude circle is called the corrected circumference of the Earth, and how it is computed will be explained in the next verse. For now, assume that its circumference is c′ . Like the terrestrial equator, the corrected circumference can be thought of as measuring time, its whole circumference corresponding to 60 ghat a s, i.e., a nychthemeron. . ik¯ Let v be the mean velocity of a given planet. The quantity v× d c′ (3.54)
is the distance traveled by the mean planet in the time between midnight on the prime meridian and midnight at the given location. Since the mean velocity of a planet is generally given in minutes of arc per civil day, the result will be in minutes of arc. These minutes of arc are added to the mean longitude of the planet if the given location is west of the prime meridian, because midnight will occur later here than on the prime meridian. Similarly, the minutes of arc are subtracted from the mean longitude of the planet if the given location is east of the prime meridian.
∼ To compute the corrected circumference of the Earth ∼ (88)
The corrected circumference on the Earth is computed by means of
the yojana s between the given city and the mountain of the gods. The circumference of the Earth multiplied by the Sine of the colatitude and divided by the radius is said to be its [the corrected circumference’s] measure.
Let c be the circumference of the Earth and c′ the corrected circumference corresponding to the latitude φ. Then c′ = c × ¯) Sin(φ . R (3.55)
That this formula is correct is easily seen from Figure 3.3. The ﬁgure shows a section of the sphere of the Earth, the horizontal line being the terrestrial equator. The given location, L, has the latitude φ. Let r be the radius of the Earth and r′ the radius corresponding to the corrected circumference. It is clear from the ﬁgure that ¯ ¯) = r × Sin(φ) . r′ = r × cos(φ) = r × sin(φ R (3.56)
134
L
φ
Figure 3.3: Computing the corrected circumference of the Earth for the latitude φ
Since
r′ r
=
c′ c,
we get that c′ = c × ¯) Sin(φ , R (3.57)
which is the formula given in the verse.
∼ Praise of the methods presented ∼
That which has been presented by me is very easy and not given by others. Out of a concern of the size in the composing of the v¯ asan¯ a s, I condensed it. The wise people who understand the aesthetic abandon what is great and drink the essence, the small circle of the nectarrayed one [the Moon].
(89)
∼ Concluding verse ∼ (90)
[Thus] is presented the planets’ mean measure in the beautiful and abundant tantra composed by J˜ n¯ anar¯ aja, the son of N¯ agan¯ atha, which is the foundation of [any] library.
Chapter 4
grahagan adhy¯ aya section 2 . it¯ spas ta ¯dhik¯ ara .. True motion
∼ Reason for computing true planetary positions ∼ (1)
Now, when it comes to all auspicious things, [such as] births [of children], performances [of rites], journeys, marriages, and so on, a correct result [arrived at] by means of more correct [positions of the] planets is the most essential thing. Therefore I am describing this method [for accomplishing this].
Based on the positions of the planets, auspicious and inauspicious times for various acts and undertakings can be determined. The mean positions described in the previous chapter are not suﬃcient for this, and thus the computation of the true positions of the planets is described in this chapter by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja.
∼ A table of Sines ∼ (2–5)
The halfChords, [i.e.,] the Sines, are, in due order: 225, 449, 671,
890, 1105, 1315, 1520, 1719, 1910, 2093, 2267, 2431, 2585, 2728, 2859, 2978, 3084, 3177, 3256, 3321, 3372, 3409, 3431, and 3438.
135
136
The Versed Sines are equal to the sum of the diﬀerences of these taken in the opposite order.
The Chords and Sines (with capitalized ﬁrst letters) mentioned in the verse will be deﬁned below in the commentary. In modern mathematics, a sine of an angle is the ratio of the side opposite that angle to the hypotenuse in a rightangled triangle (we will refer to this opposite side as the “upright” in the following). Another way of saying this is that modern sines are normalized with respect to a circle of radius 1. In Indian mathematics, on the other hand, sines are given with respect to circles of diﬀerent radii. It is most often, as here in the Siddh¯ antasundara , a radius of 3438, the last value ◦ ¯ in the list corresponding to the sine of 90 . This value is used by Aryabhat urya. a and in the S¯ siddh¯ anta .1 Other values are used as well; for example, Brahmagupta uses a radius of 3270 in the ´ ıpati uses a radius of 3415, a value used in the Vasis Br¯ ahmasphut anta , Sr¯ thasiddh¯ anta as well, . asiddh¯ .. and the Vr thasiddh¯ anta has a Sine table with a radius of 1000.2 . ddhavasis .. The choice of the number 3438 as the radius is in many ways a natural one. Suppose that a circle has the radius R. Then its circumference is 2 × π × R. As there are 21600 minutes of arc in a circle, the number of minutes of arc per unit of the circumference is
21600 2×π ×R .
If R = 3438, then
21600 2×π ×R
This means that if the angle α is measured in minutes of arc and is small, then Sin(α) ≈ α. Using R = 3438 can therefore be compared to our modern use of radians instead of degrees.
≈ 1.
In the following, the trigonometric radius 3438 will be called simply “the radius”, and it will be denoted by R in formulae. We will write “Sine” when a sine measured with respect to R = 3438 is meant, and similarly Sin(α) will denote the Sine of the angle α. The relationship between this Sine Crd(α); and Versed Sine and Vers(α) to denote the cosine, chord, and versed sine functions based on the radius R = 3438. Chords and Versed Sines will be described below and in the commentary to the next verse. In the Indian tradition, Sines are based on Chords. The Sanskrit words j¯ ıv¯ a and jy¯ a (both literally “bowstring”; a reference to the fact that a chord and its corresponding arc resemble a stringed bow) can mean both “Chord” and “Sine”, and in verse 3, the word ardhaj¯ ıv¯ a is used in the sense of “halfChord”, while in verse 4, the word j¯ ıv¯ a is used in the sense of “Sine”. Now, the verses give a table of the Sine of each of the 24 multiplies of 3◦ 45′ between 0◦ and 90◦ . Note that since 3◦ 45′ = 225′, we can also take it that the table gives us the Sine of each of the 24 multiplies of 225′ between 0◦ = 0′ and 90◦ = 5400′. Table 4.1 gives the number of each Sine, the corresponding angle, the Sine of the angle, and the modern value of the Sine for comparison. In the following, we will use the notation Sinn for Sin(n × 3◦ 45′ ) for n = 1, 2, 3, . . . , 24, and we will further
1 For 2 See
and the modern sine is Sin(α) = R × sin(α). Similarly, we will write Cosine and Cos(α); Chord and
¯ uryasiddh¯ anta , see S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta 2.15–22. Aryabhat . a, see [71 591], and for the S¯ ´ ıpati, see [71 582]. For Br¯ ahmasphut anta 2.2–5; for Brahmagupta’s table of Sines, see [107 88]. For Sr¯ . asiddh¯
thasiddh¯ anta , the Vasis thasiddh¯ anta , see Vasis thasiddh¯ anta 38–42, and see also [71 612]. For the Vr .. .. . ddhavasis .. see Vr thasiddh¯ anta 2.9–10. See also [71 612]. . ddhavasis ..
137
Sine number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
Angle 3◦ 45′ 7◦ 30′ 11◦ 15′ 15◦ 0′ 18◦ 45′ 22◦ 30′ 26◦ 15′ 30◦ 0′ 33◦ 45′ 37◦ 30′ 41◦ 15′ 45◦ 0′ 48◦ 45′ 52◦ 30′ 56◦ 15′ 60◦ 0′ 63◦ 45′ 67◦ 30′ 71◦ 15′ 75◦ 0′ 78◦ 45′ 82◦ 30′ 86◦ 15′ 90◦ 0′
Sine 225 449 671 890 1105 1315 1520 1719 1910 2093 2267 2431 2585 2728 2859 2978 3084 3177 3256 3321 3372 3409 3431 3438
Modern value 224.85 448.74 670.72 889.81 1105.10 1315.66 1520.58 1719.00 1910.05 2092.92 2266.83 2431.03 2584.82 2727.54 2858.59 2977.39 3083.44 3176.29 3255.54 3320.82 3371.93 3408.58 3430.63 3438.00
Table 4.1: The Siddh¯ antasundara ’s table of Sines
138 use Sin0 for Sin(0 × 3◦ 45′ ) = 0. Sinn is thus the nth Sine in the table. It will also be convenient
Cosn = Cos(n × 3◦ 45′ ).
to denote the Sine diﬀerence Sinn − Sinn−1 by ∆Sinn for n = 1, 2, . . . , 24. Similarly, we will deﬁne The versed Sine of an angle α is deﬁned as Vers(α) = R − Cos(α) formula Vers(n × 3◦ 45′ ) =
(4.1)
The table can be used to compute the versed Sines of the same angles as the Sines by means of the
n n
∆Sin25−k =
k=1 k=1
(Sin25−k − Sin24−k ).
(4.2)
The formula is straightforward and can be proved as follows: Vers(n × 3◦ 45′ ) = R − Cos(n × 3◦ 45′ )
◦
(4.3)
◦ ′
= R − Sin((24 − n) × 3◦ 45′ ) = Sin24 − Sin24−n
n
= R − Sin(90 − n × 3 45 )
(4.4) (4.5) (4.6) (4.7) (4.8)
=
k=1 n
(Sin25−k − Sin24−k ) ∆Sin25−k .
=
k=1
Thus far we have only treated a small number of Sines between 0◦ and 90◦ . In the following, we will see how to compute the Sine of an angle that is not necessarily a multiple of 3◦ 45′ and not limited to being between 0◦ and 90◦ .
∼ Marking the Chords on a circle ∼
On a circle, made up of the minutes of arc in a circle and marked with the 96th parts of the circumference, the Chords are to be drawn lying on both of the two points [among the 96 points] that are on a line running eastwest. Accordingly, they are 48. Furthermore, their [corresponding] arcs are to be considered; a versed Sine is lying between the arc and [its corresponding] Chord.
(6) In this and the following verses, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja gives a method for how to compute the Sine values given in his table. The circumference of a circle is divided into 96 equal parts. Two of the points are on the eastwest line through the center of the circle. The remaining points are connected in pairs such that
139
Figure 4.1: 48 Chords from dividing the circumference into 96 parts
140
C A D B
O
Figure 4.2: The Chord, Sine, and Versed Sine of an angle
the line connecting them is parallel to the eastwest line. This is shown in Figure 4.1, where the eastwest line is the bold horizontal line. Each horizontal line represents a Chord, namely the Chord of the angle between and above the two lines. There are, of course, 49 such lines, but two of them are merely points, namely the lines connecting the north and south points to themselves. As they yield the Chords of 0◦ and 360◦, which subtend the same point on a circle, they are counted as one. This gives a total of 48 Chords. The deﬁnitions of Chords, Sines, and Versed Sines are seen more clearly on Figure 4.2. The Chord of the arc ACB is the line segment AB , the Sine of Versed Sine of AC is the line segment DC . AC is the line segment AD, and the
∼ To compute the Sines of the table ∼ (7–8)
The ﬁrst half[Chord] is equal to the 96th part of the minutes of
arc in a circle [i.e., 225]. [It is] the leg [in a rightangled triangle], and the [corresponding] hypotenuse is the radius. If the upright is found from these two when the hypotenuse [in this way] is the radius, what is it [the upright] when [the hypotenuse] is equal to 225? The result thus [obtained] is an approximate [value of] the diﬀerence between the ﬁrst Sine and the following one. [When] the upright is multiplied by 10 and divided by 153, the [Sine] diﬀerence is produced. [In other words,] the second [Sine] is produced from the ﬁrst half[Chord] increased by that [quantity], and so on like that.
141
Half of the sum of the traversed [Sine] diﬀerence and the current [Sine] diﬀerence is the correct Sine diﬀerence. In this way, all the halfChords are produced in order.
The ﬁrst Sine, Sin1 , is equal to 225. This is clear from Sin1 = Sin(3◦ 45′ ) = Sin(225′ ) and from in minutes of arc, is small. the observation, noted in the commentary on verses 2–5, that Sin(α) ≈ α when α, which is measured The diﬀerence between Sin1 and Sin2 is then found by means of a proportion. Let a rightangled triangle have as its hypotenuse the radius R, and as its leg Sin1 = 225. The corresponding upright is, of course, Cos1 = length of its upright is approximately Sin2 − Sin1 . Why is that? The upright in question is of length 225 × Sin1 Cos1 = × Cos1 . R R (4.9) R2 − Sin2 1 . Now, if a similar triangle has a hypotenuse of length 225, the
β α−β use the trigonometric relation that sin(α) − sin(β ) = 2 × cos( α+ 2 ) × sin( 2 ) for all α and β :
That this is approximately equal to Sin2 − Sin1 follows from the following derivation, where we will 1 × 2 × Cos R 2 × Sin R
225 2 225′ 2
Sin2 − Sin1
=
450′ + 225′ 2
× Sin 225′ 2
450′ − 225′ 2
= ≈ =
× Cos 225′ +
2× × Cos(225′ ) R Sin1 × Cos1 . R
′
(4.10)
Note that since Cos(225′ ) = 3430;38 and Cos(225′ + 225 2 ) = 3421;27, considering these two quantities to be roughly equal is not entirely accurate, but acceptable. given for ﬁnding the Sine diﬀerences is If we are looking at the Sine diﬀerence Sinn+1 − Sinn , the upright mentioned is Cosn . The formula Sinn+1 − Sinn = for n = 1, 2, . . . , 24. Noting that 225 10 5 10 = + ≈ , 3438 153 58446 153 this case, the derivation becomes: Sinn+1 − Sinn = 2 × Cos R 2 × Sin R (n + 1) × 225′ + n × 225′ 2
225′ 2
10 × Cosn 153
(4.11)
(4.12)
we can derive the given formula by the same procedure as we just followed in the case n = 1. In (n + 1) × 225′ − n × 225′ 2
× Sin
=
× Cos n × 225′ +
225′ 2
142 2 × 225 2 × Cos(n × 225′ ) R Sin1 × Cosn . R
′
≈ =
(4.13)
′ As before, it is the approximation Cos(n × 225′ + 225 2 ) ≈ Cos(n × 225 ) that is the weak point of the
derivation. However, the approximation works out reasonably in all cases. J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja presumably derived the identity diﬀerently. The statement that half of the sum of the traversed Sine diﬀerence and the current Sine diﬀerence is the true Sine diﬀerence means the following. If an angle α satisﬁes n × 3◦ 45′ < α < (n + 1) × 3◦ 45′ ,
then the traversed Sine diﬀerence is ∆Sinn and the current Sine diﬀerence is ∆Sinn+1 . From the derivation (using the same trigonometric relation as before) ∆Sinn+1 + ∆Sinn 2 Sinn+1 − Sinn−1 2 2 × n × 225′ 1 × Cos = R 2 Sin1 = × Cosn R ≈ Sinn+1 − Sinn = = ∆Sinn+1 , we get the result stated in the verse. It is, however, an approximation, not an exact result.
× Sin
2 × 255′ 2 (4.14)
∼ Praise of those who compute Sines in this way ∼ (9)
We consider the person who computes all the halfChords in order from the ﬁrst halfChord to be the polestar in the fastening of the motion of the circle of knowers of computation and the circle of stars.
The polestar remains ﬁxed in the sky while the other stars move. A person who computes the Sines according to J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s directions is here compared to the polestar; he fastens the motion of lesser mathematicians.
∼ The Sines in the four quadrants of the circle ∼
There are four quadrants in a circle divided into [twelve] signs. In the ﬁrst quadrant, [which spans the three ﬁrst signs] beginning with Aries, there is an increase in the Sine [when the angle increases]. In the second [quadrant], there is a decrease. In the third, there is an increase. And in the fourth, there is a decrease in the leg [i.e., in the Sine].
(10)
143 Like the ecliptic, the circle is here considered to be divided into 12 signs of 30◦ each, with the sign Aries beginning at 0◦ . In addition, the circle is divided into four quadrants, the ﬁrst spanning the ﬁrst three signs, the second spanning the 4th, 5th, and 6th signs, the third spanning the 7th, 8th, and 9th signs, and the fourth and last spanning the last three signs. 90 , then Sin(α) < Sin(β ). Similarly, the Sines are decreasing in the second quadrant, increasing in the third, and ﬁnally decreasing in the fourth. Notice that this diﬀers from the modern sine function, which increases in the ﬁrst and second quadrants and decreases in the third and fourth quadrants. The reason for this diﬀerence is that in the Indian system one always works with positive numbers, and hence every Sine is a positive
1 number. For example, we have sin(150◦ ) = − 2 , but Sin(150◦ ) = 1 2 ◦
According to J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja, between 0◦ and 90◦ the Sines are increasing. That is, if 0◦ ≤ α < β ≤
More than telling us when the Sine function increases and decreases, the verse indirectly tells us
× 3438 = 1719.
In order to be able to compute any given Sine, we only need to be able to compute the Sine of any angle between 0◦ and 90◦ . How to do this will be taken up in the next two verses.
how to compute a Sine in the second, third, and fourth quadrants: Sin(180◦ − α) if 90◦ < α ≤ 180◦ , Sin(α) = Sin(α − 180◦) if 180◦ < α ≤ 270◦ , and Sin(360◦ − α) if 270◦ < α ≤ 360◦ .
(4.15)
∼ To find the Sine of a given angle ∼
The complement [of a given arc] is 90 [degrees] diminished by the degrees of the arc. The minutes of arc of those two [quantities] are [separately] divided by 225. The Sine whose number corresponds to [the quotient of] each result is increased by what is attained as a result of the division of the divisor [of the previous division, i.e., 225,] into the remainder [of the previous division] multiplied by the diﬀerence between the traversed and current Sines.
(11) This verse tells us how to compute the Sine and the Cosine of any given angle between 0◦ and 90 . The method used is simple linear interpolation. Let α be an angle measured in minutes of arc and satisfying 0′ < α < 5400′ = 90◦ (Sin(0◦ ) and the complement to the angle α. Since Sin(90◦ ) are known, so we do not need to consider them here). We let β = 5400′ − α, so that β is Sin(β ) = Sin(90◦ − α) = Cos(α), carried out both for α and β , but we will present it only in the case of α. (4.16)
◦
we can ﬁnd the Cosine of α by computing the Sine of β . The following procedure is meant to be
144 Let q and r be the quotient and remainder, respectively, of the division of α by 225. Then calls Sinq the traversed Sine and Sinq+1 the present Sine. We can now compute Sin(α) as Sin(α) = Sinq + r × (Sinq+1 − Sinq ). 225 α = 225 × q + r where 0 ≤ r < 225. Furthermore, we have that Sinq ≤ Sin(α) < Sinq+1 . J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja (4.17)
As noted, this is straightforward linear interpolation.
∼ To find the angle corresponding to a given Sine ∼
[Start by] subtracting the [greatest possible] Sine [given in the table from the given Sine]. Whatever is the result of the remainder [of the subtraction of the two Sines] divided by the diﬀerence between the traversed and the current Sines, the angle [corresponding to the given Sine] is [equal to] that increased by 225 multiplied by the number [corresponding to] how large the subtracted Sine was.
(12) The Sine table can also be used to ﬁnd the angle corresponding to a given Sine. As in the previous verse, the method used is simple linear interpolation. The procedure is as follows. Suppose that we are given the value of a Sine, say Sin(α), and want to compute the angle α, which is assumed to be between 0◦ and 90◦ . We start by ﬁnding the greatest positive integer m that satisﬁes Sinm ≤ Sin(α) < Sinm+1 . As before, Sinm is called the traversed Sine and Sinm+1 the to the verse, α can be found as α = 225 × Sin(α) − Sinm + 225 × m. Sinm+1 − Sinm (4.18) current Sine. The number corresponding to the Sine that we subtracted, i.e., Sinm , is m. According
In this way, we can compute the angle corresponding to any given Sine.
∼ A table of differences of small Sines and its use ∼ (13–14)
The [successive] diﬀerences of the small Sines are 25, 24, 23, 21, 19,
16, 13, 10, 6, and 3. [The procedure for computing the small Sine of a given angle is as follows.] The degrees in the angle are divided by 9. [The quotient of the division] is [the number of] the traversed [small] Sine. The remainder [of the division] is multiplied by the current [small] Sine and divided by 9. [The result is then] increased by the traversed [small Sine] diﬀerences. [This is the small Sine of the angle.]
145 Sine number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Angle 9 ◦ 18 ◦ 27 ◦ 36 ◦ 45 ◦ 54 ◦ 63 ◦ 72 ◦ 81 ◦ 90
◦
∆Sinℓ n 25 24 23 21 19 16 13 10 6 3
Sinℓ n 25 49 72 93 112 128 141 151 157 160
Modern value 25.029 49.442 72.638 94.045 113.137 129.442 142.561 152.169 158.030 160.000
Modern diﬀerence 25.029 24.413 23.195 21.407 19.091 16.305 13.118 9.607 5.861 1.969
Table 4.2: The Siddh¯ antasundara ’s table of small Sine diﬀerences
[The procedure for computing the angle corresponding to a given small Sine is as follows.] One should subtract [as many of] the [small Sine] diﬀerences [from the given small Sine as possible]. [When] the result from the division of remainder [of the subtraction process] by the current [small Sine] is increased by 9 multiplied by the number corresponding to the traversed [small Sine], [the result] is the angle.
J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja here presents another Sine table. It is based on R = 160 and a division of the interval between 0◦ and 90◦ into 10 equal parts of 9◦ each. These Sines are called small Sines (laghujy¯ a ) to distinguish them from the Sines given before in verses 2–5, and we shall use the notation Sinℓ (α) to indicate the small Sine of the angle α. We then have that Sinℓ (α) = 160 × sin(α) if 0◦ ≤ α ≤ 90◦ .
ℓ ℓ ℓ ℓ ◦ As before, we deﬁne Sinℓ n as Sin (n × 9 ) for 0 ≤ n ≤ 10 and ∆Sinn as Sinn − Sinn−1 for 1 ≤ n ≤ 10.
What is tabulated here by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja is not small Sines directly, but rather small Sine diﬀerences.
ℓ ℓ The numbers tabulated are ∆Sinℓ 1 , ∆Sin2 , . . . , ∆Sin10 . Note that n
Sinℓ n =
k=1
∆Sinℓ k,
(4.19)
a result that is easily veriﬁed. The reason for including the table of small Sine diﬀerences is that these are easier to do computations with than the Sines. The numbers are smaller and there are fewer of them. The values produced by small Sine diﬀerences are less accurate than those produced by the Sines, but not signiﬁcantly so for practical purposes. In the verses containing problems and their solutions in the next chapter, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja uses small Sines rather than Sines for his computations. Table 4.2 gives for each successive small Sine diﬀerence its number, its corresponding angle, its value, its corresponding small Sine (not given in the text), the modern value of the small Sine, and the modern value of the small Sine diﬀerence. As with the previous Sine table, this table can be used to compute the small Sine of a given
146 angle, as well as the angle corresponding to a given small Sine. Yet again, the method used is linear interpolation. Let there be given an angle, α, and let q and r be the quotient and the remainder, respectively, of the division of α by 9. Then α = 9 × q + r, where 0 ≤ r < 9. Furthermore, q is the number of the traversed small Sine, Sinℓ q , as mentioned in the verses. The small Sine of α can now be found as Sinℓ (α) = r × ∆Sinℓ q+1 + 9
q
∆Sinℓ k.
k=1
(4.20)
Now, if instead of an angle we are given the value of a small Sine, say Sinℓ (α), we can ﬁnd the is nonnegative. Put diﬀerently, we subtract as many small Sine diﬀerences as possible from Sinℓ (α). The result is r. Then α can be found as α= 9×r + 9 × n. ∆Sinℓ n+1 (4.21) angle as follows. Let n be the largest possible integer that satisﬁes that r = Sinℓ (α) −
n k=1
∆Sinℓ k
Yet again this is simple linear interpolation.
∼ The manda and ´ s¯ ıghra anomalies ∼ (15)
The manda anomaly is [deﬁned as the longitude of] the [mean]
planet diminished by [the longitude of] the manda apogee, [and] the ´ s¯ ıghra anomaly is [deﬁned as the longitude of] the ´ s¯ ıghra apogee diminished by [the longitude of] the [mean] planet. If [either] the ´ s¯ ıghra or the manda anomaly are situated in [the halfcircle] beginning with Aries or in [the halfcircle] beginning with Libra, the respective equations are a positive and a negative application or a negative and a positive application, respectively. If the ´ s¯ ıghra anomaly is situated in [the halfcircle] beginning with Aries or in [the halfcircle] beginning with Libra, its equation is a positive or a negative application, [respectively]. [Similarly,] if the manda anomaly [is situated in the halfcircle beginning with Aries or in the halfcircle beginning with Libra], [its equation] is a negative or positive application, [respectively].
Having concluded the section on Sines and small Sines, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja turns to planetary theory. At this point, it will be instructive to give a brief description of the Indian planetary model. The planetary model of the Indian tradition is illustrated in Figure 4.3.3 The center of each planetary orbit is the center of the Earth, which is marked by O in the ﬁgure. The mean planet,
3 See
also [71 557–558].
147
M0
0◦ M ¯ P S
O
S0
Figure 4.3: The epicyclical model of Indian astronomy
148 ¯ , which was described in the previous chapter, rotates around O on the large circle of the ﬁgure, P called the deferent. The deferent is divided into four quadrants consisting of three signs each, and planetary longitudes are measured from the beginning of Aries, the ﬁrst of the twelve signs. The beginningpoint of Aries is marked as 0◦ on the ﬁgure. ¯ are, in the case of the ﬁve starplanets, two epicycles: the manda (slow) Centered around P epicycle, which is the smaller of the two on the ﬁgure, and the ´ s¯ ıghra (fast) epicycle, which is the larger one. For the Sun and the Moon, there is only one epicycle: the manda epicycle. The circumferences of the two vary for each starplanet, but with the exception of Saturn, the ´ s¯ ıghra epicycle is always larger than the manda epicycle. Associated with each epicycle is an apogee: M0 in the case of the manda epicycle, and S0 in the case of the ´ s¯ ıghra epicycle. The point M on the manda epicycle and the point S on the ´ s¯ ıghra ¯ ¯ epicycle satisfy that the lines P M and P S are parallel to OM0 and OS0 , respectively. The points where the lines OM and OS , extended if necessary, intersect the deferent would be the position of the planet if the respective epicycle acted alone. For the Sun and the Moon, the point of intersection between the line OM and the deferent is the position of the true planet. In the case of the ﬁve starplanets, the true planet is found by combining the two epicycles in a manner that will be explained later in the chapter (see verses 23c–d–24). ¯ OM and the ´ The manda equation of center, or simply equation, is deﬁned as the angle P s¯ ıghra ¯ equation is deﬁned as the angle P OS . The equation is thus the angle by which the mean planet is displaced by the respective epicycle. The manda anomaly, κµ , is deﬁned as the diﬀerence between the longitude of the mean planet and the longitude of the manda apogee, and the ´ s¯ ıghra anomaly, κσ , is deﬁned as the diﬀerence between the longitude of the ´ s¯ ıghra apogee and the longitude of the mean planet. In both cases, the anomaly is the angle between the respective apogee and the mean planet, and on the ﬁgure they are ¯ and S0 OP ¯ , respectively; the diﬀerence in the deﬁnitions only aﬀects when the equation M0 O P is to be applied positively or negatively. That the manda equation is positive between 0◦ and 180◦ and negative between 180◦ and 360◦ , while it is opposite for the ´ s¯ ıghra equation, is clear from the ﬁgure and the deﬁnitions of the two anomalies.
∼ Epicyclical circumferences for certain anomalies ∼ (16–18b)
When the [manda ] anomaly is at the end of an even quadrant, the
degrees of the circumferences in the manda epicycle are 14 for the Sun, 32 for the Moon, 75 in the case of Mars, 30 in the case of Mercury, 33 for Jupiter, 12 for Venus, 49 for Saturn. When the [manda ] anomaly is at [the end of] an odd quadrant, [the degrees of the circumferences in the manda epicycle are] 13;40 for the Sun, 31;40 for the Moon [they are], and 72, 28, 32, 11, and 48 for [the
149 Manda anomaly 0 and 180◦ 90◦ and 270◦ 14◦ 13;40◦ ◦ 32 31;40◦ ◦ 75 72◦ ◦ 30 28◦ ◦ 33 32◦ ◦ 12 11◦ ◦ 49 48◦
◦
Planet The Sun The Moon Mars Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturn
´ıghra anomaly S¯ 0 and 180◦ 90◦ and 270◦ — — — — 235◦ 232◦ 133◦ 132◦ ◦ 70 72◦ ◦ 262 260◦ ◦ 39 40◦
◦
Table 4.3: Epicyclical circumferences at the end of quadrants
starplanets] beginning with Mars. [When the ´ s¯ ıghra anomaly is] at [the end of] an even quadrant, the degrees in the ´ s¯ ıghra epicycle are 235, 133, 70, 262, and 39 for [the starplanets] beginning with Mars. [When the ´ s¯ ıghra anomaly is] at [the end of] an odd quadrant, [the degrees in the ´ s¯ ıghra epicycle] are 232, 132, 72, 260, and 40 for [the starplanets] beginning with Mars.
The two even quadrants are the second and the fourth, and the two odd quadrants are the ﬁrst and the third. When the anomaly is at the end of an even quadrant, it is therefore either 0◦ or 180◦ . It is similarly either 90◦ or 270◦ at the end of an odd quadrant. The circumferences of the epicycles when the anomalies have these values are given in Table 4.3. Note that the circumferences are measured in units of which there are 360 in the deferent, which is why their their values are given in degrees.
∼ Epicyclical circumference for a given anomaly ∼
[After] the Sine of the anomaly is multiplied by the diﬀerence between the circumferences [at the end of even and odd quadrants, respectively,] and divided by the radius, the circumferences [at the end of even quadrants] are diminished or increased by the result according to whether they are greater or less than [the circumferences at the end of] odd [qudrants]. [These are the] true [circumferences].
Let c2 be the circumference of either the manda epicycle or the ´ s¯ ıghra epicycle of a given planet at the end of an even quadrant and let c1 be the circumference at the end of an odd quadrant. Let d be the diﬀerence between c2 and c1 , and remember that in the Indian system such a diﬀerence is always a positive number. In other words, in our notation we have that d = c2 − c1 . Assume
(18c–d)
150 further that the current anomaly is κ. Finally, let b be given by b = linear interpolation factor. The epicyclical circumference, c, corresponding to the anomaly κ is given by c= c2 − b if c2 > c1 , and if c2 < c1 . (4.22)
Sin(κ)×d . R
Note that b is just a
c2 + b
This formula is given in the S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta .4
∼ To find the kot . iphala and the bhujaphala ∼ (19)
[When] the Cosine and the Sine [of the anomaly] are multiplied by the
true circumference and divided by 360, [the two reults] are the kot . iphala and the bhujaphala . The arc corresponding to the manda bhujaphala is [approximately] the manda equation of the planet in minutes of arc.
As noted, the circumference, c, of an epicycle as given in verses 16–18b is measured in units of which there are 360 in the deferent circle.5 Since the circumference of the deferent is 2 × π × R, the circumference of a given epicycle, measured in regular units, is r= This shows that the ratio
c 360 2×π ×R 360
× c. Its radius, r, is then
1 2×π×R c × ×c= × R. 2×π 360 360
(4.23)
simply converts lengths related to the deferent to the corresponding
lengths related to the epicycle. Now, Figure 4.4 depicts the deferent and an epicycle (let us assume that it is a manda epicycle) ¯ . The line AB is drawn so that it is perpendicular with apogee A0 . Let κ be the anomaly, i.e., A0 OP to the line OP0 . The bhujaphala and the kot . iphala are, respectively, the line segments AB and BP0 . It is clear c from the ﬁgure and from the fact that the factor 360 converts lengths related to the deferent to the corresponding lengths related to the epicycle that the length of the kot . iphala is c × Sin(κ). the bhujaphala is 360
c 360
× Cos(κ) and
As is customary in the Indian astronomical tradition, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja takes the Sine of the manda
equation to be the length of the bhujaphala . As can be easily seen from the ﬁgure, this is not correct, for the Sine of the manda equation is the length of CD, whereas the bhujaphala is the segment AB . However, as the circumferences of the manda epicycles are small, it is an acceptable approximation. The circumferences of the ´ s¯ ıghra epicycles are generally too large for the approximation to be useful.
4 S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta
2.38.
siddh¯ anta 2.13.
5 See
It also given by other astronomers; for example by Brahmagupta in Br¯ ahmasphut . a
[71 558].
151
0◦
D
¯ P
B
C
A
O
A0
Figure 4.4: The kot . iphala and the bhujaphala
152 Note that J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s use of Sine and Cosine implies that the deferent circle is treated as the standard trigonometric circle. In other words, it is assumed to have a radius of 3438.
∼ To find the bhujaphala using small Sines ∼ (20)
Alternatively, the small Sine of the anomaly is multiplied by 4 and
divided by 67. The result, in minutes of arc and so on, is multiplied by the [true] circumference [of the epicycle]. [The resulting quantity is the bhujaphala .] For the sake of ease [the arc corresponding to] this [bhujaphala ] is called the manda [equation].
From the previous verse, we know that the bhujaphala is equal to rather than the radius R = 3438), we need the number x that satisﬁes
c 360
express the bhujaphala in terms of a small Sine rather than a Sine (that is, to use the radius R = 160
3438 360
× Sin(κ). If we want to =
160 x .
For then (4.24)
c 3438 160 1 × Sin(κ) = c ×  sin(κ) × = c ×  sin(κ) × = c × Sinℓ (κ) × , 360 360 x x and we can express the bhujaphala in terms of a small Sine rather than a Sine. By expanding
1 x
as a continued fraction, we get 3438 191 1 1 = = = x 360 × 160 3200 16 + 1+ 1 1 ≈ 1 4 , = 1 67 16 + 1+ 1
3
(4.25)
3+ 3 7
from which the formula follows.
∼ The geocentric distance of the planet ∼
The sum or the diﬀerence of the radius and the ´ s¯ ıghra kot . iphala , when the anomaly is in [one of the six signs] beginning with Capricorn or [in one of the six signs] beginning with Cancer, respectively, is to be computed. The square root of the sum of the square of [the result of] that [operation] and the square of the bhujaphala is the hypotenuse, measured by the distance between the center of the Earth and the planet.
(21) Figure 4.5 shows two diﬀerent positions of the ´ s¯ ıghra epicycle. For each position, a rightangled triangle is formed, namely the triangle OS ′ B ′ and the triangle OS ′′ B ′′ . In the ﬁrst case, the radius of the deferent (which is R = 3438) is increased by the kot . iphala , and the second case, it is decreased by the kot . iphala . According to the verse, the kot . iphala is added when the anomaly is either between
153
0◦
¯′ P
B′
S′
O
¯ ′′ P
B ′′
′ S0
S
′′
Figure 4.5: Finding the hypotenuse from the kot . iphala and the bhujaphala
154 0◦ and 90◦ or between 270◦ and 360◦ , and subtracted when the anomaly is between 90◦ and 270◦ . This can be veriﬁed easily from the ﬁgure. The hypotenuse (karn . a ) represents the distance between the center of the Earth and the position the planet would have if the ´ s¯ ıghra epicycle acted alone on it. Since the ´ s¯ ıghra epicycle has a much greater eﬀect than the manda epicycle, the hypotenuse is roughly the geocentric distance of the planet. If we denote the hypotenuse by H , the kot . iphala by k , and the bhujaphala by b, then H= (R ± k )2 + b2 (4.26)
by the Pythagorean theorem. On the ﬁgure, depending on which epicycle we are dealing with, H is ¯ ′ or B ′′ P ¯ ′′ , and b is the length of B ′ S ′′ or B ′′ S ′′ . the length of OS ′ or OS ′′ , k is the length of B ′ P
∼ To compute a square root ∼
An [approximate value of the desired] square root is increased by the result of the division of the given square [i.e., the number whose square root we are seeking] by the approximate square root. [The result] is divided by 2. That is the [new] approximate square root. Then [the process is repated] again and again. In this way, the correct square root [is found].
(22) The previous verse required the computation of a square root, and so a procedure to carry out such a computation is given in the present verse. The method works as follows. Suppose that we want to compute the square root of the positive √ number A. Suppose further that the positive number a0 is an approximation to A, i.e., that A − a2 0 1 A a1 = × a0 + , 2 a0 √ then a1 is a better approximation to A. Continuing this process iteratively by letting an+1 = A 1 × an + 2 an is small. If we let (4.27)
(4.28)
for n = 1, 2, 3, . . ., we obtain a sequence a0 , a1 , a2 , . . . , an , an+1 , . . . of successively better and better √ approximations to A. When suﬃcient accuracy has been achieved, that is, when an and an+1 are suﬃciently close to each other, the process is stopped and the square root is then determined as √ A = an+1 .6 This verse is also found in the b¯ ıjagan adhy¯ aya ,7 from which it has been quoted in the secondary . it¯ literature.8 It is quoted (from the b¯ ıjagan adhy¯ aya ) by S¯ uryad¯ asa in the S¯ uryaprak¯ a´ sa .9 . it¯
6 That
√ the sequence always converges, and fast, to A is wellknown from modern mathematics. The method is, in fact, equivalent to applying the NewtonRaphson method to the function f deﬁned by f (x) = x2 − A for all x > 0. [43 12–13 of Introduction]. e.g., [3 p. 101]. [43 45 of Sanskrit text].
7 See 8 See, 9 See
155
0◦
D
¯ P
B
C
S
O
S0
Figure 4.6: Finding the ´ s¯ ıghra equation
Historical notes regarding this method were given in the Introduction (see p. 44).
∼ To compute the ´ s¯ ıghra equation ∼
The bhujaphala is multiplied by the radius and divided by the ´ s¯ ıghra hypotenuse. The minutes in the arc corresponding to the result of that [operation] is the ´ s¯ ıghra equation.
On Figure 4.6 the triangle OBS is similar to the triangle ODC . If σ denotes the ´ s¯ ıghra equation, we have that i.e., DOC , then clearly Sin(σ ) = CD. In addition, since the triangles OBS and ODC are similar, Sin(σ ) =
(23a–b)
b×R , (4.29) H where H is the length of OS and b is the length of BS ; i.e., they are the hypotenuse and the bhujaphala , respectively.
156 ∼ To find the true positions of the planets ∼ (23c–d–24)
The Sun and the Moon are corrected by [one] entire [application
of the] manda [equation]. The others are corrected by four [applications of] equations. Having applied half of the [planet’s] own ´ s¯ ıghra equation positively or negatively [as the case may be] to the mean [planet], then half the manda equation [found from the new position is applied] to it [i.e., to the new position]. [This gives yet another position.] By [an application to the mean planet of] the entire manda [equation] derived from that [position], the mean [planet] becomes manda corrected. [The manda corrected planet] becomes [the] true [planet] by [an application of] the entire ´ s¯ ıghra [equation].
The Sun and the Moon have only one epicycle each, namely the manda epicycle. To get their true positions, one need only apply (that is, add or subtract, as the situation may be) the manda equation to the mean position. This is clear and simple. The ﬁve starplanets, on the other hand, have two epicycles, the manda epicycle and the ´ s¯ ıghra epicycle. From Figure 4.3 on p. 147 it may appear as if the two epicycles are independent, but in reality they are not. They need to be combined, but how to do so is not obvious. The procedure followed by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja consists of four applications of equations. First, half of the manda equation is applied to the mean planet. This gives a new position. Next, half of the ´ s¯ ıghra equation computed from the new position is applied to the new position. Then the manda equation computed from that position is applied to that position, at which point the planet is called manda corrected. Finally, the entire ´ s¯ ıghra equation is applied to the manda corrected planet, which gives the true position of the planet. This is the same procedure as given in the S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta .10 For a recent discussion of the rationale behind this procedure, see [23].
∼ Procedure to find the true position of a starplanet ∼
The ´ s¯ ıghra equation computed from [the mean planet corrected by] the entire manda equation is not correct. First, the manda corrected [planet] is to be known from the mean planet only. Then, the manda equation produced from the mean [planet] corrected by half of the ´ s¯ ıghra equation and [half of] the manda equation is correct. [That is] suﬃcient. What is strange in this procedure?
(25)
10 S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta
2.43–44.
157 The verse restates the procedure previously given, adding that it is incorrect to merely apply the whole manda equation and then the whole ´ s¯ ıghra equation to get the true planet.
∼ To find a planet’s true velocity ∼ (26–28)
The velocity of the manda anomaly is [ﬁrst] multiplied by the
diﬀerence of the Sines [i.e., the diﬀerence between the current Sine and the previous Sine], [next] divided by the ﬁrst halfChord, [then] multiplied by the true circumference, [and ﬁnally] divided by the degrees in a rotation [i.e., by 360]. [This is] the result for the manda velocity. The [mean] velocity [of a planet] diminished or increased by that result, according to whether the [manda ] anomaly is in [one of the six signs] beginning with Capricorn or in [one of the six signs] beginning with Cancer, is manda corrected. Having subtracted that [manda corrected velocity] from the velocity of the ´ s¯ ıghra apogee, the remainder is the motion produced by ´ s¯ ıghra anomaly. In the case of the [eﬀect of the] course of the arc of the ´ s¯ ıghra equation [on the velocity], this [remainder] is multiplied by the diﬀerence of the Sines [i.e., the diﬀerence between the current Sine and the previous Sine] and divided by the ﬁrst Sine. [Then the result is] divided by the [´ s¯ ıghra ] hypotenuse and multiplied by the radius. [The resulting quantity] is subtracted from the velocity of the ´ s¯ ıghra apogee, [yielding] the true velocity [of the planet].
Let κµ and κσ be the manda anomaly and the ´ s¯ ıghra anomaly, repectively. Let vκ and wκ be the velocities of the manda anomaly and the ´ s¯ ıghra anomaly (i.e., the rate by which each changes is the current Sine and Sinn is the previous Sine in the case of the manda anomaly. during a civil day), respectively. Assume further that n × 3◦ 45′ ≤ κµ < (n + 1) × 3◦ 45′ . Then Sinn+1 The mean planet moves at a constant velocity, but due to the eﬀects of the epicycles (or epicycle, in the case of the luminaries), the velocity of the true planet, i.e., the true velocity, changes over time. Both the manda epicycle and the ´ s¯ ıghra epicycle contribute to this. In order to ﬁnd the eﬀect of the manda epicycle on the velocity, the following quantity is computed: u = vκ × Sinn+1 − Sinn c × . Sin1 360 (4.30)
158 Why u has this form is not clear.11 This is to be applied to the mean velocity to get the velocity after the eﬀect of the manda epicycle has been applied. If the manda anomaly is in one of the six signs beginning with Capricorn, i.e., if it is between 270◦ and 360◦ or between 0◦ and 90◦ , the displacement of the mean planet by the manda epicycle has the eﬀect that the true velocity is smaller than the mean velocity. Therefore, the manda corrected velocity, vm , in this case is vm = v − u. 270◦ , it is opposite, so that vm = v + u. (4.32) (4.31) If the manda anomaly is in one of the six signs beginning with Cancer, i.e., if it is between 90◦ and
the previous Sine in the case of the ´ s¯ ıghra anomaly.
Assume that m × 3◦ 45′ ≤ κσ < (m + 1) × 3◦ 45′ . Then Sinm+1 is the current Sine and Sinm is Let wσ be the velocity of the ´ s¯ ıghra apogee and H the hypotenuse (i.e., the geocentric distance
of the planet). The correction to the velocity due to the ´ s¯ ıghra epicycle is computed as follows: u′ = (wσ − vm ) × then the true velocity of the planet, v , is v = wσ − u′ . However, if it is larger, then the planet is in retrograde motion with the velocity v = u′ − wσ . This will be taken up in the following by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja. (4.35) (4.34) R Sinm+1 − Sinm × Sin1 H (4.33)
The form of u′ is also not clear.12 If this quantity is smaller than the velocity of the ´ s¯ ıghra apogee,
∼ Conditions for retrograde motion ∼ (29–31)
When that [correction due to the ´ s¯ ıghra epicycle] cannot be sub
tracted [from the manda corrected velocity due to the latter being smaller than the former] it is subtracted inversely [i.e., the former is subtracted from the latter], and the remainder [of that subtraction] is the retrograde velocity of the [star]planets. It has been said by the great ancients that [since] the Sun and the Moon has no ´ s¯ ıghra epicycles, therefore [they] never [have] retrogradation.
11 See 12 See
[71 569]. [71 569].
159 Planet Mars Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturn First station 164◦ 144◦ 130◦ 163◦ 115◦ Second station 196◦ 216◦ 230◦ 297◦ 245◦
´ıghra anomalies at the occurrences of the ﬁrst and second stations Table 4.4: S¯
[When] a [star]planet that is located very far from its ´ s¯ ıghra apogee commences [its] retrograde motion, then, starting with Mars, these are the degrees of the ´ s¯ ıghra anomaly: 164, 144, 130, 163, and 115. The degrees at which [the starplanets commence their] direct motion are 360 [degrees] diminished by those. The degrees and minutes of arc greater or less than [these] given values [for the occurrence of the ﬁrst station] divided by the velocity of the [´ s¯ ıghra ] anomaly are the days that have elapsed since or are to pass until [the previous or the next station].
For retrogradation and the stations of the starplanets, see the commentary on 2.1.39. When the correction to the velocity due to the ´ s¯ ıghra epicycle cannot be subtracted from the manda corrected motion, the direction of the motion is opposite the usual direction, i.e., the planet is in retrograde motion. In this case, one subtracts the manda corrected velocity from the ´ s¯ ıghra correction and notes that the planet is retrograde. The occurrences of the stations are determined by the ´ s¯ ıghra anomalies. Table 4.4 gives the values of the ´ s¯ ıghra anomalies at which each starplanet reaches its ﬁrst and second stations. These values are the same as those given in the S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta .13 If we want to compute the time elapsed since the last occurrence of the ﬁrst station or the time to pass before the next occurrence of the ﬁrst station, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja tells us to take the angular distance between the current location and the past or future occurrence of the ﬁrst station and divide by the velocity of the ´ s¯ ıghra anomaly. This is a straightforward formula.
¯ntara correction ∼ ∼ The bhuja (32a–b)
The manda equation of the Sun [b¯ ahuphala ] is multiplied by the velocity [of a given planet] and divided by the minutes of arc in all the naks . atra s [i.e., by 21600]. [The result] is applied positively or negatively to the [longitude of the given] planet according to [whether] the equation
13 S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta
2.53–54. See also [71 610].
160
[of the Sun [doh . phala ] is to be applied positively or negatively]. From this is [found the longitude of the given planet] at the rising of the true Sun.
The words b¯ ahuphala and doh . phala must here refer to the manda equation of the Sun. If so, the formula is for computing what is known as the bhuj¯ antara in Indian astronomy.14 In treatises following a sunrise system, the computed planetary positions correspond to the rising of the mean Sun. In order to ﬁnd their longitudes when the true Sun is rising, the bhuj¯ antara correction is applied. However, the inclusion of the formula in this form is somewhat curious, as J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja follows a midnight system, not a sunrise system.
◦ The naks . atra s are constellations in the path of the Moon. Together they span 360 and thus contain 21600′.
∼ To find the Sun’s declination ∼ (32c–d)
The Sine produced from the precessional [longitude of the] Sun is multiplied by the Sine of 24 [degrees] and divided by the radius. [The result] is the Sine of the declination [of the Sun]. The arc corresponding to this [Sine] is the declination [of the Sun] having the direction of the hemisphere [that the Sun is in].
Let δ and λ∗ be the declination of the Sun and the precessional longitude of the Sun, respectively. For the formula given here, Sin(δ ) = Sin(λ∗ ) × Sin(ε) Sin(λ∗ ) × Sin(ε) = , Sin(90◦ ) R (4.36)
see the commentary on 2.1.29b–d. If the Sun is north of the celestial equator, the direction of the declination is north, and similarly if the Sun is south of the celestial equator. Note that precessional longitude of the Sun (or another planet) is simply the tropical longitude, i.e., the longitude with reference to the vernal equinox.
∼ Another formula for the declination of the Sun ∼ (33)
[First] the Sine of the precessional [longitude of the] Sun is increased by [its own] sixtyﬁrst part, and [then the result is] divided by 10. Good people call this [quantity] multiplied by 4 the Sine of the declination.
The word anupamagun . a in the verse is unclear to me, and it is not included in the above translation. Perhaps it means that the Sine of the declination is matchless, though this makes
14 See,
´ . yadh¯ e.g., Br¯ ahmasphut anta 2.29 and Sis ıvr . asiddh¯ . ddhidatantra 2.16. See also [71 569].
161 little sense. It is also possible that it means that this simpliﬁed formula gives a perfectly good approximation. At any rate, the formula given is clear. This formula is a simpliﬁed one for computing the declination of the Sun, namely Sin(δ ) = 4 × Sin(λ∗ ) +
1 61
10
× Sin(λ∗ )
=
124 × Sin(λ∗ ), 305
(4.37)
where δ is the declination of the Sun, and λ∗ is the tropical longitude of the Sun. It is derived from the previous one by the following approximation: Sin(ε) 1397 124 227 124 = = − ≈ . R 3438 305 1048590 305 (4.38)
∼ To find radius of the diurnal circle, etc. ∼
The square root of the diﬀerence between the square of the radius and the square of the Sine of the declination [of the Sun] is the radius of the [Sun’s] diurnal circle. The Sine of the declination [of the Sun] multiplied by the noon equinoctial shadow and divided by 12 is the earthSine. The earthSine divided by the radius of the [Sun’s] diurnal circle and multiplied by the radius is the Sine of the ascensional diﬀerence. The arc of that [Sine of the ascensional diﬀerence] is the rising and setting ascensional diﬀerence. [The existence] of these two [i.e., the rising and setting ascensional diﬀerences] is the diﬀerence between [a region] without latitude and [a region] with latitude, [for there is no ascensional diﬀerence in the former].
(34) The formulae given here and the similar triangles that they are based on will be discussed in greater detail in the next chapter. Deﬁnitions and further details will be given there (see verses 2.3.6–11 and commentary). Let r be the radius of the Sun’s diurnal circle and δ the declination of the Sun. Then r= R2 − (Sin(δ ))2 s0 . 12 R . r (4.39)
If s0 is the equinoctial shadow at noon in a given location and e the EarthSine, then e = Sin(δ ) × Let ω be the ascensional diﬀerence. Then Sin(ω ) = e × (4.41) (4.40)
Clearly, the arc corresponding to Sin(ω ) is the ascensional diﬀerence. The existence of the ascensional diﬀerence distinguishes regions not on the terrestrial equator from those on it, which do not have ascensional diﬀerence at any time.
162 ∼ To correct for the ascensional difference ∼
The true velocity of a planet is multiplied by the pala s in the ascensional diﬀerence and divided by 60. The seconds of arc attained [as the result] are [applied] positively or negatively to [the true longitude of] the planet depending on whether it is at the rising or the setting of the Sun as well as on which of the two hemispheres we are in.
The ascensional diﬀerence will be denoted by ω in the following. As it lies on the equator, it is measured in units of time. Let v be the true velocity of a given planet, and ω the ascensional diﬀerence. In order to compute a planet’s true longitude at local sunrise or sunset, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja tells us to compute the quantity v×ω . 60 (4.42)
(35a–b)
The true velocity of the planet v is measured in minutes of arc per civil day, but when divided by 60, it becomes minutes of arc per ghat a . Multiplied by an ascensional diﬀerence ω measured in . ik¯ pala s, the result is measured in seconds of arc. This is the angular distance traveled by the planet during the period of time of the ascensional diﬀerence. Depending on whether we are at sunrise or sunset, as well as what hemisphere we are in, the result is to be added or subtracted from the longitude of the true planet. Although not mentioned here, we also need to take into account whether the Sun is north or south of the celestial equator. If the true longitude of the planet that we started with corresponds to the planet’s position when the Sun rises or sets on the equator, the result will give us the true longitude of the planet at sunset or sunrise at our given location.
∼ To find the duration of day and night ∼
In the northern hemisphere, half of the day and half of the night are said by the knowers of the sphere to be[, respectively,] 15 ghat a s increased . ik¯ or decreased by the ascensional diﬀerence, [depending on whether the Sun is north or south of the celestial equator]. It is opposite in the southern [hemisphere].
On the terrestrial equator, day and night always have equal durations. In other regions, there will be a diﬀerence depending on the ascensional diﬀerence. When the Sun is above the celestial equator, the days will be longer than the nights in the northern hemisphere. The length of half a day in this case is exactly 15 ghat a s (the constant length of half a day on the celestial equator) . ik¯ increased by the ascensional diﬀerence, and the length of a night is 15 ghat a s diminished by the . ik¯ ascensional diﬀerence. It is opposite when the Sun is below the celestial equator. It is further clear, that the whole scheme is inverted when we are in the southern hemisphere.
(35c–d)
163 ∼ To compute tithi and karan .a ∼ (36)
The degrees of [the longitude of] the Moon diminished by [the longitude of] the Sun are divided separately by 12 and 6. [The two results are, respectively,] the elapsed tithi s and the elapsed karan as . a s. The ghat . ik¯ [since the last tithi or karan . a or until the next tithi or karan . a is found] from the remainder as well as the respective divisor by means of a proportion.
A tithi is the time during which the Moon gains 12◦ over the Sun; a karan . a is similarly the ◦ 15 time during which the Moon gains 6 over the Sun, i.e., half a tithi . As such there are 30 tithi s and 60 karan . a s in a lunar month. The formula given for computing the elapsed tithi s or karan . a s is straightforward, as is the outline given for computing the time since the last tithi or karan . a or until the next tithi or karan . a.
∼ To find the current karan .a ∼
The [number of the current] karan . a is diminished by 1. The [number which is the] remainder [from this number divided] by 7 [tells us which movable karan . a is the current one]. [If the current karan . a is not movable,] ´ the four ﬁxed [karan aga, and so on, [which be. a s], Sakuni, Catus . pada, N¯ gins] from the second half of the 14th tithi of the dark [paks . a ], are to be added.
(37) The 60 karan . a s of a lunar month are numbered starting with 1, and they are further given 16 names. Table 4.5 shows the relationship between the numbers and names of the karan . a s. Bava, B¯ alava, Kaulava, Taitila, Gara, Van . ij, and Vis .t . i, which occur in that order 7 times in a row, are ´ called movable (adhruva or cara), and Sakuni, Catus aga, and Kim . pada, N¯ . stughna, which are near ´ conjunction, are called ﬁxed (dhruva or sthira ). It is clear from the table that Sakuni begins in the middle of the 14th tithi of the dark paks . a , for this tithi consists of the 57th and the 58th karan . a s. Suppose that the number of the current karan . a is k and that 1 < k < 58. Let r be the remainder In other words, except for r = 0, which indicates Vis .t . i, r directly gives the number of the movable karan . a that is current. If k is one of 1, 58, 59, or 60, the current karan . a is one of the four ﬁxed karan . a s. Their order and appearance in a lunar month is described in the verse. That the verse is elliptical is evident from the large amount of bracketed text in the translation.
15 For 16 The
from the division of k − 1 by 7. If r = 1, the current karan alava; and so on. . a is Bava; if r = 2, it is B¯
karan . a s, see [71 546]. table is based on [71 546, Table III.18].
164 Karan . a number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 Name Kim . stughna Bava B¯ alava Kaulava Taitila Gara Van . ij Vis .t .i ´ Sakuni Catus . pada N¯ aga
Table 4.5: Numbers and names of the karan . as ∼ To compute the naks . atra and the yoga ∼ (38)
The degrees of [the longitude of] the Moon and the degrees of [the lon
gitude of] the Moon increased by [the longitude of] the Sun are separately multiplied by 3 and divided by 40. [The two results are, respectively,] the naks . atra and the yoga . Having subtracted the remainder [of any of the two above quantities] from 800, that [result] is [ﬁrst] multiplied by 20, [then] multiplied by 60, [and ﬁnally] divided by the appropriate velocity [depending on whether we are working with the naks as . atra or the yoga ]. [This is] the respective ghat . ik¯ [to elapse before the commencement of the next naks . atra or yoga ].
In addition to being divided into 12 signs, the ecliptic is also divided into 27 naks . atra s, which ◦ are sometimes translated as “lunar mansions”. The ﬁrst naks . atra starts at Aries 0 , and each spans
360◦ 27
= 13◦ 20′ = 800′ .
The word naks . atra here refers to the period of time it takes the Moon to traverse a naks . atra , i.e., to travel 800′. Similarly, a yoga is a period of time during which the sum of the distances traveled by the Sun and the Moon equals 800′ . In the following, let λ⊙ and λ be the longitudes of the Sun and the Moon, respectively. Since longitudes are measured in minutes of arc per civil day and 800 . atra 60 is the length of a naks in degrees, it is clear that 60 3 ×λ = ×λ (4.43) 800 40 determines the naks . atra , the integer part giving the current naks . atra and the fractional part the position of the Moon in that naks . atra . Completely analogously, the yoga is determined as 3 60 × (λ⊙ + λ ) = × (λ⊙ + λ ). 800 40 (4.44)
165 The remainder, i.e., the fractional part, of either
3 40
the minutes of arc that have been traversed since the start of the current naks . atra or yoga ; if the ′ remainder is subtracted from 800 , we get the minutes of arc to be traversed before the start of the
×λ
or
3 40
× (λ⊙ + λ ) gives, respectively,
next naks . atra or yoga . If this is multiplied by 60 and divided by the appropriate velocity (v in the case of a naks a s to elapse before . atra , and v⊙ + v in the case of a yoga ), we get the ghat . ik¯
the start of the next naks a s elapsed since the start of . atra or yoga (we can similarly get the ghat . ik¯ the current naks na ¯nar¯ aja does not mention this in the verse). The reason for the . atra or yoga , but J˜ multiplication by 20 prescribed in the verse is not clear to me.17
∼ Rising times of the signs ∼ (39–40)
Since the beginning and end points of a sign do not rise at the
same place on the horizon on account of the obliqueness of the ecliptic, therefore the rising [times] of the signs are not the same. [First] the diﬀerence between the square of the Sine of 1, 2, and 3 signs [taken separately] and the square of the Sine of the [Sun’s] declination [is to be computed]. The square root [of each result] multiplied by the radius is divided by the radius of the [Sun’s] diurnal circle. The arcs corresponding to the results [treated as Sines] are diminished by their respective preceding arc[, if it exists], and thus the rising [times] of [all] the signs, [being these 3 rising times] placed in regular and inverted order, are attained for a city on the terrestrial equator. For a given location, the rising [times of the six ﬁrst signs for a location on the terrestrial equator] are diminished or increased by the ascensional diﬀerences corresponding to [the Sun’s precessional longitude being] 1, 2, and 3 signs in the right order [in the case of the three ﬁrst signs] and put down inversely [in the case of the next three signs]. [The rising times] are inverted for the six [signs beginning] from Libra.
In the above translation, I have taken the word kutas in the sense of yatas . For k = 1, 2, 3 compute ak = R× (Sin(k × 30◦ ))2 − (Sin(δk ))2 , Cos(δk ) (4.45)
where δ1 , δ2 , and δ3 are the declinations of the Sun when its precessional longitude is 30◦ , 60◦ , and 90◦ , respectively. Cos(δk ) is the radius of the Sun’s diurnal circle when the precessional longitude of
17 The
Vat svarasiddh¯ anta (2.6.2) likewise multiplies by 20. . e´
166 Sign Aries Taurus Gemini Cancer Leo Virgo Libra Scorpius Sagittarius Capricornus Aquarius Pisces Rising time on the equator τ1 τ2 τ3 τ3 τ2 τ1 τ1 τ2 τ3 τ3 τ2 τ1 Rising time elsewhere τ1 − ω1 τ2 − ω2 τ3 − ω3 τ3 + ω3 τ2 + ω2 τ1 + ω1 τ1 + ω1 τ2 + ω2 τ3 + ω3 τ3 − ω3 τ2 − ω2 τ1 − ω1
Table 4.6: Rising times of the signs the Sun is δk . The correctness of the formula, which is also given by Bh¯ askara ii in the Siddh¯ anta18 ´ siroman . i , can easily be shown using spherical geometry.
After computing a1 , a2 , and a3 , we treat each as a Sine and ﬁnd the corresponding arcs, α1 , α2 , and α3 . In other words, ak = Sin(αk ) for k = 1, 2, 3. Note that α1 , α2 , and α3 are the right ascensions of the three arcs of length 30◦ , 60◦ , and 90◦ measured from the vernal equinox (i.e., the longitudes of the endpoints of these arcs measured with respect to the celestial equator). Finally, let τ1 τ2 τ3 = = = α1 , α2 − α1 , and α3 − α2 . (4.46) (4.47) (4.48)
Then τ + 1, τ2 , and τ3 are the rising times of Aries, Taurus, and Gemini, respectively, for a location on the terrestrial equator. To ﬁnd the rising times for all the signs for such a location, we have to place these three in regular and inverted order, as prescribed by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja. This is most easily explained by looking at Table 4.6, the second column of which gives the rising time of each sign for a location on the terrestrial equator. It is easy to compute τ1 , τ2 , and τ3 , but J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja does not give their values. Now, if we are not on the terrestrial equator, the rising times will be diﬀerent due to the ascensional diﬀerence. Let ω1 , ω2 , and ω3 be the ascensional diﬀerences at the given location corresponding to the Sun having the declinations 30◦ , 60◦ , and 90◦ . The rule for taking the ascensional diﬀerences into account is illustrated by the third column of Table 4.6 (the inverted order of the last six signs is reﬂected in when we add and subtract the ascensional diﬀerences).
18 Siddh¯ anta´ siroman i ,
.
gan adhy¯ aya , spas t¯ adhik¯ ara , 54–55. . it¯ ..
167 ∼ Differences of declinations ∼ (41)
First, [since] they are located very obliquely by a diﬀerence of declinations equal to 11;45 degrees, the rising of Aries and Pisces [occur] in very few pala s. The risings of Taurus and Aquarius [occur] by a diﬀerence of declinations equal to 9 degrees. Being located at a diﬀerence of declinations equal to 4 degrees, [the risings] of Gemini and Capricornus [occur] by many [pala s].
Let again δ1 be the declination of the Sun when its precessional longitude is 30◦ , δ2 the declina
tion of the Sun when its precessional longitude is 60◦ , and δ3 the declination of the Sun when its precessional longitude is 90◦ . Sin(30◦ ) × Sin(24◦ ) 1719 × 1397 1 = = 698 , R 3438 2 and by the formula given in verse 12, Sin(δ1 ) = δ1 = Sin(δ1 ) − Sin3 1 + 3 × 225 × 225 × 60 Sin4 − Sin3 = 6845 ≈ 11;45◦ 584 Then (4.49)
(4.50)
(the division by 60 is carried out in order to get a result in degrees). This agrees with what is given in the verse. 101573597 ≈ 18;46, (4.51) 5414850 but 18;46 − 11;45 = 7;1, whereas the verse has 9. However, a calculation using a modern calculator δ2 = gives δ2 = 20;37, and since 20;37 − 11; 45 = 8;52, this is in better agreement with J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s data. Finally, since δ3 is the declination of an arc of 90◦ , it is obvious that δ3 = ε = 24◦ . As Similarly,
at by a modern calculation, however, we get 24 − 20;37 = 3;23, which is closer to J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s data.
24 − 18;46 = 5; 14, this result also deviates from J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s numbers. Using the value of δ2 arrived It appears that J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja was able to compute a better value of δ2 than what the method of
verse 12 gives us. His value is, in fact, better than we found, which could imply that he used a better method for computing it or took the number from another source. The numbers corresponding to the remaining six signs can easily be inferred.
∼ To find the rising arcs ∼
[If, in three separate right triangles,] the Sines of the endpoints of the [ﬁrst] three signs are the hypotenuses, which are on the ecliptic, and the Sines of the [corresponding] declinations [of the Sun] are the legs, which are on the respective diurnal circles, [then] the rising arcs [on the celestial equator] are [given] by the corresponding uprights, which are on
(42a–b)
168
O
F
D
E
B A
C
Figure 4.7: The rising arcs
C A
E
O
B
D
F
Figure 4.8: The rising arcs
the [corresponding] diurnal circle.
The rising arcs determined here are the segments of the celestial equator corresponding to to the three ﬁrst signs on the ecliptic (measured from the vernal equinox). Since segments of the equator correspond to time, these arcs determine the rising times of the three ﬁrst signs. On Figure 4.7, the arc ACEF is part of the ecliptic, the point A marking the vernal equinox. The angles AOC , COE , and EOF are each 30◦ . On Figure 4.8, the line OACE is the ecliptic and the line OBDF is the celestial equator. The point O marks the vernal equinox. The points O, A, C , and E are separated by 30◦ . Therefore, on Figure 4.8 the lengths of OA, OC , and OE correspond, respectively, to the lengths of BC , DE , and OF on Figure 4.7. It follows that on Figure 4.8, the line OA is Sin(30◦ ), the line OC is Sin(60◦ ),
169 and the line OE is Sin(90◦ ). Furthermore, as is easily seen, the line AB is Sin(δ1 ), the line CD is Sin(δ2 ), and the line EF is Sin(δ3 ), where δ1 , δ2 , and δ3 are as deﬁned in the preceding. From all this we see that the line OB on Figure 4.8 is the Sine of the arc on the celestial equator corresponding to the arc OA on the ecliptic, and similarly for OD and OC , and OF and OE . By Sines of the equatorial rising arcs of the ﬁrst three signs. subtracting appropriately, i.e., subtracting OB  from OD and OD from OF , we can ﬁnd the
∼ To find the ascendant at a given time ∼ (42c–d–43)
The ascendant [can be found as follows]. The pala s of the given
ghat a s [i.e., the given time in pala s rather than in ghat a s] are dimin. ik¯ . ik¯ ished by the remaining part of the rising time of the sign that the Sun is in [i.e., the time it will take until the Sun enters the next sign] and the pala s [of the rising times] of the signs that has risen completely. The result of the division of the product of the result and 30 by the rising time of the sign that currently rising is in degrees and so.[This quantity] increased by the signs preceding the currently rising sign beginning from Aries and diminished by the degrees of precession is the [longitude of] the ascendant. The time [elapsed since sunrise] in pala s and so on [can be found] from the diﬀerence between [the longitude of] the precessional Sun and [the longitude of the] precessional ascendant. When the ascendant is to be computed at night, the time is [found] from [the longitude of] the Sun increased by six signs. [When] both [the Sun and the ascendant] are in the same sign, the rising time [of that sign] is multiplied by the degrees [of the angular distance] between them and divided by 30.
I have taken p¯ urva in 43c in the sense of “signs that has risen completely”. Literally, however, p¯ urva means “preceding”, the sense in which the word is used in 44a. But taking the meaning to be the “preceding signs” does not make sense here, whereas “signs that has risen completely” ﬁts the context. The ascendant is the point of the ecliptic that is rising on the local horizon at a given time. The procedure for computing the ascendant is illustrated in Figure 4.9. In the ﬁgure, the horizontal line is the local horizon and the oblique line is the ecliptic. The ecliptic is divided into signs by small perpendicular line segments. Suppose that the Sun is at the position P in the sign S1 , and let A denote the ascendant. Of the signs following S1 , S2 and S3 have risen completely above the horizon, while S4 is rising.
170
S1
P
S2
S3 A S4
Figure 4.9: Computing the ascendant
171 Let the rising times of S1 , S2 , S3 , and S4 be t1 , t2 , t3 , and t4 , respectively, and let us assume that t pala s have elapsed since sunrise. At sunrise, the Sun and the ascendant coincided, so between sunrise and the given time, a portion of S1 , all of S2 and S3 , and a portion of S4 have risen. If the angular distance between the Sun and the beginning of S2 is a, it took this segment get
a×t1 30
pala s to rise. It further took t2 + t3 pala s for S2 and S3 to rise. Subtracting these times from t, we a × t1 − t2 − t3 (4.52) 30 as the pala s that it has taken the segment of S4 from its beginning to the point on the horizon to s=t− rise. If this segment spans the angular distance b, then b= 30 × s . t4 (4.53)
We now know the point of S4 , i.e., A, that is on the horizon. This point is the ascendant. To ﬁnd its proper longitude, we ﬁrst have to add all of the preceding signs beginning with Aries, and then convert this tropical longitude to a sidereal one by subtracting the degrees of precession.
∼ Trepidation explained ∼ (44) Aries and so on move eastward away from the celestial equator when the pravaha wind is diminished, and westward when [the pravaha wind] is increasing. Therefore, the degrees of precession are not the same each year. In the following we will continue to use the word “precession” for the motion of the equinoxes against the backdrop of the ﬁxed stars. In the preceding, we have translated the Sanskrit word ayana as precession and the word s¯ ayana as “precessional”, which is useful for immediate understanding. However, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s model does not actually operate with precession of the equinoxes, but rather with trepidation of the equinoxes. Trepidation of the equinoxes is the theory that the vernal equinox moves a certain angular distance to the east, then stops, and move the same distance to the west, then stops and moves the same distance to the east, and so on ad inﬁnitum .19 No details regarding the rate of the motion are given by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja. More details are given in the S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta , where it is stated that the trepidation of the equinox extends over an arc of 27◦ at a rate of 54′′ per year.20 ‘
19 For
the history of precession and trepidation in early India, see [67]. 3.9–11. See [71 610].
20 S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta
172 ∼ To find the amount of precession ∼ (45)
The diﬀerence between the degrees of [the longitude of] the Sun
[determined] from the noon shadow and [the longitude of] the Sun [determined] from a karan . a [work] is the number of degrees of precession. In this regard, after a year, a diﬀerence in minutes of arc [accumulated between the tropical and sidereal longitudes of the Sun] is seen directly. For the sake of computation of the ascendant, the ascensional diﬀerence, and the declination, [this diﬀerence must be taken into account].
From the shadow cast by a gnomon at noon, we can ﬁnd the declination of the Sun, and from the declination its tropical longitude (see 2.1.27–29 and commentary for how to ﬁnd the declination and longitude). This will diﬀer from the longitude found by carrying out the computations prescribed in a karan . a treatise (a type of astronomical treatise that provides formulae, but not theory; see the Introduction, p. 24), which will give the sidereal longitude. The diﬀerence between the two longitudes is the degrees of precession. As the precessional rate is given as 54′′ in the S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta , it is roughly correct that one should see a diﬀerence of about a minute of arc after a year.
∼ To find the amount of precession ∼ (46)
A day [the daylight period of which is] measured by 30 ghat a s is to . ik¯ be observed. The diﬀerence between the degrees of [the longitude of] the Sun on that day and [the longitude of the Sun] on the equinoctial day is the number of degrees of precession. The computation of the declination, the ascendant, and the ascensional diﬀerence is to be done from [the solar longitude] corrected by these [degrees of precession].
A day whose daylight period is 30 ghat a s is an equinoctial day. The idea seems to be that you . ik¯ compute the equinoctial day by an algorithm relying on an outdated value for current precession, and then correct the amount by observing the diﬀerence between that and the true equinoctial day with daylight equal to 30 ghat a s. . ik¯
∼ Precession accounting for certain differences ∼ (47)
The ghat a s corresponding to the diﬀerence between the correct . ik¯ computation of a shadow by the primeval sages and the visible shadow is due to the [precessional] diﬀerence.
173
The method recorded here, which was enunciated by the ancients, is easy, as it is based on proportions and so on, and it does not give errors.
A shadow computation refers to using the shadow cast by a gnomon for determining various astronomical values. This will be taken up in detail in the next section. Now, when one comes across a shadow computation in a work that diﬀers from we see in practice, but is otherwise correct, it is to be understood that the diﬀerence is due to precession.
∼ Concluding verse ∼ (48)
Thus is the planetary rectiﬁcation produced from the velocity in the beautiful and abundant tantra composed by J˜ n¯ anar¯ aja, the son of N¯ agan¯ atha, which is the foundation of [any] library.
Chapter 5
grahagan adhy¯ aya section 3 . it¯ tripra´ sn¯ adhik¯ ara Three questions
∼ Introductory verse ∼ (1)
For the sake of computing the results caused by direction, place, and time, I will now present the section entitled “Three Questions” in the Sundara [i.e., the Siddh¯ antasundara ], which has a collection of ﬂowers [in the form of] good v¯ asan¯ a s [i.e., methods], which is a moving and very wide spherical tree, and which is the greatest.
This chapter deals with three types of questions, namely those relating to direction, place, and
time. The wordplay in the verse is not entirely clear. The word golataroh . (literally, spheretree) could also refer to the Earth, but it seems most likely that it is this treatise that has ﬂowers in the form of v¯ asan¯ a s.
∼ Determining the eastwest and northsouth lines ∼ (2)
The shadow of a gnomon that is straight and positioned on ground that has been made even by means of water [falls along the] southnorth [line] at [the time of] the ghat a s of midday. The east and west directions . ik¯ are produced from the tail and head of [a ﬁgure in the shape of] a ﬁsh
174
175
Figure 5.1: Finding the eastwest line
produced from it [the northsouth line].
This verse is identical to verse 2.1.26, at which place comments are given.
∼ An alternative method for determing the directions ∼ (3)
After placing a ﬂexible and straight rod on a peg at the center of a circle [drawn] on even ground on a raised platform, so that it is pointing towards [the rising point of] the Sun, the eastern direction is [found] by means of the degrees in the arc produced by the Sine of the amplitude placed in the opposite direction from its [the rod’s] tip on the circumference [of the circle].
Consider Figure 5.1. The larger circle is the circle described in the verse, and the smaller circle
is the Sun. The rod, which is the bold line, is oriented towards the position of the rising Sun. Now, unless it is the equinoctial day, the Sun will not rise exactly due east. The angle between due east and the rising point of the Sun is called the rising amplitude, or simply the amplitude. If the amplitude, which can be found through computation, is known, we can ﬁnd due east on the circle; on the ﬁgure it is the second, nonbold line emanating from the center of the larger circle. The reason that the amplitude is placed in its opposite direction is that this arc is normally measured from the eastern point, but we are extending it from the rising point of the Sun.
176 ∼ Establishing the remaining directions ∼
The western direction extending from the said center is the shadow from a peg at the center. On account of the Sun . . . [?]. The western and eastern directions are [determined] in that manner in order. The northern [direction] is given by the polestar. Such is the determination of the cardinal directions.
(4) This verse deals with the establishment of the remaining directions. The procedure is clear from the translation. Note, however, that the meaning of the last part of p¯ ada b (raviva´ sena vi´ saty apaiti ) is unclear and this passage might be corrupt.
∼ The equinoctial figure ∼ (5)
When the precessional Sun is situated at the end of Virgo or at the
end of Pisces, the shadow [cast by a gnomon] at noon is the equinoctial shadow. [In a rightangled triangle,] this [equinoctial shadow] is the leg, the gnomon is the upright, and the hypotenuse is the equinoctial shadow. This is the ﬁrst ﬁgure among the ﬁgures arising from the latitude.
On the equinoctial day, i.e., when the Sun is at one of the equinoctial points (the two intersections between the ecliptic and the celestial equator) and thus on the celestial equator, the shadow cast by the gnomon at noon is called the equinoctial shadow. The corresponding hypotenuse (i.e., the distance between the top of the gnomon and the end of the shadow) is called the equinoctial hypotenuse. It should be noted that the gnomon is always considered to have the height 12. This is illustrated on Figure 5.2, where g is the gnomon (of height 12), s0 the equinoctial shadow, and h0 the corresponding hypotenuse, which is called the equinoctial hypotenuse. Note that the lengths are chosen so as to conform with the situation at the latitude of P¯ arthapura. Now, since the Sun is on the celestial equator on the equinoctial day, the angle between the gnomon and the equinoctial hypotenuse is equal to to the local terrestrial latitude φ. Similarly, the ¯ (the angle between the equinoctial shadow and the equinoctial hypotenuse is the local colatitude φ ¯ = 90◦ − φ). colatitude is deﬁned as 90◦ diminished by the latitude, i.e., φ following. The triangle given here is the ﬁrst in a series of similar triangles that will be presented in the
∼ Similar rightangled triangles from an analemma ∼ (6–11)
The vertical line from the equinoctial point [at noon] to the Earth is
177
h0 g
s0
Figure 5.2: Shadow cast by a gnomon at noon on an equinoctial day
the Sine of the local latitude, which is the leg [of a rightangled triangle]; the radius, which is between the center of the Earth and the equinoctial point, is the hypotenuse; and Sine of the colatitude is said to be the upright. This [upright] is situated at the tip of the Sine of the local latitude from the center of the Earth. [In a rightangled triangle,] the earthSine, which is known from the previous, is the leg. The [corresponding] upright is the Sine of the declination [of the Sun], and the hypotenuse is the Sine of the amplitude. [This rightangled triangle can be divided into two rightangled triangles as follows.] One leg is the earthSine, another the Sine of the declination [of the Sun]. The base is the Sine of the amplitude, and the upright is the Sine of the sixo’clock altitude. [In the ﬁrst of these triangles,] the ﬁrst segment of the base is the part beginning at the tip of the Sine of the amplitude; it is the upright. The [corresponding] hypotenuse is the Sine of the declination, and the leg is the Sine of the sixo’clock altitude. [In the second triangle,] the other segment of the base is the leg. The [corresponding] upright is the Sine of the sixo’clock altitude, and the hypotenuse in this rightangled triangle is the earthSine. The perpendicular from the [position of] the Sun when it is on the prime vertical [i.e., the Sine of the altitude of the Sun when it is on the
178
Z
B C
φ
E
H
G
A
O
D
Figure 5.3: Analemma providing the similar rightangled triangles
prime vertical] is called the Sine of the primevertical altitude. This as the the upright, the Sine of the amplitude as the leg, and the primevertical hypotenuse as the hypotenuse [form] another rightangled triangle. Another rightangled triangle is [formed when] the upright is the Sine of the primevertical altitude diminished by the Sine of the sixo’clock altitude, the hypotenuse is the primevertical hypotenuse diminished by the earthSine, and the leg is the ﬁrst segment of the Sine of the amplitude. Both the Sine of the primevertical altitude and the primevertical hypotenuse have two segments. [In another rightangled triangle,] the leg is the Sine of the declination, the upright is the primevertical hypotenuse diminished by the earthSine. When the Sun is situated north or south of the prime vertical, the hypotenuse is in this case the Sine of the primevertical altitude [?].
Figure 5.3 shows the analemma from which the similar rightangled triangles given by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja are derived. The horizontal line is the local horizon and the halfcircle is the part of the local meridian that is above the horizon. The line OC is the equator. The sixo’clock circle is the great circle that is perpendicular to the celestial equator and passes through the east and west points (it is called the sixo’clock circle because the Sun crosses it at 6 in the morning and again at 6 in the evening); it is the line OE on Figure 5.3. The diurnal circle is the circle describing the diurnal motion of the Sun (at the given time), i.e., the path of the Sun’s
179 apparent motion around the Earth (following the apparent motion of the ﬁxed stars); it is the line AB on Figure 5.3. The prime vertical is the great circle that is perpendicular to the horizon and passes through the east and west points; it is the line OZ on Figure 5.3. The sixo’clock altitude is the altitude of the point of intersection between the sixo’clock circle and the diurnal circle. The earthSine was introduced in the previous chapter (see 2.2.34). It is the arc of the diurnal circle between the horizon and the sixo’clock circle, i.e., the angular distance traveled by the Sun between its rising and its reaching the sixo’clock circle. Of course, this is the same angular distance as between the Sun reaching the sixo’clock circle in the evening and its setting. Taken either way, it is the line AG on Figure 5.3. The amplitude is the arc on the horizon between the east point (O on Figure 5.3) and the intersection between the horizon and the sixo’clock circle (the point A on Figure 5.3). Note that we could similarly have deﬁned the amplitude with respect to the west point. With our deﬁnition, it is the angular distance between the east point (O) and the point where the Sun rises or sets. It is the line OA on Figure 5.3. Note that the celestial radius used in the above is taken to be equal to the trigonometric radius for simplicity of computation. As such, the length of OC in Figure 5.3 is R = 3438. We can now use Sines to express other lengths. For example, the length of the line OG is thus the Sine of the declination of the Sun, i.e., Sin(δ ). Figure 5.4 shows triangle OAH in Figure 5.3 with further divisions according to the verses. The ¯ is the local colatitude. angle φ is the local latitude, and the angle φ The eight triangles (given in the order: leg, upright, and hypotenuse) listed by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja are as follows: 1. the equinoctial shadow, the gnomon, and the equinoctial hypotenuse, which is shown in Figure 5.2; 2. triangle OCD in Figure 5.3, containing the Sine of the latitude OD, the Sine of the colatitude CD, and the radius OC ; 3. triangle OAG in Figure 5.4, containing the earthSine AG, the Sine of the Sun’s declination OG, and the Sine of the amplitude OA; 4. triangle OF G in Figure 5.4, containing the Sine of the sixo’clock altitude GF , the ﬁrst segment of the Sine of the amplitude OF , and the Sine of the declination OG; 5. triangle AF G in Figure 5.4, containing the second segment of the Sine of the amplitude AF , the Sine of the sixo’clock altitude F G, and the earthSine AG; 6. triangle OAH in Figure 5.4, containing, the Sine of the amplitude OA, the Sine of the primevertical altitude OH , and the primevertical hypotenuse AH ;
180
H
φ
G
¯ φ
¯ φ φ
I
φ
¯ φ ¯ φ φ
A
F
O
Figure 5.4: Triangle OAH from Figure 5.3
181 7. triangle GHI in Figure 5.4, containing the ﬁrst segment of the Sine of the amplitude GI , the Sine of the primevertical altitude diminished by the Sine of the sixo’clock altitude HI , and the primevertical hypotenuse diminished by the earthSine GH ; and 8. triangle OGH in Figure 5.4, containing the Sine of the declination OG, the primevertical hypotenuse diminished by the earthSine GH , and the Sine of the primevertical altitude OH . That all of these triangles are similar is easy to see.
∼ Similar triangles and proportions ∼ (12a–b)
By means of the measures of the leg, hypotenuse, and upright in any one among these [rightangled triangles], a computation of the leg and so on in another rightangled triangle [among the ones given] can be carried out by means of a proportion.
Since all the rightangled triangles given are similar, we can use a proportion to determine unknown sides. J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja will give some examples of this below in verses 13–16.
∼ Relationship of the sides in a rightangled triangle ∼
The hypotenuse [in one of the rightangled triangles] is [equal to] the square root of the sum of the square of the leg and the square of the upright. The upright is [equal to] the square root of the diﬀerence of the square of that [hypotenuse] and the square of the leg.
If l, u, and h are the leg, the upright, and the hypotenuse, respectively, in a rightangled triangle, h= and u= h2 − l 2 . (5.2) l 2 + u2 , (5.1)
(12c–d)
Both results follow directly from the Pythagorean theorem.
∼ Example of the use of a proportion ∼ (13)
If the upright and the leg are, respectively, the gnomon and the equinoctial shadow when the hypotenuse is the equinoctial shadow, then what are they when it [the hypotenuse] is measured by the radius? [In
182
this case,] the upright and the leg are the Sine of the colatitude and the Sine of the latitude, respectively.
This verse provides an example of how to use a proportion based on two of the given triangles, in this case the ﬁrst and second triangles in the list of similar triangles on p. 179. Now, if l and u are the leg and the upright of the second triangle, we get from two proportions that s0 l = R h0 (5.3)
u g , = R h0 ¯). from which it is seen that l = Sin(φ) and u = Sin(φ
and
(5.4)
∼ Another example of a proportion ∼ (14)
[If] the leg [of a rightangled triangle] is the shadow when the shadowhypotenuse is the one at noon, then what is it [the leg] when the hypotenuse is the radius? The Sine of the degrees of the zenith distance [of the Sun] is attained as the result. From this [Sine] the degrees of the latitude are to be computed as was explained.
Consider Figure 3.2 on p. 107 in the commentary on verses 2.1.27–29a. On an arbitrary day, the shadow triangle (gnomon, shadow, and shadowhypotenuse) is similar to the rightangled triangle with hypotenuse OS and one leg along the line OZ in Figure 3.2.
∼ Further examples of proportions ∼ (15–16)
The equinoctial shadow is [separately] multiplied by the Sine of the
sixo’clock altitude, the Sine of the amplitude, the ﬁrst segment of the Sine of the amplitude, and the second segment of the Sine of the amplitude and [each result is] divided [separately] by the equinoctial shadow. [The results] are the Sine of the declination of the Sun, the primevertical hypotenuse, the upper segment of that [primevertical hypotenuse], and the earthSine. The Sine of the sixo’clock altitude, the Sine of the amplitude, the ﬁrst segment of the Sine of the amplitude, and the second segment of the Sine of the amplitude are [separately] multiplied by 12 [i.e., the height of the gnomon] and divided by the equinoctial shadow. [The results] are, respectively, the ﬁrst segment of the Sine of the amplitude, the Sine of
183
the primevertical altitude, the upper segment of that [Sine of the primevertical altitude], and Sine of the sixo’clock altitude.
The ﬁrst four proportions given are derived from the similarity of the ﬁrst triangle with the fourth, the sixth, the seventh, and the ﬁfth triangles, respectively, from the list of similar triangles on p. 179. The next four proportions are derived from the similarity of the ﬁrst triangle with the same four triangles in the same order.
∼ Problems relating to location ∼
Now [some] questions concerning location.
∼ A problem concerning location ∼ (17)
[Narrative translation:] Tell [me] the length of the journey of the
swift man, who, upon learning that his friend had gained kingship and was sitting on the lion’s seat [i.e., the throne], deprived of luster went north [to a place where] he had the luster of a former king. [Technical translation:] Tell [me] the length of the journey of the swift man, who, upon learning that the sun had attained lordship sitting in the lion’s seat [i.e., was in Leo], cast no shadow and who went north [until] he had a shadow of [length] 16 [falling] towards the east.
This is the ﬁrst of the problems posed in this chapter where the poetic technique of double entendre (´ sles . a ) is employed. As was stated in the introduction, it is necessary to give two separate translations for each of these verses, one narrative and one technical. As can be seen, the narrative translation sets the scene. A king has been ousted by his friend, who now occupies the throne, and ﬂees to another region, where he is given recognition as a former king. A question is posed, but the narrative does not give the information needed to answer it. For this we need to reread the verse, leading to the technical translation. The problem can be solved as follows. We have two places: P1 , the point of departure, and P2 , the point of arrival. As the journey is due north and the circumference of the earth is 5059 yojana s according to the Siddh¯ antasundara (see 1.1.74), we only need to know the latitudes of P1 and P2 , φP1 and φP2 , to determine the distance between them. At P1 , there is no shadow, so the sun is in the zenith, which means that φP1 = δ , where δ is the declination of the Sun. Now, the statement that the Sun is in the Lion’s seat means that the Sun is in Leo. In fact, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja intends for it to be at the midpoint of Leo (see solution to this
184 verse below), in other words, we know that λ∗ , the sun’s tropical longitude, is λ∗ = 4s 15◦ = 135◦ (the notation 1s means 1 sign, i.e., 30◦ ). By using J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s small Sine table and the formula and then δ = 16◦ 31′ (see Equation 4.36 on p. 160). Hence φP1 = 16◦ 31′ . Sinℓ (δ ) = Sinℓ (ε) × Sinℓ (λ)/R, where ε = 24◦ is the obliquity of the ecliptic, we get Sinℓ (δ ) = 45;2,
At P2 , the shadow has length 16 and falls due east, which means that the Sun is on the prime g α = √ 2 , where g is the length vertical. We can ﬁnd α, the altitude of the Sun, by the proportion R 2
g +s
of the gnomon, i.e. 12, and s is the length of the shadow, i.e. 16, which gives a = 96. Since the Sun
Sin(δ ) α
is on the prime vertical,
=
Sin(φP2 ) , R
3 which gives us that Sin(φP2 ) = 75 60 and φP2 = 28◦ 19′ .
by the next verse corresponds to 14 × 11;48 yojana s, or 165;12 yojana s. This is approximately 1300 kilometers, roughly the distance between Hyderabad and Delhi. The term sim asana (lion’s seat) is used in the verse is an astrological term found in the Br . h¯ . hat1 p¯ ar¯ a´ sarahor¯ a´ sa ¯stra . However, it is not used in this sense here.
Now, the degrees that the man traveled north are φP2 − φP1 = 28◦ 19′ − 16◦ 31′ = 11◦ 48′ , which
∼ To compute the distance between two locations of the same latitude ∼ (18)
[Here is] the rule: The diﬀerence of the latitudes at two locations is multiplied by 14. Thus the yojana s of the journey [are found].
As the circumference of the Earth is 5059 yojana s (see 1.1.74) there are 19 5059 = 14 ≈ 14 360 360 (5.5)
yojana s per degree on any great circle through the poles. Therefore, if a person is traveling straight north or straight south, the length of his journey in yojana s can be found by multiplying the diﬀerence of the latitude of the place from which he set out and the latitude of his destination by 14. For this formula, see also 1.1.25.
∼ Solution to verse 17 ∼
In this case, the Sun is at the midpoint of Leo [i.e., its tropical longitude is] 4s 15◦ . The ﬁrst shadow [has length] 0, the second [has the length] 16 [falling towards] east. In this case, by the method given in verse 22, having computed the degrees of the latitude from the equinoctial shadow, the yojana s found are 167.
Most manuscripts give 157 yojana s rather than 167. However, we got 165; 12 yojana s above. Note that J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s solution is really only a sketch.
1 Brhatp¯ ar¯ a´ sarahor¯ a´ s¯ astra
6.45–47 (see [84 1.87]). I am thankful to Martin Gansten for calling my attention to . this astrological usage of the term sim asana . . h¯
185 ∼ A problem concerning location ∼ (19)
[Narrative translation:] When a good goose perished in the mouth of
a crocodile, the best among sages left [lake] M¯ anasa. [While on his way,] ´ he saw a light in the northeastern direction resembling [the deity] Siva. Tell me the equinoctial shadow at that place! [Technical translation:] When the Sun, which was at the beginning of Capricorn, was setting, the best among sages left [lake] M¯ anasa. [While on his way,] he saw that the shadow [of a gnomon] was [of length] 11 in the northeastern direction. Tell me the equinoctial shadow at that place!
Both the narrative and technical meanings of the verse are clear, but the solution to the problem, as per the following verses is not clear.
∼ To compute the given shadow and the given direction ∼ (20–21)
The diﬀerence between the square of the Sine of the declination [of
the Sun] and the square of the Sine of the altitude [of the Sun] is multiplied by 2. This is the divisor [h¯ ara ]. It is multiplied by the sixth part of the Sine of the altitude [of the Sun]. This is the mean leg [b¯ ahu ]. Whatever is the diﬀerence between the square of the Sine of the declination [of the Sun] and [this] leg multiplied by 2 times the divisor, the square root of the diﬀerence or the sum of the square of that and the square of the mean [leg] is decreased or increased by the mean [leg], depending on whether [the Sine of] the altitude [of the Sun] is greater or smaller than [the Sine of] the declination. In this case, whatever is the result [from the division of this quantity] by the divisor, that is the equinoctial shadow. [This] multiplied by the direction Sine is the [given?] shadow. The [mean?] leg divided by the [corresponding shadow]hypotenuse [?] is the given direction. When the direction Sine [is found] by means of the radius R, what [is found] from the [given?] shadow? When it is understood that the leg is not subtracted from that which is to be subtracted [?], then, by means of an inverse [procedure] that which is to be subtracted is entire by means of one’s own intelligence.
The direction Sine is the Sine of the degrees separating the current altitudecircle of the Sun from the prime vertical.
186 The procedure in these two verses is not clear.
∼ Demonstration verse for previous two verses ∼
The demonstration verse for verses 20–21 [is given now].
∼ Demonstration verse for verses 20–21 ∼ (22)
One should compute the base of [the Sine of] the altitude by means of the unknown equinoctial shadow. [The sine of] the amplitude [is found] from the correction of the leg by that [base of the Sine of the altitude]. The square of the palabh¯ a [equinoctial shadow?] is increased by the square of 12 [i.e., 144]. [This is] the square of the equinoctial hypotenuse. The square of [the Sine of] the amplitude is divided by the square of 12 multiplied by the square of the Sine of the declination [of the Sun]. The square of the previous [eastern?] [Sine of] the amplitude is equal to that. In this case, the equinoctial shadow [is found] from an application of b¯ ıja s from the same karan . a [treatise].
The procedure outlined here is unclear.
∼ Solution to verse 19 ∼
[The tropical longitude of] the Sun is 9s 0◦ 0′ 0′′ . By means of the method [for computing a sine using the table] of small Sines, the Sine of the declination [of the Sun] corresponding to that [tropical longitude] is 64;20, [the Sine of] the altitude is 117;48, the direction Sine is 112;0. The equinoctial shadow found [from this] is 1;7, and the [corresponding] degrees of terrestrial latitude are 5;7.
Since the tropical longitude of the Sun is λ∗ = 9s , Sinℓ (λ∗ ) = R (note that since we are operating with small Sines, R = 160). By the formula given in 2.32c–d, Sinℓ (δ ) = Sinℓ (λ∗ ) × Sinℓ (ε) = Sinℓ (ε) = Sinℓ (24◦ ). R (5.6)
Using the formula given in 2.2.13–14, we get Sinℓ (24◦ ) = 6 × 23 + 24 + 25 = 64;20. 9 (5.7)
187 The rest of the solution is not clear.
∼ A problem ∼ (23)
[Preliminary narrative translation:] The friend, having the splendor
of the previous [deity] Indra, causes pain to the hands of a virgin, his hands being harsh hands; [he is] clad in good cloth and jewels, located amongst the starmaidens [?], accompanied by his teachers and knowledgeable poets, and being the lord of chariots, horses, and men [probably referring to an army regiment]. O friend, tell me by how many yojana s the city where [this man is] is from [the city of] Dh¯ ar¯ a in the direction of southeast. [Preliminary technical translation:] The Sun, the sharprayed one, which is causing pain to Virgo with its rays, throwing a shadow equal [in legth] to 14 [falling] towards the east. [Rest of the verse unclear.]
Neither the narrative nor the technical translation is clear, especially the technical translation. The approach to a solution, outlined in verses 24–30, is also not clear.
∼ [Not clear] ∼
The direction Sine is multiplied by 12 and divided by the radius and by the local equinoctial shadow. [That is] the unknown. The product of [the Sine of] the amplitude and 12 is divided by the equinoctial shadow. That is the known. Then [that] is mean [?]. There is pair of the unknown and the known which is a product [?]. Whatever is the square root of the square of the unknown increased by 1, [that] is the divisor, it is said. The mean divided by the divisor and [then] halved is the [desired] result.
(24) The procedure in the verse is not clear.
∼ To find the yojanas between two points on a meridian ∼ (25)
The diﬀerence between the square produced from the known and the square produced from the halfdiameter [?] is to be added to the result [?] that has been squared. When the known is less than the halfdiameter or greater than it the diﬀernce of the two [quantities] is to be computed. The square root of that divided by the divisor increased or diminished by
188
the result is the beforementioned Sine of the zenith distance [of the Sun]. When multiplied by the degrees in its arc its measure is 14. These are the yojana s in the distance [between two locations on the same meridian].
The procedure is not clear.
∼ To find the Sine of the zenith distance [?] ∼
The equinoctial hypotenuse at a city [whose latitude is] known is multiplied by the Sine of the latitude of a city [whose latitude] is not known and divided by 12. This is [the Sine of] the amplitude. It is said that by means of [the Sine of] the amplitude of the Sun the Sine of the yojana s in the distance [between the two locations can be found]. If it is the given direction, it is [the Sine of] the zenith distance [?].
(26) The procedure is not clear.
∼ Solution for verse 23 ∼
In this case, [the tropical longitude of] the Sun is 5s 10◦ 0′ 0′′ . The shadow is 14 and the [shadow] hypotenuse is 18;26. By means of [the method of] small Sines, [the Sine of] the altitude is 104 and the Sine of the declination is 22;0. The equinoctial shadow is 237 and the equinoctial hypotenuse is 1217. [The Sine of] the zenith distance, attained as was explained, is 118. The yojana s are 667.
It appears that the yojana s between the two cities in verse 23 are the number of degrees in the zenith distance multiplied by 14. Let this zenith distance be z . If Sinℓ (z ) = 118, then 14 × z ≈ 665. Verse 23 is still not entirely clear.
∼ To find the Sine of the amplitude [?] ∼ (27)
Supposing that the sphere of the Earth is a perfect sphere, one’s own city is at an intersection with the sky [?]. Therefore, it is to be imagined that the given city is on a circle through the zenith and the Sun [?] located at the degrees of the sky [?]. In this case, [the Sine of] the zenith distance is the Cosine of that by means of the degrees between the two cities. [The Sine of] the altitude is the leg [of a rightangled triangle].
189
The degrees between that and the prime vertical is the base of [the Sine of] the altitude; it is [the Sine of] the amplitude.
The procedure is not clear.
∼ To find the base of the Sine of the amplitude ∼ (28)
[If] the direction Sine [is found] by means of the Sine of the degrees of the distance [between two locations?] being [equal to] the radius R, what leg [of a triangle is found] by means of the Sine of the degrees of the distance being [equal to] the unknown? In this case is [the Sine of] the amplitude diminished or increased by the leg measured by the result. This is the base of [the Sine of] the altitude in he northern and southern hemispheres, respectively.
The procedure is not clear.
∼ [Not clear] ∼ (29)
If the upright measured by [the longitude of] the Sun [is found] from
one’s own equinoctial shadow, then what Sine of the upright is the result in case of the leg measured by the base of [the Sine of] the altitude? The square of 3 [or of the radius R?] is diminished by the square of the Sine of the leg which is not know is the square of the Cosine of the degrees of the distance. Eastern [part] of the sky [?].
The procedure described is not clear.
∼ Use of b¯ ıja corrections ∼
It is said that it is the same by means of a square [?]. For the sake of the Sine of the arc of the degrees of the distance, a b¯ ıja correction is to be applied for the saking of making them equal.
(30) The procedure is not clear. For b¯ ıja corrections, see the note in the commentary on 2.83–84.
190 ∼ A problem ∼ (31)
[Preliminary narrative translation:] When the good friend [i.e.,
Laks ama, perished, Hanumat went . man . a], resting on the lappart of R¯ from Lank¯ ˙ a towards the NE direction with a desire for the cure for the arrowwound. He stood gazing at the brightness of the straw similar to ´ ıkantha. O learned one, tell rocks that reached up to the peak of Mt. Sr¯ .. the journey if you are the sun illuminating the digits of the moon. [Preliminary technical translation:] When the sun, situated in the 9th degree of Virgo, set, Hanumat went from Lank¯ ˙ a towards the NE direction with a desire for the cure for the arrowwound. He stood gazing at the noon shadow equal [in length] to 7 and facing the cardinal point of Siva’s direction [NE]. O learned one, tell the journey if you are the sun illuminating the digits of the moon.
The verse is not entirely clear.
∼ A problem ∼ (32)
[Preliminary narrative translation:] By means of which time do I
see a friend being seated on the lion’s seat [i.e., the throne], obeying the command of [the deity] Indra by means of enjoyment on the same circle [?], and bowing down to the foot of [the deity] Vis .n . u in a known city? [Preliminary technical translation:] By what time do I see the Sun being in Leo, ﬁlling [?] the eastern direction by means of motion on the prime vertical, and bowing down to the foot of Vis .n . u [a star?] in a known city.
Neither the narrative nor the technical parts of the verse are clear.
∼ To compute the given direction ∼ (33)
[The Sine of] the zenith distance [of the Sun] is to be computed, as explained, by means of [the Sine of] the amplitude of the Sun. By means of that [are found] the ghat a s in the given directionshadow [?]. Entering . ik¯ the given direction in these ghat a s, the shadow of the Sun [can be found], . ik¯ and from that the given direction is to be computed.
191 ∼ A problem ∼
Tell me the shadow of the Sun extending its part in the direction of ¯ northeast for one gone to Vis ırtha on the .n . u [?] in the vicinity of Atmat¯ bank of the [river] God¯ avar¯ ı whose equinoctial shadow is 4;20. Tell [me] also, O friend, the equinoctial shadow measured by 5;40 in the direction of northeast, by how many yojana s by one bringing [?]? I desire V¯ ar¯ an ı! . as¯
(34) Neither the narrative part or the technical part of this verse is fully clear.
∼ Solution for verse 34 ∼
Here [the longitude of] the Sun is 4;15. The Sine of the declination [of the Sun] is 47;49. The direction Sine is 112. The unknown is 1;56. The known is 132;25. The mean [leg?] is 510;40. The divisor is 2;7. The result is 120;40. The square root [of that] is 150. [The Sine of] the zenith distance is 30. The shadow is 1;8.
∼ An alternative solution for verse 34 ∼
Now, by means of another method the computation of the Sine of the yojana s in the distance [is computed] in this manner. The equinoctial shadow in V¯ ar¯ an ı is 5;40. The [shadow] hypotenuse is 1317. The Sine of . as¯ the latitude is 68;12. The unknown is 1;56. [The Sine of] the amplitude is 72;27. The known is 200;38. The divisor is 2;8. The mean [leg?] is 775;14. The result is 181;30. The square root [of that] is 138;0. The Sine of the zenith distance [of the Sun] is 23;30. Therefore, the yojana s in the distance are 126.
∼ To find the direction Sine ∼
The Cosine of the degrees of the distance is divided by 12 and multiplied by the equinoctial shadow. From a correction by the mentioned [Sine of] the amplitude, and multiplied by the radius R and divided by the Sine of the distance, we get the direction Sine.
(35)
192 Let s0 be the equinoctial shadow. Let z be the Sun’s zenith distance and α its altitude. Then Cos(z ) = Sin(α). When Sin(α) is multiplied by
s0 12 ,
we get the base of the Sine of the altitude.
Adding or subtracting the Sine of the amplitude, we ﬁnally get the direction Sine, i.e., the Sine of the degrees between the Sun’s current altitudecircle and the prime vertical.
∼ A problem ∼
At night, when the Sun and the Moon were in Capricorn, a thief stole the best of the king’s horses and quickly went 580 yojana s, and computed a shadow to the east equal to 12, revolving in its own direction.
(36) Neither the narrative nor the technical meanings are fully clear.
∼ Solution for verse 36 ∼
[The tropical longitude of] the Sun is 9;0,0,0. The Sine of the declination of the Sun is 65. The shadow is 12. The [shadow] hypotenuse is 17. The direction Sine is found by means of the given method [and is] 112.
¯ and the hr ∼ The antya . ti ∼
According to the hemisphere, the radius is increased or decreased by the Sine of the ascensional diﬀerence and likewise the radius of the diurnal circle is increased or decreased by the earthSine. These are the anty¯ a and the hr . ti , respectively.
(37) The verse deﬁnes the anty¯ a and the hr . ti , which will be used in the following. Consider Figure 5.3 on p. 178. Let r be the radius of the diurnal circle. Then r is the length of the line GB . If we increase this length of the earthSine, i.e., the length of AG, we get the hr . ti , which is thus the length of the line AB . In the case where BG extends beneath the horizon (i.e., if it is on the other side of the point O), we need to subtract the earthSine rather than add it. Consider again Figure 5.3. The arc AG is part of the diurnal circle and thus corresponds to a time (the time it takes for the Sun to traverse this arc). However, is measured on the celestial equator, not the diurnal circle, and there is thus a segment of the celestial equator, extending beneath OC that corresponds to the arc AG (this segment, of course, is the ascensional diﬀerence). If the radius of the celestial equator, i.e., R, is increased by a length corresponding to that segment, we get the anty¯ a . As before, there are also situations where the segment needs to be subtracted.
193 ∼ The zenith distance and altitude of the Sun ∼ (38)
According to the hemisphere, at midday, the leg and the upright
corresponding to the diﬀerence or the sum of the degrees of the local latitude and the declination [of the Sun] are to be computed; they are the Sine of the zenith distance [of the Sun] and [the Sine of] the altitude [of the Sun], respectively. In this case, the Sine of the zenith distance [of the Sun] multiplied by 12 and divided by [the Sine of] the altitude [of the Sun] is the shadow [of the gnomon]. The shadowhypotenuse is the square root of the sum of the square of that and the square of 12.
Let φ be the local latitude, δ the declination of the Sun, z the zenith distance of the Sun, and α the altitude of the Sun. The ﬁrst result amounts to Sin(z ) = Sin(φ ± δ ) and See 2.1.27–29a and the commentary thereon. theorem. Sin(α) = Cos(φ − δ ). (5.9) (5.8)
The second result follows easily from similar triangles, and the third from the Pythagorean
¯ and current hr ∼ Current antya . ti ∼ (39)
The anty¯ a at midday diminished by Versed Sine of the asu s of the
hourangle on the diurnal circle is said to be the current anty¯ a. That multiplied by the radius of the diurnal circle and divided by the radius is the current hr . ti . [That] multiplied by 12 and divided by equinoctial hypotenuse is the current [Sine of the] altitude [of the Sun].
An asu (literally, breath) is a unit of time corresponding the rising of 1 minute of arc of the celestial equator. All of the results given in the verse are easily veriﬁed via similar triangles.
∼ The current altitude and the hr . ti ∼ (40)
[The ﬁrst two p¯ ada s unclear.]
194
The current [Sine of the] altitude is attained as the the radius times 12 divided by the hypotenuse. That [current Sine of the altitude] multiplied by the equinoctial hypotenuse and divided by 12 is the hr . ti .
The ﬁrst result follows from the fact that in any shadowtriangle (i.e., one formed by a gnomon, its shadow, and the shadowhypotenuse), the Sine of the current altitude of the Sun is to R as 12 (the height of the gnomon) is to the shadowhypotenuse.
¯∼ ∼ Current antya (41)
The current hr . ti multiplied by the radius and divided by the radius of the diurnal circle is the [current] anty¯ a. The reverse [?] arc of the remainder of the anty¯ a with half [the duration of] the day subtracted is the asu s in the hourangle. Half the day diminished by that is the ghat a s of the elevation. . ik¯
The ﬁrst formula is correct. Since the current anty¯ a is the arc on the celestial equator corre
R sponding to the diurnalcircle arc represented by the current hr . ti , the ratio r can be used to ﬁnd the latter from the former. Similarly, since the arc of the current anty¯ a represents time since sunrise,
that arc can be subtracted from the entire length of the day, giving us the “remainder of the anty¯ a ”. If we take away half the length of the day from this remainder, we get the time since sunrise again, or the time corresponding to the current elevation of the Sun.
∼ Some definitions ∼ (42)
At the intersection of the meridian and the diurnal circle it is noon.
The anty¯ a and the hr . ti situated from the risingstring are said to be the two hypotenuses. The diﬀerence between the rising string of Lank¯ ˙ a and the local rising string is the earthSine or the ascensional diﬀerence. When the radius of the diurnal circle and the radius are diminished or increased by that according to the hemisphere, [we get] the hr . ti and the anty¯ a , [respectively].
It is clear that when the Sun, moving along the diurnal circle, reaches the meridian, it is noon.
195 ∼ Some derivations ∼ (43)
The versed Sine of the hourangles of the mean [leg?] and the given anty¯ a is the distance [?]. The given anty¯ a is diminished by that; it is the hr . ti made on the circle known as the earthSine[circle]. If the upright [in a triangle] is by means of the equinoctial shadow, then what it is measured by 12? It is [the Sine of] the altitude in the case of the hr . ti [?]. When the radius R by means of that is the hypotenuse, when [the Sine of] the altitude is measured by 12, what is the given hypotenuse?
The procedure is not clear.
∼ Some derivations ∼ (44)
When the oblique [?] arc of the one greater than the radius R is to be determined, subtract the radius R, [and you get] the remainderarc, respectively [?]. Increased by 5400 it is the oblique [?] arc by means of adding the arc [corresponding to] the Sine [?]
The procedure is not clear.
¯skara ii ∼ ∼ A criticism of Bha (45)
Whatever is said in the Siddh¯ anta´ siroman . i , that the sixo’clock altitude multiplied by the noon anty¯ a and divided by the Sine of the ascensional diﬀerence is [the Sine of] the noon altitude, or otherwise that [the Sine of the noon altitude] is the hr . ti multiplied by the upright produced by the equinoctial ﬁgure and divided by the corresponding hypotenuse, all that breaks down on the equinoctial day and is therefore not presented by me.
2 J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja here critiques a verse from the Siddh¯ anta´ siroman . i . The problem with the formula
cited from the Siddh¯ anta´ siroman . i is that on the equinoctial day both the sixo’clock altitude and the ascensional diﬀerence are 0, yielding the mathematically meaningless expression 0 . (5.10) 0 Since the formula works for any other day, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s complete rejection is interesting. His rejection based on division by 0 in one instance is further interesting in that his predecessors (Brahmagupta, for example) attempted to deﬁne such a division. More information about this might be found
2 Siddh¯ anta´ siroman i ,
.
grahagan adhy¯ aya , tripra´ sn¯ adhik¯ ara , 36. . it¯
196 in the b¯ ıjagan adhy¯ aya . . it¯
∼ Concluding verse ∼
[Thus ends the section on] the three questions for the sake of computation of time, direction, and place in the beautiful and abundant tantra composed by J˜ n¯ anar¯ aja, the son of N¯ agan¯ atha, which is the foundation of [any] library.
(46)
Chapter 6
grahagan adhy¯ aya section 4 . it¯ parvasambh¯ utyadhik¯ ara Possibility of eclipses
∼ Determining the lunar node [?] ∼
The weekday, located from the star of the Sun [?], is diminished by 39, 30, 24, 21, 20, 20, 20, 20, 22, 26, 33, 45, 73, 200 pala s due to the [cosmic] wind, and increased by 400, 100, 60, 49, 44, 44, 44, 52, 72, 132, 0, 114 pala s, [respectively]. At a syzygy, [the longitude of] the Sun is increased by the signs and so on of what has been traversed. Its velocity is found from the day [perhaps tithi ?]. The result consists of the minutes of arc of the [lunar] node. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 5, 5, 6, and 7 [?]. It [the result] is converted to degrees in the direction of the degrees of the arc of the center of the Sun [?] and [applied] to the node. Otherwise, it is corrected.
(1–2) These two verses are not clear. While tables in the margins of R1 and R2 , and an annotation in the margin of V2 identify the numbers as going with the naks . atra s, it is not at all clear what these numbers are, or what purpose applying them to the weekday has with respect to eclipse possibilities. In addition, there are 27 naks . atra s, but only 26 numbers given.
197
198 ∼ To find the longitude of the lunar node ∼
[When] 19;21,33,33 [degrees] is multiplied by the current ´ saka year diminished by 1425, and [the result] is increased by 4;3,32, [we get the longitude of] the lunar node in degrees and so on [at the beginning of the current ´ saka year].
The verse gives a method for computing the longitude of the lunar node, providing a multiplier (19◦ 21′ 33′′ 33′′′ ) and an addend (4◦ 3′ 32′′ ). See the commentary on 2.1.57–64. This method for determining the longitude of the lunar node is, however, peculiar. Firstly, it gives the longitude for the beginning of ´ saka 1425, whereas the epoch given earlier (see 2.1.57–64) falls about half a year later. Secondly, the multiplier and the addend that are given are not consistent with those given previously. The multiplier for the lunar node given earlier is 19◦ 21′ 11′′ 24′′′ , not 19◦ 21′ 33′′ 33′′′ . Furthermore, using J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s parameters, the addend for the lunar node for the beginning of ´ saka 1425 comes out to be 1◦ 58′ 46′′ , not 4◦ 3′ 32′′ . However, the multiplier and the addend given here are very close to what we get when using the parameters given by Bh¯ askara ii in the Siddh¯ anta´ siroman . i . Using these parameters, we get 19◦ 21′ 33′′ 21′′′ as the multiplier for the lunar node, and 3◦ 16′ 2′′ as the addend corresponding to the beginning of ´ saka 1425. Why a diﬀerent epoch is introduced here, and why diﬀerent parameters are used is unclear.
(3a–b)
∼ Some formulae ∼
[The longitude of the lunar node] increased by 20 degrees of the Sun’s entry into a sign [?] [which is itself] increased by 13 degrees [or: when greater than 13 degrees]. The lunar latitude is [equal to] half of the degrees of the arc of the Sun increased by the node is multiplied by 3 and increased by 30 degrees.
The content of p¯ ada c could be an eclipse limit (the subject of the sentence being the shadow of the Earth), but the interpretation is not clear. In p¯ ada d, we are given a formula for the lunar latitude, but the formula is defective as described.
(3c–d)
∼ To find the apparent diameters from the velocities ∼ (4)
The [true] velocity [of the Sun] is divided by 5. [The result is] dimin
ished by its own twelfth part. [This] is [the diameter of] the [apparent] disc of the Sun.
199
[The apparent diameter of] the disc of the Moon is 649 divided by the stareaten [?]. That [apparent diameter of the disc of the Moon] is multiplied by 3, and [the result] is increased by its own tenth part and diminished by the seventh part of the [true] velocity of the Sun. [This] is [the apparent diameter of] the shadow of the Earth. The [true] velocity of the Moon is [equal to] the [apparent diameter of] the disc [of the Moon] divided by 74.
This verse gives formulae for computing the diamaters of the discs of the Sun, the Moon, and the shadow of the Earth from the velocities of the Sun and the Moon. Note that as the formulae are given here, the diameters are given in angula ˙ s rather than in minutes of arc, where 1 angula ˙ is equal to 3′ . These formulae more properly belong to the chapter on lunar eclipses, but since J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja does not give them there, a brief discussion is given here. Note that the diameters of the Sun, the Moon, and the shadow of the Earth depend on the velocities because they depend on their distances to the Earth, and these distances, in turn, depends on the velocities. In the following, d⊙ denotes the diameter of the disc of the Sun, d the diameter of the disc of the Moon, d the diameter of the shadow of the Earth at the Moon’s distance, v⊙ the true velocity of the Sun, and v the true velocity of the Moon. The ﬁrst formula tells us how to compute the diameter of the disc of the Sun from the true velocity of the Sun: v v⊙ 11 d⊙ = ⊙ − = × v⊙ . 5 5 × 12 60 (6.1)
1 ´ . yadh¯ It is given both in the Sis ıvr anta´ siroman . ddhidatantra and the Siddh¯ . i , though both these texts have the diameter expressed in minutes of arc rather than in angula ˙ s.
The second formula is not clear. What exactly is meant by “stareaten” here is unknown to me. − 715 + 29, 25 2 which is given in the Siddh¯ anta´ siroman . i , is intended. d = distance from the diameter of the disc of the Moon and the true velocity of the Sun: d =3×d + 3 ×d 10 − 1 33 × v⊙ = ×d 7 10 =
1 74
Maybe a formula like
v
(6.2)
The third formula allows us to compute the diameter of the shadow of the Earth at the Moon’s 1 × v⊙ . 7
−
(6.3)
If we use the result in the next formula, that d d
1 Sis ´ yadh¯ ıvrddhidatantra
× v , we get 1 × v⊙ , 7 (6.4)
=
33 ×v 740
−
.
.
2 Siddh¯ anta´ siroman i ,
.
5.9. Siddh¯ anta´ siroman adhy¯ aya , candragrahan adhik¯ ara , 8. . i , grahagan . it¯ .¯ grahagan adhy¯ aya , candragrahan adhik¯ ara , 8. . it¯ .¯
200 which, expressed in minutes of arc rather than in angula ˙ s, become d Since
99 740
=
99 ×v 740 2 ×v 15
−
3 × v⊙ . 7
(6.5)
≈
2 15
and
3 7
≈
5 12 ,
this is consistent with the formula d = − 5 × v⊙ , 12 (6.6)
3 which is given in the Siddh¯ anta´ siroman . i.
The ﬁnal formula given in the verse, v = 74 × d , (6.7)
4 is given in the Siddh¯ anta´ siroman . i , though expressed in terms of minutes of arc rather than in
angula ˙ s there.
∼ Duration and obscuration of an eclipse ∼
The square root of the diﬀerence of the square of half the sum of the diameters [of the discs] and the square of the lunar latitude is multiplied by 60 and divided by the diﬀerence of the velocities. [The result] is the ghat a s of the halfduration [of the eclipse]. [When] the time of the . ik¯ syzygy is diminished or increased by that [halfduration], it is the time of ﬁrst contact or the time of release [respectively]. Half of the sum of [the diameters of] the discs diminished by the lunar latitude is the obscured [part at mideclipse].
(5) All these results are repeated again in the next chapter, where they properly belong. For a discussion, see 2.5.15, 2.5.17, and 2.5.14c–d, as well as the commentaries thereon. Note that as formulated here, i.e., without specifying what discs and velocites are involved, the formulae are applicable to both lunar and solar eclipses.
∼ To compute a solar eclipse and latitudinal parallax ∼ (6)
The hourangle multiplied by 4 and divided by half [of the length] of
the given day is applied positively or negatively to the time of conjunction according to [whether the Sun is in] the western or the eastern hemisphere. [This process is to be carried out] thus again [and again], until [the time of conjunction is] correct.
3 Siddh¯ anta´ siroman i ,
.
4 Siddh¯ anta´ siroman i ,
.
grahagan adhy¯ aya , candragrahan adhik¯ ara , 9. . it¯ .¯ grahagan adhy¯ aya , candragrahan adhik¯ ara , 8. . it¯ .¯
201
[When the longitude of] the ascendant [is] diminished by three signs[, the result is the nonagesimal, which is taken as being equal to the meridian ecliptic point]. The Small Sine of the combination of the degrees of the declination of that [meridian ecliptic point] and the degrees of the local latitude is divided by 10 and increased by itself below. [The result] is the latitudinal parallax. One should correct the lunar latitude by means of it.
This verse is a somewhat confusing version of some of the results of the chapter on solar eclipses. Again, the material given here belongs more properly to another chapter. The hourangle is the angular distance between the position of the Sun and the meridian, measured as an arc on the celestial equator, which we can take to be the diﬀerence between the longitude of the Sun and the longitude of the meridian ecliptic point (the intersection between the local meridian and the ecliptic). Then the ﬁrst half of the verse mirrors 2.6.11–2.6.12b, except that the longitudinal parallax applied consists only of the small longitudinal parallax deﬁned in 2.6.9c–2.6.10b (with the longitude of the meridian ecliptic point λM instead of the longitude of the nonagesimal λV ). If a denotes half the length of the arc of the diurnal circle that is above the horizon, πλ denotes the small longitudinal parallax, and λ⊙ the longitude of the Sun, we here have πλ = whereas we have πλ = 4 × (λM − λ⊙ ) , a (6.8)
4 × Sin(λV − λ⊙ ) R
(6.9)
in 2.6.9c–2.6.10b. Using only the small longitudinal parallax implies a situation where the zenith and the nonagesimal coincide. The reader is referred to the discussion there, as well as to a comparison with verses 3–5 in the parvasambhava section in the Siddh¯ anta´ siroman askara ii. . i of Bh¯ The second half of the verse tells us how to compute the latitudinal parallax πβ , and that this is to be used to correct the lunar latitude. First we are directed to ﬁnd the longitude of the nonagesimal, which is the longitude of the ascendant (the rising point of the ecliptic on the horizon) diminished by three signs. The longitude of the nonagesimal is to be taken as equal to the longitude of the meridian ecliptic point. The combination of the declination of the meridian ecliptic point and the local latitude is the zenith distance of the meridian ecliptic point (see 2.6c–d). The meaning of the quantity being “increased by itself below” must be that it is increased by itself separately and then the sum is added to the original number. In other words, from x, we get 3 × x. With this interpretation, we get πβ = 3 × Sinℓ (zM ), 10 (6.10)
which is the same result as that in 2.10c–d, since 3438 3 Sin(zM ) = × Sinℓ (zM ) ≈ × Sinℓ (zM ). 70 160 × 70 10 (6.11)
202 For more details, the reader is referred to the discussion of parallax in the section on solar eclipses.
∼ Concluding verse ∼ (7)
Thus the occurrence of eclipses accompanied by demonstration is given in the beautiful and abundant tantra composed by J˜ n¯ anar¯ aja, the son of N¯ agan¯ atha, which is the foundation of [any] library.
Chapter 7
grahagan adhy¯ aya section 5 . it¯ candragrahan ¯dhik¯ ara .a Lunar eclipses
∼ Different opinions on the cause of eclipses ∼ (1–2)
The cause of eclipses of the Sun and the Moon is said by sages to be
a darkness, the body of which is divided into a head and a tail, and which dwells at the two intersections between the ecliptic and the inclined orbit [of the Moon]. [However,] the cause of eclipses of the Sun and the Moon is said by people who oppose ´ sruti and the pur¯ an . a s to be the Moon and the shadow of the Earth, respectively. They even say that in their opinion an eclipse is not [caused] by R¯ ahu.
According to an ancient story recorded in the pur¯ an . a s, solar and lunar eclipses are caused by a supernatural being called R¯ ahu, who attacks the Sun and the Moon. The Indian astronomers understood the actual reason that eclipses occur, namely that the disc of the Moon is obscured by the shadow of the Earth during a lunar eclipse and that the disc of the Sun is obscured by the disc of the Moon during a solar eclipse. The idea that eclipses are caused by R¯ ahu is refuted by 1 ´ Lalla in the Sis ıvr ahu . yadh¯ . ddhidatantra . However, with the greater Indian tradition holding that R¯ causes eclipses, the astronomers felt uneasy rejecting it altogether. In the Br¯ ahmasphut anta , . asiddh¯
1 Sis ´ yadh¯ ıvrddhidatantra
.
.
20.17–27.
203
204 Brahmagupta, after explaining the true cause of eclipses and denying R¯ ahu’s involvement,2 rejects this opinion, which he ascribes to other astronomers, and continues to argue that R¯ ahu does indeed cause eclipses.3 Pr udakasv¯ amin, the commentator on the Br¯ ahmasphut anta , suggests that . th¯ . asiddh¯ Brahmagupta does this because that which is repugnant to the people should not be mentioned.4 Here and in the following verses, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja argues that R¯ ahu is indeed the cause of eclipses. R¯ ahu’s tail is called Ketu.5
¯van ∼ Apparent and real causes of Ra . a’s death ∼ (3–4)
Learned men say that although the tenheaded [R¯ avan . a] was killed
by the arrow of [R¯ ama,] the son of Da´ saratha, the tenheaded [R¯ avan . a] was [in fact] killed by [R¯ ama,] the son of Da´ saratha; people [versed in] the pur¯ an . a s likewise [say this]. [Likewise,] even if the two eclipsing bodies are the shadow of the Earth and the Moon, still the cause [of an eclipse] is R¯ ahu. Because after drawing the Moon near by means of the lunar latitude, he causes the conjunction of the eclipsing body and the eclipsed body.
As is wellknown in Indian mythology, R¯ avan ˙ a, was killed by the arrow of . a, the King of Lank¯ the deity R¯ ama. However, while it was the arrow that killed R¯ avan ama, who . a, the real cause was R¯ ﬁred the arrow. Just as R¯ ama is the real cause of R¯ avan . a’s death, the arrow being merely an instrument, so also is R¯ ahu the real cause of eclipses. It is R¯ ahu who draws the Moon near and thus causes the conjunction of the eclipsing body and the eclipsed body. Note that J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja here tries to reconcile ideas from the pur¯ an . a s with his astronomical model. See p. 49 in the Introduction.
¯hu and the lunar node ∼ ∼ Identity of Ra (5) He, whose name is given as “lunar node” by great men, is [also] called “R¯ ahu” by them. When there is a rejection of him, there would always be an eclipse of the Sun and the Moon each month.
2 Br¯ ahmasphut asiddh¯ anta
.
21.35–38. 39–48.
3 Br¯ ahmasphut asiddh¯ anta
.
4 Commentary 5 See
on Br¯ ahmasphut anta 21.43a–b (see [41 131]). . asiddh¯
[76 275].
205 Luminary The Sun The Moon Diameter 6500 480
Table 7.1: Diameters in yojana s of the discs of the Sun and the Moon
After stating that “R¯ ahu” and “lunar node” are two names for the same thing or personage, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja argues that if R¯ ahu is rejected as the cause of eclipses, there would be a solar and a lunar eclipse every month. The idea, as per the previous verse, is that it is R¯ ahu that pulls the Moon towards the ecliptic by means of the lunar latitude, and without this pull, the Moon would move in a way so that there would be a solar and a lunar eclipse each month. But this is not what we experience. This is an odd statement, though, as it implies that R¯ ahu keeps the Moon oﬀ the ecliptic.
¯hu’s instruments ∼ ∼ The shadow and the Moon as Ra
The disc of the shadow of the Earth and the disc of the Moon, which can be used for obscuring, are [merely] the weapons of R¯ ahu during the act of an eclipse. Therefore, they are not mentioned in the pur¯ an . a s, the a ¯gama s, and the sam a s, but they are indicated in the veda . . hit¯
(6) Since the shadow of the Earth and the disc of the Moon are merely the weapons of R¯ ahu, they are not mentioned in the pur¯ an ¯gama s and the sam a s. . a s and other sacred texts, such as the a . hit¯ However, according to J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja, they are alluded to in the veda s.
∼ Diameters of the solar and lunar discs ∼
The solar disc has [a diameter of] 6500 yojana s, and the disc of the Moon has [a diameter of] 480 yojana s.
Table 7.1 gives the values of the diameters of the solar and lunar discs in yojana s given in by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja. They are the same as those given in the S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta .6 J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja will give a procedure for how to determine these numbers from observation in verse 9. To avoid confusion with the apparent diameters used in eclipse computations, the values given here will be called mean diameters in the following.
6 See
(7a–b)
[71 616].
206 ∼ To find the true diameters ∼
The [diameter of a luminary] is multiplied by the true velocity [of the luminary] and divided by the mean velocity [of the luminary]. The apparent diameter [is found] thus.
Neither the Sun nor the Moon changes its size, but as their distances to the Earth vary, their apparent sizes vary as well. ¯ denote the mean diameter of the Sun, v the Sun’s mean velocity (measured in ghat Let d a s per . ik¯ civil day), and v its true velocity. Then the apparent diameter d is given by a simple proportion: ¯× v . d=d v The apparent diameter of the Moon is computed in the same way. (7.1)
(7b–c)
∼ To find the diameter of the Earth’s shadow ∼ (8)
The [diameter of the] disc of the Moon is multiplied by the diﬀerence of the diameters of the Sun and the Earth and divided by [the diameter of] the disc of the Sun. The diameter of the Earth diminished by the result is [the diameter of the] shadow of the Earth [at the Moon’s distance]. [When this diameter is] divided by 15, it is [measured] in minutes of arc and so on.
As will be explained in verse 10, the light from the Sun creates a shadow in the form of a cone on the other side of the Earth. When the Moon passes through this shadow, a lunar eclipse (partial or total, as the case may be) occurs. In order to carry out the computations for a lunar eclipse, it is necessary to know the diameter of the shadow of the Earth at the distance at which the Moon passes through it. Let d♁ , d⊙ , and d be the diameters of the Earth, the Sun, and the Moon, respectively, in yojana s. In addition, let d be the diameter of the shadow of the Earth at the distance of the Moon. The formula given for computing this diameter is: d = d♁ − (d⊙ − d♁ ) × d d⊙ (7.2)
The rationale behind this formula is given in verses 11–12 by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja, at which place a discussion of it is found. See also Figure 7.1. If we insert the mean diameters of the Sun and the Moon, and use that the diameter of the Earth is 1600 yojana s (the radius of the earth, which we will denote by r♁ , is 800 yojana s7 ), we ﬁnd that
7I
have no direct reference in the Siddh¯ antasundara to this eﬀect, but the number 800 is added to 2.6.4 as numerals by most scribes, and it further follows from the circumference of the earth being given as 5, 059 yojana s in 1.1.74 √ uryasiddh¯ anta also gives 800 yojana s as the radius of the earth. (using π = 10). The S¯
207 the mean diameter of the shadow of the Earth at the Moon’s distance measured in yojana s is ¯ d = 1600 − (6500 − 1600) × 480 2 = 1238 , 6500 13 (7.3)
1 times the mean diameter of the Moon. i.e., a bit more than 2 2
Rather than using yojana s, we want to express the diameters in minutes of arc. As there are 15 yojana s in a minute of arc of the lunar orbit,8 dividing the yojana s of the diameters by 15 will convert them to minutes of arc.
∼ To find the apparent diameter from observation ∼
Having learned the amount of asu s in the rising [time] of the discs of the Moon and the Sun [at a time] when [each, separately, travels with its] mean velocity, the orbit [of the respective luminary] is multiplied by that and divided by the asu s in a nychthemeron. By the application of this proportion, the yojana s in the respective disc [are found].
(9) The procedure described here is to be carried out for both the Sun and the Moon, and will give the diameters of their discs. Let us take the Moon as the example in the following. At a time when the Moon is moving with its mean velocity, the time it takes for its disc to rise is measured. J˜ na ¯naof a ghat a , for measuring the . ik¯ rising time. Let the time of the rising of the disc be τ , and let t be the 21600 asu s in a nychthemeron. ¯ be the mean diameter of the Moon, and K the yojana s in the orbit of the Moon. Then Further, let d r¯ aja uses the time unit asu (literally, breath), which is equal to the proportion ¯ d τ = t K (7.4)
1 3600
gives us the mean diameter. Note that it is necessary for the Moon to travel at its mean velocity to get the mean diameter. Otherwise, we will get the apparent diameter current at that time, and will need to know the true velocity of the Moon in order to ﬁnd the mean diameter. See Equation 7.1. Pr udakasv¯ amin gives a similar procedure for ﬁnding the mean diameter of the Moon in his . th¯ commentary on the Br¯ ahmasphut anta , only he directs that one carry out the procedure every . asiddh¯ day during a lunar month and ﬁnd the average rising time, which is then used to determine the mean diameter of the Moon’s disc.9
8 See
[71 556]. on Br¯ ahmasphut anta 21.11a–b. See [41 193]. . asiddh¯
9 Commentary
208 ∼ To compute the diameter of the shadow ∼
The measure at the orbit of the Moon of the diameter of the coneshaped shadow [produced] from the contact of the rays emanating from the Sun and the surface of the Earth and situated in space six [signs removed] from the Sun is to be computed by the wise in the manner of the computation of the shadow [created] by a lamp.
(10) The rays of the Sun hit the surface of the Earth, which blocks them, thus creating a coneshaped shadow on the other side of the Earth. See Figure 7.1. It is clear that the center of the shadow is located on the ecliptic at exactly six signs from the Sun. J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja says that the computation of the diameter of the shadow at the Moon’s distance from the Earth is like that of the computation of the shadow made by a lamp. There is a ﬁgure illustrating this verse in R1 , a scan of which is given in the description of that manuscript in the Introduction (see p. 55).
∼ Method for computing the diameter of the shadow ∼ (11–12)
If the diﬀerence of the radii of [the discs of] the Sun and the Earth
is the upright [corresponding to] the leg equal to the geocentric distance of the Sun, then what is [the upright] when the leg is [a length inside] the shadow [of the Earth], the measure of which is the mean geocentric distance of the Moon? The result is at the place of the Moon [i.e., it is on the orbit of the Moon], and is half the diameter of the Earth diminished by radius of the shadow of the Earth [at the distance of the Moon]. [Having arrived at a formula] thus, here, having divided the two geocentric distances [involved in the preceding] by an [appropriate] number, [the results] are [the diameters of] the discs [of the Sun and the Moon], which are, respectively, the multiplier and the divisor [in the resulting formula].
The method is illustrated in Figure 7.1. On the ﬁgure, S is the center of the Sun, E the center of the Earth, and M marks the distance between the center of the Earth and the Moon’s orbit along a line through the center of the Sun. The orbit of the Moon is indicated through the point M . Let r⊙ be the radius of the Sun, r♁ be the radius of the Earth, r the radius of the shadow of the Earth at M , D⊙ the geocentric distance of the Sun, and D the geocentric distance of the Moon. On the ﬁgure, the rightangled triangle SAE is similar to the rightangled triangle EBM , and
209
C B A S E
D M
Figure 7.1: Determining the radius of the shadow of the Earth at the Moon’s distance
therefore
assume that the line M D is perpendicular to the line EM , we further have that EB  = r♁ − r . From this we get that r −r r⊙ − r♁ = ♁ , (7.6) D⊙ D which, after rearranging the terms and multiplying by 2, becomes d = d♁ − D × (d⊙ − d♁ ). D⊙ (7.7)
Here, SA = r⊙ − r♁ , SE  = D⊙ , and EM  = D . The radius of the shadow is M D, and if we
EB  SA = . SE  EM 
(7.5)
¯⊙ and Finally, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja notes that if divided by an appropriate number, D⊙ and D become d ¯ . That ¯ , which is approximately correct. In fact, D ≈ 106 × d ¯ , and D ≈ 107 1 × d d ⊙ ⊙ 2 D D⊙ ≈ ¯ ¯ d⊙ d roughly the same size. Using this proportion, we get d which is the formula of verse 8. Note that M D (the path of the Moon through the shadow of the Earth) really is an arc, not a straight line. However, given the distance of the Moon from the Earth, the arc can approximately be taken to be a straight line. The Sanskrit words ´ sruti , ´ sravan . a , and karn . a , all of which mean “hypotenuse”, are used as a term for the geocentric distance of a heavenly body. I have taken the words dine´ sa´ srutitulyabh¯ ay¯ ah . in the sense of “a leg equal to the geocentric distance of the Sun.” This length, however, is not a shadow (bh¯ a ). ¯ d = d♁ − ¯ × (d⊙ − d♁ ), d⊙ (7.9) (7.8)
is due to the fact that the discs of the Sun and the Moon, as seen on the sky from the Earth, have
210 ∼ To find the longitudes at the time of conjunction ∼
The minutes of arc in the velocity [of the shadow of the Earth or the Moon] are multiplied by the ghat a s corresponding to the end of the tithi . ik¯ and divided by 60. [The longitude of] the shadow of the Earth and [the longitude of] the Moon are diminished [or increased] by the result. At the end of the tithi , the two of them are together, having the same minutes of arc.
(13) The methods in the Siddh¯ antasundara give us planetary positions for midnight. In order to ﬁnd the longitude at the end of the tithi , i.e., at conjunction, we have to take into account the distance traveled by the shadow of the Earth and the Moon between conjunction and the time for which we have the computed positions. Let v Sun) and v be the velocity of the shadow of the Earth (which is the same as the velocity of the be the velocity of the Moon. Assume that there are t ghat a s between the time for . ik¯ t which we have the longitudes and the time of conjunction. The shadow of the Earth travels v × 60
t during the time t. If the time for which we have the longitudes minutes of arc and the Moon v × 60
comes after the conjunction, we have to subtract the respective results from the longitude of the shadow of the Earth and the longitude of the Moon; if it comes before, we have to add them. After
this operation, we have the longitudes of the shadow of the Earth and the Moon at the time of conjunction; the two are equal at the time of conjunction. For the given translation, I have read ´ sa´ s¯ ı tau in p¯ ada c instead of ’sa´ s¯ ınau , which is given in all of the manuscripts. The latter reading makes less sense, as the Moon (´ sa´ sin ) and the Sun (ina ) are not together (sahita ) at the time of opposition, but 180◦ apart. One wonders if sahitau should be read sahito and thus supply the missing “or increased” in the verse.
∼ To find the lunar latitude ∼
The Sine produced from the arc [equal to the longitude] of the Moon diminished by [the longitude of] the shadow of the Earth is multiplied by 270 and divided by the radius. [The result] is the latitude of the Moon, the direction of which is determined by the hemisphere of [the longitude of] the Moon diminished by [the longitude of] the shadow of the Earth.
In the Indian astronomical system, the Moon moves in an orbit that is inclined with respect to the ecliptic. It is called the inclined orbit of the Moon. The inclined orbit intersects the ecliptic at two positions that are 180◦ from each other. The point of intersection through which the Moon crosses the ecliptic moving north is called the ascending node, and the other one is called the descending node. The angle between the position of the Moon and the ecliptic is called the lunar latitude, which will be denoted by β in the following.
(14a–b)
211
A B M C M
M
S
S
S
Figure 7.2: Examples of the obscured part of the lunar disc at mideclipse
The angle between the circle of the ecliptic and the circle of the inclined orbit of the Moon is 4 30′ = 270′ . This means that the greatest lunar latitude, which is attained when the Moon is 90◦ from one of its nodes, is 270′ . For other positions of the Moon, the lunar latitude, measured in minutes of arc, is found by a simple proportion: β = Sin(λ where λ −λ )× 270 , R is the longitude of the Moon. (7.10)
◦
is the longitude of the ascending node and λ
The direction of the latitude is either north or south, depending on where the Moon is with respect to the ascending node. If the Moon is between 0◦ and 180◦ from the ascending node (measured in the direction of motion of the Moon), the direction of the latitude is north; if it is between 180◦ and 360◦ from the ascending node, the direction is south. It is essential to know the lunar latitude when computing a lunar eclipse. The lunar latitude tells us how far the Moon is from the ecliptic and thus whether we will have a total eclipse, a partial eclipse, or no eclipse at all.
∼ To find the obscured part at mideclipse ∼
Half the sum of the measures [of the discs] of the eclipsed body and the eclipsing body is diminished by the lunar latitude. [The result] is the obscured [part]. This [quantity] diminished by [the diameter of the disc of the] eclipsed body is said by the wise to have the name skyobscured [part].
Figure 7.2 shows the magnitude of a lunar eclipse at mideclipse in three diﬀerent situations. In each example, S is the center of the shadow of the Earth and M the center of the Moon.
(14c–d)
212 In the ﬁrst example, we have a partial eclipse. The length of the line CB is called the “obscured part” in the Indian tradition. We take the lunar latitude to be the line segment SM in each case. It is easy to see that CB  = (SB  − SM ) + CM  = r tradition. It is equally easy to see that BA = CA − CB  = d − (r +r − β) = r −r + β. (7.12) +r − β, (7.11)
as stated by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja. The length of the line BA is called the “skyobscured” part in the Indian
In the second example, we have a total eclipse. In this case, following the formula given by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja, the obscured part is greater than or equal to d . What this means is that the obscured part tells us how deep the Moon is inside the shadow. In the third and last example, the Moon is too far from the ecliptic for there to be an eclipse.
∼ Halfduration of the eclipse and of totality ∼ (15–16)
The square root of the diﬀerence of the square of half of the sum [of
the diameters] of the discs [of the Moon and the shadow of the Earth] and the lunar latitude is multiplied by 60 and divided by the [true] velocity of the Moon diminished by that of the Sun. The result is half of the duration of a lunar eclipse. Likewise, the mean halfduration of totality is [found] from the diﬀerence of the halves of the measures [of the diameters of the discs]. The halfduration computed from the lunar latitude current at the time of ﬁrst contact or release is correct.
The eclipse commences when the disc of the Moon ﬁrst touches the disc of the shadow of the Earth. For this to happen, the Moon must be suﬃciently close to the ecliptic. When the Moon is ﬁrst completely inside the shadow (still touching the edge of the shadow), it is said to be the beginning of totality. In other words, when the Moon ﬁrst touches the shadow, it is the beginning of the eclipse, and when it is ﬁrst entirely covered by the shadow, it is the beginning of totality. Let r and r be the radii of the Moon and the shadow of the Earth, respectively. Let v and v⊙ be the velocities of the Moon and the Sun, respectively (note that the shadow of the Earth moves with the same velocity as the Sun). Let ﬁnally β be the lunar latitude. Then half the duration of the eclipse is given by 60 × (r v + r )2 − β 2 − v⊙ , (7.13)
213 and half the duration of totality is given by 60 × (r v verses explains them both. As the lunar latitude changes throughout the eclipse, we need to use the correct lunar latitude at ﬁrst contact, beginning of totality, and so on in order to get the correct times. − r )2 − β 2 − v⊙ . (7.14)
The ﬁrst of these results is derived by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja in verses 18–19, and the commentary on these
∼ To find when the eclipse and totality begin and end ∼ (17)
When the time of the end of the tithi is diminished or increased by
the [half]duration, [the result is], respectively, [the time of] ﬁrst contact and [the time of] release. Likewise, when it is diminished or increased by the halfduration of totality, [the result is, respectively], the time of beginning of totality and the time of end of totality.
The moment of conjunction is mideclipse. It also occurs at the end of a tithi . If we assume that mideclipse occurs precisely at the middle of the eclipse (with respect to time), then it is clear that adding or subtracting the halfduration to or from mideclipse yields the end and the beginning of the eclipse. Similarly for the end and the beginning of totality.
∼ Deriving the formulae for the half durations ∼
The center of the shadow of the Earth is on the ecliptic and the center of the Moon is at the tip of the lunar latitude on its latitude circle [i.e., its inclined orbit]. At ﬁrst contact, the two are at a distance equal to half of the sum of the measures [of the diameters of their discs from each other]. At mideclipse, they are at a distance equal to the lunar latitude [from each other]. Therefore, the hypotenuse in the [ﬁrst] case is equal to half of the sum of the measures [of the diameters of the discs], the upright is the lunar latitude, and the leg is the square root of the diﬀerence of the squares [of the hypotenuse and the upright]. The halfduration [of the eclipse] is that [leg], which, after [the application of] a proportion involving the velocity of the Moon diminished by that of the Sun, has the form of ghat a s. . ik¯
(18–19) J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja here derives one of the two formulae from verses 15–16. On Figure 7.3, M1 is the
214
M2
M1
S
A2
A1
Figure 7.3: Finding the half duration of the eclipse and the half duration of totality
position of the center of the Moon at ﬁrst contact and M2 is the position at the beginning of totality. The line M2 M1 is the orbit of the Moon and the line SA2 A1 is the ecliptic. They are parallel, indicating that we are assuming that the lunar latitude remains constant during the eclipse. Notice that SM1 = r +r and SM2 = r formula for ﬁrst contact; the procedure is analogous for the beginning of totality. From the Pythagorean theorem we get that SA1  = Moon (r 60 × v + r )2 − β 2 − v⊙ SM1 2 − M1 A1 2 = (r + r )2 − β 2 . (7.15) − v⊙ , it takes the (7.16) − r . We will restrict ourselves to working out the
Since the velocity of the Moon with respect to the shadow of the Earth is v
ghat a s to travel the distance SA1 . The formula follows from this. . ik¯
∼ The amount of obscuration at a given time ∼ (20–21)
If the measure of obscuration at a given time is computed from
[the time of] ﬁrst contact or from [the time of] release], then the velocity of the Moon diminished by that of the Sun is multiplied by the ghat a s in . ik¯ the diﬀerence of the halfduration and the given [time] and divided by 60. The result is the leg. The [corresponding] upright is the latitude current at the given time, and the hypotenuse is the square root of the sum of the squares of those [two quantities].
215
M
S
A
Figure 7.4: Finding the obscuration at a given time
The amount [equal to] half of the sum of the measures [of the diameters of the discs] diminished by the hypotenuse is considered to be obscured.
Let τ be the given time between the beginning and the end of the eclipse and t the halfduration, both measured in ghat a s, and consider Figure 7.4 (where the given time corresponds to the lunar . ik¯ latitude being AM ). Since the Moon travels the distance SA in the time t − τ , it is clear that SA = (t − τ ) × (v 60 − v⊙ ) , (7.17)
where we divide by 60 because the velocities are given with respect to civil days. This is the leg in the rightangled triangle SAM , the upright of which is AM = β . The hypotenuse is then SM  = SA2 + AM 2 = (t − τ ) × (v 60 − v⊙ )
2
+ β2. +r
(7.18) − h.
The obscured portion of the disc of the Moon at the given time is then deﬁned as r
As in the case of mideclipse, the obscured portion at a given time can be larger than the disc of the Moon itself. In that case, as before, the obscured portion tells us how deep the disc is inside the shadow.
∼ Introducing the valanas ∼ (22)
An observer has a need for ﬁrst contact, mideclipse, and release, which are lying on the eastwest [line] on the disc on its own account. Therefore, for the sake of computing directions, I will now explain the valana s.
216 The Sanskrit term valana is generally translated as “deﬂection”. The valana is the angle between the ecliptic and an “eastwest” line on the disc of the Moon. This “eastwest” line is perpendicular to the the great circle through the center of the Moon and the north and south points on the local horizon.10 This concept serves only divinatory purposes and has no astronomical value.11
∼ Three types of valana ∼ (23)
One valana is caused by terrestrial latitude. The second is produced from the pair of ayanas [i.e., where the bodies are with respect to the celestial equator], and the third is what is called latitudinal parallax in a solar eclipse.
Normally Indian astronomical texts operate with only two components of valana ,12 the aks . avalana , due to the latitude of the observer’s location, and the ayanavalana , due to the declination of the bodies. It is peculiar that J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja here includes latitudinal parallax as a valana for a solar eclipse.13
∼ Concerning the valana ∼ (24–25)
With a motion along the ecliptic, the eclipsing body . . . east
west. It is said that when there is no lunar latitude, it obscures the disc. Therefore, it is on its own eastwest line [?]. At mideclipse, the valana , which is the distance [?], is corrected by me. As such, it is clear and explained. At the rise of the lunar latitude from the tip of the valana , having given that [valana ?], one should indicate it on the course of ﬁrst contact and release.
In these two verses J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja is giving an explanation of the valana . However, the meaning is not clear. There appears to be a corruption in p¯ ada b of verse 24.
∼ To compute the ayanavalana ∼ (26)
The Sine of the precessional [longitude of a] planet increased by three signs is multiplied by the Sine of 24 degrees and divided by the radius.
10 See 11 See 12 See 13 For
[71 549]. [105 238]. [71 549] and [105 238–239]. latitudinal parallax in a solar eclipse, see the commentary on 2.6.2a–b.
217
The arc corresponding to that [result] is the ayana [valana ], which has the [same] direction [as that] of the planet increased by three signs.
The formula given for the ayanavalana is Sin(λ∗ + 90◦ ) × Sin(24◦ ) , R (7.19)
where λ∗ is the precessional longitude of the planet. It is sometimes given using Vers(λ∗ + 90◦ ) instead of Sin(λ∗ + 90◦ ),14 but Bh¯ askara ii rejects the use of the Versed Sine here.15
∼ To compute the aks . avalana ∼
The equinoctial shadow is multiplied by the Sine of the hourangle and divided by the equinoctial hypotenuse. The aks . avalana is given by the degrees of the arc corresponding to the result. [Last part of the verse not clear.]
(27) Let d denote the hourangle (i.e., the depression from the meridian), s0 the equinoctial shadow, and h0 the equinoctial hypotenuse. The formula given for the aks . avalana is Sin(d) × The last part of the verse is not clear. s0 . h0 (7.20)
∼ To compute the total valana ∼ (28)
When their directions are the same or diﬀerent, take the sum and the diﬀerence, respectively, of the two valana s. The Sine of the result is divided by the radius and multiplied by half of the sum of the measures [of the diameters of the discs]. [This] is the true valana .
This agrees with what Bh¯ askara ii states in Karan uhala 4.16. . akut¯
∼ Ayanavalana on the terrestrial equator ∼ (29–30b)
For [the sake of] understanding [of the formulae for the valana s],
[assume that] the planet is located at one of the solstitial points and is on
14 See, 15 See
´ . yadh¯ e.g., Sis ıvr . ddhidatantra 5.25. Karan uhala 4.3. . akut¯
218
the meridian. In this case, the eastwest [line] on the disc [of the eclipsed body] along the path of the ecliptic is to be considered the “eastwest” [line]. Therefore, on the terrestrial equator, there is no valana when the planet is located at one of the solstitial points; when [the planet] is located at the beginning of Libra or at the beginning of Aries, the distance between that [planet] and the eastwest line is equal to the degrees of the greatest declination [i.e., the obliquity of the ecliptic]. When the planet is located in an intermediate direction, [the valana ] is [found] from a proportion. This is the ayanavalana [for a location] on the terrestrial equator.
J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja opens his explanation of the valana by stating that when the planet is at one of the solstitial points and on the local meridian, the “eastwest” line on the disc of the eclipsed body coincides with the ecliptic. This is so because in this case the great circle through the north and south points of the local horizon and the eclipsed body and the ecliptic are perpendicular to each other. Let us now assume that we are in a location on the terrestrial equator. If the eclipsed body is at one of the solstitial points, i.e., if its tropical longitude is either 90◦ or 270◦ , then there is no valana . If, on the other hand, it is at one of the equinoctial points, i.e., if its tropical longitude is 0◦ or 180◦ , then the valana is equal to the obliquity of the ecliptic. This is easy to see. In the ﬁrst case, the “eastwest” line is the ecliptic, and hence there is no valana . In the second case, the “eastwest” line is the celestial equator, and hence the valana is equal to the angle between the ecliptic and the celestial equator, i.e., the obliquity of the ecliptic. Let the tropical longitude of the eclipsed body be λ∗ and let γ denote the valana . For a location on the terrestrial equator, we have that if λ∗ = 0◦ or λ∗ = 180◦ , then γ = ε, and if λ∗ = 90◦ or λ∗ = 270◦ , then γ = 0. From this we get that if Sin(λ∗ + 90◦ ) = 0, then Sin(γ ) = 0, and if Sin(λ∗ + 90◦ ) = R, then Sin(γ ) = Sin(ε). For a tropical longitude diﬀerent from the equinoctial and solstitial points, the valana is now found from a proportion: Sin(γ ) = Sin(ε) × Sin(λ∗ + 90◦ ) . R (7.21)
On the terrestrial equator, this is the total valana , but elsewhere it is only one out of two components of the valana , called the ayanavalana and denoted by γ2 . In general we therefore have that: Sin(γ2 ) = Sin(ε) × eclipsed body increased by 90◦ . Sin(λ∗ + 90◦ ) . R (7.22)
Note that the Sine of the ayanavalana equals the declination of the tropical longitude of the
219 ∼ Aks . avalana in other regions ∼
In a region with latitude [i.e., not on the terrestrial equator], considering that it [the valana ] is aﬀected by the terrestrial latitude, the aks . avalana is applied by the ancients.
If one is not on the equator, it is necessary to apply to the aks . avalana in addition to the ayanavalana .
(30c–d)
∼ The ayanavalana ∼
The ecliptic is to be imagined as resembling the prime vertical. Whatever are the southnorth [line] and one’s own horizon, the termination of the horizon from that point, that valana has the name ayana in its own direction.
(31)
∼ The aks . avalana ∼ (32)
On the terrestrial equator, when the planet is on the prime vertical,
whatever is the eastwest [line] on the disc, that is its own [eastwest line]. Therefore, the aks . avalana is not produced [for an observer on the terrestrial equator]. On the given horizon, the Sine of the latitude is the distance between them [the terrestrial equator and the given location]; whatever is in between by a proportion, that is said to be the aks . avalana by the wise. The ayana [valana ] is corrected by that.
∼ Occurrence of an eclipse ∼
When for an observer the circle from the center of the eclipsed body, all around by means of half the sum of the apparent diameters, touches the center of the eclipsing body along a line, then there is always an eclipse.
(33)
∼ Projection diagram ∼ (34)
Having put down the angula ˙ s of the lunar latitude in the opposite
220
direction of ﬁrst contact, then the corrected valana extends up to the eastern direction on the disc.
∼ Position of the Moon ∼ (35)
The syzygy is computed along the circle of stars between the marks
of the Sun and the Moon. The coming together of the discs is not there, since the Moon is situated at the tip of the lunar latitude. Therefore, for the Moon corrected by the visibility corrections, it is the sum of the discs. What is not taught by the ancients? We do not know!
∼ The ayanavalana using small Sines ∼
The Small Sine of the precessional [longitude of the] Moon increased by three signs is multiplied by 13 and divided by 32. The [Small] Sine of the declination is attained [as the result]. It is multiplied by the lunar latitude and divided by the [SmallSine] radius. The minutes in the result are applied positively or negatively to the application to [the longitude of] the Moon depending on whether the directions of the lunar latitude and the declination are diﬀerent or the same. The tithi at the syzygy is [determined] from the Moon supplied with the visibility corrections.
(36) If we replace the Sines with small Sines in the formula of verse 26, we get the ayanavalana as Sinℓ (λ∗ + 90◦ ) × Since Sinℓ (24◦ ) . R (7.23)
64; 20 193 Sinℓ (24◦ ) = = , R 160 480 1 13 193 − = , 32 480 240
13 32
(7.24)
and
(7.25)
we see that J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s
is an approximation
Sinℓ (24◦ ) ; R
the formula of the verse follows from this.
∼ Drawing the eclipse diagram ∼ (37–39)
Having put down a circle using a string [measured] by the angula ˙ s
221
of the sum of half of the measures [of the diameters of the apparent diameters]. In the computation of the directions, the valana current at ﬁrst contact is to be put down at the eastern [part] of the Moon according to the quarters. The [valana ] current at release is at the western [part of the Moon]. In the case of a solar eclipse, it is opposite. The two latitudes [current at ﬁrst contact and release are at its [the valana ’s] tip like Sines. The long line between the tips of the valana s is oblique. The mean latitude is [given] from the center according to the quarters. In whatever manner the center of the disc of the eclipsing body is at the [three] marks of the latitudes at [respectively] ﬁrst contact, mideclipse, and release, precisely in that manner the rule regarding the directions is to be considered.
J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja here explains how to draw the eclipse diagram. The directions are not entirely clear.
∼ Concluding verse ∼
[Thus] ends the section on lunar eclipses in the beautiful and abundant tantra composed by J˜ n¯ anar¯ aja, the son of N¯ agan¯ atha, which is the foundation of [any] library.
(40)
Chapter 8
grahagan adhy¯ aya section 6 . it¯ s¯ uryagrahan ¯dhik¯ ara .a Solar eclipses
∼ The effect of parallax described ∼
Two men, one on the surface of the Earth, the other at its center, do not see the Sun being covered by the Moon at the same time. In the case of the man at the center of the Earth, the Moon reaches his line of sight towards the Sun precisely at the time of conjunction of the Sun and the Moon; it is not so in the case of the man on the surface.
(1) Parallax is the phenomenon that a heavenly body (in our context only the planets), when viewed from the center of the Earth (we will have to postulate an imaginary “observer” there, as J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja does), is not seen at the same position with respect to the ﬁxed stars as when it is viewed from a position on the surface of the Earth. This is illustrated in Figure 8.1, where the Sun, S , and the Moon, M , are observed from the location A on the surface of the Earth as well as from the center of the Earth, C . Each luminary is seen diﬀerently with respect to the ﬁxed stars. The parallax of a planet is the angle between the two lines formed by connecting the planet with, respectively, the center of the Earth and the given location on the surface of the Earth. In our example, the parallax of the Sun is the angle ASC and the parallax of the Moon is the angle AMC . As can be readily seen in the ﬁgure, the closer a planet is to the Earth, the greater its parallax; the parallax of the Moon is signiﬁcant, while that of the Sun is minor (the magnitude of the parallax also depends on the position of the planet with respect to the zenith of the observer). 222
223
⋆ S
⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆
A C
M
Figure 8.1: Parallax of the Sun and the Moon
When computing a lunar eclipse, it is not necessary to take parallax into account. The reason for this is that the eﬀect of parallax is the same for the Moon and the shadow of the Earth, because they are seen at the same distance from the Earth. However, since the Sun and the Moon are at diﬀerent distances from the Earth, the eﬀect of parallax changes their positions not only with respect to the ﬁxed stars, but also with respect to each other. As can be seen in Figure 8.1, for an observer at C , the Moon is seen eclipsing the Sun, whereas for an observer at A, at the same moment, no eclipse is seen. Parallax must therefore be taken into account in order to accurately compute a solar eclipse for a given locality. Note that the appearance of the Sun and the Moon as seen at C is not the same as that seen from most positions on the surface; if an observer is located at the point where the line CM intersects the surface of the Earth, he will of course see what the “observer” at C sees. When it comes to the role of parallax in computing a solar eclipse, what we are interested in is the combined eﬀect of parallax on the Sun and the Moon: in other words, how the eﬀect of parallax changes the positions of the two luminaries with respect to each other. We will call this the combined parallax of the Sun and the Moon, or simply the combined parallax. On Figure 8.1, the combined parallax is the angle MAS , which, seen from A, is the angular distance between the Sun and the Moon measured against the backdrop of the ﬁxed stars. It is easy to see that this angle is the diﬀerence of the angles AMC and ASC : MAS = 180◦ − AMS − ASC = AMC − ASC .
= 180◦ − (180◦ − AMC ) − ASC (8.1)
So, the combined parallax of the Sun and the Moon is the parallax of the Moon diminished by the parallax of the Sun. Since the basic theory and computations of a solar eclipse are the same as those of a lunar eclipse, this chapter of the Siddh¯ antasundara is devoted to an exposition of parallax. In addition to its use in computing solar eclipses, the Indian tradition also uses parallax in computing conjunction
224 of planets.1
∼ Longitudinal and latitudinal parallax defined ∼ (2a–b)
The longitudinal parallax is the distance, [measured] on the ecliptic, between the lines [of sight of the two observers]. The latitudinal parallax is [measured on a great circle situated] northsouth [of the ecliptic, i.e., perpendicular to it].
The eﬀect of parallax is to make a planet appear closer to the horizon than it would be if viewed from the center of the Earth. More speciﬁcally, the eﬀect pushes a planet downwards towards the horizon along a great circle through the local zenith. This can be deduced from Figure 8.1, where it is seen that the two lines of sight, AS and CS , both fall in the plane containing the center of the Earth (C ), the given location on the surface of the Earth (A), the zenith corresponding to that
location, and the Sun (S ). In other words, seen from A, the position of the Sun and the position of the Sun under parallax fall on the same great circle through the zenith. Consider Figure 8.2. The circle ESWN is the horizon with the cardinal directions marked. The line NS is the meridian, and the center of the circle, Z , is the zenith. The arc LVB is the ecliptic. The two intersections of the ecliptic and the horizon, L and B , are, respectively, the ascendant and the descendant. The intersection of the ecliptic and the meridian, M , is called the meridian ecliptic point.2 Let P be the pole of the ecliptic, and let the intersection of the ecliptic and the great circle through Z and P be V . This point is called the nonagesimal. It is the highest point of the ecliptic above the horizon, being 90◦ from both the ascendant and the descendant. Let further S ′ be the position of the Sun on the ecliptic and S ′′ the Sun under parallax (in other words, the angular distance S ′ S ′′ is the parallax of the Sun). Since the eﬀect of parallax is to shift the position of the Sun downwards towards the horizon along a great circle through the zenith, the points Z , S ′ , and S ′′ are on the same straight line. Finally, let the arcs PS ′ and PS ′′ be parts of great circles through P. The intersection of the latter great circle and the ecliptic is called A. The Indian astronomers separate parallax into two components. One component, called longitudinal parallax (lambana ), is measured along the ecliptic, and the other, called latitudinal parallax (nati ), is measured on a perpendicular to the ecliptic. The actual parallax, which is a combination of the two, will here be referred to as the total parallax.3 On Figure 8.2, S ′ S ′′ is the total parallax, S ′ A the longitudinal parallax, and S ′′ A the latitudinal parallax. In the following, longitudinal parallax will be denoted by πλ , latitudinal parallax by πβ , and the total parallax by πt .
1 See, 2 This
for example, Siddh¯ anta´ siroman adhy¯ aya , Grahayutyadhik¯ ara , 7. . i , Grahagan . it¯ point is wellknown in western astrology, where it is known as midheaven. that there is no Sanskrit term for the total parallax, only the terms for longitudinal and latitudinal parallax.
3 Note
225
N
P
B
W V
Z
C
E
M S′ S ′′
A
L
D
S
Figure 8.2: Projection used in computing parallax
226 ∼ Conditions for absence of parallax ∼
When [the longitude of] the Sun is equal to [that of] the meridian ecliptic point, there is no longitudinal parallax. When the Sun is at the midpoint of the prime vertical, there is neither of the two [parallaxes, i.e., neither longitudinal nor latitudinal parallax].
In this verse, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja explains the conditions under which there either will be no longitudinal parallax or no parallax at all. According to him, the Sun has no longitudinal parallax when it is at the meridian ecliptic point, and it has no parallax at all when it is at the midpoint of the prime vertical. The prime vertical is the great circle through the zenith and the east and west points. On Figure 8.2, it is the line EZW . Its midpoint is the zenith. In other words, if the Sun is at the midpoint of the prime vertical, it is at the zenith (if this is the case, the prime vertical and the ecliptic coincide). The second statement is therefore equivalent to saying that there is no parallax when the Sun is at the zenith. This is a true statement. If the Sun is at the zenith, the line of sight towards the Sun of an observer at the given location coincides with that of an observer at the center of the Earth, so that the Sun will have the same position with respect to the ﬁxed stars for both of them. The statement is, of course, true for any planet, not just the Sun. A planet located at the zenith has no parallax. Furthermore, it is easy to see that the planet’s parallax increases as it gets closer to the horizon. On the horizon, a planet attains its greatest parallax. Let us now consider the ﬁrst statement and investigate under which conditions there is no longitudinal parallax. It is clear that the longitudinal parallax is nil if and only if the total parallax is perpendicular to the ecliptic. Otherwise, the total parallax would have a component along the ecliptic. Since the eﬀect of parallax is that a planet is pushed down towards the horizon along a great circle through the zenith, this occurs only when this great circle is perpendicular to the ecliptic. This, in turn, occurs precisely when the Sun is at the nonagesimal. Since the nonagesimal and the meridian ecliptic point are distinct,4 J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s ﬁrst statement is incorrect. It is unlikely that J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja is using a Sanskrit term normally used for the meridian ecliptic point (madhyavilagna in this case) to indicate the nonagesimal, for a comparison of verse 8b–d with verse 9c–10b shows that he is aware of the distinction. Rather, the issue is that diﬀerent texts give diﬀerent accounts of when there is no longitudinal parallax. Some texts, like the Br¯ ahmasphut . a6 siddh¯ anta 5 and the Siddh¯ anta´ siroman . i state that it happens when the Sun is at the nonagesimal,
(2c–d)
while others, like the S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta ,7 state that it happens when the Sun is at the meridian ecliptic
4 It
may happen that they coincide at a given point in time, but this is the exception; generally, the two points are diﬀerent. . 5.2. . Grahagan adhy¯ aya , S¯ uryagrahan adhik¯ ara , 2. . it¯ .¯
5 Br¯ ahmasphut asiddh¯ anta 6 Siddh¯ anta´ siroman i , 7 S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta
5.1; see the note in [9 162–164].
227 point. J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s statement, therefore, is not to be taken as one that he mathematically derived or observationally veriﬁed; he is merely following a tradition. The S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta seems to be the main source that J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja followed when writing his chapter on solar eclipses. He adds demonstrations, but follows the general structure of the S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta ’s chapter on solar eclipses, and gives the same formulas as in that text.
∼ Greatest longitudinal parallax ∼ (3)
If there is no amount of degrees produced from the meridian ecliptic point, [then] the longitudinal parallax [of a planet] is measured by 4 ghat a s when it rises. That [value of 4 ghat a s] has been computed at . ik¯ . ik¯ the given time [for the rising of a planet] as well as at Sunrise [in the case of the Sun] by the wise sages using a variety of proportions.
The meaning of the ﬁrst line of the verse, cen madhyalagnajanit¯ am samiter abh¯ avah .´ . —literally, “If there is nonexistence of the amount of degrees produced from the meridian ecliptic point”—is not wholly clear. It is reasonable, though, to take it to mean that there are no degrees separating the meridian ecliptic point and the zenith, i.e., that the two points coincide. If taken in this way, the statement makes sense. When the meridian ecliptic point and the zenith coincide, the ecliptic, passing through the zenith, is perpendicular to the local horizon, and the total parallax, of the Sun or another planet, therefore equals the longitudinal parallax. Since parallax is greatest on the horizon, the longitudinal parallax reaches its maximum at the time of the rising or setting of the planet. In the Indian astronomical tradition, this maximum is given as 4 ghat a s, the value given . ik¯ by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja in the verse. The verse is here taken as a general statement that for any planet, the greatest longitudinal parallax is 4 ghat a s, which, as we shall see below, holds true. Whether J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja intended it this . ik¯ way, or if he is only talking about the Sun (as he did in the previous verse), is not clear. Taking it as I do, however, is the only way that I can make sense of samaye ’bhimate , “at a given time.” If he only deals with the Sun, the required time for the greatest longitudinal parallax would be Sunrise, already mentioned, or Sunset. Of course what J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja is ultimately interested in here is not the longitudinal parallax of a given planet, but rather the combined longitudinal parallax of the Sun and the Moon. Now, why, when parallax is an angular distance, is it here expressed in terms of a unit of time, the ghat a ? The idea is to express parallax not as the angular distance described earlier, but as the . ik¯ amount of time that it takes the planet in question to traverse that angular distance. In other words, what we are seeking is the amount of time that it takes the Sun, or another planet, to traverse the angular distance corresponding to its greatest parallax. Note that in the Indian astronomical system, it is only the longitudinal parallax that is expressed as time, not the latitudinal parallax. The reason for this is that the longitudinal parallax is used to ﬁnd the time of the apparent conjunction of the
228
A S
C
B D
Figure 8.3: Greatest parallax of the Sun
Sun and the Moon, whereas the latitudinal parallax is used to correct the lunar latitude. In the following, πλ will be used for both longitudinal parallax as an angular distance and as a measure of time; the context makes it clear which is intended. On Figure 8.3, the Sun is on the horizon of the location A. In other words, observed from A, it has its greatest parallax. It can be seen that in this situation, the parallax of the Sun, i.e., the angular distance ASC , marks oﬀ a section of the Sun’s orbit, namely the arc SD . Given the great distance between the Earth and the Sun, the length of this arc is roughly equal to the linear distance between S and B . This distance is equal to the radius of the Earth. One can therefore say that the greatest parallax of a planet is the radius of the Earth at the distance of the planet. In the Siddh¯ antasundara , the radius of the Earth, which we will denote by r♁ , is 800 yojana s (see 2.3.8 and commentary including fn. 7 on p. 206). It is held in the Indian tradition that “every planet travels the same absolute distance in the same interval of time.”8 According to J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja, the number of yojana s traversed by each planet during a mah¯ ayuga is 18,712,080,864,000.9 To ﬁnd the number of yojana s traversed by each planet during a civil day, we divide this by the number of civil days in a mah¯ ayuga ,10 which gives11 282,814,894 18,712,080,864,000 = 11,858 . 1,577,917,828 394,479,457 (8.2)
If the radius of the Earth is divided by this number and then expanded as a continued fraction, we get 800 282,814,894 = 14 + 11,858 394 ,479,457 1
69, 666, 585 1+ 324 , 812, 872
1
≈
1 . 15
(8.3)
It thus takes a planet roughly oneﬁfteenth of a civil day to traverse the angular distance corresponding to its greatest parallax. In other words, the greatest parallax of a planet is roughly a ﬁfteenth
8 See 9 See 10 See
[66 83] The word “planet” here includes the luminaries, as is our convention. 1.1.74. 2.1.15.
11 Prth¯ udakasv¯ amin,
in his commentary on Br¯ ahmasphut anta 21.12, gives, using Brahmagupta’s parameters, . . asiddh¯ , 135, 935, 900,000 the number of yojana s traversed by each planet during a civil day as 11,858 1 . 1, 577, 915, 450, 000
229 part of its mean velocity. Note that using the approximation planet traverses 12,000 yojana s per civil day. Using this result, we ﬁnd the Moon’s greatest parallax to be be
′ 59 8 15
′ ′′
1 15
is equivalent to assuming that each
790′ 35′′ 15
= 52′ 42′′ , and the Sun’s to
= 3′ 57′′ . For future reference, let us note that a more accurate computation, in which we
1 15 ,
do not use the approximation 3 59 .
′′ 13
yields the Moon’s greatest parallax as 53′ 20′′ ,12 and the Sun’s as
Now, it is clear that the greatest parallax measured in time, as explained above, is the same for all the planets, as they each travel the same distance, i.e., one Earth radius. We therefore need only compute it for one planet. Since the mean velocity of the Moon v is 790′ 35′′ per civil day, it takes the mean Moon 4;0 ghat a s to traverse 52′ 42′′ and 4;3 ghat a s to traverse 53′ 20′′ . In both cases, . ik¯ . ik¯ roughly 4 ghat a s, as stated in the verse. . ik¯ In the last half of the verse, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja says that the value of 4 ghat a s was computed by the . ik¯ sages using a variety of proportions. In the next two verses, he will give a demonstration of how the greatest combined longitudinal parallax of the Sun and the Moon can be found, one that he presumably means to attribute to the beforementioned sages. One manuscript14 adds the number 14 after the word mun¯ ındraih . , “by the great sages,” indicating that the word was possibly understood by some as a number according to the bh¯ utasankhy¯ ˙ a system (the correct value, however, would be 147, not 14). This, however, makes little sense.
∼ To find the greatest combined longitudinal parallax ∼ (4–5)
At the time of conjunction, when the Sun is on the eastern horizon
for [an observer] situated at the center of the Earth, the upright [of a rightangled triangle] is the radius of the Earth [800 yojana s], the leg is the distance of the Sun [from the Earth] in yojana s, and the hypotenuse is the distance between our [location] and the Sun. Now, [if] the leg [of a rightangled triangle similar to the one just given] is the diﬀerence of the distances of the Sun and the Moon [from the Earth] in yojana s, what is the upright? It is the [combined] longitudinal parallax in yojana s. [Let this combined longitudinal parallax be] multiplied by the radius
12 Since 800 15 13 It
there are 15 yojana s per minute of arc in the Moon’s orbit (see verse 5.8), the Moon’s greatest parallax is = 53′ 20′′ .
may be there, but I have not yet located a passage in the Siddh¯ antasundara that states the number of yojana s in the orbit of the Sun. However, the value of 3′ 59′′ for the greatest parallax of the Sun can be deduced from the distance between the Earth and the Sun, which is given as 689,377 yojana s in 1.1.67. The same result is arrived
at if the saurapaks . a ’s value of the number of yojana s in the orbit of the Sun (given in [71 609]), i.e., 4,331,500, is used.
14 V 5.
230
A B
C
M
S
Figure 8.4: J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s ﬁgure to ﬁnd the greatest combined parallax
and divided by the distance of the Moon [from the Earth]. [The result is 48;45.] [When] 48;45 minutes of arc [are] multiplied by 60 and divided by the diﬀerence of the [mean] velocities [of the Sun and the Moon, the result] is 4 ghat a s. [This] is the mean longitudinal parallax at rising and setting. . ik¯
In these two verses, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja demonstrates how the value of 4 ghat a s for the greatest combined . ik¯ longitudinal parallax can be found. Consider Figure 8.4, which depicts the scenario described in the verses. In the ﬁgure, C is the center of the Earth and S the position of the Sun. Since the verse states that the Sun is on the horizon for an imagined “observer” at the Earth’s center, we take the line CS to be his “horizon”. It is further the time of conjunction, so the Moon, M , is found on this line (we are not taking lunar latitude into account; during an eclipse it is not of great magnitude anyway). Let further A be “our” location mentioned in the verse. Given the geometrical construction that J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja has in mind, the line CA has to be perpendicular on the line CS . The triangle CAS has as its upright the radius of the Earth, as its leg the geocentric distance of the Sun, and as its hypotenuse the distance between the location A and the Sun. This is the triangle described by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja in the verse. Now, let B on the line AS be chosen so that the line BM is perpendicular on the line CS . Taking into account the magnitude of the Moon’s distance from the Earth compared to the radius of the (the angle M AS in Figure 8.4) measured in yojana s at the Moon’s distance from the Earth. Our ﬁrst step is to determine the length of BM . Let D⊙ denote the distance of the Sun from the Earth (the length CS in the ﬁgure), and D the distance of the Moon from the Earth (the length CM in the ﬁgure). The triangles CAS and M BS are similar, and hence BM  = (D⊙ − D ) × r♁ (CS  − CM ) × AC  M S  × AC  = = . CS  CS  D⊙ (8.4) Earth, we note that BM  is approximately the greatest combined parallax of the Sun and the Moon
231
A B
C
M
S
Figure 8.5: The greatest combined parallax as a sine
Since the radius of the Earth is 800 yojana s, the distance of the Sun from the Earth is 689,377 yojana s,15 and the distance of the Moon from the Earth is 51,566 yojana s,16 we ﬁnd that the length of BM equals 740;10 yojana s. (see Figure 8.5). By multiplying BM  by R and dividing it by D , as J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja instructs us to do, is 740;10 × 3,438 = 49;21, 51,566 Now, BM  is approximately the sine of the angle BCM with respect to a circle of radius D
we transform it into the Sine (i.e., a sine with respect to the radius R). The result of this operation (8.5)
which J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja, however, gives as 48;45. Since 49; 21 is a small number (compared to R = 3,438), its Sine is approximately equal to 49 21′′ . In other words, the Sine of the angle BCM , which is the greatest combined parallax of the Sun and the Moon, is 49′ 21′′ , or, if we use J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s number, 48′ 45′′ . That J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja gets 48;45 instead of 49;21 is not surprising. We know from the notes to verse 1 that the greatest combined parallax of the Sun and the Moon is equal to the greatest parallax of the Moon diminished by the greatest parallax of the Sun. In the notes to verse 3, we found the greatest parallax of the Moon to be 52′ 42′′ and that of the Sun to be 3′ 57′′ . The diﬀerence of these is 52′ 42′′ − 3′ 57′′ = 48′ 45′′ , the result given by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja. However, using the more accurate values computed subsequently, we get 53′ 20′′ − 3′ 59′′ = 49′ 21′′ , the result we arrived at. That J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja computations he describes in the verses, but rather inserted an already known result. Finally, since the velocity of the Sun and the Moon with respect to each other is the diﬀerence of their respective velocities, we can convert the greatest combined parallax of the Sun and the Moon into ghat a s by multiplying it by 60 and dividing it by the diﬀerence of the mean velocities of the . ik¯
15 See 16 See
′
gives 48′ 45′′ in the verse rather than 49′ 21′′ seems to indicate that he did not himself follow the
1.1.67. 1.1.66.
232 Moon and the Sun, v and v ⊙ :17 60 ×
In other words, a body moving with the combined motion of the Sun and the Moon will take 4;3 ghat a s to traverse the angular distance 49;21. Using J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s value 48′ 45′′ , we get 4;0 ghat a s: . ik¯ . ik¯ in both cases a value close to 4 ghat a s, as stated in the verse. . ik¯
2961 49′ 21′′ = 4;3. = ′ v − v⊙ 790 35′′ − 59′ 8′′
(8.6)
∼ To find the Sine of the rising amplitude of the ascendant ∼ (6a–c)
[When] the Sine of 24◦ is multiplied by the Sine of [the longitude of] the precessioncorrected ascendant and divided by the Sine of the local colatitude, the result is the Sine of the rising amplitude of the ascendant.
In this and the following verses, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja gives the formulas for computing a number of quantities that will be used to compute the longitudinal and latitudinal parallax, namely the Sine of the rising amplitude of the ascendant, the Sine of the zenith distance of the nonagesimal, and the Sine of the altitude of the nonagesimal. The rising amplitude of the ascendant (udayajy¯ a ), denoted here by ηL , is the line CL on Figure 8.2. The 24◦ mentioned is the obliquity of the ecliptic, ε. Furthermore, the declination of the ascendant is denoted by δL , the longitude of the ascendant by λL , and the longitude of the ascendant ¯. corrected for precession by λ∗ . The latitude is denoted by φ and the colatitude by φ
L
The third triangle in the list of similar triangles on p. 179 gives us that Sin(ηL ) = R × Sin(δL ) ¯) . Sin(φ (8.7)
If this is combined with the regular formula for determining the declination of the ascendant (using the usual formula for determining the declination of a point on the ecliptic given its longitude), Sin(δL ) = we get Sin(ηL ) = which is the formula given in the verse. In verse 13a–b, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja gives a demonstration of the formula by noting that it is derived from the two proportions (8.7) and (8.8). Sin(ε) × Sin(λ∗ L) , R Sin(ε) × Sin(λ∗ L) , ¯) Sin(φ (8.8)
(8.9)
∼ To find the Sine of the zenith distance of the meridian ecliptic point ∼
The Sine of the zenith distance of the meridian ecliptic point is computed by means of the combination of the degrees of the [local] latitude
17 The
(6c–d)
mean velocities are measured in minutes of arc per civil day; the “60” is to convert from civil days to ghat a s. . ik¯
233
and the degrees of the declination of the meridian ecliptic point.
By “combination” (sam . skr . ti ) is meant that the two quantities are either added to or subtracted from each other according to whether the meridian ecliptic point is below or above the celestial equator. The zenith distance and the declination of the meridian ecliptic point (natajy¯ a ) are here denoted by zM and δM . For the formula indicated here, Sin(zM ) = Sin(φ ± δM ), compare 2.3.38. (8.10)
∼ To find the Sine of the zenith distance of the nonagesimal ∼ (7a–d)
[Let] that [Sine of the zenith distance of the meridian ecliptic point be] multiplied by the Sine of the rising amplitude of the ascendant and divided by the radius. [Take] the diﬀerence of the square of the result and the square of the Sine of the zenith distance of the meridian ecliptic point. The square root of that [diﬀerence] is the Sine of the zenith distance of the nonagesimal.
The zenith distance of the nonagesimal (dr tiks .s .. . epa or dr . kks . epa ) is denoted by zV . The formula given in the verse is Sin(zV ) = (Sin(zM ))2 − Sin(zM ) × Sin(ηL ) R
2
.
(8.11)
J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja gives a demonstration of it in verse 13c–14b, and a discussion of the formula is found in the commentary there.
∼ To find the Sine of the altitude of the nonagesimal ∼
The square root of the diﬀerence of that [Sine of the zenith distance of the nonagesimal] and the square of the radius is the Sine of the altitude of the nonagesimal.
The Sanskrit phrase used by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja to designate the Sine of the altitude of the nonagesimal is dr nj˜ na´ sankur ˙ , “the altitude called the dr . ggatisa˜ . ggati .” This usage of the term dr . ggati is consistent with that of the S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta ,18 but it is noteworthy that it is used diﬀerently in other texts. The ´ . yadh¯ Sis ıvr svarasiddh¯ anta ,19 for example, use the term to designate the . ddhidatantra and the Vat . e´
18 S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta
(7d–8a)
5.6. 6.6. Vat svarasiddh¯ anta 5.1.9. . e´
19 Sis ´ yadh¯ ıvrddhidatantra
.
.
234 square root of the diﬀerence of the squares of the Sine of the zenith distance of the nonagesimal and the Sine of the zenith distance of the Sun. This is approximately VS ′  on Figure 8.2, if the triangle ZVS ′ is considered planar and rightangled. It is perhaps to avoid confusion over these diﬀerent usages of the term dr na ¯nar¯ aja speciﬁcally says that it is an altitude (´ sanku ˙ ). Bh¯ askara ii . ggati that J˜ does not use the term dr ˙ to designate what Lalla and . ggati ; he does, however, use the term dr . nnati Vat e´ s vara call dr ggati . . . Let αV and zV designate the altitude and the zenith distance of the nonagesimal, respectively. The formula given in the verse, Sin(αV ) = R2 − (Sin(zV ))2 , (8.12)
is straightforward. J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja gives a derivation of it in verse 14b.
∼ To find the longitudinal parallax ∼
The square of half the radius divided by the Sine of [the] altitude [of the nonagesimal] is [called] the divisor. The quotient obtained from the division of the Sine of the diﬀerence between [the longitudes of] the meridian ecliptic point and the Sun by the divisor is the ghat a s of the . ik¯ longitudinal parallax.
In the verse, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja merely says nara , “Sine of altitude”, by which he must mean the Sine of the altitude of the nonagesimal. A formula for the Sine of this altitude was just given, and its appearance in the formula is consistent with the derivation of the formula in verse 14c–15 as well as with the corresponding formula in the S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta .20 An alternative would be the Sine of the ´ . yadh¯ altitude of the meridian ecliptic point, which is used in the corresponding formula in the Sis ı21 22 vr . ddhidatantra . Additionally, it is worth noting that some manuscripts gloss the word nara as 12, indicating an incorrect interpretation of the word as a gnomon.
(8b–d)
Let λ⊙ , λM , and λV denote the longitudes of the Sun, the meridian ecliptic point, and the nonagesimal, respectively. The formula of the verse, πλ = 4 × Sin(λM − λ⊙ ) × Sin(αV ) Sin(λM − λ⊙ ) = , 2 R2 ) (R 2
Sin(αV )
(8.13)
is derived by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja from two proportions in verse 14c–15, and so a discussion of it will be postponed until this point in the text. As explained earlier, we would expect that the longitudinal parallax vanishes at the nonagesimal rather than at the meridian ecliptic point, which would require λV instead of λM in the formula
20 S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta
5.7–8. 6.8.
21 Sis ´ yadh¯ ıvrddhidatantra
.
22 R
1
. and R2 .
235 (as in the formula in verse 10a–b). The formula given here is the same as that found in the S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta .23
∼ To apply longitudinal parallax ∼ (9a–b)
This longitudinal parallax is to be applied positively or negatively to [the time of] conjunction according to whether [the longitude of] the Sun is less than or greater than [that of] the meridian ecliptic point.
Here, again, we would expect the nonagesimal where the meridian ecliptic point is mentioned. As before, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja follows the S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta in this respect.24 When, at true conjunction, the Sun and the Moon are to the west of the nonagesimal (this happens when the longitude of the Sun is less than that of the nonagesimal), the apparent position of the Moon is further to the west on the ecliptic than the apparent position of the Sun. This means that the apparent conjunction has not yet occurred. Therefore, the longitudinal parallax, measured as time, is to be added to the time of conjunction. Similarly, if the Sun and the Moon are to the east of the nonagesimal, the longitudinal parallax, measured as time, is to be subtracted from the time of conjunction. To illustrate this, see Figure 8.2. When the Sun and the Moon are east of V , the Moon appears
farther east than the Sun. That is because if the Sun and the Moon were together at S ′ , and the Sun is apparently displaced from S ′ to S ′′ along line ZS ′ due to parallax, then the larger parallax of the Moon would displace it even further toward the horizon along the same line. This being so, its longitudinal parallax would also be larger, so it would appear east of the Sun. In other words, the apparent eclipse would already have occurred, so the parallax time would be subtracted from the time of conjunction.
∼ An alternative formula for the longitudinal parallax ∼ (9c–10b)
Or, [let] the Sine of the diﬀerence between the [longitudes of] the nonagesimal and the Sun [be] multiplied by 4 and divided by the radius. [The result is called] the small longitudinal parallax. Some people say that that [small longitudinal parallax] multiplied by the Sine of the altitude of the nonagesimal and divided by the radius is the accurate [longitudinal parallax].
23 S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta 24 See
5.7–8.
S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta 5.9.
236 The small longitudinal parallax given ﬁrst, πλ = 4 × Sin(λV − λ⊙ ) R (8.14)
corresponds to a situation where the nonagesimal and the zenith coincide. In this case, the total parallax can be found by the proportion Sin(λV − λ⊙ ) πt = , π0 R (8.15)
where π0 is the greatest parallax. Since in this situation, the ecliptic is perpendicular to the horizon, πλ = πt . Using this and π0 being 4 ghat a s, we get J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s formula for the small longitudinal . ik¯ 25 parallax. The next step is to extend the formula to the situation where the nonagesimal and the zenith do not coincide. This gives us the formula πλ = 4 × Sin(λV − λ⊙ ) × Sin(αV ) . R2 (8.16)
With the exception that λM is replaced by λV , the formula is identical to that of verse 8b–d. For its derivation, see verse 14c–15 (where J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja derives the formula of verse 8b–d) and commentary.
27 The formula is given in the Br¯ ahmasphut anta 26 and the Siddh¯ anta´ siroman . asiddh¯ . i , so the “some
people” of the verse presumably refers to Brahmagupta, Bh¯ askara ii, and their followers.
∼ To find the latitudinal parallax ∼ (10c–d)
The latitudinal parallax is [computed] from the Sine of the ecliptic zenith distance divided by 70. It is said that its direction is [the same as] that of the Sine of the zenith distance of the meridian ecliptic point. The lunar latitude is corrected by it.
J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja now gives a formula for computing the latitudinal parallax. The same formula is found in the S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta .28 To derive the formula, we consider, as is nearly correct, that the latitudinal parallax can be found by the proportion πβ π0 = , R Sin(zV ) (8.17)
where π0 again is the greatest parallax. As noted under verse 3, latitudinal parallax is measured not as time, but as an angular distance. From what we found earlier, the greatest parallax of, say, the Sun is
25 The
1 15
× v ⊙ . However, we are
term laghulambana , “small longitudinal parallax,” denotes the longitudinal parallax at noon in the Vat svara. e´ siddh¯ anta (5.1.21). . 5.4.
26 Br¯ ahmasphut asiddh¯ anta 27 Siddh¯ anta´ siroman i ,
adhy¯ aya , S¯ uryagrahan adhik¯ ara , 4. . Grahagan . it¯ .¯ 28 S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta 5.11; see also S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta 5.10.
237 interested in the combined latitudinal parallax of the Sun and the Moon, which is If we insert this in formula (8.17), we get πβ = Since v − v⊙ × Sin(zV ). 15 × R
1 15
× (v
− v ⊙ ). (8.18)
v − v⊙ 1 ≈ , (8.19) 15 × R 70 we get the formula of the verse. Note that according to the formula, once we know the zenith distance of the nonagesimal, the latitudinal parallax is the same at any point of the ecliptic. This is roughly correct.29 It is easy to see that the direction of the latitudinal parallax is the same as that of the Sine of the meridian ecliptic point. In other words, it is north when the meridian ecliptic point is north of the zenith, and south when it is south of the zenith. The latitudinal parallax is used to correct the lunar latitude. After such a correction is made, we have the proper distance between the Sun and the Moon on a great circle perpendicular to the ecliptic, as seen from our location.
∼ To compute a solar eclipse ∼
[When] the time of true conjunction is repeatedly corrected by the longitudinal parallax [until it is] constant, [the result] is the [time of] apparent [conjunction]. The lunar latitude at that [time of apparent conjunction] is corrected by the latitudinal parallax. The amount of obscuration and the halfduration [of the eclipse] is [computed] from that [corrected lunar latitude]. The longitudinal parallax is to be computed [repeatedly] from the time of true conjunction increased or diminished by the halfduration. Separately, by means of the accurate [longitudinal parallax], [we get the time of] ﬁrst contact and the time of release, respectively.
The ﬁrst step in computing a solar eclipse is to ﬁnd the time of apparent conjunction, i.e., the time when the Sun and the Moon are seen in conjunction at our location. This is done iteratively
31 by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja, using a method found in the S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta 30 and the Siddh¯ anta´ siroman . i.
(11–12b)
The iterative process works as follows.32 Let the time of true conjunction be t0 and the longitudinal parallax at that time π1 . When t0 is corrected by π1 , we get a new time, say t1 . The apparent
29 See
Burgess’ notes to S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta 5.10 in [9 170–2]. 5.9.
30 S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta
31 Siddh¯ anta´ siroman i , 32 The
adhy¯ aya , S¯ uryagrahan adhik¯ ara , 7. . Grahagan . it¯ .¯ process is described in Bh¯ askara ii’s own commentary on Siddh¯ anta´ siroman adhy¯ aya , S¯ urya. i , Grahagan . it¯ grahan adhik¯ ara , 7. .¯
238 conjunction, however, does not take place at the time t1 , because at that time, the longitudinal parallax will be diﬀerent from π1 . We therefore compute the longitudinal parallax for t1 , getting, say, π2 , and correct the time of true conjunction with this new value of the longitudinal parallax. This yields, say, the time t2 . We now repeat this procedure until the times generated remain constant, say tn (or, equivalently, until the longitudinal parallaxes generated remain constant, say πn ). This time is the time of the apparent conjunction. After obtaining the time of apparent conjunction, we can compute the lunar latitude at that time. This latitude is then to be corrected by the latitudinal parallax. Given the corrected lunar latitude, we can now, just as we did in the chapter on lunar eclipses, calculate the amount of obscuration of the eclipse, the halfduration of the eclipse, and so on. From the halfduration we can further ﬁnd the approximate times of ﬁrst contact and release. This is done by subtracting and adding the halfduration to the time of apparent conjunction, just as is the case for lunar eclipses. This will not produce the correct times, and as was the case for a lunar eclipse, we need to repeat the procedure until the times are ﬁxed. Needless to say, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja is rather brief in this verse, apparently expecting the reader to already be familar with the procedure. Once we have the accurate times of ﬁrst contact, mideclipse (i.e., the time of apparent conjunction), and release, we can proceed with the eclipse calculations as with a lunar eclipse. J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s text poses some problems at this point. Firstly, sthiravilambanasam . skr . to is literally “corrected by the longitudinal parallax which is constant,” but the meaning has to be “until it is constant,” as indicated in the translation. Secondly, the end of verse 11 is problematic, and I am not sure that my choice of reading (pr . thak sphut . ena ) is necessarily the best one.
∼ Colors of the eclipsed body ∼ (12c–d)
[During a lunar eclipse,] the Moon is smokecolored when [the obscuration of its disc] is small; black when its disc is half [obscured], and tawny when the obscuration is total. [During a solar eclipse, the obscured portion of] the Sun is always black.
Schemes giving the color of the Moon according to the phase of the lunar eclipse are common in Indian astronomical texts.33 Some minor variations apart, the schemes agree with each other.
J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s scheme is unusual, though, in that it gives only three colors, whereas other texts give four. In the case of a solar eclipse, the obscured portion of the Sun’s disc is always considered black in the Indian tradition.
33 See,
¯ ´ . yadh¯ for example, Aryabhat ıya , Gola , 46; Br¯ ahmasphut anta 4.19; Sis ıvr .¯ . asiddh¯ . ddhidatantra 5.36; and Siddh¯ anta´ siroman adhy¯ aya , S¯ uryagrahan adhik¯ ara , 36. An earlier scheme, in which the colors are . i , Grahagan . it¯ .¯ assigned depending on “. . . the altitude of the eclipsed body, its relation to the ascendant or descendant, and its magnitude. . . ” is found in the Pa˜ ncasiddh¯ antik¯ a 6.9–10 (see [71 550]).
239 It is interesting that J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja gives the eclipse colors in this section, and not, as is usually the case, in the section on lunar eclipses.
∼ Demonstration verses ∼
Now [three] verses [giving] demonstrations.
J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja now gives three verses in which demonstrations of some of the formulas of the chapter are given. In all the manuscripts except one,34 these three verses are given as part of the solar eclipse chapter.
∼ Derivation of the rising amplitude of the ascendant ∼
The rising amplitude [computed] from a combination [of] two proportions that [both] involve the Sine of the declination of the ascendant at the time of conjunction [of the Sun and the Moon] is called the rising amplitude of the ascendant.
The two proportions involved in computing the rising amplitude of the ascendant are (see the list of similar triangles on p. 179) ¯) Sin(δL ) Sin(φ = Sin(ηL ) R Sin(ε) Sin(δL ) = . ∗ Sin(λL ) R (8.20)
(13a–b)
and
(8.21)
The Sine of the declination of the ascendant is found in both of them. See the commentary on verse 6a–c.
∼ Derivation of the zenith distance of the meridian ecliptic point ∼ (13b)
The Sine of the zenith distance of the meridian ecliptic point is [found] from [the longitude of] the meridian eclictic point.
The term dr a normally refers to the Sine of the zenith distance of the Sun.35 However, this . gjy¯ cannot be the case here, because we cannot generally determine the Sun’s zenith distance from the
5 , in which the concluding verse and the chapter colophon are given after verse 12, the three verses being appended afterwards. 35 See, for example, Sis ´ . yadh¯ ıvr svarasiddh¯ anta 5.1.5, and Siddh¯ anta´ siroman . ddhidatantra 6.6, Vat . e´ . i , Grahagan it¯ a dhy¯ a ya , S¯ u ryagrahan adhik¯ ara , 5. . .¯ 34 V
240 longitude of the meridian ecliptic point. Considering how the text progresses in the following, the term must refer to the Sine of the zenith distance of the meridian ecliptic point. We can compute the declination of the meridian ecliptic point from its longitude, and, in turn, its zenith distance from its declination (see verse 6c–d), so the statement in the verse is clear (although, perhaps, not very profound).
∼ Derivation of the Sine of the zenith distance of the nonagesimal ∼ (13c–14b)
[If,] when the radius [is the hypotenuse of a rightangled triangle],
the leg is measured by the rising amplitude, then what is [the leg of a similar triangle, when the hypotenuse is measured] by the Sine of the zenith distance of the meridian ecliptic point? The result is a leg [corresponding to an arc that is] extending eastwest on the ecliptic. The upright [of the triangle whose leg we just found] is said to be the square root of the diﬀerence of the square of that [leg] and the square of the Sine of the zenith distance of the meridian ecliptic point. It is the zenith distance of the nonagesimal.
Consider Figure 8.6, where everything is as on Figure 8.2. Since the lines ZL and ZV are perpendicular to each other, the angle VZM equals the angle LZC . If we consider the triangle ZMV in the plane of the projection to be rightangled, its right angle being ZCL. We thus have the proportion VM  LC  = . ZM  ZL (8.22) ZMV (one would expect na ¯nar¯ aja takes it), it is similar to triangle that ZV M to be the right angle, but that is not how J˜
This is the proportion given by J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja in the verse, since ZL is the radius, LC the rising amplitude of the ascendant, and VM  approximately the leg corresponding to the arc VM on the ecliptic. From the proportion we get Sin(zM ) × Sin(ηL ) ZM  × LC  = . ZM  R
VM  =
(8.23)
J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja next ﬁnds the upright of triangle ZMV , i.e., the zenith distance of the nonagesimal. This is done using the Pythagorean theorem, which yields that Sin(zV ) = = = Sin(ZV ) = ZV  ZM 2 − VM 2 (Sin(zM ))2 − Sin(zM ) × Sin(ηL ) R
2
.
(8.24)
241
N
B
W V
Z
C
E
M S′
L
S Figure 8.6: Projection used in computing the Sine of the zenith distance of the nonagesimal
242 We have now demonstrated the formula given in verse 7a–d.
∼ Derivation of the Sine of the altitude of the nonagesimal ∼ (14b)
The hypotenuse corresponding to that [upright, i.e., the Sine of the zenith distance of the nonagesimal,] is the radius, and the leg corresponding to the two of them is the Sine of the altitude of the nonagesimal.
The formula, originally given in verse 7d–8a and now demonstrated, Sin(αV ) = R2 − (Sin(zV ))2 , (8.25)
is straightforward. Here, as in verses 7d–8a, J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja emphasizes that the dr sanku ˙ ). . ggati is an altitude (´
∼ Derivation of the longitudinal parallax ∼ (14c–15)
[If] the longitudinal parallax is 4 when the Sine of the diﬀerence
of [the longitudes of] the meridian ecliptic point and the Sun is the radius, what is it in the case of a given [value of the Sine of the diﬀerence of the longitudes of the meridian ecliptic point and the Sun]? Then, if that [particular value of the longitudinal parallax is attained when] the Sine of the altitude of the nonagesimal is the radius, what [is it] in the case of a given [Sine of the altitude of the nonagesimal]? In this pair of proportions, both divisors are the radius. Their product divided by 4 is furthermore [a quantity] equal to the square of the Sine of 30◦ . [That quantity] divided by the Sine of the altitude of the nonagesimal is called the divisor. The Sine of the diﬀerence of [the longitudes of] the ascendant and the Sun divided by that [divisor] is the accurate longitudinal parallax in ghat a s and so on. . ik¯
J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja now shows how to derive the formula for the longitudinal parallax from two proportions. If the longitudinal parallax is 4 (i.e., the greatest parallax, π0 ) when the Sine of the diﬀerence of the longitudes of the meridian ecliptic point and the Sun is R, what is it for any given value of this Sine? Let it be π1 . Now, if this is the value of the longitudinal parallax when the Sine of the
243 altitude of the nonagesimal is R (i.e., when Z and V coincide), what is it for any given value of this Sine? Let it be π2 . Written out as equations, the two proportions are Sin(λM − λ⊙ ) π1 = R 4 and (8.26)
π2 Sin(αV ) . (8.27) = R π1 The ﬁrst proportion corresponds to the situation where the ecliptic passes through the zenith,
while the second takes the distance between the zenith and the nonagesimal into account. The second value of the longitudinal parallax, π2 , is therefore the longitudinal parallax, πλ , that we are seeking. Combining the two proportions will yield a formula for the longitudinal parallax. J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja combines them as follows. The divisor of each proportion is R. Dividing their product by 4 (i.e., by π0 ), we get
R2 4 2 ◦ 2 36 = (R Let this quantity divided by the Sine of the altitude 2 ) = (Sin(30 )) .
of the nonagesimal be called the divisor. Finally, the Sine of the diﬀerence of the longitudes of the meridian ecliptic point37 and the Sun is divided by the divisor, yielding the formula πλ = 4 × Sin(λM − λ⊙ ) × Sin(αV ) Sin(λM − λ⊙ ) = (Sin(30◦ ))2 R2
Sin(αV )
(8.28)
as the combination of the two proportions. It is precisely the formula of verse 8b–d. ´ . yadh¯ Bh¯ askara ii, in his commentary on Sis ıvr . ddhidatantra 6.8, gives essentially the same demonstration. Following Lalla, he uses Sin(αM ) instead of Sin(αV ), and the two proportions are presented in the opposite order, but otherwise the demonstration proceeds exactly like J˜ na ¯nar¯ aja’s.
∼ Concluding verse ∼ (16)
Thus [ends] the section on solar eclipses accompanied by demonstration in the beautiful and abundant tantra composed by J˜ n¯ anar¯ aja, the son of N¯ agan¯ atha, which is the foundation of [any] library.
36 Note
that the S¯ uryasiddh¯ anta (5.7) also expresses the formula using Sin(30◦ ). the verse says “ascendant” (lagna ), “meridian ecliptic point” (madhyalagna ) is intended here.
37 Although
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Philosophique J. Vrin, Paris, 1976. Translated from Russian to French by M. Cazenave
Ì ÓÐ Ý Ý £ ÚÒ Ó
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f. 9v M1
5
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f. 2r V2
5
10 p. 2 R1, f. 2r B2
Verse 3 numbered 4 M1M2 1 Ý ] Ô R1 Ø ] ÌØ V2V5 Ö ÒÒ £Ò ] Ö ÒÒ £ V5 2 Ò ] Ò V2 Ñ ÝÑ ] ( Ñ ) marg Ý B2, Ñ R1 3–4 ËÝ — ÚÚ ¢ Ó Ñ ] top of aks . ara s cut due to error in copying process but no discernible variants from the given text V2 3 Ò ] Ò M2, Ò [ ¸ ] O 4 Ô ß ] Ôä ß M2 ¹Ú ß¸ ] ß¸ M2, ¹Ú ß R1 Verse 4 numbered 5 M1M2 5 Ú× ] Ú R1V5 ÖÓÑ Ô Ð¹´Ý ] ÖÓÑ Ô Ð¹´Ý V2, ÖÓÑÔ Ð ¹´Ý V5 Ý ] Ý ( ¹Ø ] [x] O 6 ¹Ø¦» Ý ] ¹Ø Ý R1 Ø £Õ ßÕ ) marg,s V5 ] Ø M2 Ò¸ ] corrected from Ò to Ò¸ M1 Ö ] Ú Ö M2 Ñ ] ÚÑ V2 Ñ¸ ] ¸ R1 7 Ø ] Ø M2 ØÖ£ ] ØÖ£¸ OV5, ØÖ£ ( ¸ ) supl R3 ÔÓØ ¸ ] ÔÓØ ( ¸ ) supl B3 8 © ] ( © ) marg B2 Ú £ Ý ] Ú £ Ý M2 ¹ ß Ö¸ ] ¹ Ö ¸ R1 ¢ Ø ¸ ] ¢ ( Ø ¸ ) marg B2 Verse 5 numbered 6 M1M2 9 ÑÌ ] Ñ M1 Ú M2 10 Ú £ »Ý ] ¢ ] Ú ¢ Ú £ [ Ø ] »Ý O, Ú £ »Ý R1 ×ÑÝ ] ÑÝ R1 ÝØ ] ØØ B2B3OR1R3V2V5 11 Ý Ñ Ò] Ý ÑÒ Ø] Ø R1 12 ÖÝÝÒ Ý ] Ö¸ ÔÝÒ Ý M2, ÖÝÝÒ ÝÒ Ý R1, M1, Ò Ý Ñ Ò M2 ÖÝÝÒ Ý R3, ÖÝÒ Ý V5 254
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f. 2r O, f. 13v M2
f. 2r B3 f. 2v V2
5 f. 2r R3
ÝÓ Ø¸ ¹» Ø ÒÒ Ý × Ø ¹»¹ ¦ Ø´Ã
Ö Ø Ø¦»Ñ ÀÝ ÒÞ Ñ º × ¦ØÓ ×Ç Ú× »
Ö ¸ × ¹Ì ØÝ ËÔ £ Ñ Ò ¦Ý Ô
Ø ÓÉÝØ £ ×ÓÔÔ
Verse 6 1 Ò Õ ÒÝ Ý ] Ò Õ ¦Ý Ý B3R3, Ò Õ ÒÝ Ý O, Ò ÕèÒÝ Ý R1, Ò Õ ÒǑ Ý V5 Ý¹Ý ] Ô¹Ý R1 ]
R1 2 âØ ] âØ M1M2R1, Ø O Ò Ý] Ò Ý R1 Ñ ÒÝ¸ ] ÑÒÝ¸ R3 £ ´Ú £] Ò ó ß ´Ú £ M1, Ò ó ß ´Ú ß M2, Ò þ ß ´Ú £ R1, Ò ó £ ´Ú £ with ´Ú £ marked and the annotation 3 Òó ØÌÓ Ú ó ß ÚØ Ú ¡ added in the margin R3 Ô Ö Ø ] Ô Ö Ø M1M2R1V5 Ú ¡ ] Ú ¡¸ B3OR1R3V2V5 Ò ] Ò O, Ò V5 4 ] â M2 Ñ Ø
] Ñ Ø
Ø
B2 ØÄÝ Õ Ú Ñ ] Ú B3M1R1R3 Verse 7 5× ÖèÖÓ ] × ÖèÖ £ R1 ] ØÄÝ ( Õ ) marg B2 £ £ ? Ú ÝØ £ ] Ô ÝØ £ M1M2, Ú ÝØÓ R1, Ú ÝØ £ R3 ¹Ý Ý ] »¹Ý Ý M1M2, ²Ý ( Ø ) supl,s V5 ¾½ 7 ] × B2 ÝÓ ØÕ ] ÝÇ ØÕ B3R3, ÝÓ Õ Ø O, ÝÓ Ø¸ V5 7–8 Ñ — Ô ÏØ¸ ] om. but ] Ñ £ R1 inserted in the text itself between marks (see p¯ ada b of next verse) V5 7Ñ Ý Verse 8 9 ÝÓ Ø¸ ] ÝÓ Ø [ x ]( ¸ ) supl B3, ÝÓ ØÖ R3, om. but part of insert in ]Ô O × Ø ] × Ø V5 10 ¹» ] » V5 text itself mentioned in the last verse (see p¯ ada b) V5 Ø´Ã ] Ø Ã M1M2, ×´Ã R1 Ø¦» ] ( Ø ) marg » B2, Ø» B3R3V5 Ñ ] M1, Ñ ÀÝ ] Ñ ÀÝ [ [ Ã ] ÀÝ R1 ÒÞ Ñ ] Ò O, after ÒÞ are an insert in the line itself belonging to the last verse ÖÝ ËÔÓ ÔäâÝ æ £Ø Õ Ú £ Ô Ø¸ Ô ÏØ¸ and the beginning of this one ÕÑ ÞÕÓ £ÝÓ Ì ÝÓ Ø V5 11
Ö ¸ ]
Ö V5 12 ËÔ £ ] [ x ] ËÔ £ with ËÔ £ corrected to this from an illegible ÓÉÝØ £ ] corrected to this from an illegible previous reading previous reading O, ËÔÓ V5 B3, ÓÉÝ £Ø £O ×ÓÔÔ ] ×ÓÔ ( Ô ) marg B3, ×ÓÔÔ M1M2V2, ÐÓÔÔ Ø R1 255
10
¢ ØÔ ÞÕÝÓ ã ¢ ß Ø Ú »× ÌÑÑ Ú£Ø ØÓ ¢ Øæ º  ×Ñ Ú Ì Ø¹Ý ¸ Æ Ø¦Ñ »  Ñ¹Ñ ÒÑÌ ØØÓ ¡ ´¹Ô Ø¦Ñ »× Ñ
p. 3 R1 & f. 3r V2, f. 2r B2
ÚÝ ÚÝÓ ÔØ¦Ñ »Ñ¹Ñ £ ¹Ø¦Ñ » Ö×¹Ý Ø Ú º ØÓÝ ØÓÝ ¦ Ø¦Ñ »Ñ¹Ñ ´Ô ßÕ × Ø £ ØÑ £ØØ ½¼ ¢ ÄÚ
Ø ÖÚ Ø Úè Ø ¸ Ô ¡ Ú Ø Ò  ØÓ ¹Ý ÐÓ ¸ º © Ó ÇÚ ÒØ ¦ Ú × Ç Ó´Ì¸ è×Ò Ø ÖØ
Ú ££ ½½

5
ì
f. 2r V5 10 f. 2v O
Verse 9 1ã »× ¢ ß ] »× ¢ ß? B3, Ú× ¢ ß M1M2, corrected from »× ¢ Ç to »× ¢ß ] R1 R1 2 ÌÑ ] ÌÑ [ x ] B2 3 Ñ¹Ñ ] » ¹Ñ R1 4 × Ñ ] × [ x ] B2, marked and with the variant reading Ñ¹Ñ Ø noted in the margin V2 Verse 10 5 ÚÝ ] ÚÝ ¡ O ÚÝÓ ] ÚÝÓ? B2 Ô ] z B2 Ø¦Ñ » ] ×¦Ñ » V5 6 £ — Ú] £ ¸ × ¡ Ñ ÔÑ¹Ñ ×¹Ý V2, ¾ ½ £ ¸ × Ö× ] × Ö O ¹Ý Ø Ú ] ¹Ý [ ] Ú O 7 ¦ ] Ø M1M2 ¡ Ñ ÔÑ¹Ñ ×æ V5 Ø¦Ñ » ] Ò¦Ñ » R1 8 ßÕ ] ß z B2, ßÕ M1M2R1V5 × Ø £] × £ O Ñ £ØØ ] Ñ ßØØ M1 R1 Úè ] Úè M1M2 10 Ô ] È? O Ø ] om. Verse 11 9 ì ] Úì M1M2R1 Ò ØÓ ] Ò Ø M2 ÐÓ ¸ ] ÐÓ ¸ R1 11 © Ó ] çÓ B2 Ç ] Ç R1R3 Ú ÒØ ] Ú ÒØ M1M2, Ú ÒØ R1 Ú ] Ú Ç R1 × Ç ] × Ó M1M2 12 Ó´Ì¸ ] Ó´Ì ? B3M1M2, Ç V5 è×Ò ] èÖ Ò M1M2, ×Ò V5 Ø ÖØ ] corrected from Ø ÖØ to Ø ÖØ M2 256
¦ Ö¹Ý Ý ¹ÌØÓ Ú ¹ ÖÓ ÒÝÒ£ ÒÚ × º éÓ»ØÓ ÃÐ æ ×Ñ ´Ì ¸ × £ ½¾ ¢ Ñ Ø ×Å Ø ËÔ ÐÒ¸ ÐÝ £Ô £Ý £ Ú ÝÚ¸ × Ø £ Ö Ô ÞÕ ÑÝ Ú Ó Ø ¹Ø ß¸ º Ô ÞÕ ¦× × ¢ ¦Ø Ì Ø ß »Ñ ´ Ñ Ô ¡ ´Ú ÞÕ¸ × ¢ ¸ × ÔäÓ Ú ¹Ø £Ò £ × Ð ÝÌ ÚÖ
Ø Ø´ Ý ÌÓÉÝØ £ ½¿

5 f. 2v B3 & f. 3v V2
ì Ú× Ð Ò Ö¹»¥Ý ×  » Ú ¢ ´¹Ú £Ò Ñ ¡ ØÓ Ò Ö Ý Ø Ô ÐâÝÑ º Ø´× Ð Ý Ð £ ÒÝÓ Ý Ô ¢ ÌÚ × ¢ é  Ø¹Ø  Ô ÒÚ Ý £Ò ×Ñ ¦ÚØÓ Ñ Úâ Ý æ  Ø Ø¸ ½
p. 4 R1 10 f. 2v R3, f. 3r B2 f. 4r V2
Verse 12 1 Ý ] Ý M1M2 2 ¹ ÖÓ ] ( ) marg,s B3, ¹ ÖÓ M1M2, [ x ]( ) marg ¹ ÖÓ O ÒÚ × ] ÒÚ × M1M2R1 3 éÓ»ØÓ ] éÓ»ØØÓ M2 ÃÐ ] Ã [ ] Ð O æ] Ö æ M2 ×Ñ ´Ì ¸ ] ×Ñ ´Ì M R 4 ËÔ £ ] £ marked and with the variant reading ËÔ £ 2 1 given in the margin V2 Verse 13 5 Ð Ò ¸ ] Ð Ò M2V5 ÐÝ £ ] marked but the extensive marginalia are mostly illegible B2 Ý £ ] om. but with an insertion mark though the marginalia are illegible or destroyed B2 Ú ÝÚ¸ ] Ú ÝÚ B3R3V5 × ] × [ x ] Ý V5 6 ] ( supl O ¹Ø ] ¹Ø R ¦× ] ´× M V × ] × Ø R Ì ] Ý B3R3, Ý V5 ¢ ¡ 1 1 5 1 Ø ß¸ ] Ø ß B3R3R1 7 ¡ ´Ú ß ] ¡ ´Ý ß M2, ¡ Ú ß R1, ¡ ß V5 » ] [ x ]( » ) supl B2, ´Ú B3 Ñ ´ ] 8 × Ð ] × Ð R1 Ñ B3R3, Ò ´ R1 × ] ×? M2 ÚÖ Ø ] ²ÝÚ ×Ø R1 Verse 14 9 Ú× Ð ] Ú× Ð M1, Ú× Ð M2, Ú× Ð V5 Ò Ö] Ò £ Ö R1 ¹»¥Ý ] corrected ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ from ¹»Ý to ¹»¥Ý B3, ¹»ÅÝ M1M2 10 Ò Ñ ¡ ] marked but the extensive marginalia are ØÓ ] [ Ò ] ØÓ O 11 ´× Ð Ý ] ´× Ý mostly illegible B2, Ò óÑ ¡ M1M2, Ò × ¡ R1 B3 R3 ÒÝÓ Ý ] Ò Ó Ý O Ô × M2 ¢ ÌÚ ] Ô ¢ ÌÚ M1M2, Ô ¢ ÌÚ R1 ¢ ] × ¢ [ x ] B3, éØ ] ¹ Ø V2V5 ¹Ø ] ¹Ø B3R3 12 Ú Ý ] Ú Ý R1 , Ú Ý £ R3 ×Ñ ¦ÚØÓ ] ×Ñ ¦ÚØÓ B2B3M1M2, ×Ñ x ØÓ O, ×Ñ ¦ÚØÓ R3 Ø Ø¸ ] Ø ( ? ) marg Ø¸ B2 257
» ßÚ Ô ÐØ¸ ×Ñ ÚåÓÑ Ì Ø» éØ¸ ¹Ú × Ú Ý Ò Ñ ÖÓ´× ¡ ÝÓ ÝÑ¹Ñ ¡ Ø º ÇÖ» Ô ÐØÓ Ì Ð £ Ð × ÑÝ ¹Ø Ñ é´Ý Ú Ö × Ø¸ ¹Ú £Ò Ç Ø ´×Ñ ¡ Ñ Ö Å Ý´× ÖØ ØØÓ ¡ Ø º Ø Ö ¹ØÉ Ð ¹Ø Ø × Ú â  ¹ØÌ ßÚ ½ × ¢ ÐÓ ¦Ú ýÒÓÝÓ Ø¹Ø Ñ× ßÖ Ú ×ö ßÚ × ¡ æ º Ú Þ ¦â ÒÔ ´Ì Úè ££  Ú ¦Úè Ø× ¢ ´×¸ ½
½
5
f. 3r O
10 f. 4v V2
f. 10r M1
Verse 15 numbered 16 V5 1 ×Ñ Ú ] ×Ñ ( Ú ) marg B2, corrected from ×Ñ Ú £ to ×Ñ Ú M1 åÓÑ Ì ] åÓÑ Ô M1M2, åÓÑ Ý V5 1–2 Ø» éØ¸ ¹Ú ÝÓ Ý ] Ø» éØÓ x ×ÝÓ Ý B2, Ø» éØÓ Å £ ¹Ú ÝÓ Ý M1M2, Ø» éØÓ ×ÝÓ Ý O 2 Ñ ÖÓ´× Ñ¹Ñ ] Ñ ¹Ñ ¡ ] Ñ ÖÓ × ¡ M1M2 B3 3 ÇÖ» ] ÇÖ B3, ÇÖ R3 Ð £] Ð B2M1M2O Ð ] marked and the annotation Ð x Ö Ð æ ×Ç (rest unavailable due to copying process) added in the margin × ÑÝ ] × x ÑÝ B2, × Ö ÑÝ M1, × Ö ÑÝ M2OR1V5 4 ¹Ø Ñ ] marked B2 and the annotation Ú added in the margin B2, ¹Ø Ò B3R3, ¹Ø ( ) æ with ¹Ø æ added in the margin to make the reading clear V2 Ú Ö ] Ú V5 × Ø¸ ] × Ø B2 ] M2, Ç R1, ? V2 Ç ] ( Ú ) marg Ç V2 Verse 16 numbered 17 V5 5 Ø ] Ò R3, ¹Ý V2, V5 ] [ ] B2, corrected from Ö to V5 Ñ ] Ñ M2, Ñ x O 6 ØØÓ ] ØÓ V5 7 ] M1R1V5 ¹ØÉ ] ¹Ø´ B2, ¹Ø´× V5 Ð ] [ ]Ð B2 , Ð B3M1M2R1R3V2V5 8Ø ] ¹Ø M2, Ø ? O × Ú ] ´Ú V5 ¹ØÌ ßÚ ] æ ØâØ M1M2, ¹ØØÓ Ô V2, ¹Ø £ ¸ V5 Verse 17 numbered 18 Ú ? B ] × V ýÒÓ ] ýÒÓ ÝÓ Ø¹Ø ] ÝÓ ( ) ¹Ø V 10 ×ö ß ] ×ÀÝ B2 V5 9× ¢ ¢ 2 5 marg,s 5 11 Þ ¦â ] Þ â ( Ò ) marg B3, Þ ¦â M2 Ò ] Ò R1 12 Úè £ ] corrected from Úè £ to Úè £ M1 × ´×¸ ] × ( w ) ´×¸ B ¢ ¢ marg 2 258
ÒÐ Ú× ¡ æ ¡ ÑÇ ÑÞØ Þ Ò ¹ÝÌÓ Ò º Ú× ×Ñ ¦ÚØ ¦Ú  Ø ¡Ý Ò £ÚÝ Ö Ø ½ Ø Ø  ÔÌÚ ££ Õ ÔÏ £ Ô ÏØ Ú ¸× ¸º ¢ Ñ ¸ Ù  Ý Ú ÚÝÓ¸ ¹Ý ß Ñ ó ßÚ ß Ö¸ Ô Ý £ ¸ ËÔ££Ò  Ú £ ¸ ½ Ø× ¢ Ñ¸
f. 3r B3
5
p. 5 R1
f. 3v B2 f. 14r M2
ËÔ ØÓ Ý £ ÚÕ ß Ñ ÖÚ ²Ý ß¸ Ø £Ò Ø ß Ö Ø Ñ £ º £ Ö ¡ Ñ Ð ÚÑ Ö  Ã ¦Ý¹Ø ¹ØØÓ ÚÐÝ £ Ò ÃÐ £¦ ¸
10
¾¼
f. 5r V2
Verse 18 numbered 19 V5 1 ] [ xxx ] O ÒÐ ] ÐÒ M1M2 Ú× ¡æ] Ú× 2 ÑÞØ ] ÑÞ ( Ø ) supl O Þ ] ( Þ ) marg O ¹ÝÌÓ Ò ] ¹ÝÌ Ò R1, ¹ÝØÓ Ò ¡ æ R1 V2 3 ×Ñ ¦ÚØ ¦Ú ] ×Ñ ¦Ú [ x ]( Ø ¦Ú B2, Ñ ¦ÚØ ¦Ú B3, ×Ñ ¦ÚØ Ú M1M2, ×Ñ ¦ÚØ ¦Ú R1, ×Ñ ¦Ú V5 Ø ] Ø V3 4 Verse 19 numbered 17 O, numbered 20 V5 ] [× ¡] O w B2 Õ ] Õ B3M1OR1R3V2 ] M2, ó R1, [ x ] ó V5 5 Ø] ÔÏ £ ] Ô £ M2 6 Ô ÏØ ] ( Ô ) marg ÏØ O Ú ¸ ] Ú ¸ B3, Ú × ¸ M1, Ú × ¸ M2, ×Ñ¹Ø R1, Ú ¸ V5 × Ñ ¸ ] Ñ ( ¸ ) supl B3, Ñ M1R1 7 Ù Ý ] w Ý B2 ¢ ] (× ¢ ) marg B2 Ú ÚÝÓ¸ ] Ú ÚÝÓ M1R1, marked and the annotation × ¹Ý ß Ñ ] ¢ Ó¸ added in the margin O ¹Ý £ÚÑ M1M2, [( xx ] Ñ¸ Ý¸? ØÓ Ô £ Ý ²Ý ß¸ ] Ø £Ò ¹Ý ß Ñ with Ý marked though ÑÑ ÖÚ no marginalia is found O Ñó ßÚ ] Ñ å ß? Ú R1, Ñ ß Ú V5 8 Ô ] Ô V5 ££Ò ] ££ w B2, x £Ò B3, £ ( £ ) marg Ò O, ££ Ò R3, £££ with the last £ marked and the reading Ò added in the margin V2 Ú £ ¸ ] w ¸ B2, ÓÝ¸ R1 9 Ø × Ñ¸ ] om. B3R1R3V1 ¢ Verse 20 numbered 21 V5 on f. 12r V1 10 ËÔ ] ËÔÓ M1M2, Ý O ] ÚÕ ß¸ B2, ÚÕ ß ¼ ( ¼ ) supl B3, om. OV1V2, ÚÕ ß¸ ¼¼ R1, ÚÕ ß R3 , ¼¼ V5 ß¸ ] x ²Ý ß¸ marked and with the annotation ²Ý ß Ö´ÝÒ £Ò Õ Ý Ø»Ý £ ¿ ¼ Ò Ô ß¸ 11 ²Ý Ò¸ Ø ¼¼ added in the margin V2 ¢ ´Ú × Ò ÐÓ £Ý¸ added in the margin B2, marked and 12 Ð Ú ] Ð Ú M1, Ð ( ) [ x ] O 13 ¹ØØÓ ] ( ¹Ø ) marg ØÓ B2, ØØÓ M1 ÚÐÝ £ ] ÚÐÝ £ O, Ú Ý £ R1 Ò ÃÐ ] Ò ÃÐ V1V2 259
£ÃÐ Ú ¹ÌØ ¡ ÓÐ¸ Ð ÚØ ÐÓ Ð Ý¹Ø¦Ñ Ý ¹Ñ¦£ÚÒÖ × Ô £º Ö ØÖÚ ¹ØÝ ¢ £ ØÐ Ýâ´ £×Ö ¢ Å × Ñ ¦Ì¹ØÌ Ý ´Ã £ Ø ´Ý ÐÓ ÚØ ÖÔ ßÖ Ø Ö¸ ÔÖ¸ ÞÕ Ð Ô £ÖÓ ÖÓÔ Ö Ø¸ Ã Ö¸ × Ñ ÝÅÝ £ £ Ì Ý  Ñ Ó Î Ø¹Ý Ôæ Ø º ÓÑ £ Ú Ú ÒÐØ¹Ø £ ×ÇÅÝ Ý  ¹Ñ ØÓ Ú Ø ¡ ¸ ÃÐ ÓÐ Ô ¾¾ Ø ÝÑÚ Ò ¦ ¢ Ø´Ú £ ×Ñ ØÚ ¦ Ô ¢Ì ¡ ¸× £Ø Ñ º Ò Ú Ø × ÝØ¸ Ñ × ¸  ÃÐÑØÝ¹ØÑØÓ Ò Ñ ÒÝ ¦Ø ¾¿
¾½
5 f. 3r R3
f. 3r O
f. 2v V5
10
p. 6 R1
Verse 21 numbered 22 V5 on f. 12v V1 1 ÓÐ¸ ] ÓÐ M2 ¹Ø¦Ñ £ÃÐ ] ¦Ñ £ÃÐ O, ¹Ø¦Ñ £ÕÐ V1, ¹Ø ¹ÑÃÐ V5 Ú ¹ÌØ ] Ú ( Ø ) marg ¹ÌØ B3, Ú x Ø O 2 ÒÖ ] ÒÖ ¸ R1 ØÖÚ ] ÒÖÚ M2, ØÃ R1 ¹ØÝ ] ¹ØÝ x B2O, Ø¥Ý 3 Ýâ ] Øâ M2, Ôâ R1 R1 ¢] × Ñ ] ×Ñ R Ì Ý ] Ì Ø R , Ì Ý £ V ] R 4 Ô ÞÕ ß Ö ] ¢ M1R1, ¢ ´ V1 1 1 5 1 Ô ÞÕ £ Ö Ø M M , Ô ÞÕ ß Ö ¦Ø R , Ô ÞÕ¹Ý with Õ¹Ý Ø marked and the variant reading ß Õ Ö added 1 2 3 in the margin V2, Ô ßÖ ? V5 Ø Ö¸ ] Ø Ö¸ O ÔÖ¸ ] om. but added in margin B2 ÞÕ Verse 22 numbered 23 V5 on f. 13v V1 6 Ì ] M1M2 Ó Î ] corrected from £ Î to Ó Î V1 Ø¹Ý ] Øæ R1 7 ] Ì B3R3 Ø¹Ø ] Øæ B , 3 Ø ( æ ) marg R3 8 Ý¹Ñ ØÓ ] Ú¹Ñ ØÓ M1, Ý¹Ñ ØÓ M2 ÓÐ Ô ] ( ÓÐ ) marg Ô ¡ ¸ ] [ x ] ¡ ¸ B2 , ¡ R1 B2, corrected from ÓÐ Ô to ÓÐ Ô M1, ÓÐ Ô ¸ R1 Verse 23 numbered 24 V5 on f. 14v V1 9 Ø ] [ ] Ø ( ) B2 ÝÑÚ Ò ] ÝÑ ( Ú ) marg Ò B2, ×ÑÚ Ò V2 ¢ Ø ] ¢ Ø R1 10 Ú ¦ ] Ú ( Ò ) marg B3, Ú M1M2, Ú ¹Ø Ô M1, Ô ¸ M2, R1 ¢Ì ¡ ¸] Ô ¢Ì ¸ B3 , Ô ¢Ì ¡ ¢Ì ¡ Ô [ x ] Ì ¸ O × £Ø Ñ ] ×£Ø V 11 Ò Ú Ø × ÝØ¸ ] ÒÚ Ú Ø ÃÐ ÝØ V × ¸ ] × ¸ B2 ¢ ¡ 5 5 12 ÃÐ ] Ã B3R3 ÑØÝ ] ( Ñ ) marg ØÝ B3, Ñ ØÝ M M , ÑØÝ¸ R Ò Ñ Ò ] Ò Ñ Ò B R ¢ 1 2 1 3 3 260
 Ð Ó ÑÒ ×Ñ Ò ¡ ¡ Ö  Ú´Ý Ø Ò ØÝÓ Ò ¡ ¸ º ËÝÓÔ  Ð Æ ÝØ £ ÌØ Ú×ÅÑ ¸ Ñ Ã¹Ý ØÝ ý Ã¹Ý Ô´Ì Ò Ø Ú ¾ Ù ÒÔ ØÒÝ Ñ Ã Ý Ø ¸ Ã Ø ÚØ ØÓ Ñ º ×ÇÅÝ ÚÓ ÑÒÑ £ ÐÚ ¹Ý ¹Ý £¦ ½ ÝÓ Ò Ø¹Ý Ò £ Ø
f. 3v B3, f. 4r B2 f. 5v V2
5
¾
Verse 24 numbered 25 V5 on f. 15r V1 1 ¡ ¡ Ö ] corrected from ¡ ¡ Þ to Ú´Ý ] Ú¹Ý B2 Ð ] [ ] Ð B2, Ð M1 Ó ÑÒ ] Ó [ Ò ] ÑÒ ¡ ¡ Ö B2, ¡ ¡ Ö [ x ] B3 ? B2 ×Ñ Ò ] ×Ñ Ò [ ] R1 3 ÝØ Ñ £ ] Ñ £ ¸] Ý Ø ¸ O, Ô Ø ¸ R1R3, Ý Ø ( ¸ ) supl V1 V5 ×ÅÑ 4 Ò Ø] Ò Ø O Verse 25 numbered Ã¹Ý ] ×¦Ñ Ã¹Ý M1M2OR1 26 V5 on f. 15r V1 5 Ù ÒÔ ØÒÝ ] marked and the annotation Ú Ñ Ã added in the margin by s R3 Ù ÒÔ ] marked and the annotation Ú¸ added in the margin B2 Ù Ö ØÒÝ ] ØÒÝ V2 Ñ 6 Ø ] corrected from Ø to Ø V1 Ã ] (Ñ ) marg Ã V2 ØÓ ] ( ) marg ØÓ B2 7 ×ÇÅÝ ] ×ÇÅÝ £ R1, corrected from ×ÇÅÝ £ to ×ÇÅÝ V2 ÚÓ ÑÒ ] Ñ £ ÐÚ ] Ñ £ [ x ]( Ð ) supl Ú O 8 ¹Ý £¦ ] ¹Ý £ [ x ] V2 ÚÓÒÑÒ M1, ÚÓ [ ] ÑÒ O, ¢ ÚÓ ÑÒ O ½ ] om. B2M1M2OR1V1V2V5 £ Ø ] [ x ] £ Ø V2 261
× £ Ô éØ £ Ø ØÑ ¦ ¦Ø ¡Ý ¡Ú Ú ¢ ¸Ô Ñ ¦Ô Ö×ù ß¸ º ¡ Ú ¡ ½¼ ÝÓ Ò ¢ Ø × Ø Ý¦»Ó × £©Ú º ½¾ ÔÐ Ø ×ÑÝ ´Ú ¹Ú ÝÓ Ý Ø Ø £Ò Ñ ¦ Ò Ý (a) Ô × ¼¼¼ × ¡ ÓÐÔ Ô ØÓ Ö Ô ÏØ ¢ ØÌ ×Ú Ñ £Þ¸ ×ÇÅÝ Ø ÖØ ËÔ ¦Ø Ý £ Ñ ÒÚ¸ º  ¡Ö ØÐÓÔÑ £Ø × Ð Ø £ ÌÔ Ö Ó Ø ÒÓ  Ò ¦Ø × ÖØ Ñ ¡ ÔÔ Ú Ø  ×´ ¦
¾
5
¾
f. 6r V2 f. 4r O, f. 4v B2
Verse 26 numbered 27 V5 on f. 15v V1 1 Ô ] B3R3 Ø ØÑ ] ¡Ú ØÑ with an insertion mark between these two syllables but the corresponding marginalia is missing or destroyed B2 ¦ ¦Ø ] ¦ ¦Ø [ xx ] B2, ¦ Ø ¸ M1M2, ¦ ?Ø ? with Ø added in the margin to make the reading clear O, ( Ò ) marg Ø R , ¦ [ x ] Ø V Ú 3 1 ¢ ¸] Ú ¢Ø ¸ V5 M2 ×ù × Ø ] ×Ø M1M2, 2 ¦Ô ¡ Ú ] ¦ÔÚ M1, ¦ÔÚ ¢ Ø ] × Ø M1M2R1V5 × [ ]Ø O ½¼ ] ÝÓ Ò ß¸ ½¼º º ½¾ B2, ½¼ ¡ B3R3, ½¼ ¡ ] ( ) supl ¡ V1, ¡ ¡ V5 ÝÓ Ò ß¸ ½¼ M1M2, ÝÓ Ò ß¸ ½¼ ½¾ O, om. R1V1 ÝÓ Ò ß¸ ] ÝÓ Ò ß¸ V5 3 × £©Ú ] £©Ú B2O, Ý £©Ú M1M2, marked with Ô and in the margin R3, marked and added in the ½¾ Ú ½¾ ¾ ½ º ½¾ ] om. B2B3M1M2OV1, Ô ¹Ú ÝÓ Ý ] ¹Ú ÝÓ M1 margin V2 Ð R1, ½ V5 ½¾ ?Ø B , Ø ] ´Ú M1, Ø ´Ú M2, Ø Ò V5 Ø £Ò ] ( ) supl Ò £Ò B3 ¦ ] [ ] 4 2 ¼¼¼ V2 Ý ] Ý¸ B2B3OR3V1V5, ¡ M1V2, ¡ ¸ M2 ¼¼¼ ] om. B2OR1R3V1V5, Ô × V5 Ô ] Ô B2 ×Ú ØÓ ] Verse 27 numbered 28 V5 on f. 16vs V1 5 × ¡ ] × ¡ R1 Ú ØÓ though × could have been in the broken margin B2, × £ÒÓ R1 5–7 ØÓ — ] om. M1M2 6 ÖØ ] ÏÖÓ V5 ËÔ ¦Ø ] corrected from £ËÔ Ø to ËÔ Ø O 7 Ö Ø ] Ö ( Ø ) marg though the could have been in the broken margin B2 ØÐÓÔÑ £ Ø ] Ø ÑÔÑ £ Ø followed by a blank space corresponding to about 12 aks × Ð Ø £ ] × Ð Ø M2 Ø] Ò O . ara s M1M2 8 × Ú Ø ] Ú w w B2, Ú Ø M2, Ú Ò R1 ×´ ¦ ] ´ V5 ¡ ÔÔ ] ¡ ÔÔ R1 ÖØ Ñ ] ÖØ M1, ÖØ V5 (a). Note that while a majority of manuscripts have the reading Ý¸ in p¯ ada d, a reading also followed by Cint¯ aman . i, this is a very awkward place for that word, for which reason the reading Ý , though only attested in one manuscript, has been adopted. 262
Ñ ÖØÐ  Ò ´Ú Ý´Ô Ö Ø Ú Ò Ø ¹Ý ßÚ ÒÓ ¡ Ñ ÓÐ £º ÔÖ ØÚ Ó Ú ¢ ÝØ £ Ø¸ ×Ñ Ú Ñ  Ò Ø ÓÐÓ Ö Ý ¸ Ò Ñ £ Ø Ö Ú £ ÒÚ ¹Ì Ø¸ ¡Ø ¹Ú Ú Ó  Ø ¹ÌÖØ ¹ÌÖ Ý Ñ º Ç© Ý ÝÌ ÒÐ Ó ÚØÓ ¹Ý £´Ý ¹ Ö ¢ ØÇ Ø ØÓ Ò Ý Ñ ¾
p. 7 R1
¾
f. 4r B3
5 f. 3v R3
Ó»
Ö Ö ¸ Ô ß¸ Ö Ô ÏØ ¸ £Õ Ý¸ ×¦Ø Ø Ó ÓÕ¸ Ã
ÖÓ Ô Ö ØÇ Ú £ Ó Ø ¹Ø £ ÝØ¸ º £
Ð´ÚÐ ÒÓ Ø £  Ô ¡ ÑÇ
¸ Ò¹ØÓÝ £ ÚØ ÝÌ ÒÐÐÚ £ ´Ú Ñ´Ý ÚØ ¿¼
Verse 28 numbered 29 V5 on f. 17r V1 1 Ñ ´Ô Ö] Ñ Ö V5 Ö ] Ô Ö £ R1 ¹Ý ßÚ ÒÓ ] w w w B2 ÓÐ £ ] corrected from ÓÐÓ 2 Ø Ú Ò ] Ø [ x ]( ) supl Ú Ò O to ÓÐ £ V1, ÓÐÓ V5 3 Ø ] [ ] Ø V1 Ú Ó ] corrected from Ú £ to Ú Ó B3 £] ¢ Ý £ B2, ? ÝØ £ V5 4 Ú ] Ú V5 ÓÐÓ Ö Ý ¸ ] Ó w w Ö Ý ¸ B2 Verse 29 ¢ ÝØ numbered 30 V5 on f. 17v V1 5 Ø Ö ] corrected from Ö to Ö V1 ÒÚ ] ( Ò ) marg Ú B2 ¹Ì Ø¸ ] ¹Ì ( ) supl Ø¸ B3, ¹Ì Ø V5 6 ¹Ú Ú Ó Ø] ¹Ú Ú ¸ ÃÐ ¹Ú Ú Ó ] ¹Ú Ú Ó O ¹ÌÖ Ý Ñ ] marked and the ¸ V5 ] R3 7 Ç© Ý ] Ç© Ý £ M1, Ù© Ý £ V5 annotation ¡ ÑÇ added in the margin by s B3, ¹ÌÖ Ý M1M2 ÝÌ ÒÐ ] ÝÌ ÒÐ V5 8 ¹ Ö ] [ x ] ( ) marg ¹ Ö O Ø ØÓ ] Ø ( ) supl ØÓ B3 Verse 30 numbered 31 V5 on f. 18r V1 9 Ó» ] marked and the annotation ¡ Ñ¸ added in
Ö ] Ö B3 Ö ¸ ] Ö ( ¸ ) supl B3, Ö R3 ×¦Ø £Ø the margin by s B3 ] ×Ø ? O, × V1 10 ÓÕ¸ ] ÓÕ¸ [ x ] B2, corrected from £Õ¸ to ÓÕ¸ V1
ÖÓ ]
ÖÓ ( ) marg,s B3,
ÖÓ R3 Ú £ Ó Ø ¹Ø £] Ú £ Ó x ¹Ø £ B3 , Ú ££ Ø ¹Ø £ R1, Ú £ Ó Ú ¹Ø £ R3 11 ¡ ÑÇ ] ÇÑÓ V5
Ð ] ÒÐ M1M2 Ð ] [ xx ] ( ) marg,s O ÒÓ ]
Ó B3, Ç M1, ÒÇ M2,
Ó R3 ¸ ] ¸ V5 Ô Ò ] Ò but the Ô might have been there as the margin is damaged B 12 ¹ØÓÝ £ ÚØ ] 2 ¹ØÓÝ £ [ Ô Ò¹ØÓÝ £ ] Ú [ Ú ] Ø B ] M M O, with marked and the variant 2 1 2 V5 reading ? added in the margin V2, 263
10 f. 6v V2
¢ ØÚ ×Ö × ¢ ÔÓ Ô ¢ ¸ Ö Ø ØÃ £ ËÔÚ Ý Úº Ò £Ò Ì× ¡Ñ Ô¸ Ø ËÔ ¢ Ø ¡ Ö
¦´Ý ¸ ¿½ æ Ñ Ø (a) Ò ¹Ý ¢ ØÓ Ò Ñ ß Ø ¡ ÑÑ º Ô Õ Ý Ø Ð Ø Ñ ¹ÌÖ ÖÑ £ Ì ¹Ý Ø ¿¾ ¢Ø Ö ×¦ ¡ Ô Ö ¡ ÓÐ Ñ £Þ£Ú Ý» Ø ¦Ø Ò´ÝÑ º Ò ßÚÓÚ Ø Ý» ß´Ý ¡ Ò Ø  ¹Ý ¹Ø ¹Ñ¦ Ó ¸  ¹Ì Ø¸ ×´Ô Ö £
5
10 f. 5r B2 f. 4v O
¿¿
f. 3r V5, f. 14v M2
Verse 31 numbered 32 V5 on f. 20r V1 1 ¢ ¸ ] ¢ ¸ R1 2 Ö ] Ö ( Ò ) marg,s ¸] Ö O Ú ] Ú B3 3 Ì] Ì O ] Ñ O 4 ËÔ ] B3, [ Ø ] ½ [ ¡ Ö ´Ý ¡Ñ ËÔ? with ËÔ added above the line to make the reading clear O ¡ Ö ¦´Ý ] ¡ [ ] Ö ´Ý B2, ¸] O Verse 32 not ¡ ( ) supl Ö ´Ý B3, ¡ Ö ´Ý M1M2, ¡ Ö Ô ´Ý V5 numbered V1, numbered 33 V5 on f. 22r V1 5 æ Ñ Ø Ò ¹Ý ] Ø ¢ ¢ Ñ ÒÒæ V5 Ñ Ø Ò ] Ñ Ø [ xx ] Ò B2, Ñ [ ] ØÐ B3, Ñ ØÚ? ¢ ] ¢ [ ] V1 6 ØÓ ] ØÓ B2, ØÓ M1M2, corrected from ØÇ to ØÓ O Ò ] ÔÒ O, Ñ ØÐ R3 M1M2, Ò V5 7 Õ ] Õ Ý R1 ¡ ÑÑ ] [ x ] ¡ Ñ B2, ¡ [ x ]( Ñ ) marg,s B3, Ò ¡ Ò V5 Ð Ø ] with missing and a mark for a marginal insertion which is missing due to damage B2 Verse 33 numbered 32 B3R3, numbered 34 V5 on f. 22v V1 9 ÓÐ ] Ö ] ÖÖ O Ô Ö ] Ô Ö (rest destroyed with margin) corrected from ÓÐ to ÓÐ V1 B2, Ô Ö [ ] ¹Î O, Ô [ ] Ö ( ) V2 11 Ò ÚÓÚ Ø Ý» ] ÚÓ Ø ¦Ý» ¡ Ò ] ¦Ý ¡ Ò B2B3M1M2R1R3 B3R3, ÓÚ ØÓ ¦Ý» M1M2, ÚÓ Ø ¦Ý» O, ÚÓ Ø Ý» R1V1V5, ÚÓ Ø Ý» V1 12 ¹Ø ¹Ñ ] Ø ¹Ñ M1 ¸] M1M2R1V5, ( ¸ ) supl V1 ¹Ì Ø¸ ] ¹ÌØ¸ V5 ×´Ô ] ¹Ý ´Ô with ¹Ý marked and the variant reading × added in the margin V2, x ´Ô V5 (a). æ Ñ ØÝ Ý´Ã¹Ì Þ ¹Ú Ñ º £ Ø´ÔØØ Ú Ø ×Ñ £ ×Ñ¦Ø ´ ÔØ ´ÚÝ Ã £ ¢ Ã ¹Ú ¢ ©ÝØ (Siddh¯ anta´ siroman adhy¯ aya , bhuvanako´ sa , 6). Note that the reading in the Siddh¯ anta . i , gol¯ ´ siroman , which is better than . ¢ ¢ . i is 264
Ø
£ ÔØ¦´Ý ¸ ¹ÌØ ¸ ÖÝ¸ ×¦ × Ö Ö ¸ Ã Ø £º £ØÒ Ý ¢ Ø ÞÚ¹´Ú
¸ ×ÅÔØØ Ø ¢ ÝØ £  Ø¸

¿
f. 4v B3
Ò
Ò Ý Ñ Ø Ú¹Ø Ò £ £ 
5
f. 7r V2, f. 10v M1
´× ÑÄÝ Ð ¸º ¸ Ø
â Ýâ´× ØÐ Ö Ñ Ð Ú ¦Ø ×  Ð Ð ¹ÚÒÐ Ú ¡ Ý Ñ ÒÑ ¢ ¸ ¿ Ú Ú ÖÕ
Ñ ØÖ ¦Ø Å ÐÓ ×Ñ ÒÝ Ø
´Ñ Ú ¡ ÖÚ Ø º Ùß¹ØÖ Ú Ø ÔÚ ØÚ´×Ñ £ Ò Ö ÝØÓ Ø Ú
» ¸ £ ¸ ¿
Verse 34 numbered 33 in margin by s B3, numbered 33 R3, numbered 35 V5 on 1–2 ¹ÌØ ¸ ÖÝ¸ ] ¹ÌØ ( ) marg,s [ x ] ÖÝ¸ f. 22v V1 1 ÔØ¦´Ý ¸ ] ÔØ´Ý R1 B2, ¹ÌØ ÖÝ¸ R1 2 × Ö ] ×Ö M1M2 Ö ¸ ] Ö¸? B2, ?Ö V5 3 ¢ Ø ] zz B2 ¹´Ú ] marked and ¹´Ú given again in the margin to make ÞÚ ] ÖÚ M1M2, ( Þ ) supl Ú O the reading clear V1 3–4 Ý ] Ô¦Ø O, Ý¹Ø R1 4 ×ÅÔØØ Ø ] ×ÔØ Ø O £ ] ÝØ £ V5 ¢ ÝØ Verse 35 numbered 34 B3R3 on ﬀ. 22v–23r V1 5Ò ] corrected from Ò to Ò O Ò £ ] Ò£Ú V5 5–6 £ ´× ] Ð £ ´× R3, £ × V5 6 Ð ] Ð V1 ´×
â ]
w B2 7 Ýâ´× Ö Ñ] Ö ¸ ] ( ¸ ) supl B3 ] Ýâ¹Ø B3M1M2, Ýâ¹Ø R3 z B2 8 Ð ¹ÚÒÐ ] Ð ¹Ú ( ) supl ÒÐ B3, Ð ¸ ÃÒÐ M1M2, Ð ÃÒÐ R1, Ð ¹ØÒÐ V5 Verse 36 numbered 35 B3R3 on f. 23r V1 9 Ú Ú ] ¢ ¸] Ú ¢ ? [ x ] B2 ? added in the margin by s B3
Å Ñ ]
Ñ B , marked and the annotation Ö 2
Ñ R1V2,
Ñ V1 10 ×Ñ ÒÝ Ø ] ×Ñ ÐÝ Ø M1M2 Ú ¡ Ö ] Ò ¡ Ö V1V5 Ö M1M2,
ÚØ ] Ú ? ? M1, Ú Ø ? M2, Ú R1, Ú 11 Ú Ø ] Ú Ø O ÔÚ Ø ] ÔÚ ØÚ O, corrected ¢ ¸ V5 Ø £ to ÔÚ Ø V1, ÔÚØ £ V5 Ú´×Ñ 12 ÝØÓ Ø ] ÝØÓ Ø M1, ÝØÓ Ø from ÔÚ £ ] [ x ]( ´× ) marg Ñ £ O M2, ÝØÓ ÚØ R3 Ø Ú
» ] Ø
» V2 265
f. 23r V1
10
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10 p. 9 R1 f. 5r O
Verse 37 numbered 36 B3R3, not numbered R1, numbered 38 V5 on f. 23v V1 1 Ö Ö ] Ú Ö Ö B2B3, Ö Ö M1M2 × ÑÄÝ ] × ÑÄÝ B2, × ÑÄÝ [ ] M1 2 í» ß] » ß V5 £ ] V5 3 Ò B3, Ò Ñ £Ú ] Ñ £Õ B 3 R 3 ¢ ¸ ] ¢ V5 Æ ] z ¢ M1M2V2V5 Verse 38 numbered 37 B3R3, not numbered V1, numbered 39 V5 on f. 25r V1 £ ] ØÖ R1 Ø £Ò ] Ø £ M1 6 Ú ] Ú M1 ¹ÌÖ ] w Ö B2 ÚÝ Ø ] ÚÚ Ø 5 ØÖ B3 R3 Ñ 7 Ö Ö ] Ö ( ) supl Ö V2 Ö ] Ö B3R1R3, Ú ] Ñ ¡ Ú B2, Ñ Ú M1M2V1 x ( ) supl Ö with Ö added in the margin V2 8 £ÚÓ ] ßÚ V5 Ö Ý ] Ö ÝÒ B3R3V5 ÒÚ Ö ØÓ ] w Ú Ö ØÓ B2, ÒÚ Ö ØÓ O ÚØ ¸ ] corrected from ÚØ Ò to ÚØ ¸ O Verse 39 numbered 38 B3R3, numbered 40 V5 on f. 25v V1 9 Ò Ø¸ ] ? Ø¸ B2, Ò ÖØ¸ V5 10 Ò ] Ò Õ R1 ØÓ ¢ Ø ×¦ ¸ ] Ý × ¸ B3R3, Ý ¢ Ø × w B2, ¢ØÝ ¢ Ø × ¸ M1M2, Ý Ó ¢ Ø × V5 11 Ö× ] ( Ö ) marg × B2, [x] ¢ Ø × ¸ OR1, × ¢ Ø Æ V2, Ñ ] ÑÚ R1, with added in the margin to make the reading of the last aks ara Ö× O . clear V1 ÑÝ Æ ] ÑÝ Æ M1M2, ÔÑ Æ R1, ÔÝÓ [ ] ( ) with added in the margin to make the reading clear V2, ÑÝÓÆ ? V5 12 Ø´ÔÖØ¸ ] Ø´ÔÖØÓ M1M2, corrected from ¹Ø´ÔÖØ¸ to Ø´ÔÖØ¸ V2 Ð ] V1 266
× £ Ú ÚÓ Ò¸ ¹ÌØÓ ¹Ñ Ð Ð ÑÝ ´× ÐÐ Ö ÒÑ Ò ´ÌØ ¡ ÑÑ Ð ¸ º ÚÝ Ø ÔÚÒÒ Ø ¸ ×Ú Ø¹Ø Ú ¦Ø Ö Ø Ú Ø¹Ø´¹È ¼ Ñ Ðù ¸ Å ¡â Ô Ñ £ÃÐ Ú ¹ÌØ¹Ý Ö  Å Ó£Þ Ö Ý ÚÓÚ Ñ º Ú Ý ÅÝ £ ×Ñ âÝ ¦Ø¸ ×Ú » ¹Ý ÔÕ ¹Ý ×¹Ì ½ Ø¹Ñ É ËÑÐ Ç Ñ¹Ñ ´ Ç ÓÑ £ ØÌ Ô © Ö ÀÝÑ º Å ¡â £ Ô ÑÝ×¹Ì ¸ £ ÚÕÀÝ ¸ ¹Ý £Ò Ú » ¸ ¹Ø
5 f. 27v V1
10
¾
f. 8r V2
Verse 40 numbered 39 B3R3, numbered 41 V5 on f. 26v V1 1 Ð ] ( Ð ) marg B2 O Ú ÚÓ ] Ú w ÚÓ B2 Ò¸ ] Ò M1R1V5 2 Ö ] ÑÖ M1, ØÖ V5 Ñ Ð ¸ ] Ñ Ð R1V2V5 3 Ò Ø ¸] Ò Ø ´ÌØ ] corrected from ´ÌØ to ´ÌØ B3, ´ÌØ R3 R1V1V5 Ú ¦Ø ] ¢ Ú Ø R1 4 Ö ] Ö R1R3 Ú Ø ] ÚØ M2 ¹Ø´¹È ] ¹Ø¹È R1 Verse 41 numbered 40 B3R3, numbered 42 V5 on ﬀ. 27r–27v V1 5 Å¡ ] M1, ¡ ¡ V5 5–6 Ð Ú ¹ÌØ¹Ý Ö Å Ó ] Ð Ú ¹ÌØ¹Ý [ xxx ] Ö [ x ] Ó B2, Ð Ú ¹ÌØ¹Ý Ö [ ] Ó ? M1, Ð ¹Ì Ø¹Ý Ö Ó O, Ð Ô ¹ÌØ¹Ý Ö Ó R3, Ð Ú âÐ [ Ø x ]( Ò ) marg Ö Ó V1 6 Þ Ö] Þ Ö R1 ÚÓÚ Ñ ] ÚÓ B2B3OR1R3V2, ÚÓÚ M1M2, ÚÓ V1 7 Ú ] Ú R1 ×Ñ ] ×Ñ V2 ×¹Ì ] ( × ) marg ¹Ì O Verse 42 numbered 41 B3R3, 8 ¹Ý Ô ] ¹Ý â Ô M1M2R1V2V5 numbered 43 V5 on f. 27v V1 9 ] R1 , V1 É ËÑÐ ] ÑÐ M1M2, ËÑ [ ] Ð O, with ËÑ marked and ËÑ written in the margin to make the reading clear V1 10 ´ Ç ] ´ Ç R3, ´ Ç V2 Ç Ñ ] Ç Ñ? V5 11 â Ô £ ] â Ô M1R3, â Ô M2 ×¹Ì ¸ ] ×¹Ì R1V5 £ ] £ ¸ R1 12 ÚÕÀÝ ¸ ] ÚÕÀÝ M1M2V5, ÚÕ?ÀÝ ¸ O, ÚÕÀÝ ( ¸ ) supl V1 Ú » ] Ú »¸ M1 ¸] R1 267
ÃÚ ¡ ½¿¼ ÝÓ Ò Ú¹Ø £ ¢Ø Ð Ô ÝÑ Ó ÎÖ¹Ñ Ø Ö £ ¹Ø ØØ¹Ø ¡Ø Ý × Ô Ö ØØÓ ÖÓÑ Ô Ò
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10 p. 10 R1
f. 5v O
Verse 43 numbered 42 B3R3, numbered 44 V5 on f. 27v V1 1 Ã ] Ã [ Ã ] M1 ½¿¼ ] ÝÓ Ò ½¿¼ B2O, om. R1V1V5 Ú¹Ø £ ] Ú× £ V5 2 Ð ] [ x ] Ð B2 ÝÑ ] Ý ( Ñ ) marg ¢Ø ¢Ø B3, ÝÚ R3, ÝÑ £ V1 Ó ÎÖ ] Ó Î then an aks . ara corrected to Ö then about three erased aks ¹Ñ Ø ] ¹Ý Ø M1M2 3 ¡Ø £] ] corrected from ¡ ¡ to ¡ Ø R1 . ara s B2, Ó ÎØ V5 Ó R1 ØØ ] ØØ R3 × ] × B3R1R3V1V2V5 4 Ô Ò ] Ô M1M2 Verse 44 numbered 43 B3R3, numbered 45 V5 on f. 28r V1 5 ÃÐ ] corrected from Ã to ÃÐ O Ú Ú ] Ú ÚÓ R1 6 Ñ £Þ ] Ø £Þ M1 ¹´Ú Ø ] ¹Ì Ø O ÕÎ £ ¸ ] ÕÎ z ¸ B2, ÕÎ £ O, ( Õ ) marg Î £ ¸ V1 7 Ñ ¸ ] Ñ ( ¸ ) supl V1, Ñ V5 8 ¡ ÎÓ ] corrected from ¡ Ý £ to ÒÕ ] Õ M1 Verse 45 numbered 44 B3R3, numbered 46 V5 on ¡ ÎÓ B2 f. 28r V1 9 × ] z B2 ] corrected from Ó to O ´Ô Ò ] ´ÔØÒ M1, ´ÔØÒ V2 10 ×É ¢ ù ] ´Ý ¢ M1, × Ron , × V5 Ú ]Ú M1M2, Ú Ò ( ) marg V2 Ö¸ ] Ö¸ R1 × 11 ß℄Ý £ ] ß℄Ý £Ò R1, ß℄Ý ß V5 ×¦ ] × M1 Ò Ð¸ ] × [ ] Ò ( ) Ð¸ O Ð Ò ] Ð Ò M1M2 12 ¹Ø ¦ØÖ £ ] ¹Ø z ØÖ £ B2, ¹Ý ØÖ £ V1 ÚÕ ] ÚÝ B3 ÒÚ £ ] ÒÚ £× V5 ÚÑ ] Ú B2 268
Ð ¹Ý
Ñ ¦ØÖ£ Ú Ø ÖØ ÖÚÕ Ñ¹Ñ Ø º £Ñ ¡ Î ÒÕ Ú ´Ì ÖÚÕ × Ñ ß¸
5
× Ô ßÚ ÖÓ ÖØÓ Ô ØÌ ¹Ø¸ ÞÚÕ Ö ÑÝÚÕ £ º  ÖÅÝ ÚÕ ÑØæ Õ£Ú » ÝÔÖ ÝÌ Ø Ò
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f. 4v R3, f. 8v V2
f. 3v V5, f. 5v B3 10
numbered 45 B3, numbered 44 R3, numbered 43 V2, numbered 47 V5 on ¾ ½ f. 28r V1 1 Ñ ¦ØÖ ] Ñ Ø £ Ö M2, marked but marginalia missing due to copying error R1, Ñ ØÖ V5 £ ÚØ ] ÑÝÚ R1 2 ¹Ý ÖØ ] ¹Ý zz B2, ¹Ý [ x ] ÖØ V1, Ø ÖØ V2 ÖÚÕ ] Ò zz Õ B2, ÖÚÕ R1V5 Ñ¹Ñ Ø ] Ñ z Ø B2, ¹Ñ Ø R1 3 ¡ Î ] ¡ Î R1 4 ß¸ ] » Ú ´Ì ] Ú [ x ]( ´Ì ) marg,s B3, Ú ´ ? R3, Ú¹Ø? V5 ß¸ M1 ] Ø O, R1 Ö ] Ö V5 Verse 47 numbered 46 B3R3, numbered 44 V2, numbered 48 V5 on ÖØÓ Ô ] illegible due to copying process B2 6 Þ] ¡ Ö O f. 28v V1 5 × ] z B2 ÚÕ ] om. M1 Ö ÑÝ ] ( ) marg ÑÝ B2 ÚÕ £ ] Ú z B3 7 Õ£Ú ] Õ£Ú B3, ÕßÚ M1, ÕßÚ M2, Õ Ú V5 8 ÔÖ ÝÌ ] Ô zzz B2, ÔÖ M1, corrected from ÔÖ Ì to ÔÖ ÝÌ V2, Ì V5 Ú Ý £ ] om. M1 Verse 48 numbered 47 B3R3, numbered 45 V2, numbered 49 V5 on f. 29r V1 9 Ñ ËÝÚ ] corrected from Ñ ËÝÚ to Ñ ËÝÚ R1, Ñ ËÝÚ [ xx ]( marg O, ? ÑËÝÚ R1, Ñ ËÝÚ V1 ÝÑ ] Ñ R1 10 ÖÓÑ Ø ] ÖÓÑ z B2 11 ×ùØ ] × Ø R1 12 Ú¦ØÖ ] ÚÑÖ R1 Ø ] z B2 269
Verse 46
ÐÚ ÑØ ÖØ Ø ¢ Ø ÚÕ ´×
Ñ Ö
Þ ¡ Ñ º ÑÝ £ ¹Ý Ñ £Þ¸ ÑÐ Ò ÖÓ Ú© Å ßÐ ß¸ Ô ÖØÓ Ú ¢ ØÓ ¹Ø ¹Ú ×¦Ñ ÑÝ¸ ¡ ÑÞ Ý» Ñ¹Ø £ ÚÕ Ó Ø Ð £ × Ö Ð × Ö ÐÝÓ Ò Ø¸ º ¹Ý ÖÑ¦Ø £ ÒÖ ÐÑ
5
¼
f. 15r M2 10
´× £ Ú Ú Ñ  Ô ¡ ÑÒ ×Ò £Õ »Ý × Ö ÖÇ »Ô Ö Ø º Ò´Ý ÖÑ £ ÔÖÑ £ × Ú ¹Ø £Õ Ñ Ó  × Ö Ô ØÔ Ò Ò
½
p. 11 R1
Verse 49 numbered 48 B3R3, numbered 46 V2, numbered 50 V5 on f. 29r V1 ÖØ Ø ] zz Ø B2, ÖØ Ý M1M2R1V1V5 2 ´× ] ´× [ x ]( ) marg O 1 Ð ] [ x ]( Ð ) supl V1 Ñ Ö ] Ú Ñ Ö M1M2, inserted in margin but marginalia only partially visible in copy R1 3 ÑÝ £ ] corrected from Ñ£ to ÑÝ £ V1 Ñ £Þ¸ ] Ñ £Þ M2 ÑÐ ] ¡ Ñ ] ( ¡ ) marg Ñ B2, ¡ Ñ¸ V5 Ñ 4 ßÐ ß¸ ] ßÐ £¸ V5 Ô ÖØÓ ] Ô Ö M2 Ú ¹Ø ] ¹ÑÒ V5 ¡ Ð M1M2 ¢ ØÓ ] Ú ¢ z B2, ¢ ØÓ V1 Verse 50 numbered 49 B3R3, numbered 47 V2, numbered 51 V5 on f. 29v V1 × 5 ¹Ú ×¦Ñ ] Ö Ò V2V5 Ö ÐÝÓ ] × Ö ÐÝ M1M2, corrected from × Ö ÐÓÝÓ to × Ö ÐÝÓ O 7 ÚÕ Ó ¹Ý ÖÑ¦Ø £ ] marked and the variant reading × Ö Ó ¹Ý ²Ý Ø (where ²Ý Ø is again marked and the variant reading Ò Ø is given in the margin) given in the margin R3 ÚÕ Ó ] Ú× Ó R1V2V5 ÖÑ¦Ø £ ] [ x ] ÖÑØ £ O 8 Ø Ð £] Ø £ Ð £ V5 × Ö ] ( ) supl × Ö V2 Verse 51 numbered 50 B3R3, numbered 48 V2, numbered 52 V5 Ð Ò ] Ð Ò R3 on f. 29v V1 9 ´× to × Ñ ] Ñ R1, Ô Ö V1 Ú ]Ú Ú ] corrected from ´× Ú Ú M1 M1M2, Ö V5 10 × Ò ÖÇ ] corrected from ÖÇ to ÖÇ B2, ÖÇ B3R3V5, ] ×ÓÒ M1M2 ÖÓ V1 »Ô 11 ÖÑ £ ] ÖÑ M1M2 12 Ñ Ó ] corrected from Ñ£ to Ñ Ó V1 Ö] Ô Ö V1 × Ô Ø] Ø M1 Ö] × Ö V5 270
Ý¦Ñ ËÝ Ý Ú  × Ñ Ó ÎÔ Ý èÚÕ Ñ Ø ÖÓÑ Ô Ò º ¦ Ñ ÒÒ Ð £Ø Ñ Ð ÚÕ Ò Ú £ Ø ÌØ Ò Ô Ö Ú ¸ Ñ¦ Ö Ð× ØÇ ¦ ÔÚ Ô Ú ÝÓ¸ ¹ÌØÇ º ¡Ú ÝÇ × ÚÔ Ô è Ð ÐÇ Ø Ø Ú ¿ Ö ÔÖ Ó¸ × Ö ÐÝ Ø ×´ £ØÚÓ Ö Ö¸× Å Ú ¢ Ó Å¡ × £ º Ô ÔÐÚÎÇ ÝÌ Ñ Ú ß ¢ ØÚÒ ´ÚÌ Ò  ¦ Ò Ú £ Ò  ß»ÖÌÑ ´ ÑØÓ ÚÒ Ò
f. 9r V2
¾
5
10 f. 6v B2 f. 6r B3
numbered 51 B3R3, numbered 49 V2, numbered 53 V5 on f. 30r V1 ¾ ½ 1 Ý¦Ñ ] Ý [ x ] ¦Ñ B2 Ý Ú ] Ú Ý M1 1–2 Ô M1, corrected Ý ] Ô Ý from Ô Ý to Ô Ý V 2 Ô Ò ] Ô Ò Ø V 3 Ñ Ò ] Ñ [ Ø ] O Ò ] Ñ V2 1 5 £ Ø ] ØÚ £ Ø M1, Ò Ú £ Ø V1 ÌØ Ò ] z Ø Ò B2, Ø Ò O, corrected from Ì Ø Ò 4 Ò Ú to ÌØ Ò V1 Ô Verse 53 Ö Ú ¸] Ô ¡ Ö Ú ¸ O, Ô Ö Ú ¸ R1, Ô ( Ö ) marg Ú ¸ V2 numbered 52 B3R3, numbered 50 V2, numbered 54 V5 on f. 30r V1 5 Ñ¦ Ö Ð ] Ñ Ö Ð M1, Ñ Ö Ð M2 × V2 6 Ú ÝÓ¸ ] Ú ÝÓ M1M2R1, Ú ÝÓ ( ¸ ) supl ¦ ]× × ] Ô è R1 8 Ú V1 7 ÝÇ ] [ ÝÓ ] ÝÇ B2, ÔÇ R1 Ô è Ö ] Ú Ö ¸ M1, ? Ö V5 Ó¸ ] Ó ( ¸ ) supl B3, Ó V1 Verse 54 numbered 53 B3R3, numbered 51 V2, numbered 55 V5 on f. 31v V1 9 ×´ £ØÚÓ ] unclear due to copying process B2, ×´ £Ø Ó M1M2 Ö¸× Ú 10 Å ¡ ] ¡ ¸ M1M2 ] Ö¹Ý M2 ¢ Ó] Ú ¢ £? B2, [ x ] Ú ¢ Ó V2 × ÝÌ ] ØÌ M1M2V5 11 Ú ß ]Ú ß Ò Ô ÔÐ ] × Ô ÔÐ [ xx ] B2, × [ Ö ] Ô ÔÐ O, × Ô ÔÐ V5 M1M2, Ú ß R1V2, Ú ß R3 ´ÚÌ Ò¦ Ò ] Ò R1 12 Ú £ Ò ] £Ý Ò V2 ÖÌ ] ÖÌ? V5 Ñ Ô ? × ¸? B2, Ñ ´ ÑØÓ ] marked and the annotation Ù ÖÔ æ?Ñ ¡Ú ? ÚÒ? Ñ?´ÝÌ ´ ÑØÓ V5 ÚÒ Ò ] ÚÒ [ ] Ò O 271
Verse 52
ÖÚÒ £Õ ×Ö ¹ÝÞ Ø Ò Ñº Ñ Ò×Ò Ñ Ñ ×Ø Ð ïÝÑÅ ÑùÐ × Ð £ ÐÑÖ Ð Ð ÐÑ
Ð Ð ÐÚ´× £» ¸ Ò ÐÒ × ¦ØÚ Ò Ô ¢ Ú ¸º Ñ Ò× Ò ÒÒ £Õ ÖÑ¸ ×Ö × Ú×¦´Ý  ÑÖ ß¸ × ØÖÅÝ ¸ Å ¡ ÈÐ Ú Ð Å ¡Ò Ú Ý Ñ ¢ ¹Ý Å ¡ Ò Ñ Ø â ÔÓ Ý Ò ØÚ ¢

5
f. 5r R3
Ø
Ð Ú Ý Ø × º Ý´× Ú × ÖÅÝÒ Ñ
f. 9v V2 10 p. 12 R1
Verse 55 numbered 54 B3R3, numbered 52 V2, numbered 56 V5 on f. 32r V1 1 ÚÒ £Õ £Ú ×Ö ¹ÝÞ ] × [ x ] Ö ¹Ý ( Þ ) supl B2, ×Ö ¹Ý ] ÚÒ V5 Ö R1, corrected from × Ö ¹ÝÞ to ×Ö ¹ÝÞ V1 ] Ò V1 2 Ø Ò Ñ Ò× ] Ñ Ò× [ ] O Ò Ñ] ] Ú Ò V5, ØÒ V5 ¾ ½ ? ? ? Ñ [ ] Ò M1, Ñ Ò Ñ V5 Ñ Ñ] Ñ w B2, Ñ M1, M2, Ñ [ ] R1V5, Ñ ? ) V1 3 Ð ] [x Õ ]( Ð ) O ïÝ ] [ x ]( ï Ý B ÑÅ ] Ñ ( ) V marg marg 2 marg 2 ÑùÐ ] Ñ [ x ]( Ð ) marg B2, Ñ Ð V1 4 × Ð ] × Ð M1M2, × Ð R3V2V5 Ð ÐÑ ] Ð Ð M1, ¡ Ð ¡ Ð O Verse 56 numbered 55 B3R3, numbered 53 V2, numbered 57 V5 Ò Ð ] w Ð B2, Ò ÐÒ Ð V5 Ò £» ¸ ] corrected from ÒÓ» ¸ on f. 32r V1 5 Ð ] ÚÐ R3 to Ò £» ¸ B2, Ò £» M1M2, Ò ß» ¸ V5 6 Ú Ú ¸ ] ¸ M1M2 7 × Ò ÒÒ £Õ ¢ ] Ú ¢ Ø M1 ] × [ xx ]( Ò ) marg ÒÒ £Õ Ö Ñ ¸ ] ( Ö ) marg Ñ ¸ B2, corrected from Ö Ñ¸ to Ö Ñ ¸ B3 8 ×Ö × ] B2 × Ö × V5 Ú×¦´Ý ] ×´Ý M1M2, corrected from Ú×´Ý to Ú×´Ý V1, ÖÑ´ÝÑÖ ß¸ V5 ÖÅÝ ¸ ] corrected from Ö Ý to Ö Ý ¸ M1 Verse 57 numbered 56 B3R3, numbered 54 V2, numbered 58 V5 on f. 32v V1 9 Ø Å ¡ ] Ø ? ¡ B2 ÈÐ ] Ð R1 Ð ] om. V5 Ñ 10 Å ¡ ] ¡ R1 ¢ Ý Ø × ] Ñ ¢ ÝØ × R3, corrected from Ñ ¢ Ý Ø × to Ñ ¢ Ý Ø × V1, × Ý Ø ¹Ý Ø V5 11 ¹Ý Å ¡ ] ¹Ý ? ¡ V2, ¹Ý × ] × ( ) marg,s B3, × O, × V1 ¡ M1R1 Ò Ø] Ø M1 Ú ÒÑ ] Ò B2 12 â ÔÓ Ý ] â Ô Ý M1 ¢ ] Ú V5 272

Ñ¦ Ò ÒØ¸ Ô ØØ × £ÖÇ Ñ Ú© Å ßÐ ÃÖ¹Ì×Ö¸×Ñ £Ø º è £Ø Ý Ø Þ ÖØÚÕ ßÚËÝ ÐÝ £ Ô ÒÑ Ø ×
f. 6v O & f. 10r g V2
Ã ¦ÝÌ ß¦ £ÞØ Ñ Ô£ ¹´Ý ÀÝ Ñ Ö ÀÝ £º ×ÇÅÝ Ò Ú Þ£ ¦ Ú × ´Ú Ø ÖØ ¦Ø¸
5
Verse 58 numbered 57 B3R3, numbered 57 V2, numbered 59 V5 on f. 32v V1 placed between a verse unique to V2 and verse 61 on f. 10r V2 1 ÒØ¸ ] Ò [ x ] Ø¸ B2, ÒØ M1, ÒØ M2 × £ÖÇ ] × 2 ÃÖ¹Ì×Ö¸ ] ÃÖ¹Ì ×Ö¸ B3R3, corrected Ñ ÑÓÖÇ B2 ×Ñ £Ø ] ×Ñ £ from ×ÃÖ¹Ì×Ö¸ to ÃÖ¹Ì×Ö¸ O, [ xxxx ]( ÃÖ¹Ì×Ö¸ ) marg,s V1, ÃÖÅÝ×Ö¸ V5 z B3, ×Ñ £Ø ¸ V5 3 £Ø Ý Ø ] Ô Ø B3R3, Ø R1 ] £ [ x ]( Ø ) marg,s O Þ] Ò V1 Ñ B3, ßÚËÝ R3 ÒÑ Ø × ] corrected from ÒÑ Ø × to ÒÑ ? × B2, 4 ßÚËÝ ] ßÑ corrected from ÒÑ Ø × to ÒÑ Ø × M1, ÒÑ [ ] Ø × M2 Verse 59 numbered 58 B3R3, numbered 55 V2, numbered 60 V5 on f. 33r V1 placed between verse 58 and verse 60 on f. 9v V2 5 Ì ß¦ ] Ì £ R1M1M2V1, Ì ß OV5 £Þ ] × £Ö B2, × £Þ R1R3V1, × ßÞ V5 6 Ô£ ] Ô Ó R1 7 ×ÇÅÝ ] × £Þ B3R3 Ñ Ö ] Ñ Ö ( ) marg B2 Ñ Ú Þ£ ] Ú Þ Ò B3R3, Ú Þ R1 8 ¦ Ú ] Ú B2, Ú where is inserted into the line by s O ´Ú Ø ] ´ÚØ? V5 Ø ¦Ø¸ ] Ø ( Ø¸ ) marg O 273
Ñ £¦ ïÝ × ÑÐÝ ¹Ø £ ÖØ £ ÔÚ Ø ¸ Ó Ô ÖÝ » Ö ×íæ Ú¦Ý¹ØØ¸ º Ù ØÔ Ð ¢ Ò Ñ ÃÐ Ã Ñ  Ö Ñ×Ö¸Ô £ ¼ Ö¸×ÖÑØ¸ Ô Ø ÐØ¸ ÄÝØ £× Ô ¡  ×ÅÔ Î Î Ò £ Ø Ò Ô Ø Ð×Ñ ïÝ Ò º Ø £Õ Ò £¦ È Ñ Ò Ø¸ Ô Ý Ø Ò ÐÓ ¸
f. 4r V5 f. 33v V1
5
f. 6v B3
½
Verse 60 numbered 59 B3R3, numbered 57 V2, numbered 61 V5 on f. 33v V1 placed between verse 59 and a verse unique to V2 on f. 9v V2 before the verse × ÖØÓ Ñ (compare unique verse in V2 given at the end of the apparatus of this verse) Ð Ð ¹Ý £ V5 1 Ñ £¦ ïÝ ] Ñ £ ( ) marg ïÝ B3, Ñ £ [ x ]( ï ) marg Ý O B2, x O ] Ñ ÑÐÝ ] [ x ] ÑÐÝ [ x ] O ¹Ø £ ÖØ £ ] z ÖØ £ B3, ¹Ø ÖØ £ M1, ¹Ø ÖØ £ M2R1V1V2V5, corrected from ¹Ø £ x ÖØ £ to ¹Ø [ x ]( ) marg ÖØ £ O, ¹Ø ÖØ £ marked and the annotation ¦Ý ÀÝÃ £ Ò added in the margin R3 2 Ó Ô ] Ó ( ¸ ) supl [ ´ ] × Ô B2, w Ô B3, Ó Ô M1M2, Ó ´× R3, Ó ¸ [ x ] Ô [ x ] V2 Ö ] ØÖ B2, Ö M1M2, ØÖØ¸ R1, ØÖ¸ R3V1V2 ×íæ ] ×íæ M1M2, ( × ) marg íæ O, ×í¸ × V5 Ú¦Ý ] Ú²Ý M2, ÚÝ V1, Ú V5 Ñ ÃÐ ] Ò ÃÐ R1 3 Ò ] om. but there is an insert though the marginalia is destroyed B2 Ã ] Ã B2B3M1M2, Ã [ ] Ã R1 Ð ] ÃÐ R1 4 ×Ö¸ ] ×Ö £¸ V5 after verse 60 is a verse numbered 56 × Ð Ð ¸ ¹Ý ÖØ £ Ñ £ [ x ] ×í ÚÝ ¸ º ÑÐÝ ÐÔ ÖÝ » ÀÝÇ Ú £ Ú Ñ £ V2 Verse 61 numbered 60 B3R3, numbered 58 V2, numbered 62 Ã ¸ Ñ Ö ÀÝ V5 on f. 33v V1 placed between verse 58 and verse 62 on f. 10r V2 5 × ] ×× M1M2 6 Ô Ø Ð ] Ý Ø Ð R3 ×Ñ ïÝ Ò ] after ×Ñ ïÝ Ò are about 12 erased aks . ara s 7 È ] È R1 Ñ Ò ] corrected from Ñ Ò to Ñ Ò B3, B3, ×Ñ [ x ]( z ) marg Ô Ò O corrected from Ñ Ò £ to Ñ Ò O, ÑÒ V1, Ñ Ò V5 8 Ô Ý Ø ] Ô ÝØ R1 274
ØÐ ÚØÐ ØÐ ÒÔ ¡Ú Ø Ó ¦Ý ¹ØÑ Þ Ñ º ÔÖ £ ÔÑ × £ Ø £ Ô ¡Ú Ð Ô Ø ÐØÐ Ø ¾ × Ñ ÝØ ÔØÐ £  ©Ú ×Ø ×Ø Þ Ò Ô Ø Ö Ö ßÐ Ò Ó Ñ ÖØÐ £Ô ¢ ÄÚ ÖÓ Ý ÈÒ º Ô ¦ØÑ ØÐ £ ÑÏ £ Ø ¦
Ö Ö ÒÑ Ö ¹Ø
ÐÒ ¹Ý ´× Ø ×ÅÑØÑ

5 f. 7r O, f. 7r B2
¿
f. 10v V2 10 f. 34v V1
£â ÝÓ Ò £Õ £ ¡Ú Ý ¡Ñ Ú×Ø Ö» Å ¹Ø  ¹Ñ Ú × ¸ Ú ´Ý¹Ñ ´× Ôæ Ø¹Ñ â ×Ú Ç Ô ÖÔÖ Ô ¡ ÚÇ Ú Ç Ø´ÔÖ Ú £Ø £Õ £Ò ÔÚ  Ø £ ØÖ ¸ × ¸ Ú ÒÐ

Ø¸ º
f. 5v R3
Verse 62 numbered 61 B3R3, numbered 59 V2, numbered 63 V5 on f. 33v V1 1–4 ÒÔ ¡ Ú — ØÐ ] om. but added in margin without variants from the given text R3 1 ÒÔ 2 Ø Ó ¦Ý ] ÓÕ R1 ¹Ø ] ¹Ø M2, [ ] ¹Ø V1 Ñ Þ Ñ] ¡ Ú ] zz Ú B2 Ñ ÒÞ M1M2 3 Ô] Ø Ô £ Ø £] Ô £ Ø B3 , Ô ß¹Ø ß¸ M1M2, Ô £ ØÇ R1 M1M2V2V5 ¡Ú ¡Ú ¡Ú ¡Ú Verse 63 numbered 62 B3R3, numbered 60 V2, numbered 64 V5 4 × Ñ ] × Ñ V5 on f. 33v V1 5 ÔØÐ £©Ú ] Ô Ø Ð £ [ ] ©Ú V3 ×Ø Þ ] × ( Ø ) marg Þ B2, ×Ø £ Þ M1M2 Ò ] Ò ¸ M1M2 Ö ] Ö ¸ M1, ×Ø R1 Ö ] Ö ¸ V5 6 ] ( ¸ ) subl M1, ¸ M2 ÖØÐ £ ] ÖØ £ R1 7 Ô ] Ô B3R3, Ô Ø M1M2 Ñ ØÐ £ ] Ñ ( Ø ) supl,s Ð £ V5 ] B3R3, O ÑÏ £ ] [ ] ÑÏ £ O, corrected from Ñ Ï £ to ÑÏ £ V1, Ñ Ï £ V5 Ø ¦ ] Ò ¦ B3R3, Ø Ò M1, Ø ´ V5 Ö ] Ö V2 8 ÒÑ ] ÒÑ M1M2 Ö ¹Ø ] corrected ×ÅÑØÑ ] ×ÑØ £ B3 R3 from Ö¹Ø to Ö ¹Ø V1 ÐÒ ] Ð [ x ] Ò V2, Ð Ð [ x ] V5 Verse 64 numbered 63 B3R3, numbered 62 V2, numbered 65 V5 on f. 34r–34v V1 9 â ] corrected from â to â B3, â Ö B3, â M1M2, â [ ] O, â Ö R3 ÝÓ Ò £Õ £Õ Ú×Ø £ ] corrected from Ú×Ø £ to Ú×Ø £ B3, Ú×Ø £ R3, ×Ø £ V1 Ö» Å ] ] ÝÓ £Ò M1 corrected from Ö» to Ö» B3, Ö R1 10 Ú ] Ú OV2 × ¸ ] × æ R1 , × R3 11 â ] x ( â ) supl V1, Ö V5 ×Ú Ç ] ×Ú Ç R3 Ô ÚÇ Ú Ç ] Ô Ú z ÖÇ B , Ô ÚÇ Ú Ç M M ¡ ¡ 3 ¡ 1 2, Ô 12 Ú £Ø £Õ £ [ ØÇ ] Ø £Õ £Ø ßÕ ¡ ÚÔ Ç R1, Ô ¡ ÚÔÖÇ R3, Ô ¡ Ú Úß V1, [ xx ] Ô ¡ ÚÚ Ç V2, Ô ¡ ÚÚ Ç V5 ] Ú B2, Ú R3 Ú ] Ú O, corrected from Ú Ó to Ú V1 ÒÐ £Ò ÔÚØ £ ] ÒÐ £Ò? ÔÚÒ £? B2, ÒÐ £Ò ?ÚØ £ M1, ÒÐ £Ò £ V5 Ø Ö ] ÖØ Ö O × ¸ ] om. but added in margin O ¢ ÔØØ 275
ÚÝ Ø Ñ £Þ Ö¹ØÐÝÓ ÚÇ ÚÐÝ Ñ Ø ÚÑÝ Ñ º Ã Ø
Å Ò Ñ¢Õ Ý ¦ØÖ Ø Ý×Ú ÔØ´Ý ¸ ØÓ Ö×Ö× £Õ ×ö ß¸ Ñ Õ ½ Ø Ñ ÐÑÐ Ð ÓÐ ÔÑ º ¦Ø Õ Ò ß¸  ÚØ ¢ Ô ½ ¼¿¾ ÑØ Ø £ ÓÑÝ Å Ö× Ú £ß¸ ¾ ¼  ¡ Ù© Ø Ò Ò ÒÐ  Ò¦ Ò Ø ß¸ ¿ ß¸ ½¾ ÒÚ Õ ×Ö¦ × ¡Ý ¿ Ú » Ö ´Ú ¡ ÑÒ ß  ½ Ñ ¦ Ö ÒÚØ ¦ Ò £» ß¸ ¾¼¿½ ¼ ½ ½ º
5 f. 15v M2
f. 7r B3 f. 35v V1
f. 7v O 10 p. 14 R1
f. 11r V2
Verse 65 numbered 64 B3R3, numbered 63 V2, numbered 66 V5 on f. 35r V1 £Þ ] Ñ £Þ Ñ O, Ñ £ ( Þ ) marg V1 Ö ] ( ) Ö V1 ¹ØÐÝÓ ] ¹ØÐÝÓ zz B2, ¹ØÐÝÓ ¢ 1 Ñ Ð R1, ¹Ø ÝÓ V1, ¹ØÐÝÓ V5 2 Ú ] Ú B2 ÑÝ Ñ ] ÑÝÑ O 3 Ã Ø ] Ã Ø M2 V5 3–4 ¢ Õ Ý ¦ØÖ ] ¢ ?Õâ?Ý ØÖ B2, ¢ ÕâÝ ØÖ M1M2R1V2, ¢ Õ Ý ØÖ V1, ÕâÝ ØÖ V5 Å ] Õ 4 Ø Ý×Ú ] Ø Ô×Ú R1, £Ø Ô× £Ú ? V1, Ø Ú× V5 ÔØ´Ý ¸ ] ÔØ [ x ] ´Ý ¸ O, ÔØ´ÝÝ¸ V1 Verse 66 numbered 65 B3R3, numbered 63 V2, numbered 66 V5 on f. 35r–35v V1 £ ÑÝ ì × ØÓ £Ý ¸ added in the margin 5 ¡ ØÓ ] marked and the annotation Ø ½ ] placed after ×ö ß¸ B2M1M2V1V2V5, ½ placed after ×ö ß¸ O ×ö ß¸ ] ×ÀÝ ß OR1V5 ¾ ½ ? 6 Ñ Ð ] Ñ Ð M2 7 ¦Ø ] marked and the annotation Ú £ ÖÝ Ñ × × Ø ×Ú » ×Ý?ÝØ £ added in the margin (seems to belong rather to verse 68) B2 ½ ¼¿¾ ] placed after ÑØ ß¸ B2B3M1M2R3V2V5, ½ ½¿¾ O, ½ ¼¿ ? placed after ÑØ ß¸ V1 ÑØ ß¸ ] ÑØ ß ( ¸ ) supl B3, ÑØ ß OR3V5, ÑØ R1 8 ÑÝ ] ÑÝ M1M2, ÑÝ R1, ( Ñ ) subl Ý V1 ] corrected from Ñ to M1 Verse 67 numbered 66 B3R3, numbered 64 V2 on f. 35v V1 9 Ø Ò ] corrected from ØÒ to Ø Ò B3 Ò ] Ò marked and added in the margin to make the reading clear R1 ÒÐ ] Ò Ð R1 9–10 Ò¦ Ò Ø ß¸ ] ÐÒ Ò Ø ß¸ but the the top of the aks 10 ] £ R1 . ara s are cut due to copying process so reading uncertain O ÒÚ ] Ò M2 × Ý ß ¸ ] × Ý ß O ½¾ ½ ] ½¾ ½ V 11 » Ö ´Ú ] illegible due to copying ¡ ¡ 5 Ò ß ] Ò ß¸ R1V1 ½ ¿ ] process B2, » Ö [ x ]( ) marg,s ´Ú B3 ¡ Ñ] × ¡ Ñ M2 ½ ( w ) marg ¿ V2 12 ÒÚ ] ÒÚ [ x ] O ] [ x ]( ) B Ò £ » ß ¸ ] Ò ß » ß ¸ V5 marg,s 3 ¾¼¿½ ¼ ½ ] unclear due to copying process B2, ¾¼¿½½¼ ½ O 276
Ú× £» ù Ò ¡ Ú £ ½¿ ¾ ×ö ß ÖÖ×Ò Ú Ý Ø × Ð ¡ £ Ö Ñ Ð ØÖ Ñº ×ÑÑ ßÖ Ø ß Ö¢ Ý ÚÝ ÖÝ Ñ × Ø ÔÖ

f. 7v B2
» ¹ ÖÔ ß¢Ì ¡ Ñ ÀÝ Ú×Ò Ò ÌØ Ò Ø¦» £º Ø ÚÖÓ ÑØ ¡ Õ Ú ÉÑ ×¦Ñ ØÑØ Ñ ØÖÅÝ Ñ ¹Ú Ñ £¦ ×Ñ £ Ñ ¹ØÑÝÝÓ¸ Ð ¦ØÖ Ý Ú ´¹Ú Ý ÒÑ ÒÑÅ Î Ý¦» £ ×× ØÑ º Ý Ú» ßÚ Ò £ Ò Ö
Ö çÑ £ Ø ££ Ø
£Ø ¼ ¡ ¹ÌÒÖ Ñ ÒÑÒÝÓÒó¦ØÖ
Verse 68 numbered 67 B3R3, numbered 65 V2 on f. 35v V1 1 Ö× ] Ú× B2OV5 ½¿ ¾ ] ½¿ ( ¾ ) marg at the end of the p¯ ada B2, placed at the end of the p¯ ada B3M1M2OR1R3V1, placed after Ú Ý Ø in the next p¯ ada V1, ½¿ at the end of the p¯ ada with ½¿ ¾ added in the margin by s V5 ×ö ß ] × [ Ö ] ÀÝ ß O 2 × Ð ] ×ÚÐ V5 ØÖ Ñ ] Ø Ö Ò R1 3 ¢ Ý ß] z Ý ß B2 3–4 ß ] ß Ú M1 4 ] corrected from to V1 Ø ] Ú £ B2B3R3, Ú £ ¸ M1M2OV2, Ú £ R1 Verse 69 numbered 68 B3R3, numbered 66 V2 on f. 36v V1 at the beginning of the verse is added »ÓÔÔ ¸ in the margin by s B3 5Ô ] corrected from to B3 , ¢Ì ¡ ] Ì ¡ R1 R3 6 Ò ÌØ ] Ò Ø B2B3OR3, Ò Ø M1M2 Ø¦» £ ] Ø» ß V5 7 ÚÖÓ ] Ú× £ R3 ÑØ ¡ Õ ] Ñ ( Ø ) marg x Õ M1 8 ÑØ Ñ ØÖÅÝ Ñ ] ( ÑØ Ñ Ø ) marg ÖÅÝ B2, ÑØ Ñ ØÖ Ý M1, ÑØ Ñ Ô ÖÅÝ V2, ÑØ Ñ ØÖÅÝ V5 Verse 70 numbered 69 B3R3, numbered 67 V2 on f. 37r V1 9 ¹Ú Ñ £ ] marked and the annotation ¡ Ô Ø £ added in the margin by s B3 ¢ ×Ñ ÑÝÝÓ¸ ] ÑÝÝÓ R1R3 Ý Ú £ ] corrected from Ý Ú £ to Ý Ú £ V1 Ñ ] ×Ñ [ x ]( ) marg,s Ñ O 10 ÑÅ ] corrected from Ñ ×× ØÑ ] ×× Ø R1 11 Ý Ú» ßÚ ] corrected from to Ñ O Ý´Ú £» ßÚ to Ý´Ú» ßÚ B2, Ý´Ú» ßÚ M2V5, Ý [ x ]( ´Ú ) marg » ßÚ O, Ý » ßÚ R1 Ò ] ( Ò ) marg B2 Ö
Ö ] Ö
Ö » M1OR1,
Ö Ö » M2 ç ] [ x ]( ç ) marg,s O, Ñ R1, ç V1 Ñ £ ] Ñ £ V5 12 ¡ ] R1 ÒÝÓÒ ] ÒÝÓ Ò M1V5 £ Ö£ Ø
£Ø ] corrected from £ Öß Ø
£Ø to £ Ö£ Ø
£Ø B2, £ Ö ßÚ
£Ø B3R3, £ ÖÒ ßÚ
£Ø R1, £ Öß Ø
£Ø V1V5, corrected from £ Öß Ø
ßØ to £ Öß Ø
£Ø V2 277
5
10
¦ â×ù Ñ ÐÝÓ  Ò Ò ¹Ú Ý Ö » Î ÖÝ Ø » ßÖ £Ò Ú ÝÓ Ò £ Ø Ú × ÔÚ Ø Ý Ô Ö× Ò Ý ¡Ý £´¹Ô ´Ý  Ú £Ý Ø¦Ñ  Ý ´Ý ÑØ  ÑÝ º Ø ¦ Ø¸ Ã × Ã £Î ß Ú Ø ¹Ú ¾
º ½
f. 11v V2
5
f. 7v B3
p. 15 R1, f. 6r R3
Verse 71 numbered 70 B3R3, numbered 68 V2 on f. 37r V1 1 ¦ â] x â B3, M1R1V1V2, corrected from â to Ó â O â×ù Ñ Ð ] marked and the annotation â ×Ñ ¡ ²Ý ×ÝÓ Ò ½ ½ Ò ´ÝÌ ¸ added in the margin B2 ×ù to × ] corrected from × V1, × [ x ] V5 ÝÓ Ò Ò ] ÝÓ Ò Ò O 2 ¹Ú Ý ] ¹Ý â M1M2, ¹Ú Ý [ Ñ ÒÑÒÝÓÒó ] O Ý Ö » ] Ö » R1V2V5 Î ] Î ( ) marg B2, Î R1 ÖÝ ] ÖÝ B3R3V2 Ø ] Ø B3M2 3 £Ò ] £ B2B3M1M2R3V2V5, Ò marked (perhaps to signify that the wrong sibilant is used) V1 £ Ø] £ Ø V2 4 Ú ] ( Ú ) marg B2 × ÔÚ Ø ] marked ¡Ý £Ú Ø to ÔÚ Ø V1, Ô?Ú Ø V5 but marginalia illegible due to copying process B2, corrected from Ô Ý ] ÒÝ V5 Ò Ý ] Ò Ý ¸ R1 Verse 72 numbered 71 B3R3, numbered 69 V2 on f. 38v V1 5 Ú ] Ú ¡ R3 £Ý ] £Ý M1M2OV1V2 6 Ø¦ÑÝ ´Ý ÑØ ÑÝ ] Ø¦ÑÝÝ £ Ø ÈÐ ¹Ú V2 ÑØ ] Ñ [ ] Ø ( ) O, ÝØ R1, corrected from ÑØ to ÑØ V1 7 ] B3M1M2R1R3 Ø¸ ] [ ] Ø¸ B3, Ø R1 , Ø¸ R3, Ø¸ V5 8 × Ã £Î ß ] marked and the annotation ß¸ added in the margin by s B3 × Ã £Î ] Ã £Î¹Ý B2OV5, Ã £Î  M1, Ã £Î   M2, Ñ Ã £Î V1 ß ] ß M1 Ú Ø ] Ú [ ] Ø V2 ] Ý M1M2, ¸ V5 278
» Ý Ð Ú ¸ ¸ ¹ÚÝÓ ÒÑÝ ¸  éÚ Ú ¦Ø º ²Ý ×¸ Ô Ô Ö Ú Ø £¸ ¹Ý ´¹Ì ¿ ¡ Ð¸ ¹È Î ¹» Ó â Ó Ú ¢£ Ô ¡ Ô ¡ ÃÝ ùÑùÐ Ø Ú Ø Ö Ú ¹ÚÐ ¸ ½ ½¾¼ ¼ Ã £ÎÝÓ Ò ØÝ £ ÃÐ Ó Ã ¼ ÚÐÝ Ú £ Ð Ø ×â ×Ò  Ø ÝÓ Òé ØÝ¸ ¹Ñ ¢Ø ¸ º Ö Ô Ö Ñ Ò
Ú ×Ò Ñ×ÅÑØÑ
1 » Ý ] » Ý ¾½ ¼¼ ] ¸ M1, Ò R1 ] B3 , ¿ ¿ V1 ] ( ¸ ) supl B2, M1, M2 ( ) marg O, marked and ¾½ ¼¼ added in the margin R3, ¾½ ¼¼ V5 Ú ¸ ] Ú ¾½ ¼¼ ¸ V2 2 ¸] M1R1V5, Ý V1 ÑÝ ¸ ] ÑÝ M2R1V5, ÑÝ V1V2 éÚ Ú ¦Ø ] éÚ ¸ ¹Ý ÖÚ V2 3 ²Ý ×¸ ] ²Ý × ( ¸ ) subl M2 Ô Ö ] ÔÖ M1 3–4 Ø £¸ ¹Ý ´¹Ì £ ¡ Ð¸ ] [ ´ ] ¹Ý [ ] [ ´ ] ¹Ì 3 Ø £¸ ] z B2, Ø £ M2R1V5, Ø £ ( ¸ ) supl V1 4 ´¹Ì ¡ Ð¸ V2 ¡ Ð¸ ] ´¹Ì ¹È ¡ Ð M1M2, ´¹Ì ¡ Ð [ x ] V1 Î ¹» ] ¹È Î ¹» M2, ( ¹È Î ¹» ) marg V1, ¹È Î¸ ¹» V2 Ó] marked and the annotation Ð ¸ ¾½ ¼¼ â » Ý ÑØÓ ²Ý ×¸ Ø x Ô Ö Ç ¼ º wwx added in the margin V2 â Ó ] ( â ) marg ( â w ) marg B2 Ú £ O, Ú Ø V5 ¢ £] Ú ¢Ø Verse 74 numbered 73 B3R3, numbered 71 V2 on f. 40v V1 5Ý B3R3 ù] ùÑùÐ ] illegible due to copying process B2 ÑùÐ ] âÝ × V5 6 Ø ] × [ x ] Ø with × marked and added in the margin V1 Ö ] Ö M1, corrected from Ö to ØÓ Ú ¹ÚÐ ¸ ] Ú ¹ÚÐ R1, Ú x Ð ¸ V5 ½ ½¾¼ ¼ ¼¼¼ ] om. B2OR1V1V5, Ö V1, Ö V5 ½ ½¾¼ ¼ ¿¼¼¼ B3R3, ½ ¼¾¼ ¼ ¼¼¼ M1M2 7Ã £Î ] Ã £Î [ x ] B2 Ý ÃÐ ] £ ] Ý ß¸ M1M2 ÑØ V2 8 ¼ ] om. B2OR1V1V5, ÚÐÝ ¼ B3R3V2 Ð ] x ( Ð ) supl V1 Verse 75 numbered 74 B3R3, numbered 70 V1, numbered 72 V2 on f. 41r V1 9 Ø ] ( ) marg Ø V1 ×â ] [ ] ×â B2 Ø ] Ø V1, Ò V5 9–12 Ø — ×ÅÑØÑ ] top of each aks 10 ÝÓ Ò ] ÝÓ Ò¸ M1M2 . ara cut oﬀ in copying process so readings uncertain O é ¹Ñ 12 ×ÅÑØÑ ] ×ÑØ ØÝ¸ ] ¢ ØÝ¸ B2OR1, é ØÝ ( ¸ ) supl V1 ¢ Ø ¸ ] ¹Ñ ¢ Ø ( ¸ ) supl B3, ¹Ñ ¢ Ø R3 R1V1, ÒÑØ V5 Verse 73 numbered 72 B3R3, numbered 70 V2 on f. 40r V1 279
f. 11v M1
5
¼¼¼ º
f. 8v O 10 f. 8r B2
ÔÇÖ ß¸  ×Ñ Ø¸ Ô ¢ ÌÚ ×¹Ì ÒÑ Ò ØÝ¸ ÔÖÑ Ì Ø¹Ø ¸ º ËÔ ¦ØÖ £Ø Ð ×Å Ø Ð Ó ¹»Ó Ø ¸ × £ Ø²Ý ¸ Ñ Ø ¸ Ô ÖÚ Ú ÚÖ ÎÔ ÞÕ¹Ý ÚÔ ¸ ×£ ÝÓ Ú £ ÚèÑÝÑ Ñ Ò ØÑ º ×Ý ÚØÓ Ð Ø £ ÒØ ¦Ø ÝØ é ÖÝ Ñ £ Ö Ø Ú ØÓ Ì ¸ Ò Ý ´Ô ÚÐÝ × × Ö Ö Ñ £  Þ¸ Ð ÔÖ ÒÝ Ö Ö¸ º ¡ ÑÓ  Ñ ¡ Ð Ö Ö ÐÝ
Ö Ô £ ¹ ÖÓ ¡ Ô ©ÔÈÐ Ò £¦ Ã
Ö Ò Ö Ò ÝÓ Ø Ð ùÑ £Ò Ô £ ¹Ø £ ×Ú ¡ Ø Ñ Ø ¹Ú ¦Ø Ñ
Verse 76 numbered 75 B3R3, numbered 73 V2 on f. 41r V1 1 ÔÇÖ ] ×Ñ top of each aks Ø ¸ ] ×Ñ Ø . ara cut oﬀ in copying process so readings uncertain O M1M2OR1V1V2 Ô 2 Ø¹Ø ¸ ] Ø¹Ì ¸ M1, Ø ¹Ø ¸ V1 3 ËÔ ¦ØÖ £ ] marked but ¢ ÌÚ ] Ï Ú O marginalia mostly illegible B2, ËÔ ØÖ ß¸ R3, z ØÖ £ V5 Ø 3–4 Ð Ó ¹ ] (Õ ) marg V2 3 Ó ] »Ó Ø ¸ ] marked and the annotation ÝÓ Ø¸ ¹»Ó Ø ¸ added in the margin by s B3 Ó V5 4× Ø²Ý ¸ ] Ø²Ý B3M1M2R3 Ñ Ø ¸ Ô Ö] × Ñ Ø ¸ ÔÖ M2, × Ñ Ø ( ¸ Ô ) marg Ö V1 Verse 77 numbering illegible B2, numbered 76 B3R3, not numbered R1, numbered 74 V2 on f. 41v V1 5Ô ÚÔ ×£ ] ×£ R3 ÞÕ¹Ý ] Ô ¡ Õ¹Ý O ¸ ] corrected from Ú Ô ¸ O ¾ 6 ÝÓ ] Ý M1M2 Ñ ] corrected from Ñ to Ñ O Ñ 7×Ý Ò] Ñ Ò M2 Ý] × Ý Ý R1 Ð Ø £ ] corrected from Ð£Ø £ to Ð Ø £ O ÒØ ¦Ø ] ÒØ Ø M1 8 Ö Ý ] Ú Ö [ ÐÓÒ £Á ] Ý V1 Ú ØÓ ] Ú ´Ý £ M1 Ì ¸ ] Ì M2 Verse 78 numbered 79 B2, numbered 77 B3R3, × Ö ] × [ x ] Ö B2 Ñ £Þ¸ ] Ñ £Þ numbered 75 V2 on f. 42r V1 9 Ý ´Ô ] Ý ´Ô V5 B3 R3 Ð ] Ð [ ¸ ] O, Ð R1 ÔÖ ] ÔÔÖ R3 10 ¡ ÑÓ ] ¡ ÅÑ £ M1, ¡ Ñ £ M2, ÑÓ V1 Ö Ö ÐÝ
Ö ] Ö Ö ÐÝ
Ö ( ¸? ) supl B2, ÖÓÚ £Ö ÐÝ
Ö B3R3, ÖÓ Ö Ì
Ö ¸ M1, ÖÓ    Ì
Ö M2, Ö ÖÐÝ
Ö ¸ OR1, Ö ÚÖ ÐÝ
Ö V1, Ö [ x ] Ö ÐÝ
Ö ¸ V2, ÖÓ ÚÖ ÐÝ
Ö ¸ V5 Ò Ý] ?Ò Ý B Ö ] Ö M , Ö M 11 Ô ] unclear in the copy V £¦ ] £ M ¡ 2 1 2 5 1M2, ß R3 Ã
Ö ] Ã
Ö [ xx ] B3, ÃÖ
Ö V5 ÒÖ Ò £] Ò Ö Ò ß B3 , Ò Ö Ø £ M1M2V5, Ò Ö Ò ß R3 ¹ ÖÓ ] ¹ Ö B2M1M2V1V2, ¹ Ö ¸ O, ¹ Ö V5 12 ÝÓ Ø Ð ù ] ÝÓ Ø Ð M1V5 Ñ £Ò ] ÑÒ £Ò V5 Ô ¡ Ø Ñ Ø] Ô ¡ ØÑ ¸ B3R3, Ô ¡ Ø Ñ R1 280
f. 12r V2
5
p. 16 R1 10 f. 8r B3

´Ì é Ñ Ò Ì ´Ñ £Ò Ó £ Ø¦» £ ÒÖ £Ò ÖÅÝ £º ¦Ì Ö Ö ¡ Ø £ ¡Ø £ ÓÐ Ý Ý £ ÐÓ ×¹Ì ÒÞ
f. 9r O
Verse 79 numbered 80 B2, numbered 78 B3R3, not numbered V2 on f. 43r V1 1 ´Ì ] Ì M2 éÑ ] éÑ Ò O 1–3 Ò — ¡ Ø £ ] om. M1 2–3 Ó £ – Ø £ ] om. M 2 Ó £ ] Ó [ Ñ ] £ O Ø¦» £ ] corrected from Ø £ » £ to Ø » £ O 3 Ö Ö] ¡ 2 Ö Ö V1 Ø £ ] om. V 4 ÓÐ Ý Ý £ ] Ó Ý Ý £ R × ¹Ì ] zz B ÒÞ ] ¡ 5 3 2 ÒÞ M1M2 Colophon on ﬀ. 43r–43v V1 Ø é Ñ Ò Ì ´Ñ ÒÖ ÚÖ then about 13 illegible aks Ö¸ B2, Ø é Ñ Ò Ì ´Ñ Ò ( Ö ÚÖ Ø £ ) marg,s × Ø× Ö £ . ara s ÓÐ Ý Ý £ ÚÒ Ó Ú Ò Ò Ñ ÌÑ Ö¸ B3, Ø × Ø× £ Ö ÓÐ Ý Ý £ ÚÒ Ó Ö¸ M , Ø ×´ Ø× £ Ö 1 ÓÐ Ý Ý £ ÚÒ Ó Ö¸ M2, Ø é Ñ Ò Ì ´Ñ ÒÖ ÚÖ Ø £ × Ø× £ Ö ÚÒ Ó Ö¸ O, Ø × Ö × Ø £ ÚÒ Ó ¸ R , Ø é ( Ñ ) Ò Ì ´Ñ ÒÖ ÚÖ Ø £ then about 30 erased aks ara s . 1 marg,s Ö ÓÐ Ý Ý £ ÚÒ Ó Ú Ò Ò Ñ ÌÑ Ö¸  (f. 6v R3) then about 4 erased aks £ . ara s × Ø× R3, Ø é Ñ´× Ð × ØÚ ×Ò Ú Ö Ø ßÚ ÒÖ ÌØ × Ø× £ Ö ÖØÖÔÖ ¹»Ö ¹Ý ÖÚ ×Ò ©Ý × £  (f. 43v V1) ÒÖ ßÚ × £ Ø Ø Ñ Ç ÓÐ Ý Ý £ ÚÒ Ó×¹ Ò Ú ¡ Õß ¡ Õ ¡Ò Ô Ø Ø Ñ ÚÖ Ø Ø é Ñ´× Ð × Ø £ Ú ×Ò Ú Ö Ø Ì Ò²Ý Ú Ò Ò Ñ ÌÑ Ö¸ V1,  (f. 12v)Ö Ñ´ Ö × » £ Ö × Ø £ × Ö ÓÐ Ý Ý £ ÚÒ Ó ×¹Ì ÌÒ Ò Ñ ÌÑ Ö¸ V2, Ø é Ñ´× Ð × Ø £ £ Ú ×Ò Ú Ö Ø Ö ÓÐ Ý Ý £ ÚÒ Ó ¹Ì £ ÌÒ Ò Ñ ÌÑ Ö¸ V5 Ö Ñ´ Ö × Ø»Ó ?Ö × Ø× £ 281
Ì
Ø Ý Ý £ ÑÝÑ
Ö¸
ý Øù× ß ÐÅ Ó Ö Ø ùÔ Ú Ò Úè Ö× ¡ Ö × ¡ ÖÑ Ò Ð Å ÖÑ º ¹Ú ¦ØÚ ¦Ø Ö Ð Ò Ö ÓÎ ÒÞ × ¦ Ö Ú Ö ÓÔÑÚ Ò Ô Ø Ú¦£ ÔÖ ÖÑ ½ ÌÝ ßÐ ½ ÑØ ßÑ Ò ß¸ Ú Ò £ ÑÒÚ¹Ø Ø ½ º ßæ Ø ß¢ Ø×Ñ ×Ñ ½ ¾ ¼¼¼ × ¦ Ý Ø ¹»×ÑÝ £Õ ÒÑ ¾ × Ý Ý £ ¿¾¼¼¼¼ ÚÕ ß Ø ½¼¼¼¼ Ò Ø ¦ØÚ Ý ÑÌ Ø Ö ¸ ¢ Ø Ý¸ ¹Ý ¸ º Ý £¦ ¸ º ¿º ¾º ½ Ô Ý Ð ¢Ì Ý Ñ ×Ñ ¸ ¿¾¼¼¼ ×Ñ ¹Ø ×ÇÖ ¸
f. 32r V2 5
10
¿
f. 12v V5
chapter opens é ÚÖÑ Ý £ ÒÒ Ý ÒÑ¸ B4R3, é ÚÖ Ñ Ý Ø B5, é ÚÖ Ñ ¡Ø ¡ Ø ¡ Ý Ø é Ö Ú Ö Þ Ö ÑÐ £ ÝÓ ÒÑ¸ I, é £ Ý ÒÑ¸ M1V4, é Ñ ÔØÝ £ ÒÑ¸ M2, é £ Ý ÒÑ¸ é ×Ö¹Ú´Ý ß ÒÑ¸ é Ð Ñ Ò Ì× £ R1, é ÚÖ Ñ £ ÒÑ¸ V2, ¢ × Ý ÒÑ¸ M3, é ¢ © Ý ÒÑ¸ Ö × Ø Ù Ö ÐÀÝØ ¡ Ý é ÝÚÖ Ñ Verse 1 2 × ÐÅ Ó Ö ] Ð [ ] Ó Ö V2 ¡ Ý Ø V3 Ø ù] × Ø B5M3V4 3 Ö ] Ö R3 4 ¹Ú ¦Ø ] ¹Ú x B5 ¹Ú Ø M2 Ú ¦Ø ] Ú Ø M3 ÓÎ Ò ] ÓÎ Ö B4R3, Î Ò M2, ÓÎ [ ] Ò V5 5 Ú Ò ] Ú [ x x ] Ò B5 Ô Ø] Ô Ø R1 Verse 2 6Ý ß¸ ] Ý M2 ½ ] om. B5M1M3R1V3V4 7 ¹Ø B5 ½ ] om. B5M1M3V2V3V4 Ø ] ¹Ø x Ø x ½ ½ ¾ ¼¼¼ ] om. B4M3V2V3V4V5, placed before ¢ Ø in p¯ ada c R1 8 ¢ Ø×Ñ ×Ñ ] ¢ Ø×Ñ ×Ñ R1 9 × ] × V4 Verse 3 not numbered R1 10 Ý ½¼¼¼¼ ] Ø] Ý Ø V3 Ò Ø ¦Ø ] ( Ò Ø Ø ) marg,s V5 ¿¾¼¼¼¼ ] om. B5IM3V3V2, ¿¾ placed om. B4B5IV3V5 ß in p¯ ada a M1M2 ¿¾¼¼¼ ÚÕ ß ] Ú x x ¿¾¼¼¼¼ V5 11 Ý after ÚÕ ÑÌ ] Ý ÑÝ R3, Ý ÑÌ V3 12 Ý Ý £¦ ¸ º ¿º ¾º ½ Ô ¢ Ø Ý¸ ] ¢ Ø Ý M2M3R1 ]Ý corrected to Ý V4 Ð ¢Ì ] Ý £ ¸ º ¿º ¾º ½ Ô B4 , Ý £ ¸ Ô B5, Ý £ Ú Ò IV2, Ý £ ¸ º ¿º ¾º ½ Ô Ð ¢Ì Ð ¢Ì Ð Ð ¢Ì ¸ ¾ ½ M1, Ý £ ¸ º ¿º ¾º ½ Ô £ ¸ Ô ß ¸ ¢ Ø ¸ ( ¢ Ø marked by scribe, Ð ¢ Ì ¸ M2, Ý Ð ¢ Ì M3, Ý Ð who adds a line in the margin (broken due to ﬂaw in photocopying) beginning with R1, £ ¸ Ô V3, ÝÑÐ £ ¸ ½½ ¿º ¾ ½ ½ Ô V4, Ý £ º ¿º ¾º ½º ¸ Ô V5 (Ý ) marg Ð ¢Ì ¢Ì Ð ¢Ì 13 Ñ ×Ñ ¸ ] Ñ ×Ñ ¸ V5 ¿¾¼¼¼ ] om. B4B5IM3R1R3V2V3V4V5 after the verse ¼¼¼º ¿¾¼¼¼ number M1 and M2 inserts ½ ¾ ¼¼¼º ½¾ ¼¼¼º 282
Ý Ø ¸ ÔØ Ñ Ò £ ÑÒÚ¸ Õ ¹Ñ ¦¹Ý ¸ × Ú Ø ¾ Ý ÒÝ »¿Ô Ò¦
¦ Ò ¸ ¿½ ÐÚ´×Ö æ ×É ÐÚ Ò Ú £ ÝØ¸ Ö ¸ ¼¼ ÃÖ× » ¿ ¼ Ò × ¢ Ò Ú£ Ò Ø £ Ã Ý Ø ¸ º ¹Ý £ ÒÚ £Õ ¹Ø Ô Ò¦£¦ Ú¸ ½ ¿½ Ñ £× Ã ×ÇÖÚÕ Ñ £
Ö  Ã × Ã ÚÕ Ø Ú Ó Ø¸ º Ù Ô Ø× Ø ¸ Ý Ý Ö Ø £ ØÆ ¸
Verse 4 numbering corrected from 3 to 4 V2
¸º
5 p. 46a R1, f. 2r V4
¸
f. 2r B4 10
1 Ý Ø ¸ ] Ý Ø V5
Ñ
Ò £ ] Ñ [x] Ò £
V2 ] om. B5IM3R1V2V3V4V5 Õ M2 2 ¦¹Ý ¾ ] om. IM3R1V2V3V4V5 ¸ ] ¦¹Ý¸ V4 Ý ¿ ] om. B4B5IM1M2M3R1V2V4V5 3 Ò¦ ]Ò B5 Ò ¸ ] Ò V3 Ò] Ý x x B5 ¿½ ] om. B5M3R1V3 Ú´×Ö æ ] Ú´×Ö æ £ ( Ø ) marg,s R3 Ú ( ´ ) a ×Ö æ V5 4 ×É Ð ] × Ð [ ] ¾ ½ ] B5 corrected from £ to V5 Ú £] Ú £¸ I ÑÚ £ V4 Ý Ø ¸ ] ÝØ ¸ M1 B5 Verse 5 before verse begins [ ¹Ý £ ÒÚ ] V3 5 ¼¼ ] om. B4B5IM3R3V2V3V4 ¹Ø ¼¼ Ö ¸ R1 Ö× » ] Ö× ¹» V4 ¿ ¼ ] om. V3V5 Ò ] Ò ¸ B5V5 6 Ò ] Ò B5, Ò M3, [ x ]( ) marg,s Ò V5 Ý Ø ¸ ] Ý Ø¸ V4 7 ¹Ý £ ] ¹Ý £ B5 ¹Ø ¸¹Ø ] ¾ ½ M3 £Õ 8 Ò¦£¦ Ú¸ ] Ò£ [ x ] Ú¸ B5, £ Ò Ú¸ M2, Òß Ú¸ R1, Ò£ Ú V5 ] £Õ M1M2 ½ ¿½ ] om. R1 Ñ £] Ñ £ B5, Ñ £ M2 × ] x B5 , × M1M2 Ã Ã Ã Verse 6 not numbered V3 9 Ö ] Ö ¸ R1 10 Ø ] Ø V4 Ú Ó Ø ¸] Ú ÝÓ Ø ¸ B5V3V5, Ú Ú Ø ¸ M1M2, Ú Ó Ø M3 after Ú Ó Ø ¸ p¯ ada s ab repeated but crossed out I 11 × Ø ¸ ] × Ø B5M3 × [ x ] Ø ¸ I, ×Ø ¸ V4 Ý ] Ý V3 Ö ] Ö B5, Ö M3 Ø Æ ¸ ] Ø [ x ]( Æ ) marg ¸ B5, ² ¸ 12 Ý ] ( Ý ) marg I M3 283
Ú£ Ò Ç Ý Ô´×Ñ¹Ø ¸ ÑÒ Ú ¡ ´Ú ¢ ¸ º Ø ÖØ Ú £ Ú  ÖÓ Ò¹Ø £ ì ¦ ÑØ â  Ñ
f. 2r V3 f. 2r I
(a)
f. 1v R3
ì Ò Ö Ý Ñ Ý É ÇÒ Ý ÑÐ Ñ ²Ý Ý Ú × × Ñ Ò¸ × ¡ ÝÓ ÑÝ Ý ÝØ  º ´Ý ÑÝ ÐØ ¹» Ú Ý ¦ÝÌ Ý´ Ú ¦Ø ÒÖ Ò ÒÚ Ø Ø â Ò ¡ ¦Ý æÖÑ Ñ £ ÑÒ Ò Ø ß¸ £ ¢ ÝØ £ ¦ØÖÑ º Ø Ø£Ú ×× Ý Ò Ý ×Ú Ñ¦ÝÌ
5 f. 2r B5
(b)
10
(c)
Verse 7 1 Ò Ç ] Ò [ x ] Ç R1 Ý 2 ¡ ´Ú ] ¡ Ø M3 ¸] M1M2 ] Ý V2 ÑÒ ] ÑÒ B5M1M2 ÑÒ¸ R1 ÑÒ £ V5 3 Ø ÖØ ] Ø Ö [ x ] Ø V2 Ø ÖØ V3 Ú £ ]Ú B5 4 ÑØ â ] ÑØ M3 ÑØ â R1 Verse 8 5 ] Ñ M3 É ÇÒ Ý ÑÐ ] É ÇÒ Ý ÃÐ IV2, É ÇÒ ÑÐ M2, É ÇÒ Ý ÑÐ M3 6 Ú× ] Ú R1V5, Ú × [ ]( ) supl R3, Ú × ¡ [ ] V4 ÑÝ Ý ] ÑÔ Ý R1 ÝØ ] Ý x B5 ÖØ M3 7 ´Ý ÑÝ Ð ] ´Ý Ñ´× Ã Ð R1 , ´Ý ÑÝ Ð [ x ] V3 Ø ] Ø Ñ B4 B5 Ú Ý ¦ÝÌ ] Ú ¦ÝÌ B4, Ú ( Ý ) supl ¦ÝÌ B5 ÒÚ Ø ] ÒÚ Ø M1 Ø â Ò ] Ø â [ x x ]( Ò ) marg B5 8 ÒÖ ] ÒÖ V4 ¡ ¦Ý æÖÑ ] ¡ ¦Ý ¹ÌÖ M1, ¡ ¦Ý æÖ R3 Verse 9 numbered 10 V3 9 Ñ ÑÒ Ò] Ñ Ò¸ M1M2 ß¸ ] ÑÒ ß M1R1 10 Ø £ ¦ØÖÑ ] Ø £ ÒÖ¸ R1, Ø £Ø [ x ]( Ö ) marg,s V5 11 ×× Ý ] ×× Ý R1, ×× Ý V4 12 Ý ] Ý [ ¸ ] B5 (a). This verse is quoted in Mun¯ ı´ svara’s Siddh¯ antas¯ arvabhauma without any variants (citation given in the commentary). (b). This verse is quoted in both Mun¯ ı´ svara’s Siddh¯ antas¯ arvabhauma and Kamal¯ akara’s Siddh¯ antatattvaviveka . In the former the verse ada d is noted by is as given above (although a variant reading giving ¢ Ñ for æÖÑ in p¯ the editor), but in the latter, in which no attribution is found, we ﬁnd Ú for Ú × in p¯ ada b, and p¯ ada d reads Ý´ Ú ¦Ø ÒÖ Ñ ¹Ø £ Ó ¡ ¦Ý ¢ Ñ. See the commentary for more Ø ×â information and citations. (c). This verse is quoted in Mun¯ ı´ svara’s Siddh¯ antas¯ arva bhauma without any variants (see commentary for citations). 284
ÝÌ Ú £ Ó Ñ¦» £Õ Ò Ú Ý ¢ ÝØ £ Ø º Ø´Ô ÖæÖ Ý Ý ×Ú Ñ¦ÝÌ ½¼ Ø ù ¢ ØÑ¹Ñ Ú  Ò Ñ Ò×ÅÑØÑ º £ ¢ ×Ñ  Ú ×Ò Ú ÑÒ ¡Ý Ñ ¸Ô Ö ½½ Ö×× Ö »Ò æÖ ¡ ½ ¿¿¿ Ô Ö ÑØ Ý Ñ× ¸ º £ ÝÑ Ö ¢ Ø ÖÃ £Õ ¢ ¾ ¼ ¾¾ ¾ ×ÑÝ ÚÑ× Ý Á ÖØ¸ ½¾
f. 33r V2
5 p. 46b R1 f. 2v V4
10
Verse 10 not numbered V3 2 ¢ ÝØ £ ] ¢ Ý[Ø £ØÖ ] Ø £ V2 3–4 Ý ] ¥ÝÒ B4B5, Ý Ò IM3 ¢ ´Ú Ò glossed as Ý in margin by a V5 Verse 11 5 ¢ ØÑ¹Ñ ] ¢ Ø ¹Ñ M2 6 Ú Ò] Ú ( ) marg Ò B4, Ú Ò IM3V2, Ú [ ] Ò R3 ×ÅÑØÑ ] ×ÑØ B4, × Ñ B5 7 ¢ ×Ñ ] ¢ ×Ñ V4 7–8 Ú £ Ñ] Ú £ ( ) supl Ñ B4, Ú £ Ñ B5 Verse 12 9 »] V4 Ò æÖ ] ÒæÖ M3 ½ ¿¿¿ ] placed after Ñ × ¸ in p¯ ada b IV2 placed after Ô Ö ÑØ in p¯ ada b M1M2 om. M3V3 ½ ( ¿ ) supl,s ¿¿ V5 10 ] [ x ]( ) marg,s V5 Ñ × ¸ ] Ñ × ¸ M2 ada d IM1M2V2, om. M3V3 placed between ×Ñ and Ý 11 ¾ ¼ ¾¾ ¾ ] placed after Á ÖØ¸ in p¯ V4 285
ØÖ ¦ Ñ×Ó ¦ØÖ Ú Ø Ø â  Ñ ××Ñ Ý¸ º Ö×× Ö ÑÖ ×¦ £Õ ¸ ¿ ¿¿¿¿ Ô Ö ÑØ¸ × Ý £ Ñ Ò×ÅÑØ¸ ½¿ Ð ¦ ¦ Ô ¡ Ø ¸ Ô Ö Ô ½ ¾¼¼¼¼¼ Ý £ ¹Ý Ú× ¸ ÃÖ Ó¸ º Ó ÒÇ ¸ Ã  Ô ¡ ÖÑ Ò ¢ Ô ½ ¼¿¼¼¼¼ ¼ Ñ ¸  ½
f. 2v B4
5
f. 2v I
f. 2v B5 f. 33v V2
å ´Ý Ã £Î Ó Ý¸ ½ ½ ¾ ¹Ý Ý £ ¡ Ò Ò º Ø Ö Ú Ö ¦Ø ÓÖ Ö Ñ  â ââ Ô  Ô£¦ ½ ¾¾¿ ¾ ×  ö ¸ ½
Verse 13 not numbered M3 1 Ñ×Ó ] ×ÑÓ V4 ¦ØÖ ] Ò ØÖ M1 2 Øâ ] Ø â B5 ÝÓ Ú V5 Ñ ××Ñ 3 £Õ Ý¸ ] Ñ × [ x ] × ( Ñ ) marg Ý¸ V3 Ñ × [ ] ×Ñ Ý¸ V4 ¸] £Õ ( ¸ ) B £Õ B £Õ ¸ M ¿ ¿¿¿¿ ] placed after ×Ñ Ý¸ in p¯ a da b M M , marg 4 5 3 1 2 om. ada c R3, ¿ ¿¿¿ V4 4 Ô Ö ÑØ¸ ] Ô Ö ÑØ M1M2 M3R1V3, placed between £Õ and ¸ in p¯ ×ÅÑØ¸ ] ×ÑØ M1M2 Verse 14 not numbered V2 5 Ø ¸ ] Ø ( ¸ ) supl V5 Ô ] Ô M1 Ö ] Ö I Ô ] Ô [ ]
M2, om. R1 6½ ¾¼¼¼¼¼ ] placed after Ý ada £ in p¯ ada b I, om. M3R1V3, placed after Ú× ¸ in p¯ ada b b B4B5M1M2R3, placed after ÃÖ Ó¸ in p¯ V2, ½ ½ ¾¼¼¼¼¼ corrected to ½ ¾¼¼¼¼¼ V4 Ú× ¸ ] Ú× B4B5R3 7 ÒÇ ¸ ] ÒÇ ¸ M1M2 Ô Ô 8 Ò ½ ¼¿¼¼¼¼ ¼ ] placed between Ò ada d ¡ ] ¡ M3 ¢Ô] Ò ¢ Õ R1 ¢ and Ô in p¯ B4B5R3, placed after verse number I ½ ¼¿¼¼¼ ¼ after verse number M1M2, om. M3V3, placed ada d V2V5 Ñ ¸] Ñ M1M2, Ñ ¸ M3V4, Ñ [ ] ¸ V2V5 ½ ] after Ñ ¸ in p¯ êÓ ½ V5 Verse 15 misnumbered 14 V5 9–10 ] B4B5R3, æ R1, ßÐ V5 10 ½ ½ ¾ ] placed after Ý ada b B4B5R3, placed after ¡ Ò Ò £ in p¯ in p¯ ada b IV2V5, ½ ½ ¾ M1, om. M3V3 Ý £ ] Ý 11 Ø Ö ] [ x ] Ø Ö I M1M2R3 ¦Ø ] Ø I 12 Ö Ñ ] Ö Ñ M3, Ö Ñ V2 â â ] â R1 â Ô] â Ô I ½ ¾¾¿ ¾ ] placed after ×ö ¸ in p¯ ada d B4B5IM1M2R3V2V4, om. M3V3, ½ ¾¾¿ ¾ placed after ×ö ¸ in p¯ ada d R1, ½ ¾¾¿ [ ¿ ] ¾ placed after ×ö ¸ in p¯ ada d V5 ×ö ¸ ] ×ÀÝ ( ¸ ) supl V5 ½ ] êÓ ½ V5 286
10
f. 2v V3, f. 2r M2, f. 2r R3 & f. 13r V5
Ú ÒÚ ×Ö ¦ Ò ¦ØÖ £ ÚÑ Ò Ò Ú ¦Ø Ú ¸ × ÖÚÒ ÖÚ ×Ö× Ý ¦ØÖ×Ñ  Ñ  × Ú ×Ö ¸ Ú Ø Ú Ø Ã £ Ö ¡ × ØÝ Ò Ø × Ñ× ÅÑ Ø Ò× Ý¸ º Ò Ú ×Ò Ý ¹Ú Ý ßÚ ×
º ½
f. 3r V4, p. 47 R1
5
½
× ×ÇÅÝ ×ØÔÝ Ý Ý ¡Ý £ Ô ¡ Ô ¡ ÃÃ ¦Ø× Ö ¸  ¿¾¼¼¼¼ º ÕÎ×  £ÕÚ¸ ¿¿¿ Ö » Ö Ý ØÖ Ñ ß¸ ¹Ñ ¢Ø ¸ ½ 
10 f. 12r M3 f. 3ar B5 f. 34r V2
Verse 16 1 ¦ ] M1M2V3V4 2 ÚÑ Ò Ò ] Ú Ò Ò V4 4 Ñ × Ú ×Ö ¸ ] Ñ ××Ö Ö ¸ M2, Ñ × Ú ×Ö¸ M3 Verse 17 5 Ú Ø ] Ú Ø R1 [ x ] Ú [ x ] Ø V2 Ñ ] Ñ Ñ M1M2 6 Ú Ø ] Ú Ò M3 Ã £ Ö ¡ Ò ] Ã £ Ö ( ¡ ) marg Ò M1, Ã £ Ö ¡ Ò M3, ½ ½ ½ ½ (Ã £ Ö ) marg ¡ 7 × M3, × V3V4 Ú ×Ò ] Ò [ x ] V3 ØÝ Ò ] × ØÌ Þ ØÝ Ò Ú ×ÖÒ R1 8× Ý ] × [ x ] Ý M ¹Ú Ý ß Ú × ] ¹Ú ÝÓÉÝØ £ I, × Ý ß Ú × M , × Ý ß Ú × M2, 3 1 three last syllables Ý ßÚ × marked and glossed in margin as ÝÓÉÝØ £ by s V5 Verse 18 ] × Ý not numbered V3 numbered 19 V4 9 × ¡Ý ¡ Ý V4 £ ] [ Ú? £? ] Ý £ V3 10 ¿¾¼¼¼¼ ] om. M3V3 11 ¿¿¿ ] ¿¿ M2, om. M3V3 second to last digit corrected from to ¿ V2 12 ØÖ Ñ ] Ø Ñ V4 287
¦Ø ¦ØÖ×Ö¦ ¢ ÝÑ ¾¾ ¿¾ ÑùÐ¹Ý Ý Ñ ÐÓ ¦Ñ Ø¸  º Ã ùÃ Ó ¡ ½ ¿ ¼ ¼ ÑÝÓ ÖÇ £Ý ÐØ Ý ¸ ½ ùÔÝ Ô ¡ ÐÓ ÒÝÑ Æ Õ  ¿ ¾¾¼ ©ÔØ £ × ÅÑ ØÑ Ø ´Ú »ÝÑ ¢ ÃÔÚ Ø ¼¾¾¿ Ú Ý £ ÑØ ¸ ¾¼
f. 3r B4
5
f. 2r M1
not numbered V3 1 ¦Ø ¦Ø ] Ø Ø R1 Ö× ] corrected from Ö× to Ö× V4 ¾¾ ¿¾ ¾¾ ¿¾ ] om. M3V3, Ö ¢ ÝÑ R1, ¾¾ ¿¾ V4, ¾¾ ¿ [ x ] ¾ V5 2 Ñ ÐÓ ¦Ñ Ø¸ ] Ñ ÐÓ ¦ÑØÓ¸ M1, Ñ ÐÓ ¦ÑØ ¸ M2, Ñ [ ] ÐÓ ¦Ñ Ø¸ V2 3 Ã ùÃ ] Ã Ã B4B5M2, Ã M3, Ã [ ] Ã V2 ½ ¿ ¼ ¼ ½ ¿ ¼ ¼ ] placed after ÑÝÓ in p¯ ada c B4B5IM1M2R3V4, om. M3V3, Ã Ó R1, placed after ÔÝ Ý ¸ in p¯ ada d V2, ½ ¿ [ x ] ¼ ¼ placed after ÑÝÓ in p¯ ada c V5 4 ÖÇ £Ý Ð ] ÖÓ £ÝÚÐ M1M2, ÖÇ ÓÝ Ð V4, ÖÇ £Ý [ x ]( Ð ) marg,s V5 ÔÝ Ý ¸ ] corrected from ÔÝ Ý¸ to ÔÝ Ý ¸ M1, ÔÝ Ý R1 Verse 20 not numbered V4 5 ÐÓ ÒÝÑ Æ ] ÐÓ ÒÝÑ [ x ]( ² ) marg,s B4, ÐÓ ÒÝÑ R3, ÐÓ ¢ Æ V2, ÐÓ Ò ¢ ² V4 ¿ ¾¾¼ ] om. M3V3 ¿ ¿¾¼ V4 6 ©ÔØ £] ©ÔØ £ M2, ©Ô Ø M3, ©ÔØ £ R1 ] [x] I, V4 Ñ Ø ] Ñ Ø ¾¼ (additional, wrongly placed verse number) V3 7 ´Ú ] [ x ]( ) marg,s ´Ú B4, ¦×´Ú R3, x ´Ú ﬁrst syllable glossed as in margin by a V5 ÔÚ Ø ] ÔÚ Ø ¸ R1 ¼¾¾¿ ] om. ¢ Ã ] ¢ ÖÃ M1 8 Ú ] ÚÓ I, Ú M2, M3V3, see p¯ ada d R1, ¼¾¾¿ ( ) supl V5 ¼¾¾¿ Ú ¸ R1, Ú [ ] V4, the last syllable written × but marked by scribe V5 Ý £ ÑØ ¸ ] Ý £ ÑØ ( ¸ ) B , Ý Ñ £ Ø ¸ M , Ý £ ÑØ R V supl 4 2 3 5 Verse 19 288
ÑØù ùÔ ùÚ ££¦ ½ ×ö ÔØù × ¡ Ø¹Ý Ñ Ñ º »Ã è Ò Æ Ý ¾¼¿ æ Ñ Ò Ú ÓÑ ¦ Ø  ¾½ ù¹Ý Ô ¡Ú ¾¿¾¾¿ ÚÐÓÑ ¸ ù Ò ¢ ¦Ø ¹Ñ Ý ¸  × ß £Ý £¦ Ô Ø £º ¢ Ø ¸ ÔÝ ×  ½¼¼¼ Ø ¸ ËÔ Ø Ú £Ý ¹Ø Ú Ì × ËÔ £ ¾¾ ¡ ÝÓ ßÐÑùÐ ¸ Ú £ ¡ ¦Ý  ÝÑÐ Ò Õ ¿ Ô ÔÚ Ö ¿  ÌÓ ¾¼ Ñ ¸º ¢ ¡ ÑØ ¸ ÃÃ ¸ ¼¼  ¿ ÒÚ ÒÝ¸ ¿ ¾¿
f. 3v V4
5 f. 3av B5 p. 48 R1
f. 34v V2 10 f. 3r V3 f. 2v R3
Verse 21 numbered 20 R1 1 ÑØù ù ] ÑØ M3, Ñ [ ] Ø V4, ÑØ [ ] V5 Ô ù] Ô V4 ½ ] placed after ×ö in p¯ ada a IM1M2V4V5, om. M3R1V2V3 2 ÔØù × ¡ Ø¹ Ý ] ÔØ × 3 »Ã è ] »Ã [ ] è M2, »Ã [ ] è M3 ¡ Ø¹Ý I, ÔØ × ¡ Ø¹Ý R1, ÔØ [ ¹Ý ] × ¡ Ø¹Ý V2 Ò Æ Ý ] Ò ( ) supl Æ Ý B4, Ò Æ ¥Ý R1, Ò Æ Ý R3, [ x x ]( Ò ) marg,s ² Ý V5 ¾¼¿ ] ¾¼ placed between Æ and Ý in p¯ ada c M2, om. M3V3, see p¯ ada d R1, placed after Ñ Ò in p¯ ada c V4, ( ¾¼¿ ) marg,s V5 æ ] æ M3 4 Ú Ó ] Ú Ó M2 Ñ ¦ Ø ù¹Ý ] ¾¼¿ Ñ [ x ]( ) marg,s Ø Ø Ñ Ô ] Ô £ M3 ¹Ý B4, Ñ [ Ù ] Ø ¹Ý B5, Ñ Ø ¹Ý M3, Ñ ¹Ý R1, ÅÑ ¢Ø ¹Ý R3 ¡Ú ¡Ú Ñ B5 , marked and in margin Verse 22 numbered 21 R1 5 ù Ò] ¾¿¾¾¿ R1 ] ¢ Ø M2, ¢ ¦Ñ ¹» V4 ¾¿¾¾¿ ] placed after Ô Ø £ in p¯ ada b IV2, ¢ ¦Ø om. M3V3, see p¯ ada a R1, placed after ÚÐÓÑ ¸ in p¯ ada a V5 ÚÐÓÑ ¸ ] ÚÐÓÑ M2V5, ÚÐÓÑ¸ V3 6 ¹Ñ ÔÝ Ý ¸ ] ÔÝÝ ¸ V4 × ß £Ý £¦ ] × ß £Ý £ M2, ×Ç £Ý £ M3, × £ÝÓ ¢ Ø ¸ ] ¹Ñ ¢ [ ] Ø ¸ V5 R1, × [ ] £ £Ý £ V3 ÔØ £] Ô Ø £ M1 7 ½¼¼¼ ] om. IM3R1V2V3V5, placed after Ø ¸ M1M2 Ø ¸ ] Ø B4B5M1V3 ËÔ ] ËÔ Ú £Ý £´Ý 8 ¹Ø ] ¹Ø V4 Ú Ì ] Ú Ý R3 ¡ V4 ] Ú M3 × ] V4 Verse 23 numbered 231 V4 9 ¿ ] om. ¡ ÝÓ ] × ¡ ÝÓÌ M3 ¿ M3V3 Ñ Ð ¸ R1 ÌÓ ] ÌÓ B5, Ì M1M2, ØÓ R1, Ó V4, ÌÓ V5 ¾¼ ÝÑÐ ] ÑÐ M3 ¾¼ ] om. M3V3 see p¯ ada b R1 placed after ¸ in p¯ ada 10 ¡ ¦Ý ] × ¡ ¦Ý R1 b V2 Ñ ¸] R1 11 Ò Õ ] Ò [ Ã ]( Õ ) marg ¢ ¡ ] Ñ ¢ B4B5, Ñ ¢ [ ]( ¡ ) marg,s V5 V3, Ò ÕÎ [ x ] V5 ¿ ] placed after ÑØ ¸ in p¯ ada c B4B5IM1M2R1R3V2V4, om. M3V3, corrected from ¿ x to ¿ V5 ÑØ ¸ ] ÑØ IR1 ÃÃ ] Ã V4 ¸] B4B5R3 ¼¼ ] om. M3V3 12 Ô Ú ] Ú M2, Ô Ú [ ] M3, Ô ( ) supl Ú V5 ¿ ] om. M3V3, ( ¿ ) marg,s V5 ¿ ] om. M3V3V4, [ ¿ ] ¿ V5 ¾¿ ] ¾¿½ V4, êÓ ¾¿ V5 289
ËÔ £ Ô Ø Ò å¹Ø Ò ÔÖÚß Ö â ¾½ ×ö ¸ Ñ £ º £ Ý Ý ¦ ÚÓ ½ Ì ÖÑ ¸ ¼¿ Ô Õ ù ¾ Ø ËÝ ¸ ¾ ì Ø Ú × Ô ß Ð¹´ÝÑ ÀÝ ¹Ø  ¦» £Õ £ ×Ñ ¹Ø Ø £º Ý Ø »ÓÔÔ ÑÑÐ × Ñ ÑÔ ¡Ú Ú Ý £ Ò ×  Ò Ó » Ñ ¾ Å ¸×Ñ ¢ ØÑ ØÐ× ¹ÌØ¹Ý É Ý Ò Î × Ó¸ º ×Ñ¹Ý (a) Ý ÅÝÓ Ö Ú Ø × ßÚ Ø ´ÌÑ´¹Ý Ô Ç Ú £Ø Ñ ¾  (b) É ¹ÝØ¹´ÚÔÖÔ ¡Ú
Verse 24 1 ËÔ £ ] ¹Ý £ V4 2 Úß Ö ] Úß Ö M2 ¾½ ] placed after ×ö ¸ in p¯ ada b M1M2V2, om. M3R1V3 ×ö ¸ ] ×ÀÝ M1M2M3, ×ÀÝ ¸ R1, ×ÀÝ ( ¸ ) supl V5 3 £] Ç to £ V5 Ý ] Ý B5, Ý M3, Ý R1 , Ý V4 ] corrected from ada c R1 om. M3V3, see p¯ Ý ½ ] placed ] Ý to Ý V4 R1, corrected from Ý after Ì in p¯ ada c IV2, om. M3V3 Ì ] Ì [ ] V5 4 ¸ ¼¿ ] ¸ ¼¿ B4B5R3, ¸ M3, ¸ V3 Õ ù ] Õ [ ] M2 ¾ ] placed after Ø ada ¼¿ M1R1, ËÝ ¸ in p¯ d B4B5M1M2R3, om. M3V3 Verse 25 5 ì ] marked and glossed as »ÓÔÔ ¸ by s B4B5, ì Ò M2 Ø ] Þ R3 Ú × ] Ú × [ x ]( ) marg,s B4, Ú R1V5, Ú × R3 Ô Ð¹´Ý ] Ô Ð [ x ]( ¹´Ý ) V 6 ×Ñ Ø ] Ò Ø V 7 »ÓÔÔ ÑÑÐ ] marg,s 5 4 »ÓÔÔ ÚÑÐ R1 × Ô 8Ú Ý £ ] Ú[x] Ý £ B4 Ñ Ñ ] × Ñ ( ) marg,s B4 ¡Ú ] Ô ¡ Ú R3 Ò ] ] [ x ] R1 » Ñ ] » M1, » M2M3, Ñ V4V5 Verse 26 [Ò ] Ò M2 9 ØÐ ] Ø ( Ð ) supl V3 × ¹ÌØ¹Ý ] × ¹ÌØ M2 10 Ò ] corrected from Ò to Ò M3 ×Ñ¹Ý ] ×ÑÑÝ M1, ×ÑÝ M2, Ñ¹Ý V5 Ó¸ ] ¸ B4, Ó ( ¸ ) supl R1 11 Ø ´Ì ] Ø M1, Ø ´Ì V4 12 Ç] Ó M2M3 Ú £Ø Ñ ] Ú £Ø R3 (a). The reading 2.3.2.
Ò Î × ×Ñ¹Ý is also possible.
5 f. 3v B4
f. 3br B5
10
f. 3v I
(b). This verse is identical to verse
290
¹ØÅ ¹Ý Ó ÒØÞ Ú¹Ý Ñ ¡ ÐÖ ÝÌ ÝÑ  £Ö ÝØ ¹Ý Ø º ÐÅ ÓÔÑ¹Ý × £ ×Ñ¹Ý Ø Ô ¡Ú Ð ÒÚ £ Ý ÒÐ ÌÐ Ð £ Ý ÅÝÓ Ö ÑÌ ØÝ ÚÐÓ × ¡Ý Ø Ý Ý¦»Ø Ó Ø Ñ ÒÑ º ´Ú Ú ÓÝ ÒÚØ £ ¼Ò Ø ¸ ¹Ý ¹Ø´¹Ú ¦ØÖÝ £º ¾ Ø ×Ñ ¦´Ý ¹Ø Ý Ò¾ Ý Ú » Ý Ò Ø Ò Ú ¸ ¹Ý ÓÐ ¸ º Ø Ñ Ó¹Øâ ×Ö £ Ö »Ú £ © Ý  ËÔÝ £ ´Ô ¾ ¢
f. 35r V2
¾
5
10
f. 3v V3
Verse 27 number omitted with p¯ ada s cd V5 1 ØÞ ] ØÞ¸ M1M2, ØØ V4 Ñ ¡Ð] Ñ 3–4 ÐÅ Ó — Ð £ om. but added in margin by s: Ð ÓÔÑ¹Ý × ¡ Ð corrected to Ñ ¡ Ð V3 ×Ñ¹Ý Ø Ô [ Ð ] £ Ð ÒÚ £ Ý ÒÐ ÌÐ Ð £ ¾ V5 3 Ô ] Ô M1, Ô M2 4 ÒÐ ¡Ú ¡Ú ¡ Ú ¡Ô ¡Ú ÌÐ ] ÌÐ Ò Ð B4R3, Ò Ð ÌÐ R1 Ð £] Ð ß¸ B5 Verse 28 not numbered V4 5 Ý ÅÝÓ Ö ] Ý ÅÝÓ ( Ö ) supl B5 ÚÐÓ ] ØÐÓ M2 × M1M2, ¡Ý] × ¡Ý £ to × 6Ø ( ) B4, Ø Ý¦»Ø ] ÝØØ V4 Ó Ø] corrected from × ¡Ý ¡ Ý V4 Ý ] Ø ¥Ý Ý [ ] B5 Ø M1 6–7 —Ò Ø om. V4 7 ¼ ] om. B5IM3R1V2V3V5 ¸ ] ¸ M3 8 ¦ØÖ ] [ ] ØÖ V2 £] º Verse 29 before the verse is a header and a partial vasantatilak¯ a verse marked by s as not being in his other manuscript: Ö »Ç × Ò ÍÚ Ö ÚÂÕ ÒÒÔ £ Ð Ý Ò ÐÚ Ý ÅÝÓ Ö Ú Ø × ßÚ ¾ (for the last incomplete p¯ ada see Ø Ö ×Ð Ý verse 26) V5 9 ¦´Ý ¹Ø Ý ] ´Ý ¹Ø Ý I, Ø Ý ¹Ø Ý R1, ´Ý [ Ý ] ¹Ø Ý V3, ´Ý ¹Ø V4, ´Ý ¹Ø [ ] ( ) Ý V5 ¾ ] om. B4B5IM3R1R3V2V3V4V5 10 Ò ] Ò R1 Ø Ò ÓÐ Ú ¸ ] ÓÐ Ú I, ÓÐÚ M1M2, ÓÐ Ú M3, ÐÚ R1, ÓÐ Ú ¸ V3 ] Ø Ò M3 11 â ×Ö £ ] â ×Ö £ [ ] V3 12 ËÔÝ £ ] ËÔÝ £ R3 291
Ú× Ú ´Ú ¡ Ý × ÝÒ ¹Ô ¡  ÝÓ Ú ×Ö £ ¦Ý» ¸ º ¹Ô ¦ÚÓÖ¦ØÖ £ Ø ´Ú £ Ý Ú ¦× ¹Ø´×Ñ Ø¹Ý Ø ¡Ý ùÑ ¿¼ ÑÝ ¸ ¹Ý Ð ¹Ô  Ø¹Ø 
f. 2v M2
5
f. 3r R3 & f. 35r V2
£Ý Ø º Ø ËÔ  ´Ú ÒËÔ×ö Ý Ô ¹Ô Ø ¢ ÄÚ ¸ ¹Ý ËÝÓ ÑÝ ¹Ø Ö Ô ¡ Ú Ú ´Ú ¿½ ØØ¸ Ø  Ò ÑÝ ´Ý ÑÝ ÐÝ £Ø º Ð ¦ØÖ £ Ø¦ÑÝ ¹È ÎÝÓÖ¦ØÖ ÈÐÑ ¿¾
f. 4r B4
f. 4v V4 10
Verse 30 1 × ÝÒ ] ( × ÝÒ ) marg V3 Ú ´Ú ] Ú [ Ø Ñ Ó¹Øâ ×Ö £Ö ] ´Ú R3 2 ¹Ô ] ¹Ô V4 3 ¦ÚÓ ] attempted correction from ÚÓ to ¦ÚÓ and with ¦ÚÓ in margin by s B4, ÚÓ R3 Ø ´Ú £ ] marked and glossed as ¹Ô ØÐ ´Ú £ by s B4, ´Ú £ V4 4 Ý Ú ¦× ] ¡Ý Ý Ú´× M2, Ý Ú ´× M3, Ý Ú ( ) ¦× V5 Ø¹Ý ] om. V4 Ø Verse 31 ¡Ý ¡Ý ¡Ý ùÑ ] Ø [ ] B4 5 ¸] M3R1 5–6 ¹Ô Ø¹Ø ] ¹Ô Ø B4M1M2, ¹Ô Ø I, ¹Ô Ø Ø M3, ¹Ô Ñ £Ø £ R3, ¹Ô Ñ £Ø V2V4, ¹Ô [ x ] Ø ( Ø ) marg,s V5 6 ËÔ´Ú ÒËÔ ] ´Ú ÒËÔ R1, R1, ¹Ô Ñ ËÔ´Ú ¹Ý with the two last aks . ara s marked and variant reading ÒËÔ recorded in margin V2, ( ËÔ ) marg ´Ú ÒËÔ V3, ´¹ÝËÔ´Ú ¹Ý V4 Ý £Ý Ø ] Ý £æ V5 7Ô Ø Ø ¢ ÄÚ ] marked and glossed as ÔÖÑ Ø¸ in margin by s B4, ¹Ô I, marked and variant reading ¹Ô recorded in margin 8 ÑÝ ¹Ø ] ÑÝÓ ¹Ø B4R3, Ñ Ý ¹Ø M2, ÑÝ Ø R1 Ô by s V5 ¸ ] ¸ [ x ] V3 ¡Ú] Ô R1 Verse 32 9 Ø Ò ] Ø Ò R1, Ò (last aks £ to Ò) V4 ¡Ú . ara corrected from Ò 10 ÐÝ £Ø ] ËÝÝØ B5, ËÝÝØ IR1V3V5 292
× ÅÝ Ý» Ú £¦ÑÝ ¹È Î ´ÝÓ¸ ÔÖ È  ÐÑ º £Ý Ø Ý ×Ñ ²Ý  × Ð Ò Ó Ñ Ð £ ¿¿ Ú Ý Ú ¦ Ú Ø × ÚØ Ö Ô¹Ø Ú ¦Ý ß¸ ¹Ý ´× Ú Ð Ò ß¹Ø £ Ó ¸ ¹Ý ¸ º ¹´Ú £ Ó ÚØ æ £ ß¸ ¡ Ò ËÔ £ × Ý Ø Ò ß¸ ÔÝ Ý ¹Ø £ Ò Ô Ø Ø ¿ Ý ÅÝÓ ÚÐÝ Ø â × Ý ×¹ ¢ Ø ÔÑ Ý Ø Ö » Î ¸ ¹È Î ¢ Ý ÑÝ ÚÐ ÒÑ Ú ÖØ £ Ô Ý ¡ ÚÓ Ú Ø £ÝÓ Ì Ø´ Ð ¸  º Ø Î Ý¦» £ ÖÚ £¸ Ò Ð Ó Ý ß¸ ¹È ÎÑ ¿
f. 4r I p. 50 R1
5
f. 3bv B5
10 f. 36r V2
Verse 33 1 × ÅÝ ] Ý ÅÝ R1 2 ¹È ´ÝÓ¸ ÔÖ ÈÐÑ ] ´ÝÓ¸ ( ÔÖ ) marg,s Î ] ¹È Î [ x ] V3 ÈÐ B4, ´Ý ÔÖ ÈÐÑ I, ´ÝÓØÖ ÈÐ R1, ´ÝÓ¸ ÈÐ ÔÖ V2, ´ÝÓ¸ [ x ] ÔÖ ÈÐ V5 3 ×Ñ ] ×Ñ [ ] B5, ×Ñ M2 4 Ð ] Ð [ ] V5 Ò Ó Ñ Ð £ ] Ò Ç Ñ £ Ð £ R1 Verse 34 5 Ý Ú ¦ Ú Ø × ÚØ ] Ý Ú ¦× ÚØ B5, Ý Ú ¦ Ú Ø × Ø M1, Ý Ú¦ Ú Ø × ÚØ R1, Ý Ú Ø Ú Ø × ÚØ V5 ¦Ý ß¸ ] ¦Ý £¸ I, ¦Ý ß R1 ¹Ý ´× Ú Ð ] ¹Ý × Ú Ð V3 ¹Ø £ ] ¹Ø ß R1, corrected 6 ¹Ø Ú ] ¹Ø Ú V4 from ¹Ø ß to ¹Ø £ V5 Ó ¸ ¹Ý ¸ ] Ó ¹Ý ¸ IM M , Ó Ú ¹Ý ¸ M , Ç ¹Ý R1 , 1 3 2 Ó ¸ ¹Ý ¸ º ¿ V 7 ¹´Ú £ Ó ] æ ß Ó IV V ] M Ò ß ¸ ] ÒÇ 3 2 4 2 R1, Ò ß ( ¸ ) V5 8 × Ý ] × Ý [ x ] V3 Ò ß¸ ] Ò ß [ x ] B4 ¹Ø £ ] ¹Ø £ [ ] M1 Verse 35 9 Ý ÅÝÓ ] Ý ÅÝ M1, Ý ÅÝÓ M3, Ñ ÝÓ R1 Ô ¡ ÚÓ Ú ] Ô ¡ Ú Ú R1, Ô ¡ ÚÓ V4 10 â ] â M2 ×¹ ¢ Ø ÔÑ ] ×¹ ¢ ØÓ ÔÑ B5M1M2 Ì ] Ý R1 , Ý R3 Ø´ Ð ] the ¸] aks . ara Ð is corrected from something else and Ð is given again in the margin V3 B4, ¸ V4 11 Ý Ø Ö » ] Ý Ò Ö » M2, Ø Ö » R1, Ý [ x ] Ø ( Ö ) marg » V3, Ý ×» V4 Î ¸ ] Î M1M2M3R1, Î¸ V3, Î ( ¸ ) supl V5 ¹È Î ] [ x ]( ¹È Î ) marg I, ¹È ÎÓ R1 Ø ] [ ] Ø B , Ø R Ý¦» £ ] Ý » M 12 Ý ] ÓÔ M , corrected from ÓÝ to Ý V4 ¢ ¢ 4 ¢ 3 1 3 Ñ ] Ñ» B5M1M2R3, om. V4, Ñ ( ) marg,s V5 Ð Ó Ý ß¸ ] Ð×Ó Ý ß¸ R1, Ð Ó Ó Ý ß¸ V3 293
Ø´×ÑÓ Ñ Ö ÝÒ ¢ Ñ ×¹ ¢ Ø Ø ÖØÑ ß¸ ¹È Î ÔÑÃÑÝÐ Ò Ô Ñ ¦ØÖ ÑÕ Ñ Ó¸ ¹Ý Ø Ýæ¦ Ó Ó Ø¸ Ô Ø¸  º Ô £Ò Ô Ø ÒÖ Ý ´Ú  Ð ¦ØÖ £ Ø¸ Ý × ¡ ÝÓ Ú â ¡ Ñ ¦ £Ý Ø¹ØÌ ßÚ ¹Ý º ÒÝ ¸ × Ý Ñ Ý £Ú ¿ £ ì  ËÔ Ú Ú Ô Ú ¡Ú Ø¦Ñ Ø £Ò Ã Ö ß ÔÝ Ý £ Ò ×Ñ ÒÝ £Ø º  ÚÐ Ø ß Ã ËÔ æ× Ý £Ø Ú £
¿
5 f. 5r V4
¿
f. 4v B4
10
f. 4v I
15 p. 51 I
¿
Verse 36 1 Ø´×ÑÓ ] Ø´¹ÑÑÓ M1 Ñ Ö ÝÒ ] Ñ Ö [ ] ÝÒ M1 2 Ø ÖØ ] [ ] Ø ÖØ M3, Ø ÖØ V3 Ñ ß¸ ] Ñ Ý ß¸ B5IM3V2V4V5 3 ÔÑ ] om. M1 Ð Ò ] Ð Ò [ ] V3 R1 ÑÕ Ñ Ó¸ ] Ñ Ó M1, Ñ Ó ( ¸ ) subl I, ÑÝÓ¸ R1 4 Ô ] Ô ¢ I, ] Ñ[ ]Õ I ] M1, Ö M3 6 Ýæ¦ Ó ] Ý Ó R1, Ýæ Ó V5 ] M3, Verse 37 5 ) marg V2 Ô Ø¸ ] corrected from Ô Ø £¸ to Ô Ø¸ I 7 ÖÝ £Ò ] Ì £Ò R3V5 Ô Ø] Ô Ø ( B4, Ô Ò V5 8 Ð ¦ØÖ £ ] Ð ØÖ £ IV2V4V5, Ð ØÖ £ [ ] V3 Ø¸ ] Ø B5R1 Ý ] Verse 38 marked and glossed as × Ý in margin by s B4, Ý¸ B5R1, om. IV2V4V5 9 â ¡ ] â ¡ R1 10 Ñ ¦ ] Ñ Ron Ú ¹Ý ] Ú ( ) marg,s ¹Ý with the last aks . ara marked and glossed as Ú ¡ ¹Ý in the margin by s B4, Ú x [ ] M1, Ú ¹Ý V4, Ú ¹Ý [ ] V5 ¸] IV3 × Ý ] × Ý ¸ R1 12 ì ] ì [ ] B4, ì M1M2R1V5 Verse 39 11 ¾ ½ 13 Ú Ú ] Ú [ ] Ú I, Ú Ú R1, Ú Ú V5 Ã Ö ß ] Ã Ö ßÖ M2 14 Ò ] Ò Ø B4, the aks is marked and the variant reading Ø is added in the margin V3 . ara Ø ß ] Ø ß [ x ] V3 16 Ø £Ò ] [ ] Ø £Ò V5 15 ¦Ñ Ú ] ¦Ñ ´Ú B4B5IM1M2M3R1V2V3V4V5 æ ] Ø æ B4R3, corrected from æ to æ I, æ V4 294
Ú £ × Ã ÑÝÑ ¦Ø  £ Ö Ñ¦ ÈÐ×  ¹ ¢ Ø¸ × ²Ý¹Ø ÈÐ×¹ ¢ Ø ×Ø £ÚÐ Ú Ø Ñ¦ ÈÐÑ
º ¼
f. 3v R3 f. 36v V2, f. 14r V5
Ò Ò
Ó ×Ñ £ Ã£¦£ ÈÐ¹Ý Ò £ Ô Ò ÑÝØ ËÝ¸ º ¹È Î ¸ ¹Ý Ø Ú Ñ¦ Ñ ¹Ý ÝÔÖ
Ø ½ ¹Ú Ò
Ó ×Ñ £Õ Ò ¹Ý É ÈÐ ²ÝÓÑ
 £ ÖÕ Ò ¡ ÒÑ º Ø ¹È ÎÓ Ý¸ × Ñ ¢ ¹È ÎÓ Ì Ø¦ÑÝÝÓÖ¦ØÖÑ» Ñ ¦ Ñ ¾
Verse 40 numbered 4 R1 numbered 41 V3 1 Ú £ ] Ú £ R1 Ñ ¦ØÖ £ ] Ñ ØÖ R1 2 Ñ¦ ÈÐ×¹ ¢ Ø¸ ] Ñ [ x ] ÈÐ×¹ ¢ Ø¸ I, Ñ ÈÐ [ ] ×¹ ¢ Ø¸ M3, Ñ [ x ] ÈÐ×¹ ¢ Ø¸ V2, [ x x ] Ñ ( ÈÐ× ) marg,s ¹ ¢ Ø¸ V5 3 ²Ý¹Ø ] ²Ý¹Ø V4 ¹ ¢ Ø ×Ø ] ¹ ¢ Ø [ Ú Ô ] ×Ø M1 4 Ú Ø ] Ú Ø M2 Ñ¦ ÈÐÑ ] Ñ ( ) ÈÐ B4, Ñ ÈÐ M3, Ñ Ò ÈÐ R1, Ñ x x Ð V3 Verse 41 5 Ò ] corrected from Ò to Ò V2, Ò V3, the aks . ara written as a × with two halfcircles on top of it (probably a correction is intended) V5 £ £ ÈÐ Ú¸ in margin by s B4 5 Ò
Ó ] 5–6 Ò
Ó — ÈÐ¹Ý ] marked and glossed as Ò
Ó ×Ñ Ò
Ó [ x ] I ×Ñ £ ] ×Ñ R3, corrected from ×Ñ £ to ×Ñ £ V5 Ã£¦£ ] Ã£ M1, Ã£ ¸ R3, Ã ££ V3 Ò £ ] Ò Ó V2, corrected from Ò Ó to Ò £ V5 Ò] Ø ÑÝØ 6 ÈÐ¹Ý ] ÈÐ¹Ý V4 R1 ËÝ¸ ] ¿ ½ ¾ Ø 7 ¸] M1M2M3R1V3 ¹Ý Ø ] ¹Ý Ø R1 ¹Ý ( ) marg,s Ø with the aks ËÝ¸ Ñ Ý V5 . ara ¹Ý corrected from something else and the aks ara Ø probably originally a Ò V Ñ¦ ] . 5 Ñ ( ) B5, Ñ V2V4 8 ¹Ý ÝÔÖ ] ¹Ý x ÔÖ B4, ¹Ý ¹´ÝÔÖ IM3R3V2V4V5, ¹Ý ¹´ÚÔÖ R1, ¹Ý ÝÔÖ V3 Ø]
Ø R3 Verse 42 not numbered V3 9 ] [Ó] ¾ ½ V4 Ò
Ó ]
Ó M2, Ò Ó V3 10 É ] B5M1M2M3V2V4V5, R1 B4 , ¹È Ì ] » R1 12 Ø¦ÑÝÝÓ ] [ Ø¦ÑÝÝÓ ] Ø¦ÑÝÝÓ 11 Ý¸ ] Ý M1, ÝÓ R1 ÎÓ ] ¹È ( ÎÓ ) marg V3 V3 Ñ ¦ Ñ ] [ ] Ñ ( ) M3, Ñ V4 295
5
10 f. 2v M1
×ÇÖ ÖÑ ¦»Õ £¸ Ô £Õ ÖÚ ÖØ¸ ¹ÌØ ÑÝ ´¹È Ú ¢ ¸º ÎÃ Ó ËÔ Ô £©Ú Ú ØØ¹»Ý ¢ ¹ÌØ Ô ß æÐÓ ÑÒØ Ñ ¿ ¡Ú ËÝ Ñ  Ø Ñ¦  Ú £ Ñ¦ Ò
Ó Ø ËÝ Ã £Î ´Ú Ø ¦Ñ Ø¸ × Ò Ý º ß´Ý £ Ý Ç Ð ÒØ ËÝÇ ¹ÌÇ £ÝÇ  Ø Ý Ø Ø × Ò Ý £ Ý Ú´ Ð  × ØÓ ¹ÌØÇ  ¹Ø ¡Ý ¹Ø Ú ¢ Ç Ô ¢ ×¹ÌÇ × ØÇ º Ø¹Ñ £Ý ¸ ÔÝ Ý ¸ ×
ß ¡Ý ¹Ø £ × Ò Ì ¢ ÚÓ¸ ËÝ ¸  ËÔ
Verse 43 1 ×ÇÖ Ö ] ×ÇÖ Ö M1M2 ÖÚ £¸ ] x Ú £¸ M1 Ô 2 ´¹È ÖØ¸ ] Ô ÖØ IM2V4 Î] ( ´ ) ¹È Ã Ó ] Ã V4 Ú ] Ú Ú V4 3 ¹ÌØ £ ] ¹ÌØ R1 Ú ] Ú [ x ] V5 Î V5 ¹»Ý ] ¹»Ý M2 4Ô ß ] Ô ß V3, Ô £ V4, corrected from Ô ß V5 æÐÓ ] [ æ ] æÐÓ ¡Ú ¡Ú ¡Ú ¡ ÚÇ to Ô ¡Ú B5, èÒÓ V4 ÑØ Ñ] Ñ Ø ¸ R1, Ñ Ø Ø V3, Ñ Verse 44 ¢ V5 5 Ñ¦ Ú £] Ñ Ú £ R1V5, Ñ [ ] Ú £ V2, Ñ ÚÓ V4 Ø £ V4 ËÝ ] ËÝ M1, ËÝ V3, Ø ËÝ £Î ] Ã £Î R1, corrected from Ã £Î to Ã £Î V4 Ø ¦Ñ Ø¸ ] Ø ¦Ñ ( ) Ø¸ B4, Ø ¦Ñ? Ø¸ B5, Ø ¦Ñ Ø Ø¸ 6 Ã V4 × Ò Ý ] ËÔÒ Ý IV2V4, × Ò Ý M3, × Ò Ý ¸ R1 7 ß´Ý £ Ý ] ß´Ý £ M1M2, ß´Ý £ Ý[× ] ß Ý to ß´Ý £ Ý V5 8 £ÝÇ — × Ò Ý £ ] om. together with part of verse V3, corrected from ß´Ý 45 but added in margin: £ÝÇ Ø Ý Ø [ ] Ø × ÒÝ £ V3 £ÝÇ ] £ÝÓ M3 Ø Ý ] Ø Ý R1 Ø Ø ] Ø Ø ¸ R1, Ø Ø V4 × ÒÝ £ ] × Ò ÝÓ R3 Verse 45 numbered 44 V4 9–10 Ý Ú — ×¹ÌÇ ] om. together with part of verse 44 but added in margin: Ý Ú´ Ð × ØÓ ¹ ¡Ý ÌØÇ ¹Ø¹Ø [ Ú ] Ú ¢ Ç Ô 9× ØÓ ] corrected from × ØÓ B5 ¹ÌØÇ ] ¹ÌØÓ ¢ ×¹ÌÇ V3 ¡Ý ¡ ÝÓØÓ to × ¡Ý M1M3, [ x ] [ x x x ]( w ØÇ ¹Ø ) marg,s V5 ¹Ø ] Ø M2 10 ¹Ø Ú ¢ Ç ] ¹Ø Ú ¢ Ç M3R1, ¢ Ç V4 Ô × ] Ø IR1V2V4 11 Ø¹Ñ £Ý ¸ ] [ ] Ø¹Ñ Ø £Ý ¸ I, Ø¹Ñ £Ý ¸ ¢ ×¹ÌÇ ] ×¹ÌÇ R1 M1, Ø¹Ñ £Ý ¸ M2, Ø¹Ñ £Ý M3, Ø¹Ñ [ x ] £Ý R1, corrected from Ø¹Ñ ÓÝ ¸ to Ø¹Ñ £Ý ¸ V4 ÔÝ Ý ¸ ] ÔÝ Ý R1 ×
ß ] × Ý×
ß R1, ×
£ R3 12 ¹Ø ¡Ý ¡Ý ¡Ý ¡Ý ËÝ ¸ ] ¹Ø ËÝ ( ) ¸ B4, ¹Ø ¡ ËÝ ¸ M3, ¹Ø × Ò Ì] × Ò Ì B5M3V4 ËÝ R1, ¹Ø ËÝ¸ R3 296
f. 4r B5, f. 5v V4
5
f. 37r V2
f. 5r I
p. 52 R1, f. 5r B4 10
f. 4v V3
×ØÓ Ý Ø Î Ñ ¹Ú ÝÝÓ´Ì Ø £Ò Ý¹Ñ Ø º Ø ¡ Ñ ¹ÌÒÖ Ý Ø ØÌ Î Ý¦»× × Ø ¹ÚÑ ¦ØÖ £ ÒÝ ØÝÓÝ ÝÓ Ò Ò ÐÓ ¦ÑØ Ò
£Ø º Ø ÑØ £ Ò Ò ÈÐ Ñ Ò Ô ØØ¸ Ø¦Ñ ÚÐ Ø ß Ã ÑÝÑ ×Ø
ÐÓ  ØÝ Ø Ò ÝÓ ¦Ñ Ø¸ Ø ù
ÐÔÝ
5
f. 3r M2
10
Verse 46 1 ×ØÓ ] Ó I Ý Ø ] Ý Ø with the aks marked and glossed in the . ara by s B4, Ý Ø V4 2 ÝÝÓ´Ì ] É ÔÝÓ´Ì R1, ÝÝÓ [ x ]( ´Ì ) marg,s V4 Ý¹ margin as Ñ Ø ] corrected to Ý¹Ñ Ø but unclear what was originally written V5 3 Ø ¡ Ñ ] Ø ( ¡ Ñ ) marg,s V5 ¹ÌÒÖ Ý Ø ] ¹ÌÒÖ Ý Ø with the aks ara marked and glossed in margin as by s B4, . ¹Ì [ xxxxxx ] ÒÖ Ý Ø I, ¹ÌÒÖ Ý Ø R1, ÒÞ Ø V4 4 Ý¦» ] Ý V4 × × Ø] × × ( ) Ø B4 , × Verse 47 5 ¦ØÖ £ ] ØÖ £ V4 ÒÝ ØÝÓ ] ÒÔ ØÝÓ M3, ÒÔ ØÝÓ R3, × Ø R1 ÒÝ ØÚÓ V4 6 ÐÓ ] ÐÓ M3, ÐÓ R3 ¦ÑØ Ò ] Ø Ò R1 7 Ò ] Ò R1, Ò [ ] V5 ÑØ £ ] ÑØ £ R1, ÑØ ß¸ IM1M2 8 ] Ý IM3, R1 , V2V4, ( ) V5 Verse 48 9 ¦Ñ ] ¦Ñ [ ] B4 Ð ] Ð [ Ö ] M2 10 ÑÝÑ ×Ø ÐÓ ] ÑÝÑ Ð ( ) ÒÝ B4, ÑÝÑ Ð ÒÝ IM3, ÑÝÑ Ð ÒÝ M1M2R3V3, ÑÝÑ Ð R1, ÑÝ [ Ñ ]( zz ) Ð ÒÝ V2, ÑÝÑ ´Ú ØÝ V4, ÑÝÑ [ ] Ð ( ) ¦Ý V5 11 ] IM3V2V4V5, M2, R1 11–12 ØÝ Ø £É Ø ù] Ú B4R1R3, Ú £´×ÇÅÝØ £ Ø £ Ø £´ Ç Ø I, Ú ËÝ M1M2, Ú M3V3, ØÝ Ø B5, Ú V2, Ú £É Ç Ø £ Ø V4, Ú with marked and the variant reading ´×ÇÅÝ added in the margin by s V5 297
ÚÑ £Ú ÔÝ Ý ¦×  Ý £ Ø× Ú ×Ò ¹Ñ ¢Ø º Ñ¦ Ø Ý ¸ ùÃ Ô ØÔÝ Ô × £Ò × Ú¸ ¡Ú ¡ ÖÚ
Ò Ø×Ñ ÚÝ Ø×Ñ ¹ØÖ ½¾ ØÓ ØÑ ×Ý º Ã ¿¼ ×ù ¢ Ì Ø¸ × Ø Ì¸  Ô ñ Ø Ñ ××Ñ Ø¸ ¼

f. 4r R3
5
f. 6r V4
p. 53 R1
Ò Ò Ø Ñ ×ß ÒÚ ¿¼ ß¸ × Ø¸ Ô ¢Ì º Ý Ú ÚÑÚ ×ÖØ Ø¸ Ò Ø ÚÑ Ó Ø¸ ½
10
Verse 49 1 ÚÑ £Ú ] [ x ] Ú V3 ] ×Ø I, marked and the variant reading ×Ø added in the margin by s V5 2 ¦× Ý £ ] ¦´× Ý £ M2, ´× Ý £ V4 ¹Ñ 3 Ø ¢ Ø ] ¹Ñ ¢ Ø ¸ R1 ùÃ ] Ø ÃÖ V ÔÝ Ý ¸ ] ÔÝ Ý R 4 × Ú¸ ] × Ú [ ] Ø V Verse 50 5 Ø] 4 1 5 ×Ñ marked and the annotation Ì ¸ added in the margin by s B4 Ú ] ×Ñ Ú B5 ½¾ Ý Ø ] Ø R1 ] Ñ M2 6 ¹ØÖ ] ¹ØÖ ¸ M1 ØÓ ] ( ) marg,s ØÓ V5 ½¾ ½¾ ] om. B5M3R1V2V3, ¹ØÖ ½¾ IR2, in margin by s V5 Ñ ×Ý ØÓ ] Ø B5 ] 7 ¿¼ ] om. B5M3R1V3, × ¿¼ M1 Ñ ×(Ý ×ù ? ) supl V5 Ø¸ to Ø¸ ] corrected from × × Ø¸ V4 Ø Ì¸ ] Ø Ì V3 Ô 8 ñ Ø ] Ò Ø B5, Ò ØÓ I Ñ ×] × ¢Ì] Ì I ? V4, Ñ × ½ ¿¿¿ V5 ×Ñ Ø¸ ] ×Ñ Ø Ø B4B5R3V3V5, Ø Ø¸ I, ×Ñ Ø¸ M2R1, Ø¹ØØ¸ V2V4 Verse 51 verse number added above the line by s V5 9 Ò Ò ] Ø Ò R1, Ò Ò 10 Ò ] [ Ú ] Ò V3 Ú ] Ú Ø ¿¼ V4 ¿¼ ] om. B5M2V3, ß¸ [ ¿ ] ¿¼ V5 ½ ¾¼¼¼¼¼ V5 Ô 11 Ú ÚÑ ] Ú Ú B5 Ú ×Ö ] Ò ×Ö M1M2, Ú ×Ö [ ] ¾ ¼ ¾¾ ¾ ß¸ ] ß R1V3 ¢ Ì ] Ì R1 V5 12 Ò ] Ò ½ ¼¿¼¼¼¼ ¼ V5 Ó Ø¸ ] Ó Ø [ ] ¸ M1, Ó Ø ¸ V4 298
Ñ ÑÝÑ× ÚÒÑ Ò Ó Ò Ó Ö ÚÚ ×ÖÔ ¸º ¡Ú Ý Ò Ñ × £ÕØÓ Ø  Ý ÚÝÚ Ô Ö´Ý £Ø

¾ Ñ × ¦ÚØ 
f. 4v B5
Ý Ø¸ ×ÇÖ×Ñ
Ó Ö Ú ½¾ æ ß»
5
f. 5v I & f. 38r V2
¹» ¿¼ ¸ × Ø Ì Ú ¦Ø Ú× ¸ ×ÇÖ ¸ Ô ß¹Ø ß¸  º ¢ Ì ¹Ì Ø ×× Ý Ñ × ¦ ÒÑÝ ß¹Ø ßÝ Ô ¢ Ì ¹ÌÓ æ  ¦ ¸¹Ý Ò ß ÒÓ Ú £´× ÚÒ¸ ¿ Ô Ø ß¸ Ý Ò ¹Ý ´×ÇÖÚ´×ÖÑ Ã Ý× Ñ Ç Øß»Ñ ×Ñ ÚÖ £ £ÕÑ º ÃÝÓ Ú ´Ý £Ò Ø £Ò Ö ÚÚ´×ÖÚ Ø¸ ¹Ý Ó Ñ ×Ø ØÓ ¦ÝÌ ×Ç 
Verse 52 1 ÑÝ ] Ñ [ ] Ý B4 Ñ Ò Ó ] Ñ Ò [ xx ] Ó B4, Ñ ÒØÓ V5 2 Ó ] Ñ Ó V3 Ú ×Ö ] Ú ×× M2 3 Ñ × ] Ñ × M1 £ÕØÓ ] £ ØÓ R1 4 Ý ÚÝÚ ] Ý ÖÝÚ M3, Ý
ÝÚ R1, Ý Ú [ ] ÝÚ V5 Ô Ö´Ý £Ø ] Ô Ö´Ý ÓØ? B5, Ô Ö Ý £Ø I Verse 53 5 Ý Ø¸ ] Ý Ø B4, corrected from Ý Ø £¸ to Ý Ø¸ V4 Ö Ú ] Ö Ú¸ R1 ½¾ ] om. B4B5R1V2V3V4V5 Ñ ] ÅÑ M3 × ¦ÚØ ] × ¦ÚØÓ M2 6 ¹» ] ¹ » R1 ¿¼ ] om. B4B5R3V5 ¸ ] [ ] ¸ M1, ¸ M2M3V3, ? ¸ V4 × Ø Ì ] × [ x ] Ø [ x ] Ì V5 Ú ¦Ø ] Ð Ú Ø M2 ×ÇÖ ¸ ] ×Ç [ x ] Ö ¸ V3 Ô ß] Ô ß V3, Ô ß V4 7 ×× Ý ] × Ý £Ø I, ×ÀÝ V4 ¢ Ì ¹Ì ¢ Ì ß B4R3, Ô ¢ Ì ¹ ß M2, Ô ¢ Ì¹Ì ¢ Ì ] M3 Ô ß B5, Ì ¹ÌÓ IR1, Ô ¢ Ì ¹ÌÓ ] ¹Ì ¢ Ì¹ Ó M3, Ô ¢ Ì x V4, Ô ¢ Ì ¹ÌÓ [ xxxxxxxx ] V5 8 æ ¦ ¸ ] æ M1M3, æ M2, æ ( ) ¸ V5 ß¸ ] ß R1 ÒÓ ] ÒÓ M1R3 ´× ÚÒ¸ ] ´× ÚÒ [ ] ¸ M1 Verse 54 9 Ú´×Ö ] Ú´× B4R3 Ñ 10 Ú ÚÖ £] Ú Ú [ x ] £ Ö I, Ã] × Ã V4 Ú ÚÖÓ R1 11 Ú Ø¸ ] Ú Ø¸ B4M2M3R1V4, Ú ?Ø¸ I, Ú Ø M1 12 Ó Ñ ×Ø ØÓ ¦ÝÌ ×Ç ] ( ¹Ø ) marg,s Ó ÔÖÌ ´Ú ( Ø ) marg,s B4, ¹Ø Ó ÔÖÌ ´Ú [ ] Ø B5, Ó Ñ Ø ØÓ ¦ÝÌ ×Ç I, ¹Ø Ó ÔÖÌ ´Ú Ø M1M2M3R1R3, Ó Ñ × ØÓ ¦ÝÌ ×Ç V4, ¹Ø Ó ÔÖÌ ´Ú Ø with — Ø marked and variant reading Ó Ñ ×Ø ØÓ ¦ÝÌ ×Ç added in margin by s V5 299
f. 4v e V3 f. 14v V5
10
f. 6v V4
¦Ý ¡ Ò £Õ Ø Ò ØÄÝ¦ØÝÓÖ¦ØÖ ´Ý  £Ò Ø £Ò £ Ò Ú Ó ¹Ñ
ÌÑÝ ×ßÚ º Ì Ð £ × Ò
p. 54 R1
×ù £ Ú Ø ´ÈÐ ÑÐ Ú× ßÚ ÐÝ Ñº Ú Ø  ÑÝÖÚÇ Ö Ò Ð £ ×Ø  ÒÒÔ Ò £ ¸ × ü Ø½ ¾ É ÐÚ Ò Ó Æ ×ù ¸ Ã £Ò ÝÓ £Ô £ Ö ÚÓ Ó ØÓ Ú £× Ý¸ º Ø¸ Ú £Ø
5
f. 38v V2 f. 4v R3
10
Verse 55 1 ¦Ý £Õ ] £Õ £ V4 Ò Ì ] ( ) Ò [ ] Ì I, ¡ Ò ] ¦Ý ¡ Ò [ x ]( ) marg,s V5 Ò Ì V4 2 ØÄÝ¦Ø ] ØÄÝØ R1 Ö¦ØÖ ] ÖØÖ B4, ØÖ I, ØÖ R1V4 ×ßÚ ] ßÚ B5 3 ´Ý £Ò Ø £Ò £ ] corrected from ´Ý ßÒ Ø £Ò £ to ´Ý £Ò Ø £Ò £ V5 ] ( ) marg,s V5 Ò Ì ] Ò[ ] Ì B5 Ð £ ] ÐÓ I Verse 56 5–6 ´ÈÐ ] ¸ ÈÐ B4R1R3 6 ÑÐ ] Ð V4 Ú ÐÝ ] V5 7 Ú Ø ] Ú V4 ÖÚÇ ] ÖØÇ M2 8 Ô Ò £ ] Ô £ M1M2, Ô ß M3 ¸ ] ¢ ¸ R1 Verse 57 not numbered R1 9 × ü ] ¹Ú M1M2, ×Ó V4 ½ ¾ ] placed after Ú £ in p¯ ada a IV2V4, om. M3 Ó ØÓ ] Ó Ø £ R1 10 É Ð ] Ð B5, Ð IM2M3R1V2V5 Ó Æ ] Æ Ó corrected to Æ B5, Æ M1, Ó R1 11 ×ù ¸ ] × ¸ V Ã ] ( Ã ) V £Ò ] ßÒ R ÝÓ Ø¸ ] × ¹ Ø¸ IV ¢ 4 marg,s 5 3 2V4 12 £Ô £ ] £Ô £Ò IM1M2M3R1R3V2V4, £Ô £Ò with the aks . ara Ò marked, probably to indicate that the correct aks V5 Ö ] marked and glossed as ÚÝ £ by s B4, Ö V5 . ara is ÚÓ ] ¢ ÚÓ R1 300
¸ ÕÎ ×¦ ÚÓ ÇÑ £ Ö× ¸ Ú Ó £ Ì
£ Öé Ò £ ¸ ½¾ ØÝÓ Å ÖÝ ¼ ¦Ý  × Ö Æ ÝÑ ¾ ÒÚ ÚÓ ½½ ¢ ½ Ô ¾ Ø ËÝ ¸
æº ù
f. 6r B4

Ô Æ ÝÓ ¢ ØÝ ½ Á Ý ¹Ø Ô ½ Ã ¼ ¡ ÝÑ ¸ ¾½ Õ Ì Ó Ñ ¸ º Ô£¦ Ú¸ ½ Ú ½½ ÑØ â Ö ¾ ÑØù Ú £ ¸ Ò £¸ Ã ¼ ÑÒ× Ã × ¸ ½¾º ½¾º ¼º ¾ ¡Ý º º ¦ ¡ £ ¡ ¸ ½ Ã Ú¸ ½¼ Ú £ ¸ ½ Ã ¼ Ú £ ¹ØÑ×Ó Ì ¡ ¦ÝÑ ¼ º Ò¦£¦ Ú  ½ æ¦ ÝÑ ¾½ Ñ  £  ¸ ½½ × ¸ ¾ ×Ñ ££ Ì Ò

5 f. 6r I
10
f. 7r V4, f. 25r M3, f. 5r B5 f. 39r V2
Ó ÝÑ
¼
Verse 58 tables listing the contents of verses 58–64found in B4B5IM3R3V2V4 1 ] corrected from to V5 £ Ö ] Ö M3 é ØÝÓ ] ¢ ØÝÓ B5R1, ØÝÓ with marked ¸ ] ( ) supl I 2 ÚÓ Å Ö ] ÚÓ ÚÖ R1 and the reading é given in the margin R3
Ý ÒÚ ¼ ¦Ý ] Ý ¦Ý
M1 R3
3
ÇÑ £]
ÇÑÓ M1
Ö× ¸ ] Ö× R1
Æ ÝÑ ] Æ ÔÑ R1 Ô ] Ô £ B5
ù ] ÒÚ ( ) supl
4 Ú Ó ] Ú V4
Ì ] ( ) supl,s Ì B4, Ý R3
Verse 59 to ¹Ø M1 Ñ ¸ M3
Ã ¼
¹Ø 5 ] M3R1, [ ] V5 ] corrected from ¹Ø ¡ ? 6 Õ Ì] Õ V4 Ñ ¸] Ñ ¸ B4, Ñ [ ] ¸ M1, Ó ] £ V4 7 Ô£¦ Ú¸ ] Ô £ ÚÓ Ú¸ B5 Ö ] £ Ö R1 ÑØù ] ÔØ £ R1 8 Ò £¸ ] Ò £ B5
not numbered V2
ÑÒ ] ¹Ú ÑÒ V4
× ¸] ×
V4
Verse 60
Ú £ ¸] Ú £ R1 11 ¹ØÑ×Ó ] ¹ØÑÝÓ R1 × R1 Ò ] [ ] Ò B4
12 Ò¦£¦ Ú ] Ò£ Ú V4 301
10 ¡ ¸ ] [ â ] ¡ ¸ B4, â ¡ ¸ R3 Ñ£ ¸ ] Ñ£ R1 13 × ¸ ]
Ô ½ Ôß £ ½ Ö Ñ ¸ ¿½ Ö Ñ ¸ ¿½ × ¾ ¹ØÄÝ æ ¦ Ç º Þ ½ ÖÑ ¿ ÖÑ ¿ æ × ¸ ¾ ËÔ Æ ¸ ÔÝ Ý ¹Ø £ ¸ ¹Ý ½ ¸ £Ô ÖÚ £ Ö×Ã Ñ Ú £ º ¼º ½ º Ò¦ ÒÚ £Õ º¿ âÝ Ò Ò ¾
¦£ º Ô ½ »ÝÓ ¿ Ý Ø £ ÒÚ £ ¿  ¸ ¿ Ç£
Ð £ ÚÃØ ÚÔ º ¼º ¾ º ½ æ ¾ Ö¦ Ö Ú £ Ô ¡ £¦ Ñ¦£  Ù£ ÝÑ £¦ Ò ¾º ½ º ½ º ½¾ ¢ Ô× ¡Ý ÚÓ ½¼ Ý ÑØ ¸ × Ð ÝÑÇ ¾ ÒÚ ÚÓ ½ âÝÑ Ò ÖÖ ÑÔ º º¿ Ö¦ Ö ÑØ ¸ ×ØÓ  £ Ö Ñ ¸ ¿ º ¿¼ º ¾¾ Ñ Ò Ñ ½ º½ æ ¿
5
f. 5r R3, f. 6v B4
f. 39v V2 10
f. 6r beg V3
Verse 61 1 Ôß £ ] Ô ß Ó? I, Ô ß [ Ó ] V5 Ö Ñ ¸ ¿½ Ö Ñ ¸ ¿½ ] Ö Ñ ¸ Ö Ñ M2R1, ¾ ½ ¾ ½ ¾ ½ ¾ ½ Ñ Ö ¸ Ö Ñ ¸ M3, Ñ ¿½ Ö ¸ Ñ Ö ¸ with Ö Ñ ¸ Ö Ñ ¸ added in the margin V2, [ x ] Ö Ñ ¸ [ x ]( ) marg,s Ö Ñ ¸ V5 2 ¹ØÄÝ ] ¹Ø ØÄÝ M3, corrected from ØÌ to ØÄÝ V5 ] R1 æ¦ ] æ I, æ R1 3 Þ ] V2 ÖÑ ] [ ] Ö Ñ M1, Ö Ñ Ç ] × Ç B5 R1 × ¸ ] × R1 4 ËÔ — ¹Ý ¸ Ô¥Ý Ý ¹Ø £ ¸ ¹Ý ¸ ] om. but ËÔ Æ ¸ added in margin ËÔ Æ ¸ ] ËÔ Æ × ? B4, ËÔÆ Ø R1, ËÔ ( ) Æ ( ¸ ) V5 R3 ¸ ] M1M2R1V4 Verse 62 numbered 63 M1M2, numbered together with p¯ ada s ab of verse 63 as 63 V2 5 £Ô ] £ÔÓ V5 Ö× ] [ Ö ]( ) marg,s Ø Ã ] where the aks was originally a × B4 . ara Ø Ã M1M2, M3 Ñ Ú £ ] Ñ Ö ÀÝ M3R1 6 Ò¦ ] Ò R1 ÒÚ £Õ £Õ ] ÝÚ B4 R3 Ò â ] Ò [ x ] â I, Ò M2 Ý 7 Ô ] Ô R3 Ý Ò] Ý Ò M2 ] I, [ xx ]( Ý Ò] with this aks ) marg,s V2 ¸ ] M1M2M3, ¸ R1 . ara marked and variant reading Ò added in margin by s V5 Ú £ ]» £ V4 8 ÚÃ ] Ú [ Ã ] Ã B5, ÚØÃ V4 Ô Verse 63 om. M1M2, p¯ ada s ab numbered together with Ö¦ Ö æ ] Ô Ö Ö ÀÝ ¸ R1 verse 62 as 62 while p¯ ada s cd are numbered together with p¯ ada s ab of verse 64 as 63 V2, numbered 62 V5 9 Ú £] Ú £ V4 ÝÑ £¦ ] ¦ÝÑ £ R1 Ò 10 Ô ¢ Ô ] [Ò ¡ ]Ò ¢ Ô B5 ¡ £¦ ÚÓ ] Ô ÑØ ¸ ] ÑØ B5 Ö Ñ ¸ ] Ö Ñ B 4 R3 11 Ñ¦£ ] Ñ £ R1 ÝÑÇ ] ÝÑÓ B4R3 ¡ £ ÚÓ R1 ÒÚ ] [ x ]( Ò ) supl Ú V5 Ñ 12 Ù£ ] Ùß M3 ÚÓ ] ÚÇ M3R1V5 Ò ] [ x ]( Ñ ) marg Ò V2 302
ÔØ £ Å Ö ¼ Ö ½½ ÑØ ÒÚÖ Ñ ¿ ×ö £é ÖÑ £ÕÚ¸ ¿ Ö Ò ØÝÓ ¢ Ø ½ æº ÖÑ £ÕÚ¸ ¿ Ã ¼ Ñ Ø Ú ÖÑ ÃÓ Ì Ç ØÄÝ Ó  ÝÑÒÚ èÝ ÒÝ¸ ¾º ¾ º ¿ ÃÑ ¼
ß»
 
f. 6v I
Ý Ø ØÌÝÓ Ú ØØ

5
f. 15r V5, f. 5v B5
Ò ¸ ×Ñ Ô Î Ö Ø ÒÇ ¸ º Ú ÖÓ Æ Ô Ú×Ñ ¦ØÖ Ð Ë ÝÓ ÒÇ  ØÃ £
Ö× Ò Ì Ñ
Verse 64 p¯ ada s ab numbered together with p¯ ada s cd of verse 63 as 63 while p¯ ada s cd are numbered 64 V2 1 ÔØ £ ] Ô Ø M1M2 Ö ] Ø R1, [ xx ]( Ö ) marg,s V5 Ö Ñ]
ÖÓÑ R1 ×ö ] ×ÀÝ R1, × [ x ]( ÀÝ ) marg,s V5
f. 7v V4
2 ÖÑ £ÕÚ¸
¿
Ö Ò £ é ØÝÓ
¢ Ø
½ æ] Ö Ñ £ÕÚ¸ Ö Ò é £ÕÚÓ Ì Ö £Õ?Ú¸ Ö Ò £ ØÝÓ ¢ [ æ ]( Ø ) marg,s B4, Ö Ñ ¢ ØÝÓ ¢ Øæ B5, Ö Ñ £ÕÚÓ Ì Ö é £ÕÚ¸ Ö Ø £ ¢ ØÝÓ ¢ Øæ R1, Ö Ñ £ÕÚ¸ Ö Ò é ØÝÓ ¢ Ø¹æ M1M2M3, Ö Ñ ØÝÓ ¢ Øæ I, Ö Ñ £ÕÚÓ Ì ( ) marg Ö [ x ] é £ÕÚÓ Ì Ö ( Ø é ØÝÓ ¢ Øæ V2, Ö Ñ ? ) marg,s ¢ ØÝÓ ¢ Øæ ØÝÓ ¢ Øæ R3, Ö Ñ V3, Ö Ñ £ÕÚ [ Ó ]( ¸ ) [ x ] Ö ( Ò £ ) marg,s Ñ ÒÝÓ ¢ Øæ [ ] with Ñ ÒÝÓ marked and the variant reading ¢ ØÝÓ given in margin by s V5 Ñ ÃÓ ] Ñ Ã ( Ó ) V5 ÃÑ ¼ ] Ç ] Ç V3
3 Ã
¼
Ñ Ø ] Ã ÑØ R1, ¹Ú Ñ Ö V4 Ó ] ØÄÝ èÒÓ R1 Ý ÒÝ¸
Ú Ö ] Ö V4 ¾º ¾ º ¿
4 ØÄÝ
ÒÝæ B4, Ý [ x ] ÒÝæ B5, Ý ÒÝÓ Ý IM3R1V2, Ý ÒÝæ M1M2R3, Ý ÒÝ¸ ¹Ý ¸ V4, Ý ÒÝÓ Ý with ÝÓ Ý marked and the variant reading Ý¸ Ã given in the margin by s V5 ØÌÝÓ ] Ø ØÌÝÓ V3 Ú ØØ Verse 65 5 Ý Ø ] Ô Ø M3 ] Ú V3V4, Ú [ ] V5 5–6 Ò ¸] Ò ¸ M2, Ò¸ V4 6 ×Ñ Ô ] ×Ñ Ý R1, ×Ñ Ô V3 7 Ú ÖÓ ] ?ÖÓ? B5 Æ Ô Ú ] Æ Ô ½ ¾ Ú B5, Æ Ô ( Ø ) marg Ö Ú M1, ² Ô Ö Ú M3, Æ Ô Ú R1 ×Ñ ] ×Ñ B5, ×Ñ R3 ¦Ø ] [ xx ] Ø B4, corrected from Ø to Ø M3 ½ ¾º ¿ B4, ×Ñ ½ ¾º ¿ º Ö Ð ] Ö Ð ½ ¾ V2V4, Ö Ð with ½ ¾ added in the margin by s V5 8 Ë ÝÓ ] Ë ÝÇ M2, ËÔÇ ¿ ¿
M3, ËÔÓ R1, Ø[x] I
ËÔ £ V4, corrected from
ËÝ £ to
Ë ÝÓ V5
Ø]
B5M1M2M3V2V3V4V5,
303
Ç ¸  ¹Ú ÒÕ ¼ Ö²Ý Ò Ò Ú £ Ý Ú Ð Ã £Î Ò ÈÐ ÑÒ ÓÐÝÓ Ò
ÐÚ £Ò ÒÓ Ð ¸º Ó  ÒØ ¹Ø £ ¹ÚÑ
p. 56 R1
f. 3r M1
Ó
¦ ½¿  ¸ Ô ¢ Ì½¼ Ó  Ò Ú Ò Ó ¿ ¢ Ø¸ º ÈÐÝ ÚÔ Ó Ø¸ × Ú Ð ¡Ú Ò ÐÚÓÒ Ú Ð ¸ Ò Ò ÖÒ £» ¾½ ÐÚ ¦ÚØ Ò ¹Ý Ð ÐÚÔ ¸º ¡Ú Ú
Ö £Ò
×Ý Ø Ú Ð × £ ´ ØÒ¦ Ò¸ Ú
Verse 66 1 Ç ¸ ] Ì? Ç ¸ V5 ¼ ] Õ ¼ ÐÚ £Ò B4R3, om. B5M3R1V3V4V5, Õ ÐÚ £Ò ¼ IV3, Õ Ð ¼ Ú £Ò M1 Ú £Ò ] Ú £ [ ] Ò V5 ÒÓ ] ÒÓ ¿ (the numerals obviously belong with the previous verse, but were copied here by the scribe) B5 2 Ö²Ý ] Ö²Ý ( ) V5 Ò ] R1 ] om. B5IM3R1V2V3V4V5 Ð ] Ð B4 ¸] ¸? B4, ¸ M3R1R3V4, ¸ marked and the variant reading ¸ added in the margin by s V5 3 ] om. B5M3R1V2V3V5 ] [ x ]( ) marg V2, ¹Ø V4
Ý ] »Ý M2 Ú Ð ] Ú Ð( ) V5 Ó ÒØ ¹Ø £ ] Ó [ x ] Ò ¹Ø £ B5, Ó ÒØ ¹Ø ß¸ M1, ÓÒ ß¸ M2, ÓÒ ¹Ø £ V2, Ó ( ) Ò [ ] Ø ¹Ø £ V5 £Î Ò ] Ã £ Ò with marked and the variant reading Î added in margin V3 ÈÐ ] Ð R3 4Ã ÓÐÝÓ ] ÓÐÝÓ B4B5IM3R1R3V3V4V5, Ó M1M2, ÓÐÝÓ¸ ? with ? marked and glossed as in the margin (most likely to make the reading clear) V2 Verse 67 numbered 167 V4 5 Ó ] ÒÓ R1, Ó V5 ½¿ ] om.
¦ ] Ó
V4 B5IM3R1V3V5 6 ½¼ ] om. M3R1V3V5 ¸ ] Ø¸ B4R3 Ó ] corrected from £ to Ú ]
V3 ¿ ] om. B5IM3R1V2V3V5 7Ý 8 Ò] Ó B4, £ R3 Ø¸ ] Ý ¸ V3 V4 ] Ó R1 ] om. B4M1R1R3V3 Ú Ð ¸ ] Ú Ð ¸ M3, Ú Ð R1, Ú Ð [ ] ¸ V5 Verse 68 9 Ö ] [ ] Ö V3 ¾½ ] om. B5IM3R1V2V3V5, ¾¾ M2 ? B , ÐÚ ¦ÚØ ] ÐÚ ¦ÚØ £ V4 10 Ô Ú ¸ ] Ô Ú ¸ Ô Ú IR V V , ¸ M2 11 Ú
Ö ] Ú
Ö ¡ ¡ ¡Ô ¡Ú 4 ¡ 1 2 4 Ô ? B4 R3 £Ò ] Ð £Ò V
× Ý Ø ] ×Ñ ¦ÚØ R 12 Ú Ð × ] Õ Ð × B4, corrected 4 1 from Ú Ð to Ú Ð × V Ú £ ´ Ø ] Ú £ ( Ø ) Ø B , Ú £ Ø IR V 5 marg,s 4 3 5 304
5
f. 7r B4
f. 40r V2
10
 ×ù Ø Ú × ÅÑ  Ø ÐÓ ÐÚ ¸ Ã Ö ¼ Ø Ø º ØÓ ÒÚ ÐÆ Ð ¦ÚØ Ú Ð × £Ò Ó Ø ¸ Ò Ò Ö ¦ÑØ ¹» ¿ Ó ÒÃ ¾¼ ØÓ ´Ô  ØØÓ Ú Ð Ñº ×Ñ ØÚ ×Ö× ÝÓ Ð Ô £ ¼ Ö¦ ÖÔ ¡ Ø
f. 8r V4, f. 5v R3
f. 6v V3
5 f. 7r I
×Ø
Ð £ ÈÐ ¹Ú Ð ¦ÚØ Ø Ø ½¼¼ ÐÚ £Ò Ý º Ã ¿¼ à Ó ¡Ú  Ó ÐÚÔ Ã ¡ Ô ½ ¼  ÐÚ Ð¸ Ò¸ ½
Verse 69 1 ] M1M2M3, ? V5 Ø Ú ] Ø Ú¸ M1 ] om. B5M3R1V2V3V4V5 2
ÐÓ ]
Ð
B4R3 ÐÚ ¸ ] Ð [ ] Ú ¸ V4 Ã Ö ] ÃÖ Ö R1 ¼ ] om. B5 IM3R1V3V5 Ø Ø ] Ø ¸ V5 3 ] corrected from to B5 ÒÚ ] Ò [ x ] Ú I ] om. B5V3V5,
ÒÚ V2 Ð ¦ÚØ ] Ð ¦ÚØ M1 4 Ú Ð × £Ò
Ó Ø ¸ ] Ú Ð × £Ò Ú Ó Ø R1 Ó Ø ¸ ] Ó Ø¸ R3, Ó ¸ V3 Verse 70 numbered 7 V4 5 ¹» ] [x] ¿ ] om. with ¹» following as an insert written between markers in the line below M3 B5M3R1V2 ¾¼ ] om. Ó ] corrected from £ Ó to Ó M3, corrected from £ to Ó V5 ¾¼ ? B5M3R1V3V5, ÒÃ I 6 ] V4 Ú Ð ] Ú Ð [× Ñ ] Þ V2, Ñ¸ V4 ] I 7 ] om. B5IM3R1V2V3V4 ×Ñ Ø ] ×Ñ Ø R3 Ú ×Ö ] Ú ×Ö V4 8 Ð ] Ð M1M2R3, Ð R1 Ô £ ] corrected from Ô £ to Ô Verse 71 numbered ¡ Ø ¡ Ø ¡ Ø¸ V5 70 V2 9
Ð £ ]
Ö £ M1M2 ÈÐ ] ÔÐ V4 ¹Ú ] ( ¹Ú ) marg M1 10 Ø ] R1 ½¼¼ ]
10 p. 57 R1 f. 40v V2
] om. B5M1M2M3R1R3V3, V5 11 ] [ Ó ] M1 om. B5M1M2M3R1R3V3V5 ¿¼ ] om. R1V3 à Ó ] £ B4R3, Ó M1 12 ½ ¼ ] B4, ( Ø ) marg,s V5 ] ÐÚ Ð¸ ] ÐÚÓÒ [ xx ] Ð¸ I, ÐÚ Ð¸ M3, ÐÚ ÈÐ¸ R1, ÐÚÓÒ Ð¸ corrected to om. B5M3V3 ÐÚ Ð¸ and with ÐÚ ó Ð¸ added in the margin as well V2, ÐÚ Ð¸ with Ú marked and the variant reading ÚÓÒ given in the margin by s V5 305
½¼ Ó ÒÇ Ó ÐÚ Ú¡ ¹Ú Ý » ¿ Ó ÒØ £Ò º £ ½ Ý Ð× Ú £Ò Ý Ñ Ý ØÑÆ ¹Ý Ô Ø Ú Ý £ ¾ ½¼ Ø ¹» ¿ ØÓ Ò×û¸ ¹Ú ¢ Ø ¾¾ ÚÝ Ñº Ð
¦ ØÑ¸ ¹ÚÈÐ £Ò Ý ØÓÒ ¸ ¹Ú Ú Ù Ý £ 
Ö ¸  ¹Ý ¿ ¸ Ø Ú Ø ÑØ Ø º Ø Ø Ð  Æ Ñ Ú ØÃ £Î¸ ¹Ý Ø
Verse 72 1 ½¼ ] om. B4B5M3R1R3V3V5, Ó ½¼ I Ó ] Ç M1 ÒÇ Ó ] ÒÇ [ x ]( Ó ) marg,s B4 Ú ¡ ] Ú [ x ] B4, Ò ¡ M2 2 ¹Ú Ý » ] ¹Ú Ý » R1, ¹Ú Ý ¹» V4 ¿ ] om. B5IM1M2M3R1V2V3V4V5 ÒØ ] Ø M1M2 ] [ x ]( ) marg,s V5 3 ½] ½ £ ½ V3V4, Ú £ V5 4 Ñ — Ý £ ] Ô ´Ý Ø × Ñ £ I, ÝÓ Ý Ø om. B5IV2, Ú £
ÔØ ?Ô£? ² ¹Ý Ô Ø Ú Ý £ is added × Ñ £ but this is marked and the variant reading Ñ £
ÔØ in the margin V2, ÝÓ Ý Ø × Ñ £ V4 Ñ Ý ] corrected from Ñ ÝÓ to Ñ Ý V5
ÔØ Verse 73 5 ½¼ ] om. B5IM3R1V2V3V5, placed between and Ø V4 Ø ] [x]Ø M3, corrected from to Ø V4 ¿ ] om. B5IM3R1V2V3V5 6 ¹Ú ¢ Ø ] ¹Ú ( ) ¢ Ø B4, ¹Ú [ x ] ¢ Ø I, ¹Ú ¢ Ø R3 ¾¾ ] om. IM1M3R1V2V3V5, ¾?¾ V4 ÚÝ ] ÚÝ Ø¸ B4R3 Ñ] B4 7 ØÑ¸ ] ØÑ M1 ¹ÚÈÐ £Ò ] ÈÐ £Ò M1 Ý 8 ¹Ú Ú ] ØÓÒ ¸ ] Ý ØÓÒ IV2 ¹Ú Ú ¸ B5, ¹Ú Ú R1 Ù Ý £
Ö ¸ ]
Ö Ù Ý £ B4R3, Ù Ý £
Ö ¸ with f. 6r ending after the £ Ã
Ö I, Ù Ý £
Ö M1M2, Ù Ý £ Ã
Ö ¸ V2V4 Verse 74 numbered ﬁrst ﬁrst B5, Ù Ý 75 but corrected to 74 M1, numbered 75 M2 before the verse M1 and M2 inserts: » ÖÚ ¸
£ Ú ´Ý Ò × ØÇ Ç Ø¦ÑÝÑ £ Ø Ø ËÔÒ £ Ø (M2 ¡ Ò ¾ ¸ × Ò £ instead of Ø¦ÑÝÑ £) 9 ] V4 10 Ú Ø ] [ xxx ] Ú ( Ø ) marg M3 Ñ Ø] has Ø¦ÑÑ Ñ Ø M1, Ø V4 11 Ø ] Ò M2, Ú Ø V5 Ø ] M3 12 Ñ Ú Ø ] Ñ Ø Ø R1 Ã £Î¸ ] Ã £Î¸ [ x ] B4, Ã £Î M1 306
5
f. 6r B4, f. 7r B4
10
f. 8v V4
ÐÆ Ó Ñ ×¸ ¹È £
£ ÎÓ Ð ÝØ Ã » ¿¼ Ú º ¢Ǒ Ú ØØ¸ × Ò ÝÓ Æ ÑÝ £ ÒÇ ¸ Ý Ø Ñ × ¹Ø Ô ½ Ò¸ × × Ñ×ÅÔ ¡Ý É Ñ ×¹Ý Ø âÝÓ  Ñ ´Ú
 Ø º ´Ú ÝØ £
5 f. 32r M3
f. 7v I, f. 41r V2 f. 7r V3
Ñ £Õ × ÑÓ Ý» ¦ Ñ× £ ÝØ £º × Ñ ×Ó Ñ × ¸ ¹Ý ¦Ñ Ú Ú ¸ ¢Õ
10
f. 15v V5
Verse 75 numbered 75 75 V4 1 ÐÆ Ó ] ÐÆ B4, Ð [ x ] Ó I, ÐÓÆ Ó M1 ¹È ÎÓ ] corrected from ¹È 2 ] [ ] B5 ¿¼ ] om. B5IM3R1V3V5 Ó to ¹È ÎÓ V3, È ÎÓ V4 Ú ]Ú IM3V2, Ú Ú V4, Ú Ú ) marg,s V5 ] Ú B4M3R3, ¢Ǒ ¢ ¢ ¢ [ Ǒ ? ]( Ú V3 3 ØØ¸ ] corrected from Ø ¸ to ØØ¸ V3 ÒÇ ¸ ] [ x ] ÒÇ ¸ V3 Ú£Ý R1, Ú 4 Ý Ø ] corrected from Ý to Ý Ø V3 Ñ × ¹Ø ] Ñ × ¸¹Ø M3, Ñ × ¹Ø V4 ½ ] om. B4B5IM3R1R3V2V3V4V5 Verse 76 5× ] [x]× B4 × Ñ ] × ¢ Ñ R1 ×ÅÔ ] ¡Ý ¡ ¥Ý ×Ô ( ) B4, ×ÅÔ R3 6É ] É R3 Ñ × ] Ñ × [ ] V3 V3 7 Ø â] Ø ] corrected from â to Ø â V3 8 ´Ú ] ´Ú £ V4 Verse 77 ´Ú ] [ x ]( ) marg,s w V5 numbered 78 and placed after verse 79 IV4, placed after verse 79 V2 9Ñ £Õ ] Ñ £Õ ¸ M1 £] Ñ × £ £ V2 ÝØ £ ] Ñ ÝØ £ V4 11 × ¸ ] ( × ) supl I, × M1, × M2R1, × x 10 ¦ Ñ × ¸ M3 ¹Ý ] ¹Ý ( ) V5 12 ¦Ñ Ú ] ¦Ñ www V5 307
¦ßâ ½¾ Ñ  × ßæ Ø Ì ¸ é Ï ½½ ×ö ß¹ØÌ Ò ¹» ¿ Ö Ò× Ý ¿ ÔÐ ß¸ ¹Ý ´×Ç  ÖÚÕ ÝØ¸ º ¹ÑÒ ÚÚ´×Ö £Ý   ¹Ý Æ Ú ¢ Ǒ ØØÓ Ñ× ß¸ × Ö Ó ¦ÑØ ßÖ Ñ ¹» ÌÑ ÝÑ¸
p. 58 R1 f. 6r R3 f. 41v V2, f. 4r M2
Verse 78 numbered 79 and with a diﬀerent second half (see apparatus) and placed after verse 77 IV4, numbered 78 and with a diﬀerent second half and placed after verse 77 V2, second half of verse marked as not belonging in his other manuscript and diﬀerent second M3, ß â half inserted in margin and renumbered as 79 by s V5 1 ¦ßâ ] ß â R1 ½¾ ] see next p¯ ada B4M1M2M3R1R3, om. B5V3V4V5, ß ½¾ æ I Ø Ì ¸ ] Ø Ì[Ý £] ¸ M1 ½½ ] see end of next p¯ ada B4M1M2M3R1R3, om. IV2V4V5 ×ö ß¹ØÌ ] × ß¹ØÌ B4R3, ×ÀÝ ß¹ØÌ ( ) V5 2 ¹» Ö Ò× Ý ] ¹» Ö è× Ý I, ¹Ø× ¢ ¹»× Ý R1V2V4, with Ö Ò× Ý marked and the variant reading ¹Ø× ¢ ¹» added in the margin R3, with Ö Ò marked and the variant reading è added in the margin by s V5 ¿ ] see later this p¯ ada B4M1M2M3R1R3, ¿ ] see after ÔÐ ß¸ B4M3R1R3, ¾ I, see end of the p¯ ada M1M2, ¿ V5 om. B5IV3V4 ÔÐ ß¸ ] ÔÐ ß¸ ½¾º ½½º ¿º ¿ B4, Ð ß ¿ ½ M3, ÔÐ ß¸ ¿ ½º ¿º ¿º ¾ R1, ÔÐ ß¸ º ¾¾º ½½º ¿º ¿ R3, ÔÐ ß¸ wwwww ¿ ¿ ¾ V5 ¹Ý ´×ÇÖ ] ×Ý ´×ÇÖ M3 ÝØ¸ ] ØØ¸ I, ÝØ¸ ½¾º ½½º ¿º ¿ M1, ÝØ¸ ½º ¾º ½½º º ¿ M2 3–4 ¹Ñ — ÑÝÑ¸ ] × ØâÝ×Ý ¹Ý ¦Ñ Ø × £´ ØÔ ÖÅ£ Ø´× Ñ¸ ØÓ Ò ØÓ Ñ × ÝÓ ×Ç Ý I, found combined with verse 83 (see there) but as second half of this verse is × ØâÝ×Ý ØÓ Ò ØÓ Ñ ×¸ ÝÓ ×Ç Ý ¸ ¹Ý ¦Ñ Ø × £´ ØÔ ÖÅ£ Ø´× Ñ¸ V2, × ØâÝ×Ý ØÓ Ò ØÓ Ñ ×¸ ÝÓ ×Ç Ý ¸ ¹Ý  (f. 9r V4)¦Ñ Ø × £´ ØÔ ÖÅ£ Ø´× Ñ¸ V4, originally this is second half of the verse but s has marked this as not found in his other manuscripts and inserted × ØâÝ×Ý ØÓ Ò ØÓ Ñ ×¸ ÝÓ ×Ç Ý £´ ØÔ ÖÅ£ Ø´× Ñ¸ in the margin combining it ¸ ¹Ý ¦Ñ Ø × Ã with p¯ ada s ab as a verse 79 V5 3 ¹ÑÒ Ú ] ¹Ñ Ö Ú M1 Ú´×Ö £ ] Ú´×Ö £ M2, ´×Ö £ V3 Ý ] Ý B5 Æ Ú 4 × Ö Ó ¦ÑØ ß] ¢Ǒ ] Ú ¢ Ý M1M2, Æ Ú ¢ Ý M3V5, Æ Ô ¢ Ý V2 × Ö Ó ¿¾º ½ [ x ] ¦ÑØ ß B4, × Ö Ó ¦ÑØ ß¸ ¿¾º ½ M1, × Ö Ó ¦ÑØ ß ¿¾º ½ M2, × Ö Ó ¿¾º ½ ¦ÑØ ß R3 Ñ ¹» ] Ñ [ x ] ¹» B4, corrected from ÑÓ ¹» to Ñ ¹» B5, Ñ ¹¹» R3 Ñ ÝÑ¸ ] ÑÝÑ ¸ V5 308
£ ÚÒ Ò ÒÑ£¸ ¹Ý ¦ÑÝ ´Ý Ø Ö Ç Ö ÚÑ × Ó Ì Ñ ¢ ¦Ñ ×¹Ø £º ´Ý¦ØÖ ¹Ý Ú× ÚÒ Ý Ø
£ Ñ £Ú Ú Ó Ñ× Ý Ó ÖÚ £Ö Ñ ¹Ø´× ¦ØÓ ¦ÑØ ß¸ ØÓ Ñ ÐÒ  ¦Ø Ñ ×¸ × × £¦ ×Ñ Ñ ¦Ø¸ º ¡Ý Ø ¦ØÖ £
£ Ú× Ñ¸ ¹Ý × ¹´Ú Ó ¦ÝÌ ×Ç Ø Ò ÑÌ ×Å Ú Ý £º Ô ¢ Ý¸ × ØÓ ÚÖ Ñ Ð¸ ¹È £ Å Ò×¹ ¢ ØÓ » ÎÓ Ú Ý
5 f. 8r B4
¼
10
½
Verse 79 numbered 77 and placed between verse 76 and verse 77 IV4, numbered 76 and placed between verse 76 and verse 77 V2, combined with second half of last verse and renumbered as 78 by s V5 1 £ ÚÒ ] £ ( ) ÚÒ with ÚÒ marked and the annotation ¡ Ò added in the margin by s B4 ÒÑ£¸ ] ÒÑ£ M1 ´Ý ] ´Ý M1 Ø ] ØÌ M1 2 Ñ × Ó ] Ñ × £ M1M2 Ì ] ( ) supl,s B4 ´Ý¦ØÖ £ ] ´ÝØÖ ß R3, ´ÝØÖ V5 3 Ñ £Ú ] Ñ £ [ ] Ú V3 4 Ñ× ] Ñ× ¾ º ¿½º I, Ñ× ¾ º ¿½º ¼ V2V4, Ñ× ( ¾ º ¿½º ) marg,s (after the rest of the margin is cut oﬀ due to copying process) V5 Ý Ó] Ý R1 Ö Ñ ¹Ø´× ] Ö Ñ ¹Ø´× M1, Ö Ñ ´× M2, Ö Ñ ¸ ¹Ý ´× with ¹Ý marked and the variant ¦ØÓ ¦ÑØ ß¸ ] ØÓ ¦ÑØ ß ( ¸ ) supl ¿¾º ½ B4, reading × added in the margin V2, Ö Ñ ¸ ¹Ý ´× V4 ØÓ ¦ÑØ ß¸ ¿¾º ½ M1M2, [ x ] ØÓ ¦ÑØ ß¸ V2V5, ØÓ ¦ÑØ ß¸ ¿¾ ½½ ½ V4 Verse 80 given in the margin B4, om. I, given in the margin with no variants with the given text V2, placed before verse 81 V4 5 ØÓ ] ØØÓ B4, Ö ØÓ M1M2, ¦ØØÓ R3, Ý ØÓ V4 Ñ ÐÒ ¦Ø ] Ñ Ð ( Ò ) marg Ø V3, Ñ ÐÒ Ø V4, Ñ ( Ð ) marg,s V5 6 Ñ ×¸ ] Ñ × ß¸ V3 × £¦ ] × £ V3 ¡Ý ¡Ý ×Ñ Ñ ¦Ø¸ ] ×ÑÓØ¸ V4 7 £ Ú] £ Ú M3R1, Ú V4 × Ñ¸ ] × Ñ M1, × Ñ M2, × Ñ M3, × Ñ R1 ¹Ý ] ¦Ì M3 8 ¹´Ú Ó ] x Ó B5 ¦ÝÌ ] ¦Ý M3 Verse 81 om. I numbered 82 R1, in margin but mainly illegible due to copying process V2, erased in main text but added again in margin and numbered 81 by s without variants from given text V5 9 ] Ý M2 Ý ] Ý ( ) subl B5, Ñ M3 ] Ò R1 , V3, V4 R1 , Ô 11 × ØÓ ] 10 Ô ¢ ] Ô ¢ [ x ]( ) marg,s B4, ¢ V3, corrected from Ô to Ô ¢ V4 × Ø M3 12 ¹È ÎÓ ] ¹È [ Ó ]( ÎÓ ) marg V3 309
ÝØ¸ ¹È £ ÚÖ Ñ Ð £ Î ¢ × ¡ »×¹ÌÇ Ö Ú ØÖ Ñ º £Ò Ô ¢  Ò ÑÌ ÒæÝ ¹Ý Ø Ø ÓÐ Ú Ó Ú ¦Ø

¾
f. 6v B5
Ã Ã £¡ ½ ¼¼¼¼ Ø Ý´ Ð ¹Ø Ñ £Ø¹Ý Ý Ø ß©ÝÝÓÖËÔ Ñ º Ø Ú ½ Ô Ú ß¸ ¿ × ¾ ×ö ß ¾ Ø ß¸ ¾¾ Ã Ò ¸  ¿¼ Ã ß ¼ Ö ¢ ÝÑ
5
f. 8r I
¸
¿
f. 7v V3
om. I, in the margin without variants from the given text V2, given between ¾ verse 83 and verse 84 and renumbered 83 by s V5 1 ÝØ¸ ] ÝØ¸ V5 2 Ö Ñ ] Ö Ñ M1 3 Ô ÑÌ ] Ñ Ø M3 4 ¹Ý Ø ] ¹Ý M1M2, ¹Ý ¢ ] Ô ¢  [ ]Ô ¢ B5 R3 Ú ¦Ø ] Ú¦ Ø R3, Ú Ø V3 Verse 83 numbered 80 and placed after verse ¿ 79 I, numbered 81 M3, not numbered V2, placed before verse 82 V5 5 Ã ] Ã V5 Ã ] Ã V3 5–6 ¡ — ËÔ Ñ ] ¡ Ø ½ ¼¼¼¼ Ý Ø Ð £¸ £ÕÝ Ø ß©ÝÝÓÝ Ú £ ËÔ I 5 ¡ ] ¡ Ñ M1M3R1 ½ ¼¼¼¼ ] om. B5M3R1V3, Ø ½ ¼¼¼¼ V2, ¡ ½ ¼¼¼¼ V5 6 ¹Ø Ñ £] Ø Ý £ V4 Ø¹Ý ] marked and the annotation Ð added in the margin by s B4 ÝØ ß©Ý ] ¹Ý Ø ß©Ý with ¹Ý marked and the variant reading Ý added in the margin V3 ÝÓÖËÔ Ñ ] ÝÓÖ ( ) supl ËÔ B4, ½ ¿ ß¸ ½½ V4 ½ ] om. B5M3V2V3, Ø Ú I ¿ ] om. B5M3V2V3, Ô Ú ß¸ I ¾ ] om. 7 Ø Ú ] Ø Ú ¾ B5M3V2V3, × I 7–8 ¾ — ¢ ÝÑ ß¸ ] om. V4 7 Ø ] Ø [ Ú Ý £ Ý¸ × ØÓ ÚÖ Ñ Ð¸ ¹È ÎÓ Ú £ ÚÒ×¹ ¢ ØÓ » xx ] V5 8 ¢ ÝÑ ß¸ ] ¢ ÝÑ ß R1 ¾¾ ] om. B5M3V3 Ã Ò ¸ ] Ã Ò R1 ¾¼ ¿¼ ] om. B5M3V3 Ã ß ] Ã ß[Ú ? xx ] R1 ¼ ] om. M3V3, Ã ß I Ö ¸ ]Ú ¸ Ú B5 , Ú ¸ ¿ M1M2, Ö ¸ M3, Ö R1, Ö ¸ R3, ¸ V3, Ö ¸Ý after the V4 verse is an annotation in the margin Ó£ Õ ¼ Ø ÈÐ Ò º Ô Ø £ » Ø ¿¼ Ø ÈÐ º Ú ¢ ×Ñ Ú Ø I 310
Verse 82
Ò¦ Ò Ý £Ò ¼¼¼¼ ßÝ Ø Ø ¸ × ×ÇÖ ÚÒ ¸ ÔÖ £ Ú Ø ¸ º ¡Ý ÑÒ £Ò ¹È ¢ ×Ñ´Ú Î ÑÓ Ö
Ý Ú ¸ Ð Ø¸ Ö× ½¾ ÝÓ Ò  Ø ¦Ý Ì ¦Ø Öß¸ ¿¾ ¡Ý ¹Ú Ñ Ã ¼ ÑØ ßÒ Ã ß ¾¼ ¹Ø × ÖÓ Ñ ÖÖ £¦ ¸ ½ º ÔÝ ËÝ Þ Ö» ¸ ½¼ ¹Ý â´× ËÑ Ô Ö Ã ß ¼ Þ ÝÒ Ô ½½¼ ¹Ø¹Ñ ´ Þ £» Ñ  Ö
Verse 84 numbered 81 I, numbered 82 M3, placed after verse 79 but not numbered V2, placed after verse 82 and not numbered but numbering given as 83 by sV5 before the verse £Ô Ç ¾ V5 1 Ò¦ ] Ò R3 Ò Ý £Ò ] marked and the annotation ¼¼¼¼ added Ø in the margin by s B4 ¼¼¼¼ ] om. B5M3V3, Ø £Ò ¼¼¼¼ IV2, ¼¼¼¼ M2, ( ¼¼¼¼ ) marg,s V5 ßÝ Ø ¸ ] ßÝ Ø ¸ M , ÓßÝ Ø ¸ M , ÇÝ Ø ¸ V 2 ×ÇÖ ÚÒ ¸ ] ×ÇÖ ¸ÚÒ ¸ M3, ×ÇÖ ¸ÚÒ Ý R1 1 3 3 ÔÖ £ Ú Ø ¸ ] ÔÖ £ Ú Ø ¸ with ÔÖ £ marked and the annotation
Þ ? added in the margin by s B4, ÔÖ £ Ú Ø I, ÔÖ ßÚ Ø ¸ R1 3 ÑÒ £Ò ] ÑÒ £Ò M1V4 ¹È ] ¹È Î] [ Î I, ¹È 4 Ú] B5, Ã R1 Verse 85 numbered 82 I, numbered Ð M1, ¹È Î V4 83 M3, numbered 80 V2, not numbered V4, not numbered but numbering given as 83 by s V5 5 Ð Ø¸ ] corrected from Ð Ú¸ to Ð Ø¸ V5 ½¾ ] om. B5IV3, ÝÓ Ò ½¾ M3V5 Ø ] ØÇ V3 ¦Ý Ì ¦Ø Öß¸ ¿¾ ] ¹Ý £Ú ¦Ý ØØ¸ IV2V4, marked and the variant reading ¹Ý £Ú ¦Ý ØØ¸ added in margin by s V5 ¦Ø ] B4, Ø ( ) V3 Öß¸ ] Ö ß¸ with ¿¾ ß¸ marked and the reading ß¸ added in margin V3 ¿¾ ] Öß¸ B4B5, om. R3V3 6 Ã ] ¼ Õ with Õ marked with two halfcircles above it V5 ¼ ] Ã B5, om. IV2V3, ÑØ ß ¼ M2 ¾¼ ÑØ ß ] corrected from ÑØÇ to ÑØ ß V3 Ò Ã ß ] ÒÃ ß ( ¸ ) supl [ x ] I, ÒÃ ß M2 ¾¼ ] ÒÃ ß B5, om. IM3R1V2V3, ¹Ø ¹Ø Ñ Ö] Ñ Ö M3, ¾¼ M1, × ÖÓ ¾¼ V5 × ÖÓ ] × × ÖÓ I, ¹´Ý × ÖÓ V3 ½¼ Ñ Ö R3 ½ ] £ ¸ B5, om. IR1V2V3 7 ÔÝ ËÝ ] Ô¥Ý ËÝ with ¥Ý marked and the ] ËÝ B5, om. IR1V2V3, ËÝ V5 Þ Ö] ½¼ Þ [ x ]( ) supl,s Ö V5 » ]» R3, R1 , V4 ½¼ ] B5, om. IR1V2 ¹Ý â´× ] é Ú´× IV2V3V4, ¹Ý [ xxx ] â´× R3 Ô ËÑ ] ËÚ M3R1 Ö ] ØØ¸ IV2V3V4, ÔÖ marked and ¼ with the variant reading ØØ¸ added in margin by s V5 8 ¼ ] Ã ß B5, om. IM3R1V2V3 Þ ÝÒ ] Þ ÝÒ M1V2V5 ½½¼ ] ] [ x ] V5 ½¼ B4R3, om. B5IR1V2V3 ¹Ø¹Ñ ] Ø¹Ñ M1 variant reading 311
added in margin by s B4
5 f. 9v V4
f. 6v R3, f. 41v e V2
Ø¹Ñ ¦Ñ £  ÞÝÓ Ò ß¹Ø ÚÒ ß ¾ £ ÖÚ ¡ Ñ £Ñ ÝÖ £Ã ÒÞ £ ÖÃ Ô ß¸ Ö¹ÚÒ Ö ¦ØÖÝÓ Ò ÀÝ Ã £ Ö  Ò Ø Ø Ú ¹Ô£  Ò ¡ Ô Ö Ò Ð Ò ÑÝ £ Ò Ô Ö ÔÖÔ  ×¹Ì £ £ ¡Ú º
f. 8v B4
f. 3v M1 5 f. 16r V5
p. 60 R1
¹ÚÔ ßÝÓ Ò ß¸ ¹Ý Ö× ÖÒ ¦ØÝÓ Ò ´Ô Ö ÖÚ Ò ÓÐ £ ËÔØ¸ ¹È ÎÓ ×Ç º Ú ÒÔ Ö Ñ Ò ÐÅ Ú Ú Ò » ÚÒ Ø¹Ý Ñ Ò ÒÞ Ñ
f. 8v I
10
Verse 86 not numbered B5M1M2M3R1R3V3, numbered 83 I, numbered 85 V4, numbered 83 V5 1 Ø¹Ñ ] ¹Ø¹Ñ M1 ÝÓ Ò ß¹Ø ÚÒ ß ¾ ] ÝÓ Ò ß¹Ø ÚÒ ß¸ ¾ with Ò ß¹Ø ÚÒ ß¸ ¾ marked and the variant reading Ò ß¸ Ã Ò ß ¼¼ added in margin by s V5 ÝÓ Ò ß ] ÝÓ Ò ß¸ M1 ¹Ø Ú ] ¹Ø´Ú B4B5IM1M2M3R1R3V3 Ò ß ] corrected from Ò Ç to Ò ß V3 ¾ ] om. IR1V3V4, added in margin R3 2£ ÖÚ ¡ ] £ ÖÚÑ £ R1, ß ÖÚ ¡ V4 Ñ Ý ] Ñ Ý £ B5 ¡Ñ Verse 87 numbered 86 B5M1M2R1V3, numbered 85 I, numbered 84 M3, numbered 87 R3V4, numbered 84 V5 placed after verse 88 IV4 3Ô ÝÓ Ò ] ÝÓ Ò V3 Ö] Ô Ö¸ I 4 Ø ] Ø M 5 ¹Ô£Ò ] ¹Ô£ [ Ò xx ] Ò V Ò ] Ò [ Ø ] I Ò ] Ò I 6 Ô Ö] £ 2 5 ? Verse 88 numbered 87 B5M1M2R1V3, Ö to Ô Ö V4 ×¹Ì £ ] ×¹Ì £ V3 corrected from Ô £ £ numbered 84 I, numbered 85 M3V5, numbered 88 R3, numbered 86 V4 placed before £Þ verse 87 IV4 7× ÖÒ ¦Ø ] × Ö Ò Ø B5 × ÖÒ Ø with Ò Ø marked and the annotation × Ñ added in the margin by s R3, Ò [ ]( ) marg,s Ø V5 ÝÓ Ò ßÝÓ Ò ß¸ ] ÝÓ Ò ßÝÓ Ò ß IR1, Ý? ÒÝÓ Ò £¸? ß [ ¸ ]( ÝÓ Ò ß¸ ) marg,s V5 ¹Ý ] ¹Ý ( ) V3 8 ÖÚ Ò ] Ò M1, Ã Ò R1 ÓÐ £ ] ?Ð £ M3 M3, ÝÓ Ò ËÔØ¸ ¹È 9 Ú ] V3 Ú Ò ] Ò V4 ÎÓ ] ËÔØ ( ¸ ) supl ¹È ÎÓ B4, ¹ Î¸ ËÔØÓ R1 10 » ÚÒ ] marked and the annotation » ÝÝ added in the margin by s B4, » ÒÚ I, » ÚÒ R1, »×? ÚÒ V4, corrected from » ÚÒ to » ÚÒ V4 ] ( ¿ ¿ ) marg,s V5 312
Ó ÑÝ Ø× ß Ñ Ò ×Ñ ÖØ ¦Ý Ý Ú ×Ò ¢ ØÕ £ º Ú¹Ø ¢ Ø Ý × Ý Ýã Ú Ý Ô ¦Ø × Ö ¹ÚËÔ × ÚÐÝ Ú Ö× ¸

´Ì é Ñ
Ò Ì ´Ñ £  Ò
5
f. 10r V4, f. 7r B5
Ó £  Ø¦» £ ÒÖ £Ò ÖÅÝ £º ¦Ì Ö Ö ¡ Ø £ ¡Ø £ × ¡ Ý Ò ÑÝÑ Ò ÒÞ Ñ
f. 7v e V3
¼
Verse 89 numbered 88 B5R1V3V4, numbered 86 IM3V5, numbered 87 M1M2 1 Ó ] Ù IV4 ÑÝ Ø ] ÑÝ Ò I, ÑÝ » V4 1–2 × ßÝ ] × Ñ Ò ×Ñ ÖØ ¦Ý Ñ Ò ×Ñ ÖØ [ x ]( ß ) marg,s Ý B4 , × ßÚ IV2V4, × Ñ Ò ×Ñ ÖØ ßÝ B5M1R3, × Ñ Ò ×Ñ ÖØ ÒÝ Ñ Ò×Ñ ÖØ ßÝ M2, × Ñ Ò ×Ñ Ö ßÝ V3, × Ñ Ò ×Ñ ÖØ ¦Ý ß Ý with Ò ×Ñ ÖØ ¦Ý ß Ý marked and the variant reading ¦Ý×Ñ ÖØ Ú Ý added in the margin by s V5 2 Ú¹Ø £ ] »¹Ø £ B4R3, Ú¹ ¢ Ø Ý ¢ Ø Ø £ M1M2, Ú¹Ø £ M3, Ú¹Ø £ R1, Ú× Ý £ V3, Ú¹Ø £ V4 3× Ý ¢ Ø Ý ? Ø Ý ¢Ø Ý ¢ ¢ Ø Ý Ýã ] ¡ Ñ Ð IV2V4, × Ý Ýã with × Ý Ýã marked and the variant reading ¡ Ñ Ð added in the margin by s V5 × Ö ] ×ÇÖ B4B5M1M2M3R1R3V3, corected from × Ö to × Ö V4, ×ÇÖ with ×Ç marked and the variant reading × added in the margin by s V5 4 × R1 , × Ö× ¸ ] Ö× V3, corrected from ] V2V4V5, × V3 Ö× Verse 90 numbered 89 B5R1V3V4, numbered 87 IM3V5, ¸ to Ö× ¸ V4 numbered 88 M1M2 6–7 Ó £ — ¡ Ø £ ] om. V5 6 Ó £ ] Ó M3 7 Ö] Ö R1 £] ¡Ø £ [ ¡Ø £] I 8 Ò ] Ò R1 Ñ Ò ÒÞ Ñ ] Ñ Þ B4R3, ¡Ø Ñ Ò ÒÞ M1M2 Colophon ( Ø é Ò Ö ´Ñ ÒÖ ÚÖ Ø £ × Ø× Ö Ø Ý Ý £ £ Ø Ø é Ñ Ò Ì ´Ñ ÒÖ ÚÖ Ø £ × Ø× £ Ö ÑÝÑ Ö¸ ÑÝÑ Ö¸ ÌÑ¸ ) marg,s ) B4, ×Ô × Ø× Ö ÑÝ [ x ] ÒÝÒ Ö¸ ÌÑ¸ ¡ ¸ B5, Ø × Ð × ØÚ ×Ò Ú Ö Ø Ö Ñ´ Ö Ö £ I, Ø é Ñ Ò Ì ´Ñ ÒÖ ÚÖ Ø £ × Ð × ØÚ ×Ò Ú Ö Ñ´ ¢ Ø Ö ×Ø» £ Ö × Ø× Ö Ö £ ÑÝÑ Ö¸ ÌÑ¸ ×Ô Ø é Ñ Ò Ì ´Ñ ÒÖ ÚÖ Ø £ × Ð ×´ ØÚ ×Ò Ú Ö ¡ ¸ M1, Ö Ñ´ ¢ Ø Ö ×Ø» £ Ö ×´ Ø× Ö ÑÝÑ Ö¸ ÌÑ¸ ×Ô Ø é Ñ´× Ð × Ø £ ¡ ¸ M2, Ú ×Ò Ú Ö Ø ÒÖ ÝØ × Ø× £ Ò Ö Ö ÖØÖ ÔÖ ¹»Ö ¹Ý ÖÚ ×Ò ©Ý× ¡ Ò Ú £ ¡ ©Ý × £ Ø Ø Ñ Ç ÑÝ Ø× Ò Ö¸ ×Ñ ¸ (colophon for Cint¯ aman ¡Ò Ô Ø Ø Ñ ÚÖ Ø . i’s commentary) M3, om. R1, om. R3, Ø é × Ð × Ø× Ö ÑÝÑ ÒÝÒ Ö¸ ÌÑ¸ V4, om. £ V5 313
Ì

Ø Ý Ý £ ¹Ô
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f. 9r I
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f. 4v M2 5
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chapter opens Ì ¹Ô Ö¸ B5 Verse 1 2 ÒÒ ] Ò Ò M3, Ò V4 Ý Ò ] Ý Ø M3 Ô ] Ô Ôä V4 3 ÑùÐ £Õ £Õ £Õ 4 ÈÐ ] ÈÐ V5 5 Ú Ñ ] ( Ú ) marg,s ] Ñ Ð [Ñ Ð ] V5 R3 Verse 2 tables listing the contents of verses 2–5 found in B5IM3R2R3V2V4V5 6 Ô ¢ ØÝÓ ] Ô [ x ]( ¢ ) marg ØÝÓ I, Ô £ ¢ Ø £ÝÓÖ V4 ¾¾ ] om. B4B5IM1M2M3R1R3V5, ¾ V4 ] om. B4B5IM1M2M3R1R3V5 7 ¡ ßÐØ ßÐ ] ¡ ÐÇ [ Ö ] Ð M1, ¡ ÖÇÐ M2, ¡ ÇÐ M3, ¡ Ì V4, ¡ ßÐ V5 ½ ] om. B4B5IM1M2M3R1R3V5, ÑØ ¸ ½ V4 ÑØ ¸ ] ÑØ R1 Ò¦ ] Ø M1M2, Ò M3 Ò ¸ ] Ò ( ¸ ) supl B4, ¸ V4 ¼ ] om. B4B5IM1M2M3R1R3V5 8 ] I Ú ¸ ] Ú ¸ IV4, [ x ]( ) marg,s Ú ¸ V5 ½½¼ ] om. B4B5IM1M2M3R1R3V5 ½¿½ ] om. B4B5IM1M2M3R1R3V5 9 Ú ´Ý ] Úè´Ý B4R3, Ú ( ´Ý ) marg I, ´Ý M3 ½ ¾¼ ] om. B4B5IM1M2M3R1R3V5, ½ ¼ V4 ] R1, V4 ] Ø V Ý ] [ Ò ] Ý[x] ¡ ¡ 4 B4, ( ) marg Ý I, ÝÝ R3, Ò V4V5 ½ ½ ] om. B4B5IM1M2M3R1R3V5 314

Ú ½ ½¼ ¹» Ó
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f. 8v ends B4 & f. 9r R2
× ´Ú  ¢ ØÝ¸ ¾¾ Ö Ñ × ¸ ¾ ¿½ º £ Ö èÒÓ ¾ Ú¸ ¡Ø Ô ¾ ¾ ÒÚ Ô ¾ ×ö ¸ Ú¹Ú ÒÚ èÒÓ ¾ Æ Ò » ¿¼  É ßÐÒ£¦ Ö Ñ×ö ¸ ¿½ ù £Õ Ö ¸ ¿¾ £Ú ¸ ¿¿¾½ Ô » ¸ ¿¿ ¾ Ñ £ Ú¸ Ó ÐÓ Æ ¿ × Ø ¹Ø  ËÝ ¸ £ ¸¿ ¼ Ú Ú ¿½ ÑùÐÚ Ú £ ÖÑ¸ ¿ ¿ º ÚÐÓÑØÓ ¦ØÖ ß ß¹Ý ÔÖ ØÑÇ Ú ÀÝ ¸ Ú º
p. 61 R1
¿
5 f. 10v V4 f. 7r,7v R3
10
f. 11r V4
Verse 3 1 [ ] Ú £ M3 ½ ½¼ ] om. B5IM1M2M3R1R2R3V5, corrected Ú] from ½½½¼ to ½ ½¼ V4 ¹» Ó ] ¹»ÝÓ R2, ¹»ÝÓ» R3 Ô ¸ ] Ô R1 ¾¼ ¿ ] om. B5IM1M2M3R1R2R3V5 2 × ´Ú ] × ´Ú M3 ¾¾ ] om. B5IM1M2M3R1R2R3V5 ¾ ¿½ ] om. B5IM1M2M3R1R2R3V5 3 ¡Ø £ ] ¡Ø £ B5, ¡ Ø £ R1, ¡ Ø V4 Ö èÒÓ ] Ö [ ] âÒ I, £ Ö âÒÓ R1 ¾ ] om. B5IM1M2M3R1R2R3V5 ] corrected from £ to V5 Ú ¸ ] Ú B5V5 4 Ô ] Ô ( ) marg,s R2 ] Ó V4 ¾ ¾ ] om. B5IM1M2M3R1R2R3V5, corrected from ¾ ¾ to ¾ ¾ V4 ÒÚ ] ÒÚ ÒÚ M1M2 ¾ ] om. B5IM1M2M3R1R2R3V5, ×ÀÝ ¸ ¾ V4 ×ö ¸ ] ×ÀÝ M1 Verse 4 5 ÒÚ ] ÒÚ V4 ¾ ] om. B5M1M2M3R1R2R3V5 Ò ] Ò M3 6 ¿¼ ] om. B5M1M2M3R1R2R3V5 É ßÐ ] ßÐ marked and variant reading ´Ô given in the margin by s V5 Ò£¦ ] ÒÃ £ M3, Òß R3 ×ö ¸ ] ×ÀÝ ¸ R1 ¿½ ] om. B5M1M2M3R1R2R3V5 £Õ Ö ¸ ] Ö R1, Ö ( ¸ ) supl V5 ¿¾ ] om. B5IM1M2M3R1R2R3V5 7 ù ] É £Ø [ ] £Õ V4 ] [ Ú ] B5 , [ x ] V5 £Ú ¸ ] £Ú R1 ¿¿¾½ ] om. B5IM1M2M3R1R2R3V5 8 ¸] ¿¿ ¾ ] om. B5IM1M2M3R1R2R3V5 Verse 5 9 ¸ ] ( ¸ ) supl I R1, V4 ¿ ¼ ] om. B5IM1M2M3R1R2R3V5 Ú Ú £ ] corrected from Ú Ú £ to Ú Ú £ B5, Ú £Ú M1, Ú £ Ú M2 10 ¿ ¿½ ] om. B5IM1M2M3R1R2R3V5 Ú Ú £ ] Ö ÑÚ £ I, Ú £Ú M1M2, Ú £ ÖÑ R1, Ö ÑÚ £ [ xxx ] V5 ¿ ¿ ] om. B5IM1M2M3R1R2R3V5 11 × ] R2 Ø ¾ ½ ß Ö ß] ß Ö Ç R2R3, ß Ö ß V4 12 ¹Ø ÚÐÓÑØÓ ] Ú Ø ÐÓÑØÓ B5 ËÝ ¸ ] ¹Ø ËÝ IM3R1, Ø ËÝ M1M2 ÀÝ ¸ ] ÀÝ M3R2R3 315
Ú £ Ô Ö Õ Ò¦ ßÖ  Ø £ ¢£
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f. 43r b V2, f. 9v I f. 16v V5
Ã Ð Õ ÒÚ´Ý Ø ËÝ £Ø º ¸ ¹» ÚÒ ¸ Ó ÎÖ Ý ÑÝ
» Ý £ Ú Ø Ö ¢ ñ £» ¾¾  Ø £ Ñ £Ú ËÝ ÐÆ ¹Ì ¡ Ð ÌÑÔÖÝÓ ÚÝÓÖ¦ØÖ ÐÑ

5
f. 7v B5
f. 8r B5
Verse 6 not numbered V2 before verse »ÓÔÔ ¸ in margin by s R2 1 ÐÝ £] Ø Ð ÝØ £ B5M1M2, Ð ÝØ £ M2, Ð Ø £ R1, Ð Ø £ ¾½ ¼¼ R2, Ð ¾½ ¼¼ ÝØ £ with Ð corrected from ÐÓ R3 ] om. B5IM1M2M3R1V2V5, ß V4 Ö Ø £] Ö Ø ß ( ¸ ) supl I 2 £ÃÓ ] Ó £ÃÓ R3, £ÕÓ V2 ÞÔ Ö ] Ö Ô Ö M1, Ô Ö M2, ÞÔ Ö ¸ M3 3 Ø ¸ ] Ø IM1M2M3R1 ] om. B5M1M2M3R1, Æ ¸ V2, Æ ¸ V5 Ø × ] Ø × M2 Ò ¡ ] Ò B5M1, Ò 4 ©Ý ] ²Ý B5 ¦´Ý Ò ] Ø Ò M3, ´Ý with marked and variant M3R1 reading Ò noted in margin by s V5 Verse 7 not numbered V2 5 Ð ] Ð [ x ]( Ð ) supl,s V5 ] om. B5IM3R1R3V2V5, ´Ý M1 Ø ËÝ ] Ø ËÝ ¾¾ I, om. M2, ¾¾ Ø ( ¾¾ ) marg,s Ø 6 ¸ ] ¸ M1M2, R1 ¹» ] ËÝ V4, ËÝ R2 [ x ] ¹» I, ¸ ¹» M1, ¹» M3, ¹Ø V4 ÚÒ ] ÚÒ R1, corrected from ÚÒ to ÚÒ V5 Ó Î ] Ó ( Î ) marg I 7 £ ] Ö£ M1, ¸ ] M3, ¸ ¿ ¿ IV2V4, ¸ ( ¿ ¿ ) marg,s V5 Ø ËÝ £ marked and the variant reading £ added in margin by s R , Ø ËÝ £ R Ú Ø ] ÒÚ Ø R3 2 3 Ö ] Ö [ x ] V5 ¾¾ ] om. B5M3R1R2R3V5, ¿¾ M2, Ø ( ËÝ £ ) ¾¾ I, Ø ËÝ £ ( ¾¾ ) supl,s V5 marg Ø £] Ø £ ) marg I 8 ÐÆ ] corrected from ÐÆ to ÐÆ M1 ÔÖÝÓ ] Ô¹ÝÓ M3, [ x ] ÔÖÝ ( Ó ) V5 ËÝ ( ËÝ Ú ] Ú M1 Ö¦ØÖ ÐÑ ] ÖØ [ ]( Ö ) marg,s Ð V5 316
Ó Î ½¼ »ØÌ ½ ¿ Ú Ø ÝØ £
 ¦Ø  Ö Ð Ø´×Ý ßÚÑ º ´ ÌÑ ÐØ¸ ¹Ý Ø Ý ØÌ Ý Ø ß©Ý ¦ØÖÝ Ø Ð Ý ¦ØÖ Ø´¹È Î ¹Ý £Ú ×Ú Ý Ô Ð ¦Ý £ Ú ¦Ø Ñ ÝÓ Ñ ¡ Ð  ÑÇÚ ÐØÓ ÃÐ Ò Ú Ð  ¦Ý ÒÝ Ø Ñ £ º Ñ¦Ý Ñ£ Ø Ø

Ö ÐÒ £ Ú £¦ Ñ

p. 62 R1, f. 8v B5
5
f. 10r I, f. 43v V2
f. 10r R2
Ô Ò
´Ú Ö ×Ö Ú ¢£ Ñ £ Ô£ ÝÓÔ
Ý¸ Ý £¸ º ÀÝ Ú £ ØÝ £ Ô
Ý¹Ø £ ¢Ø Ý Ú £ Ô
ÝÓ £
½¼ ¢ æØ Ì
Verse 8 not numbered V2 1 Ó Î ] Ó Î B5, Ó Î I, ½¼ ] om. B5M1M2M3R1, ½¼ I, ½¼ V4 ] Ó B5, IM1M2R1R2V2 Ø Ì ] ØÌ M1, Ì V4 ½ ¿ ] om. B5M1M2M3R1V5 Ú Ø ] Ú ØÇ I, ÚÚ
¦ØÖ Ð ] Ú [ x ] ØÖ Ð I 2 Ø´× ] Ø × V4 ¢ Ø V4 ´ ÌÑ ] ( Ø ) marg,s ÌÑ R2, ÌÑ V4 ÐØ¸ ] ÐØ [ Ó ]( ¸ ) B5 ¹Ý Ø Ý ØÌ ßÚÑ ] ¹Ý âØ Ý ØÌ ßÚ B5, × [ x ] Ý ¡ ÝÓØÖÖ Ú I, ¹Ý âØ Ý ØÌ ßÚ M3, ¹Ý Ø Ý ØÌ ßÚ R2R3, ¹Ý Ø Ý ØÌ ßÚ R1, × Ý ÝÓØÖ ßÚ added in margin V2, × ÝÓ ¡ ÝÓØÖ Ú Ú marked and with the variant reading ¹Ý âØ Ý ØÌ V4, ¹Ý âØ Ý ØÌ ßÚ marked and the variant reading × Ý ¡ ÝÓØÖ Ú added in margin by s V5 3Ý Ø ß ] Ý ´Ý ß B5, Ý ( ) Ø ß R2 , Ý Ø ß R3 Ð ] ( Ð ) marg I, Ð M1M2R3 4 £Ú ] £Ý M2 ×Ú Ý Ô ] ×Ú¦Ý Ô R1 ] Ð M Ð ¦Ý ] Ð M , Ð M , Ð ´Ý M R1 , 1 1 2 3, ÑÐ ¦Ý Ð ¹Ý Verse 9 5 ÝÓ ] ÝÇ V4 ÑÇÚ ] Ó Ú M1 ÐØÓ ] ÐØ M3 ÃÐ Ò ] R3 ÃÐ Ò M2 6 Ú ] Ú B5 Ñ £ ] Ñ £ V5 7 Ñ£ ] Ø £ I 8
] om. M2
Ö ]
Ö B5,
Ð M2, Ø Ö R2R3V5, x Ö V4 ÐÒ £ ] Ð[x]Ò £ I, Ð ß M1, ÐÒ £ M2, ÐÒ ß¸ V4 £¦ Ñ ] corrected from ÚÓ x to Ú £ I, Ú £ R3, Ú £ V5 Verse 10 numbered 11 V2 Ú 9 ×Ö Ú ØÚ ¢ £ ] marked and the annotation ¢ £ added in margin B5,
Ö Ú ¢ £ R2R3, ×Ö ( Ú 10 Ñ £ Ô£ ] marked and the annotation ÌÑÔ£ added in margin by ¢ £ ) marg V2 ÀÝ ÝÓÔ
Ý¸ ]
ÓÔ
Ý¸ R3 Ý £¸ ] Ý £ ( ¸ ) R2, Ý £ R3 11 Ú £ ØÝ £] Ú £ âØ Ý £ s R2 B5IM2M3R1V5, Ô ( £ ) marg,another R2, Ã £ ØÝ £ R3 Ô
Ý ] Ý
Ý B5, ?
Ý R3 ¹Ø £] ¢Ø Ý ¹Ø £ I, ¹»Ø Ý £ R1 12 æØ £ ]
Ø £ ) marg,s V5 Ô
ÝÓ £
] Ô ÝÓ £
B5, Ô
ÝÓ ¢ [x]Ø Ý Ì [ x ]( Ì £ £ to Ô
Ý £ V5 [ x ]
I, Ô
ÝÓ ¹Ý R2R3, Ô
ÝÓ £
V4, corrected from Ô
Ý 317
10
ÓÒ ÒÚ Ø ¼ ¹Ø Ó Î¹ØÝÓ¸ Ð ¸ Ô ÝÑ è ¾¾ ¸º ÈÐÓ ¦ÑØ Ý Ú Ø ß©Ý Ú ¦ØÖ £Õ ÖÐÆ Ý ¹Ý Ø ½½ Ú Ú ÓÝ ÖÒ £  »ÝÑ ¾¾ £Õ Ø ß©ÝÃ ÚÚÖ £ Ø ´ÈÐ ÝØ º  ØÝ Ú Ñ Ú Ø  Ó ØÑÇ Ú ´×ö Ø ÒÝÒ è ¾¾ Ý Ø Ò ¸ ¹Ý Ø

5 f. 10v I
f. 8r R3
½¾ ¾½ æ º
f. 17v V5 10 p. 63 R1 f. 9r B5 & f. 44r V2
Ö ¾ × ¾ ¹» ¸ ¾¿ ÒÚ ½ Ò £¦ Ú ½¼ ¢ Ô ½ ¹» ¦ Ú¸ ½¿ Ã  ØÌ ù Ò Ö Ñ ¿ Ð Ý ¦ØÖ ÒÚ Ø Ý Ì £ÕÑ ½¿
Verse 11 numbered 12 V2, numbered 13 M3 1 ÓÒ ] Ó M1, ÓÒ M2 ¼ ] om. B5IM3R1V2V4V5 ¹Ø 2 ¹ØÝÓ¸ ] ¹ØÝÓ V4 Ð ¸ ] Ð R1 ¾¾ ] om. ] om. M1 ¾¾ B5M1M2M3R1, Ñ è V5 3 ÈÐÓ ¦ÑØ ] ÈÐÓ ¦ÑØ [ ] I, corrected from ÈÐÓ ¦ÑØÓ to ÈÐÓ ¦ÑØ M3 Ú Ø ß©Ý ] Ú [ x ] Ø ß©Ý V2 4 £Õ Ö ] £Õ £Ö I Ý ¹Ý Ø ] Ý [ x ] ¹Ý Ø I, Ý Ø M1M2, Ý Verse 12 numbered 13 M3 5 Ú ] Ú M1M2 ÓÝ ] om. V4 ¹Ý ( ) Ø R2 Ö ] ØÖ M1M2 ÝÑ ] ÑÝ M2 ¾¾ ] om. B5IM1M2R1V5 £Õ ] ÚÓÕ V4 6 Ø ß] Ô Ø ß R1 ¾ ¾ ½ ½ ½ Ã ] Õ V5 ÚÚÖ £ ] ÚÚÖ £ V4 7 Ú Ø Ó Ø] Ó Ú Ø Ø M1 ÑÇ Ú ] ÑÇ Ú M3 8 Ø ÒÝ ] Ø [ ] [ ] ÒÝ V5 Ò è ] Ò [ x ] è M3 ¾¾ ] om. B5IR1V2, corrected from ¿¾ to ¾¾ V4, ¾¾ written beneath Ò è by s V5 Ò Verse 13 ¸] Ò R1 , Ò ( ¸ ) supl R2 numbered 14 IM3V2 9 × ] om. M3 ] ¸ M M , ¸ V4 1 3 ? M3, ÒÚ IR1V2V4, ÒÚ £ ¡ V5 Ò ¹» ¦ Ú¸ ] ¹» Ú¸ M1, ¹» Ú¸ 10 ÒÚ ] ÒÚ ¢Ô ] Ò ¢ Ô M2 M2 Ã £¦ Ú ] Ã £ Ú M3 11 ØÌ ù Ò ] ØÌ Ò M1 Ö Ñ ] Ö Ñ ¾ º ¾ º ¾¿º ¾½º ½ º ½ º ½¿º ½¼º º ¿ I, Ö Ñ ¸ V2 Ð ] ÐÝ Ö ] Ö ¾ º ¾ º ¾¿º ¾½º ½ º ½ º ½ º ½¿º ½¼º º ¿ B5, ¾ º ¾ º V4 ¾¿º ¾½º ½ º ½ º ½¿º ½¼º º ¿ M3R1V2, Ö ¾ º ¾ º ¾¿º ¾½º ½ º ½ º ½¿º ½¼º º ¿ M1M2, ¾ ¾ ¾¿ ¾½ ½ ½ ½¿ ½¼ ½¿ V4, ¾ º ¾ º ¾¿º ¾½º ½ º ½ º ½¿º ½¼º º ¿ V5 12 ] Ý R1, ( ) R2 ] om. B5IM3R1V2V3V4V5 Ø] R1 £ÕÑ ] £Õ R1 318
ÝØ Ø Ó Ø Ý ØÃ ß Ý £ » Ã Ò íØ º Ø Ý Ú ÒÚ Ú £Õ Ý Ø ÐÆ Ú Ò Ý  Ò ¸ ¹Ý Ø Ñ ¦ £¦ Ñ¦ Ø £Î¸ ùÓÒÃ £¦ Ø ù Ã ÓÒÑ º £ ¹Ú Ñ £Õ ¡ ×¹Ì £ ¹Ú Ñ ¦£ ¹Ú Ò ¹Ú ÈÐ ¹Ý Ø
½
f. 12r V4
5
½
Verse 14 numbered 15 IM3V2 1 ÝØ ] Ø R1, Ý Ø V4 ] om. B5IM3R1V2V4V5 Ø ] ( ) marg,s V5 2 Ý Ø Ý R3 3 ] Ø Ý ] Ý Ø Ý M3, ¥Ý om. B5IM3R1V2V4V5 Ú £Õ ] Ú £Õ M2, £Õ M3, £Õ R2R3 ÝØ ] Ø R1, Ý Ø Ñ M2M3, Ý Ø with marked and the variant reading added in margin by s V5 4 Ú ] Ú R1, Ú R3 Ò ] Ò M3, Ò Ç V4 ] om. B5IM3R1V2V4V5 Ò ¸ ] Ò ( ¸ ) R Verse 15 numbered 15 IM V 5 Ñ ¦ ] Ñ [Ø ] B5 supl 2 3 2 £¦ ] £ R3 Ñ¦ ] Ñ R1 Ø Ã £Î¸ ] Ã £Î ¸ M2, Ã £Î ( ¸ ) supl ùÓÒ ] Ø £Ò M1, Ò £Ò M2, Ø ÓÒ R1 R2 6 ] corrected from ß to ß Ý R2, ß R3 £¦ ] added in margin I, £ M2R3, £ M3 Ø Ã ÓÒÑ ] Ã£ÖÒ V5 7 £] Ó M3, ß £ R2R3 ù] Ø R1 R2 8 Ñ ¦£ ] Ñ M3R1 ¹Ú Ò ¹Ú ] ²Ý´ÝÝ Ø¹Ú V2, ¹Ú Ò¹Ú M3, ( ) supl ¹Ú Ò ¹Ú V5 319
ÑØ ¹Ý Ñ £ ¸ ½ Ô ÖÝ ¸ ¢ ¡ Ò
ÚÐÝ Ø Ó Ò ¸ ¿¾ £ ÖÒ ¸ ×ÇÅÝ £ ÃÖ Ñ ¿¼ ¸º Ú£¦ ÖÓ¸ × Ò £¸ Ö ¿¿ Ò Ö ¸ ½¾ ¹Ý Ø Ò ¸ £¦£ Ý ½¿º ¼ ÖÚ £¸ ½ Ñ  Ô ¦Ø  Ó Ô £ Ú Ý Ý ÓÒ ¸ ÒÓ Ö ¸ ¿½º ¼ Ø× èÒÓ ¾ Ø £» ÝÓ ¾ Ö ½½ ÑØ Ñ ØùÚ £ ¸ ÑØ º ¢ Ú  ¿¾ ÑØ ¹Ø ÇÑ  ÐÒ
Ø £  ¸ Ö ¦Ý èÒÓ ¾¿ ùÚÐÝ Ú£¦ ½¿¿ ÑØ Ò ÓÒ ¼ ×Ñ ¸ Ô ùÒ £»Ó ¾ ¾ ¦ÑØ ¸ ½
Verse 16 numbered 17 IM3V2 tables listing the contents of verses 16–18 found ¹Ý ] Ø ¹Ý V4 Ñ ÚÐÝ £ ¸] in R2R3 1 ÑØ ¢ ¡ ] corrected from Ñ ¢ to Ñ ¢ ¡ V5 between ÚÐÝ £ and ¸ is ¸ Ö enclosed in brackets to indicate deletion M1, ÚÐÝ £ Ö¸ V4 ½ ] om. B5M1M2M3R1R2R3, placed after Ô ÖÝ ¸ IV2 2 Ò ¸ ] Ò ¸ M1M2, Ö Ò ¸ M3, Ò R1, Ò R2 ¿¾ ] om. B5M1M2M3R1R2R3 Ò ¸ ] Ò V4 ] ×ÇÅÝ £ ] × ÅÝ £ R1 ¿¼ ] om. B5M1M2M3R1R2R3, placed at the om. B5M1M2M3R1R2R3 end of the p¯ ada IV2V5, x ¼ V4 3 ÖÓ¸ ] ÖÓ¸ B5, ÖÓ R1 × Ö ] × Ö M2, × Ö ¸ V2 ¿¿ ] om. B5M1M2M3R1R2R3, corrected from ¿¾ to ¿¿ V5 ½¾ ] om. B5M1M2M3R1R2R3V5 Ø Ò ¸ ] Ø Ò M1M2, Ø Ò ( ¸ ) subl ] om. B5M1M2M3R1R2R3V4, Ò £¸ I, Ø Ò ( ¸ ) subl V5 £ Ú Ö ÑØ £ Á¸ ¦ ÕÎ ÑØ £ Ú Ö ½¾ ÑØ £ V4 Ó ] Í? V2 4 £¦£ Ý ÑÔ ¦Ø Ó Ô £ ] ££ ÕÎ ÑØ Ú Ý ] Ý ÓÒ V4 ½¿º ¼ ] om. B5M1M2M3R1R2R3, ½¿ placed after the verse number I, ¼ ½¿º ¼ V2V5 ÖÚ £¸ ] om. V4 Verse 17 numbered 18 IM3V2 5 Ý ÓÒ ¸ ] ÓÒ R2, ÓÒ ¸ R3 Ö ¸ ] Ö ¸ M1M2, Ö R1 ¿½º ¼ ] om. B5M1M2M3R1R2R3, ¿½ I, ¿½ ¼ V4, ¼ ¿½º ¼ Ö ¸ with the numerals added by s V5 ÝÓ ] ÝÓ B5 ¾ ] om. B5M1M2M3R1R2R3, ¾ ÝÓ with the numerals added by s V5 èÒÓ ] corrected from èÒÇ to èÒÓ V4 ¾ ] ¾ 6–7 ¢ Ú — èÒÓ ¾¿ ] om. but added in margin by s om. B5M1M2M3R1R2R3, èÒÓ V5 ÑØ ¿¾ ¹Ø Ö ½½ ÑØ Ñ Ø Ú £ ¸ ÑØ ÇÑ
ÐØ £ ¸ Ö ¦Ý èÒÓ ¾¿ V5 ¢ Ú Ò
ÚÐÝ 6 ¢ Ú ] Ú R2, Ú M1M2, Ú R3 ¿¾ ] om. B5M1M2M3R1R2R3, ÑØ ¿¾ I Ö] Ö B5 , Ö V4 ½½ ] om. B5M1M2M3R1R2R3, Ö ÑØ ½½ V4 Ñ Øù ] Ñ Ø V4 Ú £ ¸] Ú £ ( ¸ ) supl R2 ] om. B5M1M2M3R1R2R3, Ñ Ø ¼ V2 7 ÇÑ ] ÇÑÓ I, ÇÑ M3 Ò
Ø ÚÐÝ £ ] ÚÐ [ x ] Ý £ I, ÚÐÝÓ M3 ¸] R1 ù] Ø Ò
V2, Ø Ò
V4 Ö ] Ö V4 ¾¿ ] om. B5M1M2M3R1R2R3, corrected from ¿¿ to ¾¿ V4 8 ½¿¿ ] ½¿¿ ÑØ ] ÑØ ¸ om. B5M1M2M3R1R2R3, ÑØ ½¿¿ I, £ with the numerals added by s V5 ¼ ¼ M3 ¼ ] om. B5M1M2M3R1R2R3, Ò V2, ×Ñ ¼ V4, Ò with the numerals added by s V5 ×Ñ ¸ ] ×Ñ R1 Ô ù] Ô I, Ô [ x ] M3 ¾ ¾ ] om. B5M1M2M3R1R2R3, ¦ÑØ ¸ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ IV2V4, ¦ÑØ ¸ V5 320
f. 5r M2, f. 8v R3
5 f. 11r I f. 4r M1, p. 64 R1
ÓÖ Ñ ¿ ØÝ £ ÇÑ  Ú Ý èÒÓ ¾¿¾ Ñ £ Ì ÚÕÑ ¦Ø Ñ ½¿¾ ÝÑÔÚ Ø ¾ ÒÕ Ò £»  ¾ ¼ Ô ¡ Æ Ý¸ ¼ º Ó Ý £¦ Ú Ø Ò ÔÖ ¦ØÖ £ Ø ²Ý × £Ò ÈÐÓÒÝ ÓÒ ¸ ¹È Ô Ö Ý¹´ÚÓ Î¸ ½ ¹È £ ÎÔ Ö £ ¹Ú Ó Î Ó Ý ÐÚ Ø £ Ò Ó Î Ó¸ÈÐ £ ¹Ø¸ º Ñ Ñ¦ ¢ ÈÐ Ñ Ú Ø ÈÐ Ð ÑÝ ¹Ý ½
f. 9v B5 f. 12v V4
5
¿ Verse 18 numbered 19 IM3V2 1 ¿ ] om. B5M1M2M3R1R2R3, ÓÖ Ñ with the numerals added by s V5 Ý £ ] Õ ÑØ £ Ì Ö Ú£ I, Õ ÑØ £ Ì Ö Ú V4 ÇÑ ] ÇÑ â I, Ñ £ Ì ÚÕÑ ÇÑ M2M3R1, corrected from ÇÑÓ to ÇÑ V2, ßÑ V4 Ú Ý èÒÓ ] Ú ? èÒÓ B5, Ú Ý ¾¿¾ V2, Úí? èÒÓ V4 ¾¿¾ ] om. B5M1M2M3R1R2R3, èÒÓ with the numerals added by s V5 ½¿¾ 2 ½¿¾ ] om. B5M1M2M3R1R2R3, Ñ V5 2–4 Ø ¾ — ²Ý × £Ò ] om. R2R3 2 ÔÚ Ø ] ¾ Ô Ø M2 ¾ ] om. B5M1M2M3R1, ÔÚ Ø with the numerals added by s V5 ¾ ¼ ] om. Ú ¾ ¼ B5M1M2M3R1, » ¾ ¼ I,» with the numerals added by s V5 Ô ¼] ¡ ] Ô ¡ Ú M1 ¼ om. B5M1M2M3R1, Æ Ý¸ V2, same with the numerals added by s V5 3 £¦ Ú ] ¦ Ú V4 Ø ] Ø M1M2 £ Ö Ø ]£ Ö [ x ] Ø V5 4 ²Ý × ] ²Ý ²Ý × B5 £Ò ] £Ò ¿ ¿ I, £Ø [ ¿ ¿ ] V2, £Ò ¿ ¿ V4 ÈÐÓÒ — ¹È ÈÐÓÒ ] ÈÐ ( Ó ) Ò Î ¸ ] ÈÐÓ ÒØ ¸ Ô Ö Ý¸ Õ Ó Ø ¸ ¹Ý ¸ ¹È Î ¸ IV4 V5 ¹´ÚÓ ] corrected from ¹´ÚÓ Ó to ¹´ÚÓ V5 ÓÒ ¸ ] Ó ¸ R1, ÓÒ ( ¸ ) supl R2 ¹È £ B5M1M2M3R1R2R3V3V5 Verse 19 numbered 20 IM3V2 5 £] Ñ £ Î ¸ ] ÔÖ R1 6 ÐÚ Ø £ Ò ] ÐÚ ßÒ I, ÐÚ ¿ ¼ Ø £ Ò M1M2R2, ÈÐÚ Ø £ Ò M3, ÐÚ ¿ ¼ Ø £ ¿ ¼ Ò R3, ÐÚ Ø £ Ò V5 Ó¸ ] Ó ( ¸ ) supl R2 7 Ñ ¦ ] Ñ R1, Ñ [ x ]( ) marg R2, Ñ Ò R3 8 Ú Ø ] Ú M2 ÈÐ ] ÈÐ M3 ÑÝ ] ÑÝ [ Ñ ] V2, added in margin by s V5
321
Ýâ Ð £¦ Ó Ý Ú £ Ø × Ö× ß Ú º ÈÐ Ð Ô Ö Ñ £Ú × Ñ £Ø¦Ñ ¹Ý Ø ¾¼ Ã Ì ¢ × » Ý £¦£ Øâ ¸ Î Ç Ó ÎÈÐÝÓÑ ¢ Ñ £ Ý ØÖ¦ØÖ Ú£ÝÑ º £æ Ñ Ø ¡Ð ÈÐÚ Ý Ã
Ö ¦ØÖ× ÅÑØ¸ ¹Ý Ø
5
¾½
× Ñ £Ò Ø ´¹ÚÚ ¡Ð  Æ£Ò Ñ ¡Ð × Ø â Ñ º Ú £ × Ô ØØÓ Ô Ñ £ÚÑ ¾¾ Ñ ¸ ¹Ý ´¹È  ÎÑ ¡ ÐÑ
10 p. 65 R1
f. 11v I
Verse 20 numbered 20 IM3V2 1 Ð £¦ ] Ñ M3, Ð Ã R1V2V5, Ð £ ¢ £ B5, ÃÐ R3, Ð Ã V4 Ó Ý ] Ó Ý R3 2Ú £ ] Ú R3, ´Ú £ V5 ] om. B5M1M2M3R1V2V5 × ] × V4 ] om. B5M3R1V2V5 3 Ñ £Ú ] Ñ £Ú V4 4 Ñ £Ø¦Ñ £Ø R1, £Ø¦Ñ ¢ ] Ñ ¢ V4 × ] × Ø R2R3V5 Verse 21 numbered 22 M3 5 » Ý ] » Ý [ x ] R2 Ó Î ] Ó Î[Ñ ÈÐÝÓ ] ÈÐÝ V4 5–8 Ñ ¢ ] R1 ¢ — ¸ ] om. R2, om. but ÅÑ ¢ erased in the line and the text added in margin Ñ £ Ý £æ Ñ ¢ Î Ç ££ Ñ ØÖØÖ Ú£Ý Øâ ÈÐÚ Ý Ø ¡ Ð ¸ V2 Î Ç — ¸ om. R3 5 Ñ 6 £¦£ ] £ IR1 Ñ £ ] corrected ¢ ] Ñ ¢ M3, Ñ ¢ V4 from Ñ £ Ó to Ñ £ V2 7 ] corrected from ¡ to I Ý £æ ] Ý £¹Ø 8 ] Ø Ø V5 × ÅÑØ¸ ] × ÅÑØ¸ I, × ÑØ M1M2V4, × [ Ø ] ÑØ¸ M3, × ÑØ ( ¸ ) supl R2 Verse 22 ? R2 numbered 24 M3, numbered 21 R2 9 × ] marked and the gloss ¹È ÎÑ ¡ Ð ÒÝÒÑ added in margin by s R2 Ñ £Ò ] om. B5 Ø ] Ø I Ú ] M3 10 Æ£Ò ] ÐÆ£Ò M1 ¡Ð Ñ £ I × Ø ] corrected from × Ø to × Ø V5 â ] â ¾ R2 R3 11 Ô ] Ô B5 ¡Ð] Ñ ¡Ð 12 Ñ ´¹È £ÚÑ ] ´¹È £ÚÑ £Ú M1, ´¹È £ÚÑ ßÚ £ M2, Ñ ¸ ] corrected from Ñ Ñ ¸ to Ñ Ñ ¸ V4 ÎÑ ¡ ÐÑ ÎÑ ÎÑ ´¹È £Ú M3, Ø Ñ £Ú R1 ÎÑ ¡ ÐÑ ¡ ÐÑ 322
» Ý ÈÐ
Ð Ø Æ Ñ Ñº Ð ¸ ÈÐÑ»  £Ò × ÒÇ Ñ £Ò ¡Ý ¢ Ò ÃÐ ¹Ô Ç ÔÖ £ ÈÐ
Ø Ý×¹ ¢ Ø ¸ ¹Ý ¸ ¾¿ ÑÝ £ ¹Ú 
 ÐÈÐ¹Ý Ð Ò ¢ ´Ú ØØÓ Ñ ¢ ÈÐ ÐØ
Ø» º Ø´×Å Ú £Ò Ñ £Ò ÑÝÓ ¢ Ò × Ð Ñ¦ ¹È £Ò ¾ Î¸ ¹È ÎØÖÓ ÃÐ
Ð ×ÅÝý¦ ÈÐ¹È £ Ø´¹È Î ÐÈÐ Ý´× ÝØ Î Ò £Ý¸ ÌÑ Ñ ¢ ¹È ÎØÖÓ ÑÝ ´ £  ÚÐ Ø º  Ø¹Ñ ÈÐ Ñ¦ ÈÐ Ý ×¹ ¢ Ø ¦ÑÝÑ  Ø Ñ¦ ÈÐ Ú £´¹È
»Ñ» Ñ £ ¾ ÎÑÐ
numbered 25 M3, numbered 22 R2, numbered 33 but corrected to 23 V4 ¾ ½ 1 » Ý ] » Ý M2, corrected from » Ý £ to » Ý R3 ] Ò V4, ( ) marg I, [ ] V2 2 Ø Æ ] ØÐÆ M2, ÐÆ ¹Ý V4 Ñ ] ß Ý R2, ß R3 3 ÃÐ £Ò ] ÃÐ £ [ x ]( Ò ) marg,s V5 4 ÈÐ
Ø £Ò × xÑ Ý ] ÈÐ [ Ñ ]
[ ¡Ý ¢ ? xxxxx ] Ø Ý with the
corrected to this from » R1, ÈÐ
Ø ¹Ý Verse 24 numbered 25 Ý V4 ¸ ] ¹Ý [ ] ¸ V4 M3, numbered 23 R2 5 ÑÝ £ ] ÑÝ M3, Ó V4 ¹Ú ] Ã M3, ¹Ô R1 ÈÐ¹Ý ] ÈÐ ¹Ú M1M2 Ò ] Ò M1, ÒÌ M2 7 × Ð £Ò ] × Ð £ ( Ò ) supl B5 8 Ñ¦ ] Ñ ¸ M1R3, Ñ ( ¸ ) supl R2 ¹È ÃÐ
Ð £Ò ] ÃÐ
Ð £Ò M3 Verse 25 omitted I, numbered 26 Î¸ ] ¹È Î [ ] ¸ V5 V4 9 ×ÅÝý¦ ] ×ÅÝ marked and the annotation »ÓÔÔ ¸ added in margin by s R2, ×ÅÝýÒ ¢ R3, corrected from ×ÅÝ to ×ÅÝ ¦ V5 Ý´× ÝØ £ Ø´¹È £ × ¹È 10 Ò £Ý¸ ] Î ] ×´× ÝØ Î V5 Ò £Ý¸ M1, £Ý M3, £Ý R1, £Ý¸  V4 ¹È 11 ÈÐ ] È [ xx ]( Ð ) marg,s R2, ÎØÖÓ ] ¹È ØÖÓ V4 ÈÎÒ R3 ÈÐ Ý ] ÈÐ B5M1M2V3, ÈÐ Ý M3 12 Ø ] Ø V5 ÈÐ ] Ð M3 ¾ ½ Ú £´¹È £ ¹È £´¹È ] R1
»Ñ» Ñ £ ]
»Ñ »Ñ ÎÑÐ ] Ú ÎÑÐ M1V5, Ú Î ( ) supl ÑÐ R2 V5 323 Verse 23
f. 13r V4
5
f. 10r B5, f. 17v V5
10 f. 11v R2 f. 46r V2 f. 11r b V3
Ñ¦ £¦ ØÖ» Ó Ý ¦ØÖ £ Ø Ã Øº ×¹È ß¸ Ô  Ö ¸ ×Ñ Ø Î ¦Ñ £¸ ÈÐ Ú £Ø ¾ ¢ Ø Ò Ñ £ Ã £¦ Ø¸ ÈÐ ÒÓÒÝ ØÑ ñ ¢ ¹È Î º Ø Ú ÓÝ
Ð Ø ù Ø¸ £ÕÑ»
Ð £¦ Ø¸ ¾ × Ø ÈÐ Ñ £ Ñ Ý ¦ØÖ £ Ú Ø ÚÝ º  Ø ÉÝ Ø Ø ù ØØÓ Ø¸ ¹È Î ¾
Verse 26 numbered 25 I, numbered 27 M3V4 1 Ñ¦ ] Ñ M1M2 £¦ ] £ B5, £ V5 Ö» ] om. V4 Ó ] Ó IR1, ( Ó ) marg,s R2 2 Ø ] Ø with marked and written in margin to make the reading clearer R2, Ø Ý R3, ( ) marg Ø ¾¾ V3 Ã Ø ] Ã ¾¾ Ø V2V4, Ã Ø V5 3 ×¹È ß¸ Ô Ö ¸ ×Ñ Ø ] ×¹È Î Î¹ÚÔ Ö × I, × ¹È V2V4 ×¹È ß¸ ] ×¹ ¢ Ø ß¸ R2R3 ×Ñ Ø ] ×Ñ Ø M2 4 ] Î¹ÚÔ Ö × Î ¿ ¼ ¿ ¼ IM1M2V2V4, R2R3, V5 ¦Ñ £¸ ] in the main text between ¦Ñ ¢ Ø ¢ and Ø £¸ is written between marks inserted later ¹È Î Ø Ú ÓÝ
ÐØ Ø¸ £ÕÑ»
Ð belonging to the next verse (where an insertion mark is found at the appropriate place) but incorrectly written here V5 Verse 27 numbered 26 IV2, numbered 28 M3 5 Ò ] Ò I, [ xx ] Ò ( ) marg V2, ﬁrst corrected to this from Ò then Ò? [ x ]( ) marg V3, ¿ ½ ¾ Ò V5 £¦ ] £ [ ] I 6 ÒÓÒ ] corrected from ÒÇÒ to ÒÓÒ V3 Ý ñ ] Ý Ò¸ M3 Ñ ¢ ] after Ñ ¢ is an insertion mark indicating that the text incorrectly written in ¹È 7 Ø p¯ ada d of the previous verse is to be inserted here V5 Î ] ¹ÈÎ V4 ù ] £ M3 Ø¸ M2, Ø¸ R3 8 £¦ ] £ M2 Verse 28 numbered 27 IV2 Ø¸ ] Ñ £ ] Ñ R2V2V4 10 Ú Ø ] Ú Ø I 11 Ø ] » ( ) marg 9 Ø ] Ø ? V3 I, Ø M3, Ø V4, ( ) marg,s Ø V5 ÉÝ Ø ] ¦Ý Ø R3, ( ) supl Ý Ø R2 ] [ x ] I, [ ] V3 Ø Ø¸ ] Ø B5 ¹È 12 ù ] £ M1M2 Î ] ¹È Î ¸ R1 324
5
10 f. 13v V4
Ò Ǒ £ × ÚÐÓÑ Ú ÓÝ Ú £Õ ÚÐÓÑ Ø¸ Ã £
Ö Ñ º Ñ ÖÚ ¦âÓÒ Ó Ò
£ ØÌ Ú Ø Ò £Ø Ô ß Ò Þ Ñ ¾ ¡Ú Ø ¡ Ö Ø¸ ¹Ú ´ ÞØ £Ú Ø
Ð £¦ ÐÚ Ñ £ ¸½ Ã ¢Ø Ø ù ¹Ø Ò Ñ º Æ ¡Ô ¸ ½ £¦ Ú ½¿¼ ¹» ¡ Ô ¸ ½ ¿
5
¿¼
ÖÞ ½½ ÑØ ¸ Ø¹Ø ß Ö  Ø ¸ Ãù ¸ ¿ ¼ ¹ÚÑ ¸º Ø Ò Ð Ú Ø ¸ £¦ Ú ß Ø Ø ¸ ¿½
Verse 29 numbered 28 IV2, numbered 30 M3 1 Ǒ £ ] £ M1R1V5, ´£ M2, Ǒ £ V3 Ú ÓÝ ] Ú ÓǑ R1 2 Ú £Õ ] Ú £Õ M3V3, ( ) supl Ú £Õ R2 ÚÐÓÑ ] ÚÐÓ M2, corrected from ÚÐÓÑ to ÚÐÓÑ M3 Ø¸ ] Ø¸ [ ¹È ¾ ] I Ã £
Ö Ñ ] corrected from Ã £
£Ö Î to Ã £
Ö V4 3 Ñ ] Ñ Ó V4 ÖÚ ¦âÓ ] Ö [ x ] Ú âÓ V2 Ó ] corrected from £ to Ó R2, £ R3 between verse 29 and verse 30 is inserted Ì Ú Ñ ¢
Ð ÈÐ Ø ÃØ × ÑØ £Õ Ñ ß ( ¸ ) supl Ö Ý × Ñ Ý ( Ú ) marg (numbered 29) I, Ì Ú Ó £Õ ¢
Ð £ Ó Ú Ñ £Õ Ñ ß¸ Ö Ý × ¢
Ð ÈÐ Ð ÃØ × ÑØ Ó £Õ ¢
Ð £ Ó Ú Ñ Ý Ú » (numbered 29) V2, Ì Ú Ñ
Ð ÈÐ × ÑØ £ Õ Ó £Õ Ñ
Ð £ Ó Ú ß¸ Ö Ý × ¢ ¢ Ñ Ý Ú » (numbered 30) V4 Verse 30 numbered 31 M3V4, not numbered V2, numbered 10 V3 5 ¡Ö] R1, Ö V4 Ø¸ ] Ø¸ M2R1, Ø V3, Ø ( ¸ )[ ] V5 ¹Ú ] ¹Ú? M3 ] V4 6 Ø ] Ø M3, Ø ¢ R1, Ø ( ¸ ) supl R2 7 ÐÚ ] Ú M1M2V3 Æ ] [ ] Æ I Ô ¸ ] Ô R1V5 ½ ] om. R2R3 8 ¢ Ø ] [x] ¢ Ø I ¸] R1 ½ ] om. R1R2R3 ½¿¼ ] om. M3R1R2R3, ¿¼ V4 ½ ¿] ¿ £¦ Ú ] ß¸ Ú R1 ¡ Ô ¸ ] ¡ Ô ( ¸ ) supl R2 M3, om. R1R2R3 Verse 31 numbered 32 IM3V2V4 9 Ö ] ( ) marg,s R2 ½½ ] ÑØ ¸ ½½ B5IM1M2V3V4V5, om. R1R2R3 ÑØ ¸ ] ÑØ ( ¸ ) supl R2 ¹Ø ß ] ¹Ø £ M3 Ãù ] Ã I, Ã M3, Ã ( ) marg,s R2 10 Ö Ø ¸ ] Ö Ø R1, Ö Ø ( ¸ ) supl R2 ¸ ] I, ¿ ¼ ] ¿ B5, om. R1R2R3V2V4 ¸ ] ( ) marg,s ¸ V5 11 Ø ] Ù Ø R2 R3 ¸ V4 ] M1, M3 12 Ú Ø ¸ ] Ú Ø IM1M2R1 Ø ] Ø ( ) R2 Ø ¸] Ø ¸ B5 325
10 f. 5v M2
×ÇÖ
Ð Ó ¢ Ø ÈÐ Ø ¹Ú Ø  ¸  ×Ú
p. 67 R1 & f. 12r R2, f. 11v V3, f. 10v B5
¹Ú Ó¸ÈÐÚ £ ¹È £Ö Ý £ ¹Ý Ø¸ º ÎÖÚ Ñ ×Ý ¹ Ö Ú Ú Ò Ý Ø ÝÒ » Ý ÔÑ × Ò Ò ¦Ø Ú £ ÓÐ ÖØ¸ ×
ÐÒ ÒÑ ¹Ø Ò Öù Ò £Ú ÔÑ Ñ ÑÔÑ Ô Ö

¿¾
f. 9v R3, f. 14r V4
Ð Ó Ó Ý½ Ú Ý ØÝ ÚÝ ¦Ø ×¦Ø¸
5
½¼ ¸ º ¿¿
f. 47r V2
Verse 32 numbered 33 IM3V2V4 1 ] Ú M3, marked and the annotation Ø] Ø £ R3 Ø ¸ ] Ø R1 Ð Ó ¢ Ø ] Ð Ó ¾½ ¼¼ ØÖÑ written in margin by s R2 ¢ Ø B5R2R3V2V3V4, Ð Ó ¾½ ¼ ¢ Ø I, Ð Ó ¢ Ø ¾½ ¼¼ M1, Ð ÓØ ¢ Ø M2, Ð Ó ¾½ ¼¼ ?Ø M3, Ð ¢ Ø R1, Ð Ó ¢ Ø ¾½ ¼¼ V5 2 ¹Ú ] ¹Ú£ M1, ¹Ú£ R1, ¹Ú V4, corrected from ¹Ú£ to ¹Ú V5 Ó¸ ] Ó ( ¸ ) supl R2 £ ] ¢ £ M1, Ø ¢ £ M2, [ ] £ V4 ¹È ¹Ý Ø¸ ] ¹Ý Ø ( ¸ ) supl Î ] ¹È [ Ø ] Î B5 3 ×Ý Ø× ÒÑ written R2, ¹Ý Ø R3, ¹Ý ( ) marg Ø¸ V3 ] marked and the annotation in the margin by s R2 ÝÒ ] ÝÑ M3 ¹ Ö Ú ] ¹ Ö Ú ½½ M1, ¹ Ö Ú ½¾ M2, ¹ Ö Ú R1, corrected from ¹ Ö Ú to ¹ Ö Ú V4 Ò Ý Ø ] Ò Ý ½¿¾ Ø B5, Ò Ý ½¿ Ø IM3V4, Ò Ý ½¿ Ø with the ¿ corrected to this from M1, Ò Ý ½¿ Ø M2, Ò Ý Ø ½¿ V2, [ ] Ò Ý ½¿ Ø V3, Ò [ ] ¾ Ý Ø ½¿ V5 4 » Ý ÔÑ ] » Ý ( Ô ) supl Ñ B5, » Ý ÑÔ M1, » Ý ¿ ¿ ÔÑ M3, » Ý ¿ ¿ ÔÑ V3, » Ý ¿ ¿ ÔÑ ¿ ¿ V4V5 × Ò ] × [ ] Ò I, × Ò M1M2R1, × Ò M3, Ò V3 ¦Ø ] Ø V4 ÓÐ ] ÓÐ [ x ]( ) marg,s V5 Verse 33 numbered 34 IM3V2V4 5 ÐÒ ] ÐÒ B5, [ ] ÐÒ M3, ÐÚ R1, ( ) marg,s ÐÒ V5 6 ¹Ø Ò ] ¹Ø ÑÖ B5IM3R1R2R3V2V3V4V5 Ö ù ] Ö V3 ½ ] om. M1M2R1 Ý ¸] Ý ¸ IV4, Ý ¸ V2, Ý ¸ V5 ½¼ ] om. IR1V2V4V5 ¸ ] Ñ¸ M2 7Ñ £Ú ] Ñ £Ú V4 ] om. R1V4, V2 7–8 ÑÔÑ ] ÑÔ M2, ÔÑ V5 8 ] R1 Ô Ö ÚÝ ¦Ø ] Ô Ö ¡ ÚÝ Ø M1, Ô Ö ÚÝ Ø M2, Ô Ö Ý Ø V5 326
¦Ø  Ý ¢ ØÚ Ø ÚÒ Ý Ú ØÓ Ý´Ô ß ½¾ Ø¸  Ý Ý × ÔÐ Ó ÔÑ ¸ × ¡Ý » ÚÝ Ú Ø Ý Ö Ý Ú £ Ý Ô ÖÑ Ñ ¹ØÑÒÝÓ¹Øå × ¦ØÖÑ ¿ Ã £Î¹Ô Ø Ø ÖÔÐ ß¸ Õ ¼ ¢ Ø Ã £ Ö £ ¹Ú ÚÐ ÒÑ£Ö¹ØÓ Ý £ ÓÐÝÓ¸ º Ò ó¸ Ô Ú ½ æÖ £ × Ø Ò Ù ÓÐ £ ÓÐß £ Ò Ø £ ²Ý¹Ø £Ø £  £ ¿ Ò Ð Ø
f. 12r I
º
f. 18r V5
5
f. 47v V2
Verse 34 numbered 35 IM3V2V4 1 ¦Ø Ý ] marked and the annotation Ô Ý × ÒÑ added in margin by s R2 Ø ] Ø » IM1M2R1V4, Ø » R3 ÚÒ Ý ] ÚÒ Ý IM2R1, [ ÚÒ Ý ]( Ú [ xx ] Ò Ý ) marg,s V5 Ý´Ô ] Ý´Ô [ Ð ] with ´Ô corrected to this from ´È M1 2 Ý ] Ý M2, Ý R3 × ÔÐ ] Ñ ÔÐ M3, ¹Ý ´ÔÐ R2R3 ÔÐ ÓÔÑ ¸ ] marked and the gloss Ø Ý ÔÐ Ý Ò Ý added in margin V2 ÔÑ ] ÔÑ R1 ¸ ] ¸ B5R1, ( ¸ ) I, [ ] ¸ V × Ý ß Ø¸ ] × Ý ß Ø ¸ B , × ÝÓ Ø¸ IV V V , × Ý ß Ø¸ M ß Ø¸ R1 ¡ ¡ ¡Ý ¢ supl 5 5 ¡ 2 4 5 ¡ 3V3, × ¾ ½ ½¾ ] om. B5IM1M2M3R1V2V3V4V5 3 Ý ] Ý ´Ý I, Ý M2, Ý M3R3 » ] » M3 Ú Ø ] Ö Ý ] Ö Ý Ö Ý V4 4 Ô ] Ø Ô M3R2R3V4 Ø V3V5 ÑÒÝÓ ] ÑÌÝÓ M3 ¹Øå × ¦ØÖÑ ] ¹ØǑ × ØÖ M3, ¹Ø ØÖ V4 Verse 35 numbered 36 IV2V4, not numbered R1 5 Ã £Î¹Ô ] marked and the annotation Ö×¹ Ö¸ added in margin by s V2, Ã £Î¹Ô [ x ] V5 ÔÐ ß¸ ] ÔÐ ß V5 ¼ ] om. B5R1R2V3V4V5 ¢Ø ] ¢Ø M1V5, ¢ Ø ¸ V2 Ã £ Ö £] Ã £ Ö ß I, corrected from Ã £ ÖÓ to Ã £ Ö £ R3 6 ¹Ú ] ¹Ú B5, ¹Ú£ R1 ÚÐ ] Ú Ð ( ) [ ] R1 Ñ£ ] Ñ ¹ØÓ Ý £ ] ¹ØÓ ÝÓ ¢ £ M1, corrected from Ñ£ to Ñ£ V4 M1V2, marked and the variant reading Ý £ recorded in margin by s V5 7 ½ ] om. Ñ £ ÓÐ M1, Ù ÓÐ£ ÓÐ M2V3, Ù ÓÐ £ ÓÐ B5R1R2R3V2V3V5 7–8 Ù ÓÐ £ ÓÐ ] Ù ÓÐÑ R1, corrected from Ù £ÐÝÓ ÓÐ to Ù ÓÐÝÓ ÓÐ R2, Ù ÓÐÝÓ ÓÐ R3, corrected from Ù £Ð £ ÓÐ to Ù ÓÐ £ ÓÐ V5 8 Ò Ø £] Ñ Ø £ B5, corrected from Ò ØÓ to Ò Ø £ V5 327
ÃÖ ÖÖ  Ø Ñ ¢Ø ù ½¾ Öù ÑØ ß¸ Ô Ñ ¢Ì Ú  Ø Ø Ì Ö ¦Ý  ØÓ Ú £Õ ÖØÓ ÝÒ Ô ØØ¹Ø Ò  ó¸ Ö ÑÌ Ú Ô ½ Ñ £Õ Ñ ×Ø Ø Ú ×ÖÓ Ö Ø º ¹ÌÖ Ò Ø ©Ô ïÒ £Ú ÝÓ Ò ÝÑ ¿ ¢ Ø Ø ÝÑ ¦ ÓÐ Ú ¸ ¸Ô ¢Ì £Õ ´Ý £ ´Õ Ø
¸º ¿
f. 12r V3 f. 12v R2, f. 4v M1 f. 14v V4
5
×Ö Ú ¦ ÐÚ ¹» ¿ Ò ÃÝ ß ¼ Ø  Ò ÝÓ ¸ º Ã ¾¼ Ø ÃÃÒ ¼¼ Ø¹Ø ¹Ú Ø Î ¹Ø Ý ¸ ¿
10 f. 13r I
Verse 36 numbered 37 IV2V4 1 Ö ] Ö V4 Ñ V5 ¢Ø ù] Ñ ¢ Ø R1, Ñ ¢ Ø R2R3, Ñ ¢ 2Ñ ]Ñ ½¾ ] ÑØ ß¸ ½¾º B5, ½¾ M2V2V4V5, om. R1, ÑØ ß ½ º V3 Öù ] Öù V4 V3 ] ÑØ ß¸ ½¾º B5, om. IR1V4, ÑØ ß ½ º V3 ÑØ ß¸ ] ÑØ ß R2V3, Ø ß¸ V4 ¸ ] om. B5 Ú £Õ ] Ô £Õ V5 4 ÖØÓ ] ¢ ØÓ B5, ÖØÓ R3 3 Ö ¦ÝØÓ ] Ö ØÓ M1M2, Ö ¦ÝÌÓ R2R3 ÝÒ Ø¹Ø Verse 37 numbered 38 ] í?Ò M1, íÒ M2R1R2R3V3V5 ] ØÓ¹Ø R1 Ú Ô ] ( Ú ) marg,s V5 Ñ ] Ñ IV2V4, numbered 27 R1 5 Ö ÑÌ ] Ö Ö Ô R1 V4 ] om. B5IM1M2R1V2V3V4V5 6 Ñ ×Ø ] Ñ [ xx ] ×Ø I, Ñ × [ Ò ] Ø V3 Ø ] ? Ø ( ) B , I, Ø M , Ø ( ) V 7 ï ] ÀÝ M M , ï ï ) V , [ x ]( 5 2 marg 3 1 2 marg,s V5 3 ¾ ½ 8 Ø £Ú ] Ø £Ú M1, Ø £ Ý Ú M2, Ð Ñ £ [ x ] Ú V3 ÝÓ Ò ÝÑ ] Ý Ò Ý R1 Verse 38 ÝÑ Ñ Ñ 10 ¸] numbered 39 IV2, numbered 391 V4 9 ¿ ] om. B5IM1M2R1V2V3V4V5 B5R1, ( ¸ ) subl I, ( ¸ ) subl V5 ÃÝ ß ] Ã ß R2R3, corrected from ÃÝ Ç to ÃÝ ß V3 ¾ ¼ ] om. B5IM1M2R1V2V3, ¿¼ R2, ¿ R3 ÝÓ ¸ ] ÝÓ ¸ V4, ÝÓ [ x ] ¸ V5 11 £Õ — Ò ] £ Õ ½ ¿ ´Ý £ Ã Ø ÃÃ Ò V3 £Õ ] £Õ R3 11–12 Ã — ¹Ø Ý ¸ ] om. but written in main text Ø ] Ø V3V5 ¼¼ ] between marks in the next verse (see there) V5 11 ¾¼ ] B5V3 Ò Ø ¼¼ B5R2R3, om. R1, Ò Ø ¼¼¼ V4 Ø¹Ø ] Ø V2 12 ´Õ ] ´Õ ¼ R2V4, Õ V2 Ø ] Ø M2, Ø V3 ¹Ú Ø ] Ã Ø R2 Î ¹Ø Ý ¸ ] Î ¹Ø Ý ( ¸ ) supl V3 328
Ò ß »Ó  ÝØ¸ £ ¢ ÚÖ Ñ ÖÅ £ Ç Ø ¹ØÝ Ñ Ð¹Ý  Ò ×Ñ ¹Ø¹Ñ Ñ £ Ó Ý¸ º ½ â¾ »¿ × Ò ¢ ØÒ ¦Ø Ý  Ú ØÓ Úê £ÕÓ´ÌÔ Ò »Ý Ò Ø ¦Ý £ ÖØ ¿ ¹Ú¹Ú Ý Ý Ô ÑØÝ¸¹Ú Ó Ú ¸ Ñ £Ú Ö Ý ÒÖ  £ Ô Öº Ý ¸ ÑÓ´ Ñ Ø ¸ £ ½ â¾ »¿ ¢ Ó Ú ßæÖ Ð ß Ò ¸ ¹Ý ¸ Ñ å¹Ø¹Ì ßÞ Ý ¸ ¹Ú Ý ÚÕÝ £Õ Ú  ÐÓÑ Î Ø ¼
f. 11r B5 f. 48 V2 f. 10r R3
5 p. 69 R1
f. 15r V4
Verse 39 numbered 40 IV2V4 1 Ò ß »Ó — £ ] om. written in main text between Ò ß »Ó ] Ò ß Ó»Ó M1M2, Ò £» £ Ó V4 marks after p¯ ada b (see there) V5 ¢ ] ¢ ? B5, ? R1 M1M2V5 ÖÅ ] Ö ( ) marg,s V5 £ Ç ] £ Ó M1 2 ¹ØÝ ] ¹ØÝ ×Ñ ¹Ø¹Ñ ] ×Ñ¹Ø¹Ñ I, ×Ñ ¹ØÑ M1 Ó Ý ¸ ] after Ó Ý ¸ is the last part of the previous verse and ¾¼ ¼¼ the beginning of the current verse inserted between marks in the main text Ã Ø ÃÃÒ Ø¹Ø ß »Ó ÝØ¸ £ V5 3 ½ â ¾ » ¿ ] numerals om. Õ Ø [ Ç ] ¹Ú Ø Ø Î ¹Ø Ý ¸ ¿ Ò ½ ¾ ¿ B5M1M2R1V3, â » ½º ¾º ¿ R2, â » ½º ¾º ¿ R3, â » V5 × Ò ¢ Ø] Ò ¢Ø B5, × Ò ¢ Ø I, × Ò ¢ Ø M1, × Ò ¢ Ø M2, × Ò ¢ Ø R1, × Ò ¢ Ø R2R3, × Ò ¢ ( Ø ) marg V3 Ú ØÓ ] Ú Ç M1M2 4 Úê £ÕÓ´Ì ] Úê £ÕÓ í? B5, Úê £ÕÓ ¹Ý V2V4V5 »Ý ] ÚÝ R2R3, [ » ] »Ý V2 Ò ] ©Ý Ò ] ¿ ¿ B5IM1M2V2V3V4, [ ] ¿ ¿ V5 M2, ? Ò R1, Ý Ò V3, corrected from Ó Ò to Ò V5 Ø ¦Ý £ ÖØ ] Ø ( ) ¦Ý £ ÖØ I ÑØÝ¸ ] ÑØ ¸? B5 Verse 40 numbered 41 IV2V4 5 ] added in margin by s V5 ¹Ú Ó ] ¹´Ú Ó I, ¹Ú Ó M1M2 Ñ ] corrected from ÑÓ to Ñ B5 6 £Ú ] £ M1M2 ÑÓ ] Ñ M2, ( ÑÓ ) marg,s R2 Ø ¸ ] Ø V3 ÒÖ £ ] corrected from ÒÖ £ £ to ÒÖ £ V3 ½ â ¾ » ¿ ] numerals om. B5IM1M2R1V2V3V4, â » M1M2, â » ½º ¾º ¿ R2R3, 7 ½ ¾ ¿ â » V5 ß ] ÚÓ ´Ú ß M1, Ó Ú ß M2 Ò ¸ ¹Ý Ñ ] Ñ [ ] V5 ¢ Ó Ú ¸ ] om. V4 ¾ ½ 8 å¹Ø¹Ì ß ] å ¹ ß ¹Ø B5, ²Ý¹Ø¹Ì ß I, Ø²Ý´Ý¹Ø ß R1, å´Ý¹Ì ß R2R3, corrected from £²Ý¹Ø¹ ß to ²Ý¹Ø¹ ß V2, ²Ý¹Ø¹ ß V5 Þ Ý ¸ ] Þ Ý IM2 ÚÕÝ £] Ú Ý £ R1 Õ ] Õ¹Ý M1, Õ M2, Õ R1V3 ¾ ½ ÚÐÓÑ ] Ú ÓÑ V3 Î Ø ] Ø Î M2, Ö Ø R2, ÝØ V4, Î Ø V5 329
Ô ÓÒ ÐÚ ½½º ÔÑ ¦ØÖØÝ ßÚ ´Ý¦Ø ØÝ ¹ÌØ Ú ØÇ ÝÑ ÒÝÓÞ ÝØ¸  ¹ÚËÔ ß¸ ¹Ú Ý ß¸ ÔÐ ß¸ º ØÇ Ò¦ ÔÑ ¦ØÖØÝ Ó Å ÝÓÞ ØÇ Ú £ Ô Ñ ¦ØÖ ØÇ Ý ß ÝÓ Ú ¹Ø ß¸ ½ Ñ ¢Ø Ö Ý¦Ø»ÝÑÇ Ú ÚÐÝ £ Ò Ó¦Ñ Ð ¦Ø Ý ¹Ø £ Ø´ Ó Î
ÔÓ Ý ¸ º Ö »ÚÐÝ ¹Ú Ó Ý Ó ÝÔ ÔÐ¦Ý £ Ò  ÔÐ ¡Ú ¡Ò ²ÝÓÑ ¦Ý ¿¼ Ø £Ö ÔÐ ßÖ ÐÚ ØÒ ¾ ¸
 Verse 41 numbered 42 IV2V4 1 Ô ÓÒ ] Ô Ò I, Ô ÓÒ M2, Ô ÓÒ R1, Ô Ó ( Ò ) marg,s R2, Ô Ó R3, corrected from ÔÓ ÓÒ to Ô ÓÒ V3V5, Ô ÓÒ V4 ½½º ] ÔÑ Ø ½½ B5, om. M1M2R1R2R3, ÔÑ ½½ ØÖ V3, added in margin by s V5 Ú ´Ý¦Ø ]
Ú ÝØ R1, Ú ´ÝØ R2R3 ØÝ ] corrected from ØÝ V5 2 Ú ] corrected from to ØÝ Ú ß to Ú R2, corrected from Ú to Ú V4 Ñ Ò ] ÑÒ V3 3 Ò¦ ] Ñ R1R2R3 ] om. B5IM1M2R1R2R3V2V3V4, Ò with numeral added by s V5 3–4 ÔÑ — Ú ¹Ø ß¸ ] ¢Ø om. but added in main text between marks in p¯ ada a of verse 43 (see there) M2 3 Þ ØÇ ] Þ [ x ] ØÇ V5
( Ô ) supl
f. 13r R2
5
f. 48v V2
f. 13v I
4 Ú £ ] Ú £ Ó R1
] om. B5M1R1R2R3V3V5, Ú £
I, Ú £
V2
Ô Ñ]
Ñ V5 Ý ß ÝÓ ] Ý ß ÝÓ R1, corrected from Ý ß ÝÇ to Ý ß ÝÓ V5 Ú ¹Ø ß¸ ] Ú ¹Ø Ñ Ñ Ñ Ñ ¢Ø ¢ Ø¸ IM1, Ú¹Ø Ø ß ¸ R , Ú ¹Ø ØÇ R R , Ú × Ø ß ¸ V , corrected from Ú¹Ø Ø ß to Ú¹Ø Ø ß V Verse 42 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ 1 2 3 2 4 p¯ ada s ab om. and p¯ ada s cd numbered with p¯ ada s ab of verse 43 as 44 I, not numbered V2, numbered with p¯ ada s ab of verse 43 as 43 V4 5–6 Ö Ý¦Ø — ÔÓ Ý¸ ] om. I 5 Ö Ý¦Ø ] »Ý ] » V5 om. but added in main text between marks in p¯ ada a of verse 43 (see there) M2 ÚÐÝ £ ] »ÚÐÝ £ V4 ] Ó R1V2V4 Ò Ó¦Ñ Ð ] Ò Ó Ñ Ð M1, Ò Ó¦Ñ Ð M2, Ò ÝÓ¦Ñ Ð V3, Ò Ó¦Ñ Ð £ V5 6 Ý ¹Ø Ö » ] Ö » V2V4 ] Ý Ø V2V4 ] [ Ý ]( ¸ ) marg V2 ÚÐÝ £ ] ÚÐÝ £ V3 Ø´ Ó Î ] [ Ú´ÚÓ ]( Ø´ Ó ) marg Î V3 ÔÓ Ý ¸ ] ÔÓ Ý ( ¸ ) supl R2, ÔÓ Ý R3, ÔÓ Ý¸ V2V4 7 ¹Ú ] ¹Ú [ ] V2 Ó Ý ] Ó Ý M2 Ô ] between Ô and is enclosed ¡Ú ¡Ú in brackets Ö »Ý¹Ý Ú ½ ½¾º ¾ º¿ ¿ Ø Ý¸ º ½¾¼ º ½¿ B5, Ô V5 ÔÐ ] ÔÐ ¡Ý R2R3, ÈÐ V2, corrected from Ð to ÈÐ V4 Ò ÔÐ ] Ò ÈÐ M1M2 8 ²ÝÓÑ ¦Ý ] ²ÝÓÑ ( ) ¦Ý I ¿¼ ] om. R1V3V4, ¦Ý ¿¼ V5 Ø £] Ø £ B5V4, Ø ß M1M2R2R3V5 ÔÐ ß ] ÈÐ ß V4 Ö ÐÚ ] Ö Ð I, Ö ÐÚ R1, corrected from Ö £ ÐÚ to Ö ÐÚ V3, Ö ( ÐÚ ) marg,s V5
330
Ñ £Õ ßÖ Ú Ô ÚÒ ßÝ ¡Ú ¹Ú Ý  Ò Ó ÒØ Ð Ò × ÝÒ× Ð Ò ÚÚÖ £ Ð¸ ÔÐ Ú £Ø º ¡Ý Ö »Ç  Õ Ý Ø Ø¹Ø ×ÑÝÓ Ð Ò Ø ÝÝ ØÚ £ ØÇ Ø ¦ØÖÐÚ ßÒ Ó Ý¸ Ã Ò ¿¼  Ø ÚÕ ¸ ÚâÐÝ Ð´Ý ¹Ã ÐØ £ ¹Ñ  ¦ Ú ÒÐ £Ô Ö¹Ø Ø º Ø
Ö
ÔÖ» Ý Ø ØÚÕ Ò ×Ñ ¹ØØÓ ÝÒ ¸

f. 6r M2
¿
f. 18v V5 p. 70 R1
5
f. 49r V2
f. 11v B5
Verse 43 p¯ ada s ab numbered with p¯ ada s cd of verse 42 as 43 and p¯ ada s cd numbered with halfverse inserted after this verse (see apparatus there) I, not numbered V2, p¯ ada s ab numbered with verse 42 as 43 and p¯ ada s cd numbered with halfverse inserted after this verse (see apparatus there) V4, numbering reorganized by s so that p¯ ada s ab are numbered with p¯ ada s cd of verse 42 as 42 and p¯ ada s cd numbered with halfverse added in margin by s (see apparatus after this verse) V5 1 Ñ £Õ ß ] Ñ £Õ R1, Ô £Õ R3 Ô ] ¡Ú Vth ¡Ú ÚÒ ß ] between and ÚÒ ß is inserted is in main text between marks ÔÑ ØÖÐÝ Ó ØÓÞ ØÇ Ú £ Ô Ñ ØÖ ØÇ Ý ß ÝÓ Ú × ß¸ ½ Ö ÝØ M2 Ý Ñ ¢Ø ¹Ú Ý ] Ý Ý M1, Ý × Ý M2, Ý × Ý R1 2–3 × ÝÒ — Ð Ò ] om. B5 2 Ð¸ ] Ð R1, ÓÐ ¸ V4 ÔÐ Ú £Ø ] ÔÐ Ú £Ø M1R1, Ú £Ø to ÔÐ Ú £Ø R2 3 Õ ] Õ x ( ) marg,s V5 ×ÑÝÓ Ð Ò ] corrected from ÔÐ ×ÑÝÓ Ð Ò M1, ×ÑÝ Ò with Ý marked and variant reading ÝÓ Ð added in margin by s V5 Ø Ý ] Ú R1, × V3 4 ØÚ £ ] Ø Ú £ [ x ] I, Ø Ú £ R1 ] IR1V2V5, Ø [Ø ] V3 ØÇ ] ØÓ M1 Ø ¦ØÖ ] corrected from Ø ØÖ to Ø ØÖ V3 Ò Ó Ý¸ ] Ò Ý¸ M1 ¿¼ ] ¿¼ om. B5IR1V2V3V5, Ã Ò M2, ¿ R2R3 Ø ] Ø R2R3 after verse 43 is Ð¸ ¹Ý Ì Ø´×Ñ ada s cd ´ÌØÖ£ ( ¸ ) supl Ð¸ ¹È Î ¹Ý Ø¹Ø´ ÐÓ Ú ¹ÚØ¸ Ô ÒÖÝ ×× Ø¸ ¹È Î¸ numbered with p¯ of verse 43 as 43 I, Ð¸ ¹Ý Ì Ø´×Ñ ´ÌØÖ£¸ Ð¸ ¹È Î¸ ¹Ý Ø¹Ø´ ÐÓ Ú ¹ÚØ¸ Ô ÒÖÝ ×× Ø¸ ¹È Î¸ numbered 44 V2, Ð¸ ¹Ý Ì Ø´×Ñ ´ÌØÖ£¸ Ð¸ ¹È Î¸ ¹Ý Ø¹Ø´ ÐÓ Ú ¹ÚØ¸ Ô ÒÖÝ ×× Ø¸ ¹È  Î¸ numbered with p¯ ada s cd of verse 43 as 43 V4, after verse 43 Ð¸ ¹Ý Ì Ø´×Ñ ´ÌØÖ£¸ Ð¸ ¹È Verse 44 Î¸ ¹Ý Ø¹Ø´ ÐÓ Ú ¹ÚØ¸ Ô ÒÖÝ ×× Ø¸ ¹È Î¸ is inserted in margin by s V5 numbered 45 V4V2 5 ÚÕ Ú ] Ú Ú R1, marked and the annotation ÝÒ ÓÔÔ ¸ added in margin by s R2 Ý ] Ý [ x ] B5, Ý Æ M1 ¸] B5R1R2R3V2V3V5, M2 6 ¹Ã ÐØ £ ] ¹Ã ÐØ R1, corrected from ¹ ÐØÓ to ¹ ÐØ £ V5 ÒÐ £ ] ÒÐ V4 Ô Ö¹Ø Ø ] Ô Ö¹Ø ¸ R1, × 7 Ø Ö ] ( Ô ) marg Ö B5, ÔÔ Ö M1, Ô Ö M2R1R2R3V3V5 Ö¹Ø Ø R3 Ý Ø ] Ý Ø B5M1M2V3 8 ÚÕ ] ÚÕ R1 ×Ñ ¹ØØÓ ] ×Ñ¹ØØÓ M1M2 331
ÑÝ
Ö Ø× ÝÓÝ ¡Ý ¦ØÖ Ú Ø × ÝÒ ×ö º ÚÕ¦ØÖ £ Ð ¦ØÖÑ» ¢ ´Ý Ø  ¹ØÒ Ñ Ö ÔÑ× Ò Ì
f. 10v R3
» Î Ô Ö ÑØ ÒÑ Ý Øâ ×Ö ÚÕ ÝÓÝ Ø º Ú  Ò× ¡Ý ¦ØÖ Ú Ø × ÝÒ ×ö Ø´×¹ ¢ Ø ÔÑÐ Ò
Ö × ÝÑ Ý´× ¡ Ñ ÒÝÒÑ Ø ¢ Ý ¦ØÖ Î Ý Ú ×Ò Ò » ßÖ × Ñ
Verse 45
5 f. 13v R2
f. 49v V2
Ñ Ò Ø ÚÕÑ  ´ÚØ¸  ¹Ý Ø º Ø» Ô Ö ØÒÓ Ô Ò ÓÕ ¹Ý Ø
10 f. 14r I, f. 13r V3
numbered 46 IV4V2 1 × ÝÓÝ ] corrected from × ÝÓÝ £ to × ÝÓÝ V4 ¡Ý ¡Ý ¡Ý ¾ ¾ ½ ½ 2 ¦ØÖ ] ØÖ R1 ×ö ] × ÀÝ M1, ×ÀÝ M2 3 Ð ¦ØÖ ] Ð ØÖ V4 Verse 46 numbered 48 IV4, numbered 47 V2 placed after verse 49 IV2V4 Î V4 Ñ Ý ] Ñ Ð¥Ý B5R2R3V3V5, Ñ Ò Ë Ý M1M2, 5 » Î ] » ¿¼ Î R2R3, » Ñ Ð ß¥Ý R1 6 Øâ ×Ö ] Øâ × ( Ö ) marg I, Ø [ Ø ] â ×Ö with an extra Ö added in margin to make the reading clearer V2 ÚÕ 7–8 — × ÝÑ ] ¹Ý ØÖ Ú Ø Ú ] Ú Ú I, Ú Ú R1 Ø £ ÝÒ Ú Ð ØÖ £ ØÖ» ÚÐÓ Ò Ý I, same with ¹Ý marked and variant reading noted in margin by s V2, same with ÝÒ for ÝÒ V4, marked and the variant ¹Ý ØÖ Ú Ø Ø £ ÝÒ Ú Ð ØÖ £ ØÖ» ÚÐÓ Ò Ý added in margin by s V5 7 ¦ØÖ ] ¢ ØÖ with ¢ marked and the variant reading noted in margin V3, corrected from ØÖ to ØÖ V5 ¾ ¾ ½ ½ ×ö ] × ÀÝ M1 Verse 47 numbered 48 V2 placed before verse 48 IV2V4 9 Ý´× Ñ Ø ] [ ] Ø B5 10 Ø ¢ Ý ] Ø ¢ Ý R1 ÚÕÑ´ÚØ¸ ¡ Ñ ] Ý´× ¡ Ñ B5 Ò ] Ò R1 ¹Ý Ø ] ÚÕÑ´ÚØ×Ø B5, corrected from ÚÕÑ´ÚØ×Ø to ÚÕÑ´ÚØ¹ØØ I, ÚÕÑ´Ú  ×Ø M1, ÚÕÑ´Ú   ×Ø M2, Ú Ñ´ÚØ¸ ×Ø R1, ÚÕÑ´ÚØ¸ ×Ø R2R3V3V5, ÚÕ 11 Ò Ø ] Ò Ø B5 Ú´ÚØ¸ ¹Ý Ø V4 ? ? marked and corrected to Ô Ö Ø ] Ô Ö¹Ø V 12 ] Ó in margin V × Ñ Ô Ò] 5 2 × Ñ Ô Ò B , × Ñ ( » ) I, × ÑÖ Ò V 5 marg 5 332
´Ì é Ñ Ò Ì ´Ñ £Ò Ó £ Ø¦» £ ÒÖ £Ò ÖÅÝ £º ¦Ì Ö Ö ¡ Ø £ ¡Ø £ £ Ö Ñ £ Ø ¹Ô Ø Ã
¼
Verse 48 not numbered B5IR3 1 ´Ì ] Ø M2, ´Ì with ´Ì marked and ´Ì written in margin to make reading clear R3 1–3 Ò Ì — ¡ Ø £ ] om. B5M1M2 1 ÒÌ ] marked and variant reading Ö written in margin by s R2 2–3 Ó £ — ¡ Ø £ ] om. V3 2 Ø¦» £ ] Ø» R1 ÒÖ £Ò ] Ò [ xxx ] Ö £Ò R2 4 £ Ø ¹Ô Ø Ã £ Ö Ñ ] Ý £Î¹Ý Ò Ø ¹Ô Ã ( ) marg ¸ I, Ã £ Ö ¹Ô Ò Þ R2, Ã £ Ö ¹Ô Ò Þ R3, ÓÐ Ý Ý £ ¹Ô Ã £Î¹Ý ¸ marked and variant reading £ Ø ¹Ô Ø Ã £ Ö added in margin V2 Ø ] ÝØ M1M2 ¹Ô Ø ] om. M1M2 Colophon Ø é Ò Ò Ì ´Ñ ÒÖ ÚÖ Ø £ × Ø× Ö ¹Ô Ö¸ ×Ô £ ¡ ¸ B5, Ø é Ñ´× Ð × ØÖ ¹Ý £ Ú ×Ò Ú Ö Ø × Ø× Ö ¹È Ö Ñ´ ( Ö ) marg Ö £ Î Ø× Ò Ò Ñ Ý Ý¸ I, Ø × Ø× Ö ¹Ô Ö Ý ÝÓ âØ Ý¸ M1, Ø ×´ Ø× Ö ¹Ô Ö Ý ÝÓ âØ Ý¸ M2, om. R1R3V5, £ £ Ø é Ò Ö ´Ñ ÒÖ ÚÖ Ø £ × Ø× Ö ( Ø Ý Ý £ ) marg,s ¹Ô ÖÓ âØ Ý¸ in margin by s R2, £ Ø × Ø× Ö ¹È Ö ¹Ô Ö¸ ×Ô £ Î Ø× Ò Ò Ñ Ý Ý¸ V2, Ø é Ò Ò Ì ´Ñ ÚÖ × Ø× £ ¡ ¸ V3, Ø é Ñ´×  Ð × ØÚ ×Ò Ú Ö Ø × Ø× Ö ¹È Ö Ñ´ Ö £ Î Ø× Ò Ò Ñ Ý Ý¸ (folio change to f. 16r) V4 333
Ì

Ø Ý Ý £ » ç
Ö¸
f. 15v g V4, p. 71 R1
×â ×Ò × Ñ× Ý× ¦  Ö¹Ý
â ÐØÖ ÓÐØÖÓ¸ ÔÖ¹Ý º £ Ð ÐÒ ÈÐ× Ò Ì » ç× Ñ ÖÑÌ ¹Ý £ ½ ¸×Ñ ¢ ØÑ ØÐ× ¹ÌØ¹Ý Ó¸ º É Ý Ò Î × ×Ñ¹Ý (a) Ý ÅÝÓ Ö Ú Ø × ßÚ Ø ´ÌÑ´¹Ý Ô Ç Ú £Ø Ñ ¾ (b) É ¹ÝØ¹´ÚÔÖÔ ¡Ú

5
f. 12r B5
Ù ù ×Ñ ¡ Ñ Ú ¢ £¦ Ð £ ÒÚ £ Ý ÌÐ ×ÖÐ  Ð  Ñ º Ó Ú ÖÑ Ã Ô Ö Ç Ø å¹Ø ÒØ
ÔÐÚ ß ß¦ ¿
chapter opens é Ð Ó ÖÓ Ý Ø I, é £ Ó Ý Ø V2 Verse 1 2 ×â ×Ò ] Ýâ ×Ò I, ×â ×Ò R1 4 ÐÒ ] ( Ð ) marg,s Ò R2 ÈÐ ] ÔÐ V3 5 ÖÑÌ ] ( Ö ) marg,s ÑÌ R2 3 ØÖÓ¸ ] ØÖÓ R2R3 ¹Ý £ ] Ø ¹Ý £ V5 Verse 2 7 Î × Ó¸ ] £ Ó¸ B5 8 × ßÚ ] ] Î ¸× V5 corrected from ×ÇÚ to × ßÚ V3 8–9 Ø ´ÌÑ´¹ÝÔ Ç Ú £Ø Ñ ] ØØ¹Ø ´ÌÑ´¹Ý ¹ÝÔ É ¹ÝØ¹´ÚÔÖÔ ¡Ú Ø £ Ô £ R1, not marked but variant reading ØØ¹Ø ´ÌÑ´¹Ý ¹ÝÔ Ø £ Ð Ô £ added in margin R3 8 Ø ´Ì ] Ø ´Ô R3 Ñ´¹Ý ] om. but added in margin V3 9 Ô ] Ô ¡Ú ¡ ÚÇ M1 Ö ØÖÑ added in Verse 3 numbered 43 R3 10 Ù ù ] marked and the annotation margin by s R2, Ù V5 Ú £¦ ] £² V4 ¡ Ñ ] ¡ Ñ B5M1M2R2R3V3 ¢ ] ÚØ V5 ÌÐ ×ÖÐ ] ÌÐ ÖÐ B5, » ÌÐ ×ÖÐ M1, ÖÐ ÌÐ R1, ÌÐ × ( Ö ) supl Ð V3, 11 ×ÖÐ ÌÐ V5 Ð Ñ ] Ð R1 12 Ó ] corrected from £ to Ó R1, Ó R3 ¾ ½ Ú ] [ Ú ] Ú V3, Ú V5 Ñ 12–13 Ø å ] Ø å B5, Ø ´ R2, Ø í? Ã ] Ñ Ã V5 13 ÒØ ] ÒØ V4 ß¦ ] £ M1R1, corrected from ß to ß R3, Ø ²Ý V5 M2 (a). The reading 2.1.26.
Ò Î × ×Ñ¹Ý is also possible.
10 f. 50r V2, f. 14v I
(b). This verse is identical to verse
334
¹Ý â Þ ÌØ £¦ Ø Ì £¦ Ð Ö ÚÚ £Ò Ú ´ÝÔ ßØ º  Ø» ÔÖ £¦ Ç ÚØ¸ Ñ £ ×ÇÅÝ Ú £ ÚØ
£ Ø Ö â ÒÑ ¦Ý Ñ Ò ¦Ø ¹Ì  Ø £ × ÝÒ £ ÒÇ ÑÝ  £ÝÑ º Ó » ¸ ¸ Ó ÎÒ £» £©Ú £»Ñ Ó Ú £Õ Å × ¡  ÅÝ  ¡ » ÔÐ Ý Ó ¡ Ñ Ñ  Ý £º ¸ » Ý ÐÅ Ý » Ó Î Ò Þ Ô Ú £ÝÑ ¢ ÄÚ
Verse 4 numbered 40 R1 1 £¦ ] £ B5 Ø Ì ] Ø Ì B5 £¦ ] £ V3V5 2 Ð ] marked and the annotation Ò´Ý
added in the margin by s R2, Ð¸ V5 ] x V3 Ú £Ò ] £Ò V4, Ú £? z V5 Ú ´ÝÔ ß Ø ] Ú ´Ý ß Ø M1M2, Ú ´ÝÔ ß Ø R1, Ú? z Ô ß Ø V5 Ô 3 Ø» ÔÖ £¦ ] Ø» ÔÖ £ z V5 Ñ £ ] Ç ] ÐÇ M2, Ç R1, corrected from Ç to Ç V2 [ ]Ñ £ V4, Ñ £ z V5 4 ×ÇÅÝ ] ×ÇÅÝ V2, ×ÇÅÝ £ V5 £] Ú £ B5 , ¢ Ú £ R1
£ Ø] Ú £ Ø IV4 Ú Ö â ÒÑ ] ( Ö ) marg â Ò I, marked but no annotation found in the margin R2 Verse 5 not numbered V4 verse hard to read due to highlighting by scribe V5 5 ¦Ý ] ¦Ý V2 Ñ Ò ¦Ø ¹ÌØ £ ] Ñ Ò Ø¸ ( ) ¹ÌØ £ V3, Ñ Ò ´Ú¸ ¹ÌØ £ V4 Ò £] Ò B5, Ò £ R3, Ò £? V5 6 ÒÇ Ñ ] ÒÓÑ V4 £ÝÑ ] [ ] Ý B5, ×Ç R1 7–8 ¸ — Ú £Õ 7 ¸] ] om. V4 Ó ÎÒ ] Ó ÎÒ B5V3 Ó ] Ó M1M2, £ V5 » ¸ ] » ¸ V5 ( ¸ ) supl I £©Ú ] £» £ [ x ] ©Ú B5, £»©Ú M2 Ú £Õ £Õ £Õ 8 £» ] Ú B5 , Ú R1, as in text with Õ and the ﬁrst aks Ú £» added in margin by s R2, Ú £ R3 . ara of verse 6 marked and the annotation marked together with last aks Verse 6 9 ¡ ÅÝ — ÔÐ Ý ] om. V4 ¡ ] with the . ara of previous verse (for annotation see there) R2 ÅÝ Å ] ÅÝ Ð M1M2, ÅÝ [ ] ´× R2 , ÅÝ Æ ?
V5 10 Ó ] V5 ] R1 , [ x ] R2, Ú R3 ÑÝ £ ] ÑÝÓ V4 12 11 Ó Î Ò ] Ó Î Ò R1, Ó Î Ò ? V5 ] ( ) supl R2 £ ] £ ( £ ) marg V3 335
f. 14r R2
5
f. 16v V4
f. 11r R3
f. 13v V3, f. 19r V5 10 p. 72 R1
Ô ¡Ú
Ø Ý Ô ¦Ø Ý ¹Ý ´ Ó ÎÖ » ¸ º Ó ¸ Ý ¦ÝÓ  ÔÑ Ý  ¸ ¡ Ö ¹Ý Å Ùâ ¢ ¸ ¦Ý Ó Î¸ Ã Ó Î¸ ¦Ø Ý ØÌÓâ ¢ Ò Ó¸ º ¢ Þâ ¸ ¸ Ý ßÚ £ ´Ý £
f. 50v V2 f. 12v B5
5
×ÑÑ Ð×ùØ Ò £ ÚÐÅ ¸ ×ÑÚ ¢ Þ ¸º ÝÑ» Ó ÎÖ Ó¸ éÚ ¹Ø ¢ ØÖ £Ú ´ÝÑ¦ÝØ

f. 15r I 10
Verse 7 1Ô B5 , Ô V4 Ø ] Ò M2 ¡Ú] Ô ¡Ú ¡Ú Ý ] after Ý is written but erased ¦ÝÓ ÔÑ Ý ¡ Ö ¹Ý Ùâ 2 Ö » ] Ö » R1, Ö ( » ) marg M2, Ö V4 ¸ I, Ý V5 ¢ ÔÑ Ý ] x Ñ Ý B5, ÔÑ Ý R1, Ô Ý V4, Ô?Ñ? Ý V5 4 Å ] Ú R1 3 Ý ] Ý R1V4 ? Ùâ ] Ù M R , Ù´ M Verse 8 5 ] V Ã ] Ã V4 Ó Î¸ ] ¢ ¢ ¢ 1 1 2 5 Ó ¸ V4 6 ¸ ] V2V4 ØÌÓâ ] ØÌÓ I, Ì Ú M , ØÌ â Ø M , ÌÓ R , ØÌÓâ R2 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ 1 2 1 7 ¦Ý ] [ ] ¦Ý M1, ´Ý R1V2V4 Þâ ] Þ IR , Þ Ø M ¸ ] corrected from ¢ ¢ ¢ 1 1 Ó¸ to ¸ B5 8 Ó Î¸ ] Ó Î I £ ´Ý £ ] Ý £Ú £ Ý ´Ý £ V5 Verse 9 Ý ßÚ 9 ×Ñ ] × M1M2 Ñ Ð ] Ñ Ð V5 Ø Ò £ ]Ø Ò £ V5 10 ÚÐÅ ¸ ] ÐÚ Ú¸ M2, ÐÚ¸ V4 Ú 11 ÝÑ» ] ÝÑ» M2, ÔÑ» R1, ÔÖ» R2R3, [ ] ÝÑ» V4 Ö ] Ö Ò M2 ¢ ]Ú ¢ B5 Ó¸ ] Ó M1M2V4 12 éÚ ] éÚ M1 ¹Ø ¢ Ø ] ¹Ø ¢ Ø I, ¹Ø £â M1M2, ¹Øâ Ø R1, ¹Ø´ ¢ Ø ¢ marked and the annotation ´¹ÚÓ Ý ¹Ø× ¡ » Ø´ ¢ Ø¸ added in margin V2 336
Ùâ ¢ Ö Ø¸  ×ÑÒ Ì Ó Î¸ ÝÓÒØ ¢ Ø ÑØ¸ éÚ ¹ØÌ » º Ã Ñ Ó Ö Ø ´ÝÑ¦Ý ´Ã âÝ ×ÑÒ Ø ¢Ø £æ ½¼ Ö ¹Ø

f. 6v M2
ÔÑ
×

Ò
ÓÚ 
5
f. 51r V2, f. 14v R2
Ú Ò ÚÓ  ÒØØ ¢ Ø¹Ø Ó Î¸ º ×ÑÑ  Ð Ö» ¸ ×ÑÚ £ ½½ ¢ Ó ÖÝ ÅÝ£ Ô × ¡Ý Ø £Õ ß
¦ÝØÑ Ó¸é Ø Ó  ÎÑ Ò ¹» ßÖ £Ò ÔÖ ´Ý  × ÝÑ º Ó¸ Ó ÎÚ Ý ØÑ ¡ ÐÑ Ø é Ø¸ ¹Ý ã Ú  ÚÝ £¸ Ô Ñ» Ó Î¸ ½¾ Ø
Verse 10 1 Ùâ ×ÑÒ Ì ] ×ÑÒ
R2R3 2 Ø ¢ Ø ] Ø ¢ Ø I, Øâ ¢ ] Ù ¢ IM1R1 ¢ Ø R1V5 éÚ ¹ØÌ ] corrected from éÚ£¹ØÌ to éÚ ¹ØÌ I, éÚ ¸¹ØÌ M1 » ] » R3 3 Ñ ] Ñ V5 Ó Ö Ø ] ÓÖ Ø V4 ´Ý ] Ý B5, om. but added in margin V3 4 ´Ã ] Ã V5 ×ÑÒ ]
B5IV2V4 Ø ¢Ø £ ] Øâ Ø £ V æ ] æ V Verse 11 ] ×ÑÑ R1, ×Ñ [ ] Ò R2 ¢ 5 4 placed after verse 12 (which is numbered 11) and numbered 12 IV2V4, placed after verse 12 (which is numbered 12) and numbered 11 M1M2 5 ÔÑ ] ÔÒ B5, ÔÑ × V5 × Ò ] × Ò M1M2, × Ò V3, Ò V4 5–6 Ú Ú Ò ] Ú Ú Ò Ó ] om. M1, ÚÓ M2 IR2R3V4, Ú Ú V5 6 ÒØ ] ( Ò ) marg Ø V2 Ø ¢ Ø ] Øâ Ó Î¸ ] Ó Î ( ¸ ) supl ¢ Ø R1, Ø ¢ Ø V5 ] V 8 Ú Ó ] Ú ØÓ M Ý ÅÝ£ ] Ý Ý£ V × £ ] × £¸ V5 R2 7 ×Ñ ] × V4 ¢ ¢ ¡Ý ¡Ý 4 1 4 Verse 12 placed before verse 11 (which is numbered 12) and numbered 11 IV2V4, placed before verse 11 (which is numbered 11) and numbered 12 M1M2 9 Ø £Õ £ I, Ø ß£ Ö× ] Ø V4
¦Ý ] Ú ¦Ý M1, Ú ¦Ý M2 ØÑ ] ×Ñ B5M1M2R2R3V3 Ó¸ ] Ó IM2V5 é Ø ] ¢ Ø B5V2 ÑÒ ß] Ñ Ñ ß B5, Ñ Ò £ R1 10 ¹» ßÖ £Ò ] ¹» ßÖ ( ) £Ò I, » ßÖ £Ò R1, ¹»Ö £Ò V3, ¹» ßÖ £Ò V5 ÔÖ ´Ý ] Ô Ö ´Ý R1 11 Ó¸ ] Ó ( ¸ ) supl IR2, Ó R3 Ñ ¡ ÐÑ Ø] Ñ ¡ ÐÝ Ø¸ M1, Ñ ¡ ÐÑ Ø¸ M2R1V2, Ñ é 12 ã ] ¡ Ð ÑØ ( ¸ ) supl R2, Ñ ¡ ÐÝ Ø R3, Ñ ¡ Ð Ñ Ø V5 Ø¸ ] ¢ Ø¸ B5R1V3, é Ø ( ¸ ) supl I ã V3, Øã V4 Ú ] Ú V3, Ú V4 ÚÝ £¸ ] ÚÝ £ M2, ( Ú ) marg Ý £¸ R3 Ô ] ÔÖ V3 Ø Ø Ø Ó Î¸ ] Ó Î ( ¸ ) supl R2 337
f. 5r M1 f. 15v I
p. 73 R1 10 f. 17r V4
f. 14r V3
Ú £ ÓÎ Ç Ñ £
£ éÚ£ Ø Ò Ñ º » Ý ÑØ £ Ú Ø ÐÅ Ú ÔÐ Ý £ ¹Ø¸ Ð Ó Î ¡ ½¿ ÙØ Ò Ð

é ØÇ Ó
5
f. 13r B5, f. 11v R3
Ú Ø Ø » ÑÇ Ú é ØÇ Ñ º ÈÐ ÑØÒØ ÑÇ Ú ¹Ý ¸ ×Ñ ¸ × Ý ¸ ½ ØÚ´ÔÐ Ù ÌÑ ¦´ÝÃ ß Ö é º Ø¸ ×ù Ø ¦Ø Ý ¹Ý Ì Ø ¢ Øæ Ø ¡ Ú Ã ØÑÇ Ú ½
10
Verse 13 numbered 12 M2 1 Ú ] M1, V5 2 ] Ý B5, ¸ M1M2 éÚ£ ] éÚ Ç R1, corrected from éÚ£ to éÚ£ V4 3 ÑØ £ ] £ I, Ñ £ M1M2, ØÇ R , [ £ ]( é ØÇ ) V , é ØÇ V V Ú Ø ] ´ Ø M , Ú Ø [ Ø ] R 4 ÔÐ ] ÈÐ ¢ 1 marg 2 4 5 2 3 V5 Ý £ ] corrected from Ý £ £ to Ý £ M2 ¹Ø¸ ] ¹Ø R1 ¡ ] ¸ B5R1, M2V5 Verse 14 5 ÙØ ] Ù´Ú B5, Ù ( Ø ) marg V2 é ØÇ ] ¢ ØÇ B5V3, æ ØÇ M1, éØÇ R1 Ó] ? B V , Ç M R V , ÝÓ V 6 Ú Ø ] Ú £ Ø M é ØÇ ] ØÇ B V , é ØÓ M , é ØÇ R1 ¢ 5 3 1 1 5 4 1 5 3 2 ¢ 7 ÑØ ] Ñ Ø R1 ÒØ ] ÔÐ R2 8 ×Ñ ´ÔÐ ] ´ÈÐ M2 ¸ ] Ñ ¸ M1 ØÚ ] ×Ñ ØØ V4 Verse 15 9 Ù ] Ù V5 ] [ ] Ý ´ V4, ´ V5 Ã ß ] corrected from Ã to Ã ß after which is written but erased ¦Ý Ø ¦Ý ÝÓ ¢ Ø Ò V3, corrected from Ã £ß to Ãß V4 10 Ö ] Ö ¸ M1M2V3 é ×ù Ø ] × Ø M Ø¸ ] ¢ Ø¸ B5V3, é ¢ ? Ø¸ R1 2 ] R1, V4 11 ¹Ý Ì ] ¹Ý ×Ñ Ø ¢ Ø ] Ú ¢ Ø B5M1M2R2V3, Øâ Ì V5 ¢ Ø R1 , Ú ¢ Ø R3, × ¢ Ø V5 12 Ø ¡ Ú ] Ø ¡ R1, Ø ¡ Ú V4 Ã ] after Ã is written but erased ØÌÓ ¢ ØÒÖ¸ Ñ ´¹Ý ØÑÇ Ú ] om. but added in margin B5, ØÑÇ Ú R1 ¸ B5 338
Ù ¦Ý ½¾   Ã Ã ØÌÓâ ¢

ÌÑ ¦´ÝÃ Ø ¦Ý ÝÓ ¢ Ø Ò º ×ÑÒ Ø ¡ Ú ÒÖ¸ Ñ ´¹Ý ¸ ½
f. 16r I f. 51v V2
Ì £ ÚÕÝ ¸ ç ¸ º
5
f. 17v V4
× ×Ò × Ò ÑÒ´ÚÑ Ñ» Ú ´Ú ØÞ Ö Ñ º Ý ØÓ Ú´Ô Ò ¡Ú ¢ Ô Ó Ý ¹Ø¹Ý Ô ×Ó Ú Ý ÒÑ ÒÑ ½ × ¡ »Ñ º ¹Ì ÒâÝÓ ¡ ØÔÐ ¦ØÖ Ð ÑÒ Ñ £Ú ØÝÓ Ò Ò ½
Verse 16 1 Ù ] Ù
f. 15r R2, p. 74 R1
10
½
V5 ] R1 , ´ R3V4 2 ½¾ ] om. ½¾ B5IM1M2R1R3V2V3V4V5, ¦Ý R2 Ø ¦Ý ] Ø ¦Ý  B5, Ø ¦Ý M2R3 ÝÓ ¢ Ø Ò ] ÝÓ ¢ Ø Ø M1M2, ÝÓ ¢ Ø Ò V4 3 ] R1, V4 ×ÑÒ Ø ] ×ÑÒ M1M2, ×ÑÒ ] ¡ I, ¡ R1, ¡ Ú R2R3, ¡ V4 4 ØÌÓâ Ø R1, × ( Ñ ) marg,s Ò Ø R2, ×Ò Ø R3 ¡ Ú ¢ ] ØÌÓ ¢ I, ØØÓ ¢ Ø M1, ØØÓâ M , ØÝÓ R , Øâ V , ØÌÓ ØØ ÒÚ V Ñ ´¹Ý ¸ ] Ñ ¹Ý ¢ ¸ ¢ ¢ ¢ 2 1 4 5 M1, Ñ ´¹Ý ( Ø ) marg,s R2, Ñ £ V4 5 Ì — ç ¸ ] om. R1V5 Ì £ ] Ì [ ] V4 ÚÕÝ ¸ ] ÚÕÝ B5M1, Ý ( ¸ ) supl I, ÚÕÝ [ x ] R2 ç ¸ ] ç ( ) ¸ R2 , ç R3 Verse 17 6 × ] ×[ ] I Ñ ] Ñ V5 7 Ú ´Ú Ø ] Ú ´Ú ( ) supl Ø V2V3 Ö Ñ] Ö Ñ ? V4 8 Ý ØÓ ] Ô ØÓ V3 Ú] Ú £ M1, ( ) supl Ú V2 ´Ô ] ´Ô Ò ¡Ú ¡ V5 ¢Ô] Ò ¢ Ô V4 9 ¹Ø¹Ý ] ¹Ø¹Ø V5 Ý Ò] Ý Ò Verse 18 not numbered in any of the mss. V5 om. R1 10 × 11 ¡ Ø ] om. but added in margin R2 12 ½ ] om. ¡ »Ñ ] om. V5 B5IM1M2R1V2V3V4V5 339
» ¸ ½ º Ú ÝÑ
× £ » £ Ö
º½ Ý ¼ âØ Ý Ô Ý ¡Ú ¦Ø Ý ÒÖÝÓ â ¦ ½¾ ØÝÓ Ö´Ý Ò ØÓ Ò Ò Ý  Ø Ò ÝÓ Ò Ò ½ º
f. 14v V3
Ô º Ò Ñ £ ¹Ø ÑØ £ ×Ø × £ Ã Ñ Ò×Øæ ÐØÓ Ñ ÒÖ ¸ º Á ØÑ ×Ñ Ò Ñ £ Ô Ý Ø Ø»  Ú 
5
½
f. 16v I, f. 19v V5
Ì× ¡ »Ñ º ¦Ø Ý ÒÖÝÓ â
¦ ½¾ ØÝÓÚ ¦ØÖ ¢ Ö¸ ¹Ý ÖÕ ÐÚ £Ò ØÓ Ú £¦ÑÝÑ¸ º ¦Ø Ý Ú ÝÓæ ÚÚÖ Ò £» ¾ Ö Ø Ý ¦ÑÝÑÚ ÒÝ ¾¼ ØÓ Ñ ¡ Ð
ÑÝÓÒ  Ý
1 » ¸ ] » £ I × ] corrected from × Ó to × B5 º ½ ] ½ V4 ] V4 ½ ¼ ] om. B5M1M2, ¼ R2R3 Ô Ý ] Ô ÚÉ Ý R2R3 2 ½ ] om. B5M1M2, Ý V3 ¡Ú ¡Ú ¾ ½ ÒÖ ] ÔÖ M1M2 â ] â V2 Ø ] Ø V3 Ò ] Ò( ) I 3 Ñ ] Ñ [ Ñ ] V3 £ Ö ] £ Ö ( ) supl R2 ØÓ ] om. V2V4 ½ ] ½ B5M1M2R2R3V3 Verse 19 not numbered B5V3V5, numbered 19 M1M2, numbered 18 R2R3V2V4 4 Ô 5 Ñ £] Ñ ¹Ø ÑØ £ ] ¹Ø Ñ ( Ø £ ) marg V3 × £ ] ×£ R1
] Ù Ö R1, om. V5 Ã Ã V4 7 Á ] Á M1M2, V4 Ñ ×Ñ Ò ] Ñ ½½ ×Ñ Ò IR2R3, Ñ ×Ñ Ò M1V5, Á ×Ñ Ò R1 8 ] [ ] B5, corrected from to M1, [ xxxxxxx ] V5 after verse 19 ²Ý Ú éØÑ ß¸ º Ô Ç Ý £ ØØ¸ ×Ñ Ö Ú£¹Ø ¡ Ð Ñ²Ý Ã ÈÐÚ Ô ØÓÒÇ Ú Ý Ñ ¡Ð Ö ¸ numbered 21 R1 Verse 20 not numbered B5V3, numbered 18 IV2V5, numbered 18 R1, numbered 19 R2R3V4 9 Ì × Ì ] om. B5R1, » I 10 ¦Ø ] ¡ »Ñ ] om. V5 x B5 ÒÖÝÓ ] ÒÖÝÓ V5 ½¾ ] om. B5IM1M2R1V2V3V4V5 ØÝÓ ] ØÝÓ [ ] B5, ØÝÓ V4 Ú ¦ØÖ ] Ú ØÖ V5 11 Ö¸ ] corrected from Ö to Ö M1, Ö I ¢ ] , Ò V5 ¹Ý Ö ] ¹Ú ÒÖ V4, ¹Ý »Ã V5 ÐÚ £Ò ] ÐÚ £ B5 , Ú £Ò I, ÐÚ £Ò R3 Ú £¦ÑÝÑ¸ ] ] V4 Ú £¦ÑÝÑ [ ] ¸ M1, corrected from Ò £ ÑÝÑ to Ò
£ ÑÝÑ¸ V4 12 Ú ÝÓæ ] Ú ÝÓæ R2, Ú ÝÓ¹Ø
V5 ] [ x ]( ) marg,s R2 Ø ] Ø R1R2R3 13 Ý ¦ÑÝÑ ] Ý ÑÝÑ M1, corrected from Ý ¦Ñ £ÝÑ to Ý ¦ÑÝÑ R3, corrected from ÝØ¦ÑÝÑ £ to ÝØ¦ÑÝÑ V4, Ý»¦ÑÝÑ V5 Ú ] om. I Ý ØÓ ] Ý ØÇ V5 340
10
f. 18r V4
¦Ø  ËÔ Ý Æ £ Ö  ¹Ý Ý Ø Ø¸ éÚ ã Ú £ º Ý » Ý Ý Ý £ ¹Ý ´ Ø ØÇ ¸ Ø ÑØ ÓÝ Ý Ø ÒÓ Ø Ó´ ÑØÝ ÓÝ ¹Ú Ǒ ÃÐÑ ¾½ ¦Ø Ý ÒÖÝÓ Ö´Ý» Ú ×  Ò êÓ ¸ º ²Ý Ý ÒÝ £ ÖØÐ Øã ×¹ ÖØ¸ ¹Ý Ö Ú ½¾ Ú Ý ÔÐ Ú Ó ¦Ø Ý ¢ Ø×ù ½¾ ¢ Ø ´×  Ô Ý ØÓ ¡ Ú ¢ ØÖ» × ÅÝ Ö ã ¦Ý ×¸ º × ¸ º ¼º ¼º ¼ Ð Ý ¡Ý ½½ º Ý ½½¾º ¼ ÐÆ £ Ö ¹Ý ½º
Ç
f. 13v B5, f. 12r R3
5
f. 15v R1
£ ¢ Ø¸ º ¢  Ø¹Ø´×Ñ ¾¾ ¦Ø Ý º ¾¼ ÒÖ¸ ¸ º
f. 17r I, f. 52v V2
10

f. 7r M2, f. 14v e V3
Verse 21 not numbered B5V3, numbered 19 IR1V2V5, numbered 20 R2R3V4, not numbered V3 1 Ç] Ó B5 , Ç V4 ¦Ø ] Ø V5 ] R3, Ö V5 Ý Æ ] Ý Æ I, Æ V5 ] B5 2 ¹Ý ] ¹Ý V5 Ý ] Ý [ » Ý Ý Ý £ ] V3 ã ] ¡ M2 3 » Ý Ý ] » Ý M2 Ø ÑØ Ø¸ ] Ø IV4V5, Ý Ø R1 Ý ] Ý R2 R3 4 ÓÝ ] ÇÝ V5 Ø Ó ] ØÓ B5, Ó Ý Ø ] é Ǒ Ø I, Ǒ Ø R3V4 V3 ¹Ú Ǒ ] × R1V5, ( ¹Ú ) marg,s Ǒ R2, ¹Ú Ý V2 ÃÐÑ ] ÃÐ Ǒ B5M1M2V3, ¹ÚÝ M1M2 Verse 22 not numbered B5V3, numbered 20 IV2V5, numbered 21 R2R3V4 5 ¦Ø Ý — êÓ ¸ ] om. V5 6 ²Ý ] ²Ý V5 Ý ÒÝ £] Ý Ý £ V3, Ý Ý £ V5 ÖØÐ ] ØÖÐ M2 ×¹ Ö ] ×¹ [ ] Ö M1 7 ÔÐ ] ÈÐ B5 Ú Ó ] Ó [ x ] B5, Ú Ó M1M2V3, Ú Ó
£ ] Ú £ V5 8 ½¾ ¢ Ø ] ¢ Ø ½ V4 ¹Ø´×Ñ ] ¹ØÑ M2 9 Ý ] Ý V4 10–12 ¦Ý ×¸ — º ] om. R1V5 11 × Ý ¸ ] × Ý ¸ Ö I, × Ý M M , × ÝÓ Ö Ý R2, × ¡ ¡ ¡ ÝÓ Ö Ý ¸ 1 2 ¡ R3V4, × Ö V2V3 £ Ö ¹Ý ] £ Ö I, £ Ö Ý ¹Ý V3, corrected from ÓÖ £ ¹Ý to £ Ö ¹Ý V4 ¡Ý º ¾¼ ] but the ¾¼ misplaced by scribe in the next verse B5, IV2, M1M2, V4 ¼ ¾¼ 12 ½½ º ] ½½ but the misplaced by scribe in the next verse B5, ½½ IM1M2V2, ½½º º
V5
R2R3
Ý ]
Ý ¸ M1 ¸]
½ IV2, ½º ¿ V4 ¿
½½¾º ¼ ] ½½¾ B5R2R3, ½½¾ IM1M2V2 ½º ] ½ B5M1M2R2R3, ¼ I º ] B5M1M2R2R3, I, V2, º ¾ V4 ¾
341
Ô º ¦Ý Ý ¸ Ñ»¹Ø Ú × Ý ÖÝ¸
ÖÔ Ò ÞØ £Ô £¦ Ø ¡Ú ËÝ Ó Ö¸ × Å ÖÑ  ¹Ø Ö Ú ¡ ÑÝ ¸ º Ú ÖÌ èÒ ¹Ñ¦×Ã £ Ø´Ô ¢ Ô ØÝ Ö ØÝÓ Ò ß Ú Ø Ñ £ Øã¡ Ú £ ¾¿
f. 18v V4
5
× ¡ »Ñ º ýÇÚ Ö Ú ½¾ ×ù » ¹Ú Ø Ý ²Ý Ó Ø¸ ÔÐ Ø Ø ²Ý Ó Ì ÑÝÓ Ú £Ø º ²Ý ²Ý ÝÑ Ø¸ Ý Ø¹Ý ²Ý Ú ¹Ý Ý ¦Ñ ¡ Ð Ö  Ø ÖØÓ Ö ØÓ ÑÝÓ Ø¸ ¹Ý ´ÈÐÑ ¾
10 f. 14r B5
Verse 23 1
Ô
] Ù
not numbered B5, numbered 21 IV5, numbered 24 R1, numbered 22 R2R3V2 ¾¼ Ö R1 2 Ø Ó] where the ¾¼ is misplaced and ËÝ ] Ø ËÝ M1M2
belongs to the previous ny¯ asa B5, M1M2 3 Ñ» ] ×» R3 ¹Ø Ú ] ¹Ø Ú where the is misplaced and belongs to the previous ny¯ asa B5 ÖÑ ¹Ø Ö ] ¹Ñ ¹Ø Ö V4, ÖÑ ¸¹Ø Ö V5 ÑÝ ¸ ] ÑÝ [ ] ¸ V4 4 × Ý ] × Ý B5, ¹Ø ¥Ý R2 Ò Ý ¹Ñ¦×Ã £] ¢Ô Ø] Ò ¢ ÔØ R1 Ý ¹Ñ¦´×Ã £ M1M2 Ø´Ô 5 Ø ] ( Ø ) marg I ÝÓ Ò ß ] ÝÓ Ò ß¸ R3 Ñ £] Ö ] Ø×Ö V4 om. V4 Ú£ ] Ú£ M1V5 Verse 24 not numbered B5V4, numbered 21 I, numbered 25 R1, numbered 23 R2R3, numbered 1 V2, numbered 22 V5 6× ¡ »Ñ ] om. V2 7 ½¾ ] om. B5IM1M2R1V2V4V5 ¹Ú ] ¹Ú M1M2, ¹Ú V5 Ø Ý ] Ø ÝÓ R2R3 ] Ø V5 8 ²Ý Ó ] ²Ý × V5 Ø¸ ] ¢ Ø¸ V4, ? Ø¸ V5 ÔÐ ] ÈÐ B5 Ø ] Ø V5 ²Ý Ó Ì ] ¦Ý Ó Ì M1, ²Ý Ì V5 9 ²Ý ²Ý ] ²Ý ²Ý R1, ²Ý ²Ý ( ) marg V2 ÝÑ ] ÑÝ M1M2 Ø¸ ] Ø £¸ R2R3, ? Ø¸ V5 ] [ Ø ] B5 Ý Ø¹Ý ²Ý ] Ý Ø×Ó²Ý V5 10 ÑÝÓ Ø¸ ] corrected from ÑÝÓ Ø¸ to ÑÝ Ø¸ I, Ñ ÝÓ Ø M1, ÑÝÓ Ø M2, ÑÝÓ Ø ( ¸ ) supl R2, ÑÝ Ø V5 342
²Ý  ²Ý × ÐÓ´ÌÚ ÚÚÖ ÝÓ Ý ÈÐ £ Ú Ø £ ²Ý  £ ²Ý × Ð ËÔ £ ØÖ £  ÝÓ ÚÝÓ ¹ØÝÓ¸ º Ø¦Ñ ¡ Ð ÈÐÝ ÚÝ Ö Ø Ú¢ Ý Ø Ô Ø Ø £ ¾   Ñ Ø¸ ¹Ý ÝÓ Ò ¦Ý¦ØÖ ØÔ ÒÔÐ Ý Ý Ú Ò Ú ØÔ ÒÔÐ  é ØÖ ½¾ Ú £ ØÝ ¦ØÖÝÓ Ò Ý × £Ø Ý × £ ¢ Ý ¡ Ý Ý » ¸ º ½¼º ¼º ¼ ½¼ ¦Ø Ý ¾¾º ¼ ¢ Ý ½½ ÝÓ Ò Ò Ý ½ º º ¾
p. 76 R1 f. 53r V2, f. 16r R2
f. 17v , f. 16r b V3
5 f. 12v R3
¸ ½ º ¾  Ð Ý Ý ÒÖ¸ ¾º ¿ ¸ ½¾º ½ Ù Ú Æ
f. 19r V4 10
Verse 25 not numbered B5V3, numbered 22 IV2, numbered 26 R1, numbered 24 ÐÓ´Ì ] Ð Ì M1M2 Ú ] Ú R1 R2R3V4, numbered 23 V5 1 ²Ý ] ²Ý I, ²Ý V4 ÝÓ Ý ] ÝÓ Ý £ R1 2 ²Ý £ ] ²Ý Ó V4, ²Ý Ó V5 Ð ËÔ £ ] Ð ËÔ Ó V5 ØÖ £ ] Ø×Ç? M1 ÝÓ ] ½¾ Ý V5 3 Ø¦Ñ Ý ¡ Ð ] ¹Ø¦Ñ ¡ Ð V4 ÚÝ Ö ] ÚÝ Ö B5 , Ý Ú℄ Ö I, Ý ÚÝ Ö M1M2, Ý ÚÝ Ö V4 Ø] Ø £ V5 Ú ¢ Ý ] ×ÇÅÝ ¦ÝÝÓ ¢ Ý IR1, Úâ Ý R2, Ú ¢ ? Ý with marked and the variant reading ×ÇÅÝ ¦ÝÝÓ noted in margin R3, ×ÇÅÝ ¦ÝÝÓ ¢ Ý V2V5, ×Ç ÚØÝÓ ¢ Ý V4 4 Ø Ô Ø ] Ø £ ÔÒ Ø V5 ÝÓ Ò ¦Ý¦ØÖ £ ] ÝÓ Ò ¦ÝØÖ £ M1M2, £ to ÝÓ Ò ¦ÝØÖ £ R2 Verse 26 not numbered B5V3, numbered corrected from ÝÓ Ò ÒØÖ 23 IV2V5, numbered 27 R1, numbered 24 R2R3, numbered 25 V4 5 Ô Ò ] ÔØÒ V4 ÔÐ ] ÈÐ IV5 Ú Ò ] Ú Ò [ ] I, Ú R3, ÚÒ V5 6 Ú Ø ] Ø V4 Ô Ò] [ ] Ò B5, Ô ( Ò ) marg I ÔÐ ] ÈÐ B5 é Ø ] ¢ Ø R1, [ Ý Ý Ú Ò Ú ØÔ ÒÔÐ ] é Ø R3 ] ¸ M1 7 ] V4 ÝÓ Ò Ý ] ÝÓ Ò Ý R1, ÝÓ Ò¦Ý V5 8 × £ ] £ V5 [Ô 9–11 » ¸ — ] om. R1V5 ¢ Ý ] ¢ Ý B5, ¡ ] Ý V3 º ½¼º ¼º ¼ ] ½¼º ¼º ¼ R2R3 Ý ] £Õ R2, Õ R3 ¸ ] 9 » ¸ ] » ¸ B5 ( ¸ ) supl R2 Ý Ý ] ÝÝ B5R2V3, Ý I, Ý Ý ¸ M2V2, Ý Ý [ xxxxxx ] R3 10 ½¼ ] ¾¾º ¼ ] ¾¾ B5M1V3, ¾¾ IM2V2, ¾¾º ¼º ¼ R2R3 ¾º ¿ ] ¾ B5IM1M2R2R3V2V3 ½¼ I ¼ ¿ ¸ ] ( ) marg I, ( ¸ ) supl R2, corrected from ¸ to ¸ V2 ½¾º ½ ] 11 ] ¼ V2V4 ½¾ B5IM1M2R2R3V2V3 ½ 343
¡ ÓÐ Ô Ö Ë Ý ÓÐÑ ÃÐ Ã¹Ú ¹Ø £ ¹Ú Ô Ö Ø¹Ñ Ô Ø £ ¢ý Ð £ ËÔÝ £Ø º Ö ß¹Ø´ Ó Î Ú ÒÖÓ ¢ Ý Ø» Ô ÖâÝ ¦ØÖÐÚ Ó¹ØÐ × ¾ ¹Ø´×ÑÑ Ð ¦ØÖÐÚ ¸

Ô×ÖÐÚÑÇ²Ý » ÝÝ
Ý
Ó
5
f. 53v V2, f. 20r V5
ÖÔ× Ø ¹Ý Ø º ¢ ØÐÚÑÇ²Ý²Ý Ý ÈÐ ÑØ Ò ×Ý ¹Ý Ø Ú ÖØÐ Ñ ×ÇÅÝ £ Ý ÅÝ £ Ñ £ ¾ Ý Ö Ú ÑØ Ó Î  ¸ ¹Ú Ý ¹Ø ÒÖØÐ ÑØ Ç Ó Î Ú »  ÐÆ Ñ º Ú Ø Ú Ú Ò ¹»Ú Ó íÔ× Ó ¸ ¾ ¢ ØÐÚ Ó Î Ý ¢ Ø¸ Ô ¡Ú
 Verse 27 not numbered B5V3, numbered 34 I, numbered 28 R1, numbered 26 R2R3V4, Ô Ö Ë Ý] Ô Ö Ë Ý numbered 24 V2V5 1 ¡ ÓÐ ] ¡ Ó M2, ( Ô
) marg,s ¡ ÓÐ R2 B5, Ô Ö ( ) marg ËÔ V3, Ô Ö ËÔ V5 ÓÐ ] ÓÐ R2R3 Ã¹Ú ¹Ø £ ] ¹Ú ¹Ø £ B5, ¹Ú ¹Ø £ M1M2 2 Ø¹Ñ ] ØØ¹Ñ V3 Ô Ö V5 ] V5 £] ¢ý Ð £ ¢ý Ð Ö] Ô £ B5, ¢ ý [ x ]( Ð £ ) marg,s R2, ¢ ý £ R3 3 ¢ Ý ] ¢ M1 Ô ÖâÝ ¦ØÖ ] Ô ÖâÝ Ø ( Ö ) supl I, Ô Ö Ú ] Ú V5 3–4 ÒÖÓ ] ÒÖ ß R1 4 ÐÚ ¸ ] ÐÚ V5 Ó¹ØÐ ] Ó¹ØÐ £ Ô Ö ØÖ V5 R1 × ] × ¸ B5M1M2R1, × [ ¸ ] V3 Verse 28 not numbered B5V3, numbered 25 I, numbered 29 R1, numbered 27 R2R3V4, numbered 26 V2 5 Ô×Ö ] Ô× M2, ÔÖ× V4, Ì × Ö V5 ÐÚ ] Ð ( Ú ) marg I Ý ] ¢ Ý B5IM1V4, ¢ ÝÝ Ý Ó to Ý V3 Ó] Ç I 6 ÐÚ ] Ú V5 ÑÇ²Ý²Ý ] ¢ Ý M2, corrected from ÑÇ²Ý ²Ý IV2V4, ( ÑÇ ) marg,s ²Ý²Ý R2 Ý ] Õ R3 ] V4 7 ÑØ ] Ò Ø R1 8 ØÐ Ñ ] ÐÐ Ñ V4 £] Ñ £ B5, R1 Verse 29 not numbered B5M1V3, numbered 26 IV2, numbered 30 R1, numbered 28 R2R3V4 9 ÑØ ] Ñ Ø R3, ÑØ V5 ¾½ Ý ¹Ø ] Ý Ø R1 10 ÒÖ ] Ö Ò V3 ÑØ ] Ñ Ø R1 Ç ] corrected from Ú to Ú Ç V4 10–11 Ó Î — Ú Ó ] om. R1 10 Ó Î ] Ó ( Î ) marg I, corrected from Ç Î to Ó Î M1 Ú » ] Ú V5 11 Ú Ø ] [ ] Ú Ø V3 Ò ¹» ] Ò ¹» ] B5, ( ) marg I V5 Ú Ó ] Ú Ç V4 12 íÔ× ÐÚ ] Ð ( Ú ) marg I ÓÎ Ý ] ¢ Ø ] íÔÖ Ø R2R3, Ôé Ø V5 Ó Î Ý B5M2, Ó Î [ Ú »ÐÆ Ú Ø Ú ] Ý I, Ó Î Ý R2, Ó Î¸ Ý V5 ¢ Ø¸ ] ¢ Ø V5 Ô Ó] Ô £ I ¸] V5 ¡Ú ¡Ú 344
f. 18r I, p. 77 R1 10 f. 16v R2

£Ø ¢ ´Ý ×Ñ Ý Ô×Ö
×Ñ Ö£ ÝÓ Ý Ñ ¿¼ Ý Ì
f. 14v B5
Ô
º Ö Ñ Ö ØÔ éØ £ Ö ´Ô Ö Ö ÖØ Ö Ñ × ¦Ñ» £ ¹Ø ÑØ £ Ø¸ × Ò £É Ý º Ñ ËÝ Ú ËÝ é Ï Ó¦Ñ ¢ Ø Ì Ø ËÝÔ Ã Ø Ò Ú Ó Ú£¦ Ð × ÚÒ £ Ó ×
£Ø ¿½

f. 19v V4
5 f. 5v M1, f. 16v V3
» × ÝÒ ¸ ÐÆ ÝÓ  Ò Ò

º º ¼º ¼ ¼
¦Ø Ý ¾¾º
½½º
f. 54r V2 f. 13r R3
Verse 30 not numbered B5R1R2R3V3, numbered 27 IV2V5, numbered 29 V4 1 ¢ ´Ý ] ×Ñ £ Ø ] ×Ò £ Ø R2R3 ] R1 2 ] Ñ Ý Ì Ñ ] Ý Ý Ñ R2R3, ¢ ´Ú R1V2 R3 ¹Ý Ì V5 Verse 31 not numbered B5V2V3, numbered 28 IV5, numbered 29 R2R3, numbered 30 V4 3 Ô
] Ù Ö R1, om. V5 4 Ö Ñ Ö ØÔ Ö ] marked and the annotation Ð Ø¸ added in margin by s R2, marked and the annotation Ð Ø¸ added in margin R3, Ö ÑÖ ØÔ ´Ô Ö V4 Ö Ö ÖØ ] Ô Ö ¦Ô Ö Ö ÖØ B5V3, marked and the annotation Á Ò added in margin by s R2, marked and the annotation £ ÒÓ added in margin R3 ÖÑ ] ÖÑ I, Ö Ñ ¿ R2R3 5 × ¦Ñ» £ ] corrected from × £ ¦Ñ» £ to × ¦Ñ» £ V4 ¹Ø ÑØ £] ¹Ø Ø £ R1, ¹Ú Ø £ R2R3 Ø¸ ] Ø M2, Ø £ Ø¸ V5 Ò Ú ËÝ £] Ñ ËÝ ] Ò Ñ ËÝ M1M2 Ú £ËÝ £ B5 É Ý ] Ý R1 6 ¢ ] ¢ R1 Ø Ì ] Ø ØÌ V5 Ì ] Ì V5 Ô ] Ô Ð B5, ÔÐ IV4V5 Ó ] corrected from Ó Ó to Ó B5 ¦Ñ Ã ] ¦Ñ V3V4V5 7 Ð ] ØÐ V2 × ÚÒ £ ] × ÚÒÓ R2, ÚÒ ß V5 Ó ] Ó V4V5 8–9 × ÝÒ ¸ — ¼ ] om. R1V5 8 × ÝÒ ¸ ] × Ò ¸ V4 º º ¼º ¼ ] I, ( Ö º ¼º ¼º ¼ ) marg V2, om. V4
¦Ø Ý ] Ø Ý R3 ¾¾º ½½º ¼ ¼ ] ½½ V2V4
] ¾¾ I
9 ÐÆ ] ÐÆ M1M2
345
Ô
º × ×Ò¹Ì ×ÑÚ ¢ Ô Ô ÖÔ Ö¦ Ö ¡ ÖÝ¦ØÑ º Ø £Ô Ö Ú© Ô£ ÒÑ¦Ø £ Ô Ý Ñ Ñ» ×ÑÝ £Ò £Ò ¿¾

f. 19v V4
5
× ¡ »Ñ º × ÌØÚ´Ô Ö× Ò Ý ¡ Ý Ý æº ¢ Ý ØÝ ÑØ ØÒ É Ú Ø Ø× ÎÕ ¹Ú É Ý ØÝ ÑØ Ô Ö× Ò Ý ¿¿

f. 18v I
10
Verse 32 30 R2R3
[
¸ V4, Ô ÖÔ 4 Ô£ ] ÑØ £ M1M2 ÒÑ¦Ø ] ÒÝØ M1, ÒÝØ M2, ÒÑØ V5 5 Ô Ý Ñ] ¡ ÖÝ Ø V5 ×ÑÝ £Ò ] ×ÑÝ £Ø V4 Verse 33 not numbered ¢ Ý Ñ R1, Ý Ñ R2R3V5, Ô Ý Ñ V4 B5V2V3, numbered 30 IV5, numbered 32 R1V4, numbered 31 R2R3 6 × ¡ »Ñ ] om. V5 7 Ú´Ô Ö ] Ú´ Ö B5, Ú´ Ú R2R3V3, Ö¦Ô Ö V5 8 ¢ Ý ] corrected from Ý to ¢ Ý V2 ÑØ ] Ñ Ø V3 8–10 ÑØ ] om. M2 8 Ý Ø— Ø] Ø M1R2R3V5, ¢ Ø R1 Ò æ] Ò × 9 É ] ´ B5V3, ´Ì M1R2R3, è V4 Ú Ø Ø× R2 R3 ] Ú ´Ý Ú Ø × Ú Ø Ø× Ú Ø Ø× Ú Ø× ÎÕ R2R3, V3, V4, V5 ] Î× R1 9–10 ¹ÚÉ Ý ØÝ ] ¹Ú Ý ÒÝ B5IM1V2, ¹Ú ¦¹Ú Ý R2R3, ¹ÚÉ Ý ÒÝ V3V4, ¹ÚØ Ý ÒÝ V5 10 ÑØ ] ÑØ B5 Ô Ö× Ò Ý ] ÔÖ× Ò Ý B5, Ô Ö ËÔÒ Ý R1V5
not numbered B5V2V3, numbered 29 IV2V5, numbered 31 R1V4, numbered Ô ] om. V5 2 ¹Ì ×ÑÚ ] ×¹ ÑÚ ] ´Ý R2R3, ¢ ¢ ´Ý ´Ý V5 ¾ ½ ] V2 V2, ¼¼ V4 3 Ô M1, Ô Ö M2 Ô ÖÔ Ö¦ Ö ] Ô Ö Ö Ö ¡ ÖÝ¦ØÑ ] Ô ÖÔ ¡ ÖÝØ 1
346
Ô
º Ó Ø Ö Ø ´ÑØ Ì ÚÕÝ £×Ý Ú £ £ ÒÓ Ö×ùØ¹Ý Ö  éØ ¡ Ñ £º Ý ÓÒ ù ÑØ Ô Ú  Ý Ó Ò ß£ Ö £Ò ÒÝÒ £  Ò Øâ ×Ã £Ú Ñ ÚÖ ×Ñ ¿ » ¸ º ½ ¦Ø Ý º Ý ½½¾ ²Ý ¸ ½º ²Ý ¸ ½¿¾º ¾ ÑÝ¸ ½¼º ¼ Ö¸ ¾º ÈÐÑ ½¾¼º ¼  Ñ ¡ ÐÑ ½ ¼ ¢ Ý ¿¼ Ý ½º ÌÒ £Ò £ Ö ¦ØÖÝÓ Ò Ý × Ò Ø» º ÝÑ º ¼ ¸ ½¿º ½  Ý º ½¾ ²Ý ¸ ½º ¾º ¾ ²Ý ¸ ¾¼¼º ¿ Ö¸ ¾º ÑÝ¸ º ½ ÈÐ ½ ½º ¿¼ Ñ ¡ Ð ½¿ º ¼ ¢ Ý ¾¿º ¿¼  ØÓ ¦ØÖÝÓ Ò Ò ½¾
Verse 34 not numbered B5V2V3, numbered 31 I, numbered 35 R1, numbered 32 R2R3, numbered 31 R2R3, numbered 33 V5 1 Ô
] om. I, Ù Ö R1 2 × Ý ] Ý V4 £ ] £ º ¾¼ V5 3 ] M1V5 Ö ] Ú R1 4 Ý ÓÒ ù ] ÓÒ B5R1 Ô] º ¾¼ Ô V5 Ý Ó Ò ß] Ý Ó Ò £ B5M1, Ý Ó Ò ß V5 5£ Ö £Ò ÒÝÒ £Ò ] £ Ö Ò ÒÔÒ £Ò R1 Øâ ] â I, Øâ× M1 Ú Ñ] Ú Ñ M1 Ú Ö × Ñ ] Ú Ö × M1, Ú Ö × V5 6 » ¸ ] » ¸ I º ½ ] º ½ º ¼ R2 R 3 º ] V2 ½½¾ ] ¾½¾ V4 ²Ý ¸ ] 7 ½¿¾º ¾ ] ½¿¾ I, ½¿¾ V2V4 ÑÝ¸ ] ÑÝÑ¸ V2, ¾ ÑÝ ( ¸ ) supl V3 ½¼º ¼ ] ½¼ R2R3, ½¼ V2, ¾¼º ¼ V4 ¾º ] ¾º ? B5, ¾ V2 Ñ ¡ ÐÑ ] Ñ ¡Ð ¼ V3 8 ½ ¼ ] ½¼º ¼ R2R3 Ý ] Ý V3, Ý £Ý V4 ½º ] ½ B5M1M2R2R3V3, ½¼ V2, ½º V4
¼ V4 9–12 Ì Ò £Ò — ½¾ ] om. R1V5 9 ÌÒ £Ò ] Ì ¦Ý V4 £ Ö ¦ØÖ ] £ Ö ØÖ R2R3 Ý × Ò ] Ý × Ò R3, Ý V4 ÝÑ ] Ý R1V5, Ý ( Ñ ) marg [ £ ] V2 º V2 10 ¸ ] ¸ R2R3, V3 ½¿º ½ ] ½¿ V2 º ½¾ ] V2, º ½¾ V4 ¼] ¼ ½ ½¾ ½º ] ½º B5, ½ V2 ¾º ¾ ] ¾ V2V4 11 ¾¼¼º ¿ ] ¾¼¼ ¿¼ B5, ¾¼¼ V2V4 ¾º ] ¼ ( º ) supl ¾º ¼º R2, ¼ ¾º ¼º R3, ¿ V2, ¾º [ ¾ ] ½ ½º ¿¼ ] ½ ½º ½¼ B5, ½º ¿¼ M1M2, ½ ½ V2V4 ½¿ V2, ½¿ º ¿¼ V4 12 ¢ Ý ] â Ý R3, Ý ÝÓ Ò Ò ] ÝÓ [ ] Ò Ò B5, ÝÓ Ò Ò R3 ½¾ ] ¾ ²Ý I, ²Ý V2V4 ½º
f. 17r R2 f. 17r R2 5 f. 20r V4
f. 54v V2
10 f. 15r B5
f. 19r I, f. 17r V3
] ½ V2, ½
V3, ¿º V4 º ½ ] ½ º ½ B5 , V2 ½¿ º ¼ ] ½¿ B5, ½¿º ¼ M1M2V3, ½¿º ¾ R2R3, V2V4 ¾¿º ¿¼ ] ¾¿º ¾¼ R2R3, ¾¿ V2, ¿¿ V4 R2R3, ½¾¾ V2V4
347
× ¡ »Ñ º Ô×Ö ÓÎ Ó ´ÔÐ Ý Ø¸ Ô Ö×¹ ¢ Ø¸ º Ò Ø Ý »  ØÓ Ô×Ö Ó Ý ¿ ´ÃÐ Ô
º ÖÔ Ö Ò £ ÖÑ £ Ö ¦ £ Ö £
ÇÖÓ Ö ¢ ÔØ ÖùÚÖ ØÓ ÖÑ º × Ø  Ô ØÝÓ Ò Ó Ø ËÝ Ô Ý Ø ¹Ú Ñ £ ¿ ¡Ú Ö Ú¸ º ¼º ¼º ¼ ÐÆ Ý ½½¾ ¦Ø Ý

f. 13v R3 5
p. 78 R1 10
Ý ½¾
¸ ½ ÝÌÓ
Ö£Ò
f. 17v R2
Verse 35 om. IM1M2V3V4 not numbered B5, numbered 34 R1R2R3, numbered 32 V5 1× 2 Ô×Ö ] Ô×Ö B5, ÔÖ ×Ú ¡ »Ñ ] Ì × ¡ » R2R3, Ô × ¡ » V2, om. V5 V5 3 ´ÔÐ ] corrected from ´ÈÐ to ´ÔÐ V2 Ô Ö×¹ ¢ Ø¸ ] ÔÖ×¹ ¢ Ø¸ R2R3 4 » ] » ¿ ¿ R2 R3 5 Ó ] ÓÐ R1 Ý ] ¢ Ý V2V5 Verse 36 not numbered B5V2V3, numbered 32 I, numbered 35 M1M2, numbered 33 R1R2R3, numbered 34 V4, numbered 31 V5 6 Ô ] om. B5IM1M2V3, Ù Ö V4 7 Ö ] Ö V4 ¦ £ Ö] £ Ö B5 8 ÇÖÓ ] ÓÖÓ B5M2R3V2V3V4, ÖÓ M1 Ö ¢Ô] Ö Ò Ö ¢ Ô R2 ¢ Ô M1M2, £ Ø Ö ÚÖ R3, Ø ØÓ ÖÑ ] ØÓ B5, × Ú £ Ø R1R2R3V2 9 × Ø] ÖùÚÖ ] Ø £ Ö ( ÚÖ ) marg V3 × × Ø B5V3, × Ø R1V5 Ô Ø ] Ô ÑØ B5, Ô ÑØ M1M2V3, Ô Ø R2, Ô ÑØ R3, £ to Ô Ø V4 ] B5 Ø ËÝ ] Ø ËÝ M V 10 Ô Ú ] ×Ú R2 R3 corrected from Ô Ø ¡ 1 4 ? ] ´Ú B5 Ý Ø ¹Ú ] ÝØ B5, ÝØ M1, Ý Ø M2R2R3, Ý Ø R1, ÝØ V3, Ý Ø V5 Ñ £ ] Ñ £ R2 R3 11 Ö Ú¸ ] » Ö Ú¸ R2, ¹Ñ é Ö Ú¸ R3 º ¼º ¼º ¼ ] º ¼º ¼ B5, º ¼ IM1M2V2V3V4 ¸ ] R2, R3 ÝÌÓ Ö£Ò ] ÝÌÓ Ö£Ò B5 12 ½½¾ ] ½½ B5, om. I 348
Ì Ð× ÒÑ º ÓÐ Ñ Ö Ð Ý Ý »  Ý ØÌ Ú Ò £Ò ¦´Ý Ø ØÖ Å × £ ÔÖ Ø £ » ¡ » ¦ØÖ
Ý ØÓÒ Ò Ú º Ò Ó Ý ¹Ø ÑÇ²ÝÓ¸ ¿
f. 55r V2, f. 20v V4
5
ÓÐ Ñ Ò Ð £ ¹ÚÔÐ ÔÑ Úê £ÕÝÓ Ó Î Ç Ú£ÝÇ º ¢ Ý ÒÖÇ ÒÖ  Ø » ¢ Ý Ý Ø ½¾ ¢ ØÝÓ Ô é Ø¸ ¹Ý Ø
¿
f. 15v B5
Verse 37 not numbered B5V2V3, numbered 33 I, numbered 36 M1M2R1, numbered 34 R2R3V5 1 Ì Ð× ÒÑ ] × × ÒÑ ] ×Ó Ò B5 2 ÓÐ ] Ó R1 ¡ » R1, om. V5 Ð Ý Ý ] Ý Ý B5, Ð Ý Ý R1, Ð Ý Ý V2 3 ØÌ Ú Ò ] ÌÚ Ú Ò R1, ØÌ ( ) supl Ú Ò R3, ØÝ Ú Ò R3 Ú Ò £Ò ] marked and the annotation ÝÝ added in margin by s R2 £Ò ] £Ý R , £ V Ò ] Ò M1M2, Ò R1 4 ¦´Ý ] ¦Ý M2 Ú ] Ú R1 1 5 ØÖ ] ØÖ V5 Å ] B5 , x V5 Ò Ó ] ÒÝÓ M2 Ý ¹Ø ] Ý ¹Ø M2, Ý ¹Ø R1 5 × £ ] ´× £ M2 ÔÖ Ø £ ] Ô ÖÒØ ß R1, Ô Ö V4, Ô Ø £ V5 » ] » ¡ » ¦ØÖ ¡ » ØÖ B5M1M2R3V3, » R2V5, V4 ÑÇ²ÝÓ¸ ] ÑÇ²Ý B5M1M2R2R3V3V5, ÑÇ²²Ý¸ R1, ÑÇ²Ý¸ V2V4 Verse 38 not numbered B5V2, numbered 34 I, numbered 37 M1M2R1, numbered 35 R2R3V5, numbered 5 V3, numbered 36 V4 6 ÓÐ ] ÓÐ [ x ] V3 Ñ Ò] Ñ Ò V5 Ð £ ] £¸ V5 ¹ÚÔÐ ] ¹ÚÔ ( Ð ) supl I, ¹ÚÔ M1, ¹ÚÔÐ M2, ¹Ú £ÔÐ R3, ÃÑÐ V5 ÔÑ ] ÔÑ B5 7 ÝÓ ] corrected from ÝÓ£ to ÝÓ V4 8 ¢ Ý ] Ý V2, ¢ Ñ V5 ÒÖÇ ] Ò ß B5, Ú ß M1, ß M2 ÒÖ ] Ò ( Ö ) marg I Ø ] Ø Ú B5, Ø I, corrected from ØÓ to Ø M2 9 Ý ] Ô R1 ½¾ ] om. R1R2R3V5 Ô ] ÔÖ R1 é Ø¸ ] ¢ Ø R1, é Ø ( ¸ ) R supl 2 349
ÑÝ ¦´Ý Ò Ú ¢ ÒØ × Ú Ñ ÚÓ ÒØ Ò Ø ÑØ ¦´Ý ×Ç º Ø¸ ¹Ý Ý Ø » £Ò Ø ´× Ø ¹ÚÔÐ ¸ ¿ ¹Ú ¦ØÖÐÆ Ñ Ý é Ø Ú Ø Ú ÑÑØÓ ÒØ ¹Ý Ø º ¹Ú Øé ØÐÆ Ñ Ø Ó ØÓ Ø¸ ¹Ý Ø ¸ ÔÐé Ø ¹» £Ò Ø Ú ¦´Ý  Ì Ô ØØ Ð ¦´Ý Ý ¸ º £Õ¹Ý Ú Ñ Ò ÖÚ Ò  Ø ×Ú¸ ¹Ý £ ¹Øâ Ø ÐÑ ¹Ø ¸ ½ ØÒ
Verse 39 om. B5M1M2V3 numbered 38 R1, not numbered V2, numbered 37 V4, numbered 36 V5 1 ÑÝ ¦´Ý ] ÑÝ V5 Ú Ò ] Ò R1, Ø R3 ¢ Ò] Ú ( ) R , Ú ØÐ R 2 ÚÓ ÒØ ] ÚÓ Ò V , ÚÓÒØ R Ò Ø ] Ø V4 ¢ marg,s 2 ¢ 3 4 3 ÑØ ¦´Ý ] Ñ ØØ ´Ý R1, ÑØ ´Ý V4 3 Ø ] Ø R1V5 Ø¸ ] Ø ( ¸ ) supl R2 4 ´× ] ´Ã R2, ´Ã R3, V4, ´¹Ú V5 Ø ] Ø R1V2V5 ¹Ú ] ¹Ú [ x ] V2 Verse 40 om. B5M1M2V3 numbered 38 R1, not numbered V2, numbered 37 V4, numbered 36 V5 ½¾ 5 ¹Ú ] ¹Ú R2 ] » R1 , » V5 5–7 ¦ØÖ — ] om. V5 5 ÐÆ Ñ ] ½¾ ÐÆ Ò R1 6 é 7 ¹Ú ] ¹Ú R2 ] » R1 Øé Ø ] ¢ Ø R1R3 Ø] 8 é Verse 41 not numbered B5R1V2V3, ¢ Ø R1, ¢ Ø R3, é Ø V5 Ø ] ¢ Ø R1 numbered 35 I, numbered 38 M1M2V4V5, numbered 36 R2R3 9 ¹» £Ò ] ¹» £Ò ¿ ¿ B5IM1M2R2R3V2V3, ¹» £ ¿ ¿ V4, ¹» Ò V5 Ø ] Ø V5 10 Ì ] ²Ý R1, Ì [ Ì ] V2, Ô V4 Ô ØØ ] Ô ØØ IV4V5, Ô ØØ R2R3 Ð ¦´Ý ] Ð Ø B5M1M2R1V3 Ý ¸ ] Ò ¸ V4 11 Ú Ñ Ò ] marked and the annotation Ù´ Ñ Ò added in margin by s R2 £ ÖÚ ] £Ú V5 ×Ú¸ ] ×Ú M1M2 ¹Ý ] ¹Ý V 12 ¹Øâ Ø ] ¹Øâ Ø B5, ¹ØÚ Ø R1, ¹Ø Ø 5 V4, ¹Øâ Ø £ V5 Ò ¹Ø ¸ ] Ò ¸ ¹Ý ¸ B M R V , Ò ¹Ý ¸ M ) marg R2 5 2 3 3 1, Ò ( 350
p. 79 R1
5
¼
f. 55v V2 10 f. 19v I
Ý ÅÝÓ Ú  ÐÝ Ö »ÚÐÝ¹Ô £ Ò ØØÓ Ý¦´Ý ¹ØÓ Ý× ØÖ Ô £ â £ Ô ¹Ñ £º ¡» ¢Ø Ð ¹ÚÓ Ý× £ Ý
Ö Ý Ì Ú ¡ »ÝÓæ ÚÚÖ ¾ Ý » Ý ÝÓ¹Ø ¡ ÒÝ ØÝÓ ´Ý¦´Ý £ ÓÐÝÓ¸

f. 21r V4, f. 18r R2
ÑÝ £ ¦´Ý ÝÓÒ ØÓ´ Ñ  ¸ ¹Ý ¦ØÖ Ø £Ò × Ò ¦´Ý ÑØ Ú £ ¢  Ø ÖÝ Ý ÀÝÚ ¢£ ¢Ø º Ó Îæ £´ÔÐ £ Ö Ú ÑØ Ø ´ ØÇ ¹Ý Ö ¹» Ý Ø £Ò Ý é £ Ç Ñ é Ø Ö Ú ÑØ Ø¸ » Ý ¹Ý Ý Ú Ñ Ò £Ý Ú » Ý Ú ÓÝ Ô Ö £Õ Ò £ º ¸ Ñ ×ÝÓ  Ø Ø Ú ¼¼ ×ö ß¸ ¹Ý ÔÑ ´ ÑÑÝ ÔÝ
5
f. 14r R3
f. 17v V3
¿
10 f. 16r B5
Verse 42 not numbered B5V2, numbered 36 I, numbered 39 M1M2V5, numbered 41 R1, numbered 37 R2R3 1 Ý ÅÝÓ ] ( »ÓÔÔ ¸ ) marg,s R2, ÝÓÅÝÓ V5 ÚÐÝ ] ÚÐÒ M1M2, ÚÐ ( Ý £ ) marg V2, ÚÐ V5 Ö » ] Ö » R1 ÚÐÝ ] ÚÐ B5 ¹Ô £ ] ¹Ô Ó M1, ¹Ô Ó V5 Ò ] ÒÒ M1M2, Ò R3, Ò V4, Ò V5 2 Ý¦´Ý ¹ØÓ Ý ] í´Ý ´¹ÚÓ Ý R1, ( ) supl Ý´Ý ¹ £ Ý V5 ØÓ Ý with Ý marked and Ý added in the margin by s R2, Ý´Ý ¹ØÓ Ý [ Ò ] V2, íØ ¹ÚÖ ØÖ Ô ] ¢ ØÖ Ô V5 Ô £ ] × £ R1 ¹Ñ £ ] ¹Ñ 3 Ð ¹ÚÓ Ý ] Ð ´¹ÚÓ Ý R1, ¡» ¢Ø ¢ Ø¸ V5 Ð ( ) supl ¹ØÓ Ý R2, Ð ¹ØÓ Ý R3, Ð Ó¹ÚÓ Ý V5 × Ý Ì ] Ý ( ) supl Ì ¡ »ÝÓæ ] ¹Ø»ÝÓæ R1 R2, Ý Ì R3, Ý Ì V4 4Ý ´Ý¦´Ý £ ] ´ÝØ £ B5M1M2V3V4, ´Ý´Ý £ R1, ØÝÓ ] ØÝÓ B5 ´Ý ´Ý £ R2R3 ÓÐÝÓ¸ ] corrected from ÓÐÝ £¸ to ÓÐÝÓ¸ R2, ÓÐÝ £¸ R3 Verse 43 not numbered B5V2V3, numbered 37 I, numbered 40 M1M2, numbered 42 R1, numbered 38 R2R3 5 ¦´Ý ] ´Ý B5, Ø M1 Ò ØÓ ] ÒØ £ B5, ÒØÓ M1M2V4 ¸ ] IM1M2 ¦ØÖ ] ØÖ £ R1 Ø £Ò ] ØÒ M2, ØÒ R1 × ] Ø R1 6 Ò ¦´Ý ] Ò ´Ý M2 ÑØ ] ÑØ R1 Ú £ B5 Ý ÀÝ ] Ý B5, Ý ( ÀÝ ) supl V3 ¢ £] Ú ¢Ø ¢ Ø ] ¢ Ø ¸ B5M1M2V3 ¢ Ø] â ¢ R1 £ V3 Ø ´ ] Ø V5 ØÇ ] ØÇ V4 7–8 Ö ¹» Ý ] Ö ¹» Ý B5 8Ý ] 7 £ ] ÝØ¸ V5 é é Verse 44 Ø ] é Ø M1, ¢ Ø R1, é Ø R2 Ø¸ ] é Ø M1, ¢ Ø¸ R1 not numbered B5V2V3, numbered 38 I, numbered 41 M1M2, numbered 39 R2R3, numbered 42 V4, numbered 41 V5 not found R1 9–11 Ú Ñ — ] om. but added in margin V3 10 » Ý ] » ÝÓ M2 Ú ÓÝ ] Ú ÓÝ V5 Ò 11 ×ÝÓ Ø ] ¸] Ò ( ¸ ) supl IR2 ×ÝÓ Ø ( ¸ ) supl R2, ×ÝÓ Ø R3 Ø ] ×Ø R2R3 ¼¼ ] ×ÀÝ ß¸ ¼¼ B5M1M2V3, om. V5 ×ö ß¸ ] ×ÀÝ ß I, corrected from ×ÀÝÇ to ×ÀÝ ß V4 12 ÑÝ ] ¹Ý V5 Ý ]Ý B5 , Ý V5 351
Ý ´×  ¦Ø ÖÓÑ Ç ×Ñ Ø¸ Ø ÑÝ ¦´ÝÝÓ ×Å æÖ ÚÝ Ò Ð £ Ú £â Ì ×¸ º £» Ó Î Ú Ø¹Ø´ Ó Ø ¹Ø  ´×Ú ÚÕ £ ²Ý Ö´Ý¹Ñ ¦ÑÝ ÒÓ ØÑ Ú Ò ´Ì é Ñ Ò Ì ´Ñ £Ò Ó £ Ø¦» £ Ò £Ö £Ò ÖÅÝ £º ¦Ì Ö Ö ¡ Ø £ ¡Ø £ » çÓ Ý Ð £ ×Ǒ ß
f. 20r I
f. 21v V4
5
Verse 45 not numbered B5V2, numbered 39 I, numbered 42 M1M2V5, numbered ÖÓÑ Ç ] 43 R1V4, numbered 40 R2R3, numbered 69 V3 1 ´× ¦Ø ] ´× Ø V5 ÖÑ Ç I ×Ñ Ø ] ×Ñ Ç ×Ñ ØÇØ V ÑÝ ¦´Ý ] ÑÝ Ø B M M V , ÑÝ Ø V , ÑÝ V5 5 5 1 2 4 3 ÝÓ ] ÝÓÒ R2, Ý Ò V5 Ø¸ ] B5, Ø ¸ R1, Ø £¸ V5 2 ×Å ] × V3 ] V4V5 â Ì ×¸ ] â Ý ×¸ M1M2R3, â Ì Ú R1V5, â ( ) supl Ì ×¸ R2, â ×¸ V3, Vfo 3 ] V5 £» ] £» ( ) marg,s R2, » V4 Ú Ø] Ú Ø R2R3, V4 Ó] R2 R3 Ø ] ¢ Ø B5M1M2V3, Ø¸ V5 4 ´×Ú — ÒÓ ØÑ ] ´ Ó Ø¹Ø´×Ú V4 ´×Ú ] ´×Ú R1 ÚÕ £ ] with Ò £ marked and the variant reading Ø £ added in the margin Ú Ò by s R2 Ö´Ý¹Ñ ] Ö´Ý ( ) supl ¹Ñ R2 Verse 46 not numbered B5IV2V3, numbered 43 M1M2, numbered 44 R1, numbered 41 R2R3, numbered 3 V4, numbered 2 V5 5 ´Ì ] V5 ÒÌ ] Ö R1 , Ò Ì V3 5–7 £Ò — ¡ Ø £ ] om. M1 6–7 Ó £ — ¡ Ø £ ] om. V5 6 Ó £ ] Ó V4 Ø¦» £] » £ V3 ÖÅÝ £ ] ÖÅÝÓ V4 7 ¦Ì ] Ì V3 £] ¡Ú £ V3 8 » çÓ ] » ç £ R1V5 Ý Ð £ ×Ǒ ß] £ Ð × R1V5, Ý ¡Ø Ð ×Ǒ ß R3 Colophon Ø é Ñ´× ÐÚ ×Ò Ú Ö Ø £ Ö Ñ´ Ö é Ñ ÒÖ ÚÖ Ø × Ø× Ö » ç Ý Ý¸ B5, Øé Ñ´× Ð × ØÚ × Ú Ö Ø £ × Ø× Ö » ç Ý Ý¸ £ Öé Ñ ÒÖ ÚÖ Ø £ I, Ø é Ñ´× ÐÚ ×Ò Ú Ö Ø é Ñ ÒÖ ÚÖ Ø £ × Ø× Ö » ç Ý Ý¸ M1, Ø Ö Ñ´ Ö £ é Ñ´× ÐÚ ×Ò Ú Ö Ø £ ×´ Ø× Ö » ç Ý Ý¸ M2, no colophon Ö Ñ´ Ö é Ñ ÒÖ ÚÖ Ø £ R1, ( Ø é Ò Ö ´Ñ ÒÖ ÚÖ Ø £ × Ø× Ö Ø Ý ÝÝ £ » ç Ö¹Ø £ ¢ Ø Ý¸ ) marg,s R2, no £ colophon R3, Ø » ç ÝÝ¸ V2, Ø é Ñ´× ÐÚ ×Ò Ú Ö Ø Ö Ñ´ Ö é ÑØ ÒÖ ÚÖ Ø × Ø× Ö » ç Ý Ý¸ V3, Ø é Ñ´× Ð × ØÚ ×Ò Ú Ö Ø £ × Ø× Ö £ Ö Ñ´ Ö é ÒÖ ÚÖ Ø £ » ç Ý Ý¸ V4, no colophon V5 352
Ì

Ø Ý Ý £ ÔÚ ×Å ¡ ´Ý
Ö¸
f. 8r M2
ÖÑ ß¸ ¿ Ã ß ¿¼ Ò ß¸ ¾ ÝÑ ß ¾½ ²Ý
Ø ß ÒÃ ¾¼º ¾¼º ¾¼º ¾¼ Ö ¢ ´Ý ¾¾ ùÝÑ ß¸ ¾ × Ö¸ ¿¿ ÖÝ ¹ Ýè ß ¿ â ´Ý ¾¼¼ ß ß ÒÐ Ø º × Ã Ý £Ò ½¼¼ ÃÖ× ß ¼ ¹Ø Ò ß ¹» ÆÝ Æ  ß¸  ¼¼ Ø º º å ß ¾ å ÑØ ß ¾ Ö£¦ ½¿¾ ÖÝ £Ò £ ¼ ¦
¦ß¸ ½½ ÔÐ ß¸ Ã ½
Verse 1 2–5 ÓÖÑ ß¸ — ÒÐ Ø ] marked and the annotation è¦Ý ØÖÚ £ÚÖ ÈÐ
» Ú ²Ý º ÔÖØ¸ × ¹Ú Ø £¸ Ö Ý Ô ÖÚ´ÝÓ¸ ÓÖ Ñ ß Ö´Ý ÔÐ ß
? ¡ Ú Ô Ý ÚØ º ØØÓ Ý Ù £ added in the margin V2 2 ÖÑ ß¸ ] ÖÑ ß V3 Ò ß¸ ] Ò ß V5 ÝÑ ß ¾½ ß ] ß¸ V5 ß ¾½ ²Ý I, ÝÑ ß¸ ¾½ ²Ý V2, ÝÑ ß¸ ¾½ Ý V5
Ø ÒÃ ß ] ÒÃ ß¸ M1V2V5 ²Ý ] ÝÝ ]
Ø V4 3 ¾¼º ¾¼º ¾¼º ¾¼ ] ¾¼ R2R3 4 ¾¾ ] om. V3V4 ÝÑ ß¸ ] ÝÑ ß M1R1V3 ¾ × Ö¸ ] om. V4 ß ¾ ] corrected from ¿ to ¾ B5 Ý ß ] Ý ß¸ V V ] [ ] M è ß ¿ â ] è ß ¿ â V4 4 5 1 â ´Ý ¾¼¼ ] â ´Ý ¾¼ â ´Ý ¾¼¼ V5 ´Ý ] Ö ´Ý R3 5 ÒÐ Ø ] ÒÐ [ ] Ø B5, ÐÐ Ø M1M2 Ã ] corrected from Ã to Ã R2 Ý 6 × ] × V3, × V5 ß¸ ] Ý ß B5M2R1, ? V Ý Ý ß ÃÖ× ß ] ÃÖ× ß ¸ V ] corrected from ½ to V ¹» ] ¹» M1 5 4 4 ÆÝ Æ ] ÆÝ Æ ( ¸ ) supl I, ÆÝ Æ ¸ M1, ÆÝÆÝ ¸ M2, Æ R1, ( ) supl ÆÝ Æ R2, ² ¸ V4, Æ Æ V5 7 º º ] º I 8 å ß ¾ ] å ß [ x ] ¾ B5, å ß I, om. M2V4 å ÑØ ß ] å ÑØ ß R3, å ×Ø ß V5 ¾] å ¾ M1 Ö£¦ ] Ö£ M1, Ö£ R2, ÖÖÓ R3, Ö£¦ ¸ V4, Ö£ V5 ½¿¾ ] ½¿ V4 ÖÝ £ ] Ö×Ý £ V5 ¼ ] om. B5IM1M2R1V2V4V5, Ã Ã Ò £ ¼ R2R3V3 ½½ ] ÔÐ ß¸ ½½ M1M2 Belonging to verse 1 is a table on p. 80 R1: ÖÓ Ñ Ô Ô Ñ Ô Ù
¹Ú Ú ¢ ¢ ¡ ¿ ¿¼ ¾ ¾½ ¾¼ ¾¼ ¾¼ ¾¼ ¾¾ ¾ ¿¿ ¿ ¾¼¼ ¼¼ ½¼¼ ¼
Ý £ Ñ ¡ Ô ¡ Ù é ¾ ¾ ½¿¾ ¿ Ô ¡ Ù ½½ ¢ ¾ £ Ö ¼ ÖÓ ¾ Ò »
5 f. 20v I, f. 56v V2
Belonging to verse 1
Ò Ô ¾¼ é Ô ¾¼ ê £ ¾¾ Ñ ¾ Ô ¡ È ¿¿
is a table in R2 added by s:
Ù È Ô ¿ Ù
¹Ú ¾¼¼ ¼¼ £ Ö Ú ½¼¼ Ò ¼
Ý £
¿¼
Ñ ¡
Ô ¡
Ñ ¢ ¾¼ ¾¼ Õ Ù Õ
353

ÚÖ ÖÚ ÔÚ¦Ø £ ¹Ý
Ø ÒÑ ¸ ¹Ý Ö Ý Ý Ø Ò Ì ÈÐ  Ô Ø  ¹Ý Ð  ÑÝÑ º Ö× ¸
p. 81 R1, f. 21r V5 f. 22r V4, f. 18r V3, f. 16v B5
Ô ½ âÇ ¾ »ØÝ ¿ Ý Ö ¹» £ º º Ò ÔÚ Ø ¹Ú´ £¦  ÐÚ ¢ Ø Ô Ø £ ¦ÝÌ Ø¹È Î¸ ¾ Ø Ú £¦ Ó ½ ¾ £Ú ¿¿ ¹Ø £× × ¦´Ý ÒÃ ¸ Ô ØÝ Ø
5
Ò Ø ÒÚ ÚÓ ½ ¡ Ú ¾½ ¹ Ý ÒÝÓ ¿¿ Ø Ý ¹» ¿ Ö Ó ¦Ø ß ¿¾ Ð Ú ØÑ¸ º ß ¾¼ £Ò ¡ ½¿ £Ò ÓÐ Ú Ð » ¹ÚÃ ¦Ý ¿¼ Ý ¿
Verse 2 1 ÒÑ ¸ ] ÒÑ£¸ R1, ÒÑß¸ V5 R2R3 Ö Ý Ý ] Ö Ý Õ R3 ] 2 ÔÚ¦Ø £ ] ÔÚ Ø V3 Ø ] Ñ Ø M1M2 Ò ] ÒÓ R2, Ò marked and the annotation Ò Ø Õ Î ÑØ Ô ß¸ ÓÖ Ñ ß Ö´Ý Ò Ù Ú´× ? × ¡ ÚÓ ÔÐ ÝØ added in the margin V2, Ò V5 Ì ] Ý R2R3V4 ÑÝÑ ] ÑÝ V4 3 ½ ] om. R1 âÇ ] ß â V5 ¾ ] om. R1 »ØÝ ] âØÝ R1 ¿ ] ¾ M2, om. R1 ] M1M2, om. R1 Ö ] ( ) marg,s Ö I, Ö Ö V4 º º ] om. R1, Ö R2R3V5 Ö× ¸ ] Ö× M1R1 ] om. R1, º º V5 4 ÔÚ Ø ] ÔÚ Ø ¸ R2R3, corrected from ÔÚ Ø to ÔÚ Ø V3 ] om. R1 5 ] B5 ÐÚ ] Ð ½¼ Ú R2R3 ÔØ £] Ô Ø ß B5, Ô Ø M1M2, ÔÓØ R3, Ô Ø Ô Ø £ ¢ Ø ] ÑØ B5R1V2V3 V4 ¦ÝÌ Ø ] ´ÚÌ Ø M1M2, ÒÝ Ø R2, ¦ÝÝ Ø R3 Verse 3 6½ ¾ ]Ò½ ¾ B5 Ò ] Ò B5, Ò V4 ÒÚ ÚÓ ] ÒÚ [ × ½ ] ½¾ B5, see after £Ú in p¯ ada b R1 ] ÚÓ B5 ¾½ ] ½¾ V4, see after £Ú in p¯ ada b R1 ¿¿ ] see after £Ú in p¯ ada b R1 7 ¿¿ ] om. IV2, £Ú ½ º ¾½º ¿¿º ¿¿ R1, £Ú ¹Ø £ ¿¿ V5 ] see end of p¯ ada R1, ? V3, om. V5 ¿ ] see Ö Ó ] ÖÌÓ IV2 ¦Ø ß ] corrected from ØÇ to Ø ß M2, Ø ß¸ V4 end of p¯ ada R1, om. V5 ¿¾ ] om. B5V5, see end of p¯ ada R1 Ð Ú ] ÐÚ V5 ØÑ¸ ] ¹ØÑ¸ º ¿º ¿¾ ¾ R1 8 ¾¼ ] £Ò ¾¼ B5V3, ÒÃ ¾¼ M1M2, om. R1 £Ò ] [ x ] £Ò B5, ÓÒ V5 ½¿ ] ½¿ R2R3, om. V5 ] Ò M1M2V3 £Ò ] Ú £Ò M2, £ ( Ò ) marg R2, Ò V5 9 ¸] [ ] ¸ B5 , ¸ I, Ò Ò¸ M2 Ô Ø ] Ô Ø [ ] V2, Ô V3 Ý Ø ] Ø V4, Ý V5 ÓÐ Ú ] corrected from ÓÐ £Ú to ÓÐ Ú V4 » ] » ¿ R2 R3 ¹ÚÃ ] Ø M2 Ã IV4, Ã ¦Ý ] Ã Ý R1, Ã ( ) marg R2, Ã R3 ¿¼ ] om. B5M1M2R2R3V3, Ã ¦Ý I, ¾¼ R1 ¿¼ 354
Å ÒÓ¸ Ö Ø Ø¸ ¹Ú ½¾ Ó  ÒØ ¹Ý ¦ Ó Å ÒÚÝ ¹Ø Ö Ó ¸º Ö× » ¿  Ø´¹Ý ´× ÑÐÚ ¡ Ñ × £¸ ßÐ ÓÒ Ý Ø Å Ñ¦ Ó Ø¸ ¹Ý Ø Ò £Õ ¢ Ø ÚÝÓ ´Ô Õ Ò ÚÖ Ð  ¸ ¹ÌØ £Ò ¸ ¹Ý ÓÚ ¸ º ÔÚ¦Ø¹Ø Ø× Ø¸ ¹Ô ÑÓ ÀÝ ÐÇ ÑÒ ß Ö ÚÖ Ø Ñ Ò Ú ¦Ø ¦Ø £ ¹ÚÑ Ø ¹Ú Ð £Ò Ø ¢ ÒØ Ý Ôæ ´Ô Ú ÝÓ Ö Ø Ñ ¡Ú ¸ ¹Ô£ » ÓÒ ØÒ ¸ º Ø´ ¦´Ý ÔÐ ×¹ ¢ ØÐ Ý  ½¼ Ú ¹ÚÝ ÓÝ Ò ØÖ ÔÚ ØÝ Ô Ö¹ ÖÝ £Ø
Verse 4 1 Å ] R3, ÚÚ V4 ÒÓ¸ ] ÒÓ R2V4 Ö ] om. R2R3 ] Ø ] corrected from Ø to Ø V2 ½¾ ] om. B5R1V3V5 om. B5M1M2R1R2R3V2V3V5 Ó ] ÒÓ R1 2 ¦ Ó ] Ø Ó R1V2 Å ] R2, Ú Ú R3 Ý ] added in margin I, om. but with an insertion mark though nothing in margin R1 Ö× ] Ö× ¸ M1R1 ] ¹Ø Ö ] Ø Ö V4 Ó ] Ó Ý V5 3 ¿ ] om. B5IM1M2R1V2V3V4V5 om. V2V5 ] £ R2R3 Ø´¹Ý ´× ] Ø¹ÝÖ¸ [ » ] ´× V5 ÑÐÚ ] Ð ÑÐ V5 ¡ Ñ ] marked and the Ñ Ý ¹Ý Ø written in the margin V2 annotation
Ú » Ø Ö Ú Ø× Ñ ÓÒ ¡ £¸ ] 4 ßÐ ] × ßÐ R1V2 ÓÒ ] ÓÒ B5IM1M2R2R3V3 Ý ¸ B5, £ R1, ß¸ V5 — ¹Ý Ø ] Ò
×Ñ Ò R1, × Ø Ò
×Ñ Ò V2, × Ø Ò
Ñ ×Ñ Ò V5 Ý ¢× Ø ]Ý M2 ] om. B5M1R1R2R3V2V3V4V5, Ò I Ø ] Ø B5M1M2R2R3V3 Å Ñ¦ Ó ] Ú Ñ Ó R3, ÚÚ Ñ Ó V4 Ø¸ ] Ø ( ¸ ) supl I, Ø M1 Verse 5 not numbered I, verse number both after p¯ ada c and at the end of the verse V5 5 Åß ] £ I Õ ] Õ Ú I ÚÝÓ ] Ú ÝÓ R2 Õ Ò ] ÔÚ Ò R1V2V5 6 ÓÚ ÚÖ Ð ¸ ] ÃÝ ÝÑÐ ß ¾ ¼ ¹Ý R1, ÃÝ ß ¾ ¼ ¹Ø ¸ V2, ÃÝ ß¸ ¹Ý ¹ÌØ £Ò ¸ ¹Ý £Ò ¹Ý ¸ B5, Ò ÝÑÐ ÝÑÐ V5 ¸ º ] ¹ÌÌ ¸ ¹Ý ß¸ Ò ¹Ø ¸ V5 7 ÔÚ¦Ø ] ÔÚ ( Ø ) marg I, ÔÚ Ø R1, Ô [ ] ÚØ ¹Ý ¸ R3, ¹ Ø ¸ M1M2, Ò V4 ¹Ø Ø ] ¹Ø¹Ø Ø V4 ÑÓ ] ÑÇ B5 8 Ö Ú ] Ú Ã? V5 ] B5, Ò V5 £] Ø R2 , Ø R3, Ø V3 ¹ÚÑ Verse 6 numbered 60 R3 9 ¦Ø ¢ ] ¹ÚÑ ¢ ß R2 R3 ÒØ ] Ò R2R3 ] om. B5IM1M2R1V2V3V4 ¹Ú ] ¹Ú R2 10 Ñ £ R1V5 ¹Ô£ ] ¸] ¢ Ø ¹Ô R1 ØÒ 11 Ø´ ¦´Ý ] Ø´ ´Ý R2R3, ´Ý V5 ¸] Ø ØØ B5M1M2R2R3V3, ØÒ V4V5 Ð ] Ð B5 ½¼ ] B5IM1M2R1V2V3V4V5 Ú ] Ò M1M2 12 Ý R1 ] Ý Ò Ø ] Ø R1 Ö ] om. V5 ØÝ ] ÒÝ M1 Ô Ö¹ ÖÝ £Ø ] Ô Ö ÖÝ £Ø R2R3 355
f. 21r I
f. 19r R2
Åß
5 f. 6r M1
p. 82 R1, f. 22v V4
10 f. 17r B5
´Ì é Ñ Ò Ì ´Ñ £Ò Ó £ Ø¦» £ ÒÖ £  Ò ÖÅÝ £º ¦Ì Ö Ö ¡ Ø £ ¡Ø £ Ý Ý ÔÚ ×  Å ¡ ØÞ
f. 21v I
f. 18v V3
Verse 7 1 é ] added in margin by s R2, om. R3 1–3 Ñ — ¡Ø £ ] om. V2 Ò Ì — ¡Ø £ ] om. B5 Ò Ì — ¡Ø £ ] om. M1 2–3 Ó £ – ¡ Ø £ ] om. V5 2 Ó£ ] Ó R3 ÖÅÝ £ ] ÅÝ £ V4 3 ¦Ì ] [ ] Ì V4 Ö ] ( Ö ) marg,s R2, [ ] R3 4 Ý M1V5, [ Ý Colophon Ø é × Ø× Ö ÔÚ × ¡ ØÒ Ñ Ý Ý¸ B5IM1V3, ] Ý ] V4 £ Ø é ×´ Ø× Ö ÔÚ × ¡ ØÒ Ñ Ý Ý¸ M2, om. R1R3V5, Ø é Ò Ö ´Ñ ÒÖ ÚÖ Ø £ × Ø× Ö £ £ Ø Ý Ý £ ÔÚ × Ú ÖæØ ¸ in margin by s R2, Ø ÔÚ × ¡ ØÒ Ñ Ý Ý¸ V2, Ø é Ñ ´× Ø× Ö Ì £ ÔÚ × ¡ ØÒ Ñ Ý Ý¸ V4, 356
Ì
Ø Ý Ý £ ¦
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Ö Ø ÝÓ Ú ÒÔ Ö Ö ¸º É Ú  ÔÑ  Ú ¢ ÚÑ ÐÝÓ ÝÓ Ò Ú×Ø¹ØÑ×Ó Ñ Ò ¸ ¹Ñ ¢Ø é Ò ß¸ ¹Ñ ØÔ Ö ÚÖÓ ¢Ø Ö Ú Ú ÝÓ¸ ¡ ÝÓ¸ º Ö Ø ÑØ¹Ø ÒÖ Ñ´Ý Ô Ø £ ¹ÚÑØ £ ¸ ¾ ÖÌ ´Ñ × Ý Ñ ÃÓ Ý Ô Ø ÖÌ Ú £ Ø ÔÔ Ö × ØÓ Ú Ó ¸ º ÒÒÓ Ò¹ØÌ ¿
½
f. 15r R3, f. 57v V2 5
10
chapter opens é Ð Ó ÖÓ Ý Ø I, é £ Ó Ý Ø V2 Verse 1 2 ] ¢ R1 3Ú Ò] Ú Ò V5 Ô R2, Ô Ú ] ( Ú ) marg,s R2 Ö Ö ¸] Ö ¸ É ] Õ B5, Ô ¡Ú R3 V4 5 Ò Ú×Ø ] Ò Ú £×Ø R3, Ò Ú× [ ] Ø V2 Ñ ¹Ñ Ò ¸] Ñ Ò R1 ¢ Ø ] ¹Ñ ¢ Ø¸ I, ¹Ñ ¢ Ø ¸ B5 R1 Verse 2 6 é Ò ß¸ ] Ò ß IR1 7 Ú ] Ú ¡ M1, V5 Ø ] ¹Ñ ¢ Ø B5R1R2R3V3V5 ÝÓ¸ ] ÝÓ ( ¸ ) supl R2, ÝÓ [ xxx ] R3, ÝÓ V3 8 ÑØ¹Ø Ö ] ] »ÑØ¹Ø V3, Ñ ¹Ø V5 Ö Ò R1 9 ] [ ] R3 Verse 3 placed before verse 7 and numbered 6 B5M1M2R1R2R3V3V5 10 ÖÌ ´Ñ ] ÖÌ ´Ñ £ V4 × ØÓ ] × ØÇ B5, × ØÓ M2 11 Ý Ô Ø ] Ý Ô Ø B5V3, Ý Ô Ø M1M2, Ý Ô Ø R1, corrected from Ý x Ô Ø to Ý Ô Ø R2 ¸] Ò ¸ R1 12 ÖÌ ] ÖÌ B5 Ú £ ] Ú £Ò B5IM1M2R1V2V3V4V5 13 Ô] Ô M2 Ò¹ØÌ ] Ú ¹ØÌ IV2V4, Ú Ó ¸ V5 357
É ÇÝ Ô ¡ ØÌ Ô Ö Ó Ö Ö ÝØÓ ÝÑ ¢ ©Ý  £ Ö × É Ý Ø
£¦ ¡ ´ÚÑ º ¦ ÖÓ Ø
p. 83 R1
Ý¹ÝÓ Ø Ø ßÚ Ô Ø× × Ú Ö ¸ ÌØÓ Ñ ¸ º Ø¹Ý ÝÒù Ö£ ÖÚ  ¦âÓ¸ ¹Ý ¦Ñ × Ñ × ×ßÚ Ô ÒÝÓ Ý £ Ú Ò£¦ Å£ Ö Ó Ö ¹» £ ÝÝÑ º  Ø¸ Ô Ñ× Ø × Ö   ÒÓ £ Ø ££ Ð × £Ø £ Ú ¡ Ø ÃÃ £Õ ßÒ Õ ¼¼ óÓ Ò×öÑ ¹Ý ãÅ ÑÆ ¹Ý Ã  Ò Ú £ ¸ Ø´¹Ô ´Ý Ò Ø Ú ¹ÚÑÝ ¹È £ÚÑ ÎÑ ÒÑ ¼º
5
f. 22r B5
10 f. 58r V2, f. 21v V5 f. 8v M2
f. 17v B5 15
Verse 4 1 É Ç] Ó M2V5 Ý Ô ] Ý Ô B5 £¦ ¡ ] £ M2, £ ¡ R3V3 2 ØÌ Ô ] ØÌ Ô V3 Ö ] Ö Ø R1 3 ÝÑ ¢ ©Ý ] ÑÝ ¢ ©Ý M1M2 ¦ ] V3 ] × M1M2 Ý Verse 5 placed between verse 2 and 4 × Ø] Ý Ø R3 ßÚ ] Ý¹ÝÓ Ø Ø ß Ú M1, verse 4 and numbered 3 B5M1M2R1R2R3V3V5 5 Ý¹ÝÓ Ø Ø ¾ ½ Ý¹ÝÇ ØÇ Ø ßÚ R1, Ý¹ÝÓ Ø ¹Ø ßÚ V5 Ô Ø ] Ø Ô B5 6 Ñ ¸] Ñ [ ] Ò ß¸ R2, Ñ Ò ß¸ R3 Ö£ ] Ö Ó V5 ÖÚ ¦âÓ¸ ] ÖÚ Ó¸ B5 8 ¦Ñ × Ñ × ] ¦Ñ × V4 7 Ø¹Ý ÝÒù ] Ø¹Ý Ô Ò V5 ×ßÚ ] ×ßÚ B5, Ö ÚâÓ¸ V5 Verse 6 placed between after verse 4 and numbered 5 B5M1M2R1R2R3V3V5 9 Ô Ò] Ò R1, [ ] Ô Ò V2 Ú Ò ] ( ) supl Ú Ò I, × Ò V5 £¦ ] £ M1M2, £ V3V4, £ V5 Å£ ] ÚÚ V3 10 ¹» £ ] ¹Ø £ IM2R2V4, ¹Ø £? M1, ¹» £? R1, ¹Ø V5 ] V5 Ý Ý Ñ ] ÝÝ V3 11 Ñ] Ñ V4 12 Ø Ú ££ ] Ú £ I × £ Ø £] × £ Ø R1V5 Verse 7 ] B5M1M2R1R2R3V3, Ì V5 ¡ Ø ¡ Ø ßÒ ¼¼ R1, ÕÎÝÓ Ò ¼¼ V5 13 ¼¼ ] ÕóÓ Ò ¼¼ B5M1M2V3, ÕÎ ¼¼ ÝÓ Ò IR2R3V2V4, Ñ Ñ ßÒ ] Ý ßÒ R2R3 14 ãÅ ÑÆ ¹Ý ] ã ÑÆ ?¹Ý B5, ã Ñ Ó¹Ø Ú £ ¸] Ú £ R1V3 V2, âÚÑ Ú¹Ý V4 16 ] corrected from to I Ñ £ÚÑ ] Ý £ÚÑ R3 15 Ò Ø ] Ò Ø R1 358
Ò ÚÒ ²Ý × ÚÝÓ Ò Å ÖÚ Å Ñº  ÈÐÓÒ ¡ ²Ý ××Ñ ×Ç £ Ö¦ ½ Ð ¹Ý Ø Å Ó Ý Ñ Ø Ú ´Ú ¦ ÝÓÑ Ý ØÇ ØÝ º Ö » × Ø ¹Ú Å£ ¹Ý ÝÓ  Ò Ò ´ÝÒ Ô ØÝ Ý × Ò ØÑÖ  Ô ¡Ý ¢ ÝÓ ´× Ã Ò Õ£ º ¡ ×Ñ Ú Ø Ø â¹Ø £¸ Ô Ö Ñ Ø Ú Ý ¢Ø Ô ØÚ â  ß¸  × Ý ½¼
f. 19r V3
5
f. 20r R2
f. 23v V4 10
p. 84 R1, f. 15v R3, f. 58v V2
Verse 8 2 ] V3, V5 Å ] Ú R3 Å ] ¹Ú V4 Ñ] V5 3 ÈÐÓÒ ¡ ] ÈÐÓÒ ¡ R3, ÈÐ £Ò V5 4 £ Ö¦ ] ×Ç ] Ú ×Ç R1, Ñ Ó ( ¸ ) supl V2 £ Ö V3 ½ ] om. B5M1M2R1V3V5 Ð ] Ð ( ) supl B5, Ð ( ) marg,s R2 Verse 8 5 Å Ó ] marked and the annotation »ÓÔÔ ¸ added in margin by s R2 ¾ ½ Ñ Ø ] Ñ Ø R3 6 ¦ ÝÓ ] ÝÓ M1, ÝÓ V5 ØÇ ] Ø R1 ØÝ ] ØÔÓ R1, ÈÐ V5 7 ] R3 Ö»× £ ¹Ú V5 ¹Ú Å£ ] ¹Ú M1M2, × Verse 10 9 Ý ] Ö» £ R2 × ] marked and the annotation ¡ ÓÔÔ ¸ added in margin by s R2 ÑÖ ] Ñ Ö V4 ¡Ý Ã Ò Õ£ ] Ã Ò Õ B5, Ö Ú×Ó Õ£ V5 11 Ø â¹Ø £¸ ] 10 ´× ¡ ] ´× ¡ Ú R1, × ¡ V5 ¢Ø Ø â× £¸ B5M2V5, Ø¦× ÑØ £¸ IV2, Ø × £¸ M1, Ø´× ÑØ £¸ V4 Ú ] Ú B5 Ý ] Ý ¢Ø ¢Ø ¾ ½ B5V2V3V5, ( ) Ý I, Ý M2, Ý R1 , Ý V4 12 Ô ] Ô M1 ØÚ â ] Ú â B5, Ø Ú â R2R3 × Ý ] × Ý ¸ R1V4V5 ß¸ ] ß R1 359
Ò  ÚÒ ²Ý × Ð ¦ØÖ £´ Ó Î Ò £ é ØØ ËÝ Ý ¸ º Ø£¦ ÑÝéÚ Ñ É Ý £ £ Ø ÈÐ Ú £ Ø
f. 22v I
½½
5
Ø ¦ £ £ Ú Ò ÑÓ´Ì ²Ý × Ò Ú¹Ø ¢ Ø¸ ¹Ý Ø º ´Ý» ÚÔÚ´Ý Ø Ú£Ò Å£ ÖÇ ½¾ ØÄÝ¦ØÒ Ø Ð ¸ Ô ¸ ¹ÚÈÐ £Ò Ò¸ º ¡ ù ¼ £Ø Ö ¸ ØÇ (a) × ØÇ Ú ØÄÝ¦Ø Ð £ ×Ñ Ð Ç ØÇ ½¿
10
Verse 11 1 Ð ¦ØÖ ] ÐØÖ V4 2 ´ Ó Î Ò £ ] Ø Ó Î? Ò £ V5 é Ø ] ¢ Ø B5R1V3 Ø ËÝ ] Ø ËÝ [ ] V Ý ¸ ] Ý R 3 Ø£¦ ] Ø R , [ ÑÓ´ ²Ý × ] Ø£ V3, Ø [ ] £ V4 4 2 1 Ñ ] Ñ R1 4 £ ] ß¸ V4 ÈÐ Ú £ Ø ] corrected from ÈÐ £Ú £ Ø to ÈÐ Ú £ Ø B5 , Ú £´ Ð ÝØ R1 Verse 12 5 £ £ ] Ó £ M1, Ó £ M2 ÑÓ´Ì ] Ó´Ì R1, Ñ with Ñ marked and the variant reading ÑÓ´Ì noted in margin by s R2, Ó´ V2, Ó´Ì V4, ÝÓ ? V5 ? 6 ²Ý × ] ²Ý × V3 Ú¹Ø 7 Ú ] Ó ÓÚ B5I ÔÚ´Ý ] ¢ Ø¸ ] Ú¹Ø ¢ Ø¸ B5, Ú¹Ñ ¢ Ø¸ M1 ÔÚÝ M1M2, ÝÚ´¥Ý R1 8 Ú£Ò ] Ú £Ò V4 Verse 13 9 ØÄÝ¦Ø ] ØÄÝØ V3, ØÄÝ Ø V5 V3 Ð ¸ ] Ð IR1V2V4 10 Ô £ R3, ¡ ù ] Ô ¡ £ R2, Ô ¡Ò ] corrected from to 11 Ô ¼ ] om. B5M1M2V5 ¸] IV2V4 ¹Ú ] ×? I ] V4 ØÇ ] ¡ Ú V4 ÒÇ all mss. 12 ØÄÝ¦Ø ] corrected from ØÌØ to ØÄÝØ R2, ( Ø ) marg ÄÝØ V3 Ð £ ] Ð¸ V5 Ð Ç ] Ð Ç R1 (a). Although all available manuscripts have the text. 360
ÒÇ , a better reading is ØÇ , as given in
¹Ú Ò Ò Ú ØÖ ¾ ¼ Ø ¡ ÒØ » Ý × Ý ¸ × ÚØÑ¸ Ø ÓÐÓ´Ì í Ñ Ò×Ý Ø Ð ¹Ý ´× Ý £ÒÓ ÒØ í Ú ÒÑ £Ø Ø Ã ×× ß¸ ½ Å ÝÓ Ð Ú ÝÓ Ö¦ØÖ ÐÔ Ñ Õ ¼ Ñ º ¦   Ø  Ø Ú £¦ ÔÚ  Ñ ÒÃ Øâ£Ú ¹Ô ÑÓ ´× Ø ÈÐ ¹ÌØ £ ÐÑ ½
º
f. 18r B5, f. 59r V2
5
f. 24r V4, p. 85 R1, f. 19v B5 f. 20v R2
ÚÚÖ Ñ  ÚØ ÑÝÑÑ º ×ÑÝÓ´Ì× Ý ¹Ì Ø Ð ¹È Î Ò Ñ
f. 23r I 10
½
Verse 14 1 ¹Ú Ò ¡ ÒØ ] ¹Ú Ò ¡ ÒØ M1M2, corrected from ¹Ú Ò ÒØ to ¹Ú Ò ¡ ÒØ V3, ¹Ú ÒÒ Ø V5 Ò Ú ] Ò Ú IV2, Ò Ú R2V5, Ò Ú V4 ¾ ¼ ] om. B5M1M2V3V5 2 × Ý ¸ × ÚØÑ¸ ] × Ý ¸¹´Ú ÑØ¸ V5 × Ý ¸ × ] × Ý ¹Ø ÚØÑ¸ ] IV2V4 corrected from ÚØÑ ¸ to ÚØÑ¸ V Ø ] Ø M ] V 3 í ] í M 4 1 3 1M2 ×Ý V5 ¹Ý ´× Ý £ ] ¹Ý Ý £ V4 ÒÓ ÒØ ] ÒÓ ÒØ R1, Ò 4 ] M2, Ø ] ÝÓ ¡ ÒØ R2R3 » V5 í ] ¢ í V4 Ú Ò ] Ú [ ] ( ) Ò V3 Ñ £Ø Ø ] Ñ £Ø Ù? Ø¸ B5, Ñ £Ø Ù Ø¸ M1, Ñ £Ø Ø¸ M2R1V3, £Ø Ø V4, Ý ßØ Ø¸ V5 Ã ×× ] Ã ×× Ó B5IM1M2R1V3V5, × V4 ] Ð B5 6 Ô ] marked and the annotation Verse 15 not numbered V4 5 » added in margin V2 Ñ ] Ñ» R1, ÑÑ V4 Õ Ñ ] Ý V4, Õ £?Þ V5 ¼ ] om. ¼ B5IM1M2R1V3V4V5, Õ ¼ R2R3, Õ V2 8 ¦ ] B5, V5 ÔÚ ] ÔÚ V4 ÈÐ ] ÈÐ M2R1 ¹ÌØ £ ÐÑ ] om. due to confusion with end of next verse V4 Verse 16 9–12 Ñ Ò — ´× Ø ] om. due to confusion with end of last verse V4 9 ÚÚÖ Ñ ] ÚÚÖ âÑ B5I, same with ÚÚÖ marked and the gloss Ú Ø added in margin by s and âÑ marked and the annotation Ñ Ò ÚÚÖÚ [ ¹Ô ] Ñ Ú ÝÓÖØÖ ÐÔ Õ º Ö Ú ØÖ Ø ¹Ô Ñ ¹Ý Ø Ú ÑÓ Ñ ¸ added in margin by s V2 10 ÚØ ] ÚØ M1 ÑÝÑÑ ] ÑÝ B5V3 11–12 × Ý ´× Ø Ò ´× Ø I, × Ý ´× Ø M1, × Ý × Ø 11 ×ÑÝÓ´Ì ] ×ÑÝÓ ( ´Ì ) marg I R2, × Ý × Ø £ R3 12 Ð ] Ð R1 ¹È Î Ò Ñ ] ¹È Î Ò R1, Ò ¹È Î R2R3 361
ØÄÝ¦Ø Ð £ ¹Ì Ø ÒÝ £ ¹Ô ÀÝÑÓ Ç ÚØ¸ Ñ £ º Ú ÚÑ Ú ÒÝ £ ×ÅÑ ÐÒÓ¦Ñ ÐÒ× ÐÇ  ½ ¡ £¦ £¦ £ ¹Ô £ Ñ Ò ß ÑÝ × £ ¦ØÚ £¦ Ó¸ ¢ £ ØÌ Ì Ø´ £ÔÚ ¢£º Ø £Ø £ ËÝ ¦ØÖ Ø £ ¹Ø¸ ½ ËÝ ¦ØÖ
f. 22r V5
5
Ø¹Ñ ¦Ñ Ò ß Ø ËÝÓ » ¸ Ó Î Ó Ú Úê £ÕÑ ¡ ÐÑ  º Ó¸ ¹Ý ´¹Ì´Ý  Ø£Ú Ò Ô Ø Ô ²Ý ¦ ¹Ý Ñ £ ½
10 f. 16r R3 f. 59v V2
Verse 17 2 ¹Ô ÀÝ ] ¹Ô [ x ]( ÀÝ ) marg,s R2, ¹Ô ÀÝ V3, ¹Ô ÀÝ [ ] V4, ¹Ô V5 4 ×ÅÑ ÐÒÓ ] ×¦Ñ ÐÒÓ B5R1V3V5, ×Ñ ÒÐÒÓ I, ×ÅÑ ÐÒÓ M1 × ] × V5 Verse 18 5 ¡ ] marked and the annotation »ÓÔÔ ¸ added in margin by s R2, damaged due to tear £¦ ] ££ R1V5 ØÌ £¦ Ó¸ ] ( Ø ) supl Ì £ Ó¸ B5, ØÌ £? Ó¸ M1 6 £¦ ] ££ R1 £ in ms. V5 Ì] Ì V5 Ø´ £ÔÚ ¢ £ ] Ø´ ÔÚ ¢ £¸ B5, corrected from Ø £ÔÚ ¢ £ to Ø´ £ÔÚ ¢ £ I, Ø´ £ÔÚ ¢ £¸ M1, Ø´ £ÔÚ ¢ R1, Ø´ £ÔÝ £ with Ø´ £Ô marked and the gloss Ö added in margin by s R2, Ø´ £ÑÝ £ R3, Ø £ÔÚ 7 ¹Ô £ Ñ Ò ß ] ¹Ô £Ñ V5 Ø £Ø £] Ø £ØÖ £Ø £ R1, corrected from ¢ £ V3, Ø´ £Ú ¢ £ V4 ËÝ ¦ØÖ ËÝ Ø £ Ø £ to Ø £ Ø £ R2, Ø £ V2V4 8 × £ ] ×Ç R1 Ø £ ] Ú ÐØ Ö V3 ËÝØÖ ËÝ ØÖ ËÝ ØÖ Ð ËÝ ¦ØÖ ËÝ £ Verse 19 9 ¦Ñ Ò ß ] ¦ÑÇÒ ß M1 » ] M1M2V3 10 Ó ] Ç M1M2R3, corrected 11 Ó¸ ] Ó ( ¸ ) supl I ¹Ý ´¹Ì´Ý ] ¹Ý ´¹Ì´Ý V4, ¹Ý ¹ ´Ý£ V5 from Ç to Ó R1 11–12 Ô Ø ] Ô Ø Ò M1 12 Ô ] ÞÔ V3 ¦ ¹Ý ] corrected from ¹Ý to ¹Ý R1 362
¹Ô âÑ £ Ð £ £ÖÌ Ú
£´× ÝØ £ × Ñ Ø¹Ø Ò Ñ º Ò ¹ÌØ ¦ØÖÒ ²Ý £¦ ¸ ÃÖ× ß ¼ Ú ÈÐ ¹Ø´×ÑÝÓ´Ì ¸  Ó Î¸ é Ø¹Ø´ ¢ ØÝÓ Ñ ¡ ÐÑ º ÓÒÑ Ò ß Ð Ñ Ñ Ð £ ¹Ì Ø Ú
¦´ÝÑ ¾½ Ô ¡ ÚÔÖ Ý ¹ÚÚ £Ò Å£ Ø Ô ÑÝÑÓ ß¸ º ¡Ú ÝÓ Ò  ÖØÓ Ì Ø £Õ × Ò  Ì ÚÐÒ Ò Ú Ý £

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5 f. 23v I
p. 86 R1
f. 9r M2 10 f. 18v B5 f. 24v V4
¾¾
Ñ Ú ØÓ ÚÐÒ ¹Ý Ø ÝÑÝÒâÝ ØÑ º ¦ Ú Øæ Ø ¢Ø Ý × ÔÚ Ø ¡Ý Ý Ø× Ñ
15
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Verse 20 1 ¹Ô ] Ô M2, ¹Ô V4 3 Ò ] Ò £ V3 ¹ÌØ ] ¹ÌØ [ Ý ] M1, ¹Ì [ ] Ø V2, ¹ Ø V5 Ò ]Ò B5V4 ] V5 4 ²Ý £¦ ] ²Ý £ V3 ¸ ] ß¸ V5 Ú ] Ú ¸ R1 Verse 21 5 ¹Ø´×ÑÝÓ´Ì ] ¹Ø´×ÑÝÓ¹Ø M1, ¹ØÑÝÓ´Ì M2 6 Ó Î¸ ] Ó Î B5M2 é ÝÓ ] ÝÓÑ V4 8 Ñ ] Ñ V3 ¹Ì Ø Ú ¦´ÝÑ ] Ø ] ¢ Ø R1 ¹Ì Ø Ú ´Ý R1 ¹Ì Ø ] ¹Ú Ø I, ¹Ì Ø M2, ¹Ì Ø V3, ¹Ì Ø V4, ¹ Ø V5 Verse 22 9 Ô Ý ] Ý ( ¸ ) supl R2, Ý ¸ R3V4 Å£ ] V4V5 10 Ø ] Ø ¦Ñ ¡ ÚÔÖ ] Ô ¡ ÚÓÔÖ V4 R2R3, Ø £ V4 ÑÓ ß¸ ] Ô Ç V5 11 ÖØÓ ] ÒÒÓ V5 12 ÚÐÒ Ò ] ÚÐÒ R2R3V5 Ñ ] ÚÑ R1 14 ] â B5IM1M2R1V2V4V5 ÑÝÒ ] ÑÝÒ V5 Verse 23 13 15 ¦ ] V5 Ú Øæ ] Ú Ø¹Ø 16 × ] × [ Ú ] B5 Ø Ý Ø] Ý V5 ¡Ý ¡Ý ] om. M2, V3 Ò Ø M2, Ý Ø V5 363
Ô ¡ ÚÔÖ Ý ÔÑÚ ¢  ´Ý × Ó Ý  ÒÝ ßÚ (a) Å Ñ º £ £ Ö ÝØ ´ÝØÓ Ý ¡ ¦Ý ´¹Ú ÝÔ £ÃÝÓ¸ ¹Ý Ø ¾ ¡ ÚÔÖÖ ÑÝ £ ¦ØÖ ØâÐÒ ¹Ý ¹Ô ÑÝ £Ø Î Ñº Ó Ý £ ØâÐÒ Ø¹Ø ´Ú Ú£´¹Ô ÚÑÓ Ñ × ÝÒ Ã
Ö Ó Ý ÒÐÚ ÝÝ Ø º Ø » £Ò Ø Ò ¸ × »Ö Ã ÝÒÑ ¾

f. 60r V2 f. 20r V3
5
¾
f. 24r I 10
¾ ½ Verse 24 1 ÔÖ Ý ÔÑ ] ÔÖ Ý ( ) supl ÔÑ I, ÔÖ Ý ÝÑ M1M2, ÔÖ Ý Ñ Ô R3, ÔÖ Ý ÑÔ V2V4V5 Ú B5V3, Ú M1M2, Ú 2× Ó ] ×¹ Ó V5 Ý ÒÝ ßÚ ] Ý ÝÒ ßÚ B5V5, Ý ¢ ] Ô ¡Ú ¢ ¢ ´Ý V5 ßÒ V4 Å Ñ ] ÚÚÑ V4 3 ¡ ¦Ý £ ] ¡ ¦Ý R1 £ Ö] £ Ö M2 ÝØ ´ÝØÓ ] ÒÝÒ ßÚ M1M2, Ý ÒÝ ? ÝØ ØØÓ R1, ÝØ ØØÓ V5 3–4 Ý ´¹Ú Ý ] ÝØ´¹Ú Ý M1M2V4, Ý ´¹Ú Ý V5 4£ ÖÃÝÓ¸ ] £ ÖÃÝÓ M1V3V5 Verse 25 5 ÑÝ £ ¦ØÖ ] ÑÝ £ Ò Ö V4 ¹Ý ] ¹Ý R1 6 ¹Ô ] ¹ÔÎ M1M2 7–8 ØâÐÒ Ø¹Ø ´Ú ] ØâÐÒ É Ö Ø ´Ú IV2, ØâÐÒ Ø¹Ø ´Ú V4, ØâÐÒ Ø¹Ø ´Ú V5 8 ´¹Ô ] ´¹Ô M1 ÚÑÓ ] ÚÑ R2, ÚÑ with Ñ marked and the variant reading ÑÓ added in the margin R3 Ñ] R3V5 Verse 26 9 Ö ] Ö » IM1V4V5 9–10 Ó Ý ]× Ó Ý R3, Ó Ý R2V5 10 Ò ] x ( Ò ) supl B5 ÐÚ ] ÐÚ M1 ÝÝ ] Ý R1R2R3V5 Ø ] Ø ¸ R2 11 » ] » ( ) marg,s R2 £Ò ] after £Ò is about 8 erased aks Ø » £Ú R3 12 Ã ] ÃÐ M1M2, ÃÐ . ara s R2, £Ò Ø V3, V4 ÝÒÑ ] ÝÒ £ M2, ¢ ÝÒÑ V4
(a). This phrase appears to be corrupt. 364
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f. 6v M1
5 p. 87 R1
ÚÐ  Ý £ ÝÒ

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f. 16v R3, f. 60v V2, f. 25r V4
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10 f. 21r R2
Verse 27 1–2 ÒØ — ÚÕ ¹Ø £Õ Ý ØÝ Ø ÚØ ] marked and annotation ÒØ Õ? ? added in the margin V2 1 ÒØ ] Ò  V4 ] [ ] M1 2 âÕ ÚØ ] âÕ Ú R1 ÈÐ ÔÐÚÓ ¦ÑØÑ ] ÈÐÚÓ ¦ÑØ Ò V4 3 ÔÐ ] ÈÐ R1, corrected from ÔÐ £ to ÔÐ V3 Ú] Ú R3 4 ÐÒÑ Ú ÝÒÓ Ú £ ] ÐÒÑ Ú âÐÒ £ ÝÒ £ I, ãÐÒÑ Ú ÝÒÓ Ú £ R2, âÐÒÑ Ú ÝÒÓ Ú £ R3, ÐÒÑ [ Ñ ] Ú âÐÒ £ ÝÒ £ V2, »ÐÒÑ Ú ÐÒ £ ÝÒÑ V4, ÚÐÒÑ Ú ÝÒÓ Ú £ V5 Verse 28 5 ÓÝ Ó Ý ÓÝ ÓÝ ÚÖØÖ to ØÖ¦ØÖ ] ØÖØÖ B5R2R3, ØÑØÖ M1M2R1V3, corrected from ÓÝ ÚÖØÖ V4 6 ÝÓÖÚ ] ÝÓ [ x ] ÖÚ B5 £Õ ] £ R1 7 » ] » B5V4 £Ò ] £ [ ] Ò V3 ØÓ ] ØÓ R1V4 Ò ] ÒØ M1M2V3 8 Ð £Ò ] Ú £Ò M2 Ú £âÐÒ ] Ð £âÐÒ M2, âÐÒ [ ÝÓÖÚ ] ¹È Î V Verse 29 9 ÚÐÝ £ ] ÚÐÝ R Ë Ý » ] ËÔ » R , Ë Ý » V4, ËÔ ?» V5 3 2 1 10 Å ] £ V5 Ñ Ð] Ñ Ð I ÔÌ ´¹Ý ´× ßÚ ] ÔÌ ¹Ý ´× ßÚ IV2, ¹Ý ´× £Ú M1, corrected from ´¹Ý ´× £Ú £ to ´¹Ý ´× £Ú M2, ÝÌ ¹Ý ´× ßÚ R1, [ ´ ] ¹Ý ´× ßÚ R2, ´¹Ý ´× £Ú V4 11 ØÓ ] Ø R1 ÚÐÒ ] ÐÐÚ ? V5 Ã £Î £] Ã £[x]Î £ V2 Ø £] Ø 12 Ø´Ô ÝÓ¹Ø Ð Ð Ð £ I ¡ Ú ] ØØ ¡ Ú V4 ] ÝÓæ IV2V4 ÔÖÑ ] ÔÖ B5 Ø ËÝ ¦ØÖÑ ] Ø ËÝ ØÖÑ V4 365
Ú ¦ØÖ¹Ì £ Ã Ö £ Ò Ô Ø ÝÒ  ¹Ý âÐÒ ÒÖ £ º × £ Ø¹Ø ÐØ Ø Ô ß¸ ¡Ú ÔÐÓ Ú ØâÐÒ Ý Ñ ¿¼ Ë Ý ÔÚ ¢ ×ÑÑ Ð Ý ÅÝÓ Ö¹Ú Ø £ ØØÓ Ý £º Ø Ó Ø¹Ø ´ Ø Ú ¸ ¹Ý ÝÒ ÀÝ ÚÐÒ ¹Ú Ñ ¿½ Ý ÅÝÓ ÚÐÝ ¹Ì  Ø £ Ú Ö £Ý Å Ô ¡ ÚÔÖ ²Ý £ × ßÚ Ò Ø Ú ÚÐÒ ÒÓ´Ô Ø £ » Ñº ¹Ú Ñ £ Ø £ Ò £Ò Ý Ø ¦ØÖ ÔÐ Ó ÑÝ Ô Ø ´ Ó ÚÐÒ  ß¸ ÔÐ Ú Ø £Ò ÝÒ ×¹ ¢ ØÑ ¿¾
f. 19r B5
5
f. 22v V5
f. 20v V3 10
Verse 30 1 Ú ¦ØÖ ] corrected from Ú ØÖ £ to Ú ØÖ I ¹Ì £ ] corrected from ¹Ì ß to ¹Ì £ V4 Ã Ö £ ] Ã ( ) marg,s £ Ö R2 Ò Ô Ø ] ( Ò ) Ô Ø B , Ò Ô V 2 âÐÒ ] âÐÒ R1 5 4 3 × £] × £ Ô R1 Ø¹Ø ] ÔØ¹Ø B5M1M2, ÝØ¹Ø R2R3V3, Ø V5 Ô ß¸ ] Ô ß R1V3V5, ¡Ú ¡Ú Ô 4 ÔÐÓ ] ÔÐ V4 ØâÐÒ ] corrected from ØâÐÒ to ØâÐÒ V4 Ý ¡ ÚÇ R3 Ñ ] ¹Ú M2 Verse 31 5 Ë Ý ] ËÔ V5 Ñ Ð ] Ñ Ð Ý V5 6 Ý ÅÝÓ Ö ] Ý ÅÝÓ Ö I, Ý ÅÝÓ £ Ö R2R3V5 ¹Ú Ø £ ] ( ¹Ú ) marg,s R2 ØØÓ Ý £ ] ØÝÓÝ £ I, ÒØÓ Ý £ M2, ØØÓ £ V5 7 Ø Ó  Ø¹Ø ´ Ø ] Ø Ó Ø¹Ø Ø B5, Ø Ó Ø¸ ¹Ú Ø IV4V5, Ø Ó Ø¸ ¹Ú ( ) Ø I, Ø ÝÓ Ø ¹Ú Ø V3 Ú ¸ ] Ú M1M2R1R2R3V3 8 Ò ÀÝ ] Ò ( ÀÝ B5, Ò ÀÝ [ ] V4 ÚÐÒ ] ÐÚÒ V4 ¹Ú Ñ ] ¹Ú M1M2, ¹Ú Ñ Verse 32 both ﬁrst and second half V4, xx Ú V5 of the verse numbered 32 R1 9 Ý ÅÝÓ ] Ý ÅÝÓ ( ) marg I, Ý ÅÝÓ [ ] M1, marked and ÚÐÝ ] ÚÐÝ £ V5 Ý ] Ý V5 the annotation »ÓÔÔ ¸ added in the margin by s R2 10 ²Ý £ × ßÚ Ò ] ²Ý ? ßÚ Ò £ V5 Ø Ú ] ( ) supl Ø Ú R2 ÚÐÒ ] ÐÒ V3 ÒÓ´Ô Ø £] £ Ø £ to ÒÓ´Ô Ø £ V3, ÒÓ´Ô V5 11–12 ¦ØÖ — ×¹ ¢ ØÑ ] om. but added in corrected from ÒÓ´Ô margin ØÖ ÔÐ Ó ÑÝ £Ò £Ò Ý Ó ÚÐÒ ß¸ ÔÐ Ú Ø £Ò ÝÒ ×¹ ¢ Ø by s V3 11 ¦ØÖ ] ØÖÓ R1 Ô Ø 12 ÚÐÒ ] ÚÐ V4 ß¸ ] ß R1 366
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p. 88 R1
5
f. 25v V4
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10 f. 25r I
Verse 33 numbered 32 V2 1 í ] corrected from í to í I £¦ ] £¦ Ý B5, £¦ [ x ] I, £¦ [ ] V4, £¦ x V5 2 ¦Ñ Ò ß ] ¦Ñ ( Ò ß ) marg I, ¦Ñ Ò £ M1, corrected from ¦Ñ Ò ß to ¦Ñ Ò ß M2, x Ò ß V5 £Ò ] Ò V4 3 ] corrected from to I, V5 £¦ ] £ R1, ¦ V4 3–4 ¹Ô × » ] corrected from ¹Ô × » to ¹Ô × ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡» ? R2, ¹Ý × 4 Ø ] Ø with Ø added in the margin to make the reading clear V2 ¡ » V5 Ó ] Ó IV2V4, Verse 34 numbered 33 V2 5 ¹Ô ] ¹Ô M1M2R1, ¹Ô [ ] V2 7 ØØÓ ] xx V5 £? V5 Å ] [ x ]( ) marg,s R2, V2V4 Ô ¡ Ú ] Ô ¡Ú R1 Verse 35 numbered 34 V2 9 ÔÚ¦Ø¸ ] ÔÚØ¸ B5V5 × ØÓ ] × Ø £ R1 ÚÐÝ £ ] glossed as ØÚÐÝ £ in the margin by s V2 × £¦ ] × £ V5 ¦ØÖ ] ØÖ V3 ¡Ý ¡Ý 10 ¹Ñ ] Ø ¹Ñ V5 ×Ñ ÑÓ ] ×Ñ ÑÇ M2V5 Ö £ ] ÖÓ £ B5 11 ×¹ ¢ Ø ] ×¹Ú V3 Ö Ò Ø ] Ö Ò Ò V5 ØÄÝ¦Ø £ ] ØÄÝ ØØÓ M1M2 12 Åß ] ß M2 ÚØ Ø ] Ú Ø Ø R3 Ò] R1, V5 Ú ØÔ ßÒ ] Ú Ø £? Ô ßÒ B5 , Ú Ø Ô £Ò IV3 ÚäÓ ] Ú V5 ¡Ú ¡Ú ¡Ú 367
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f. 17r R3
5 f. 61v V2
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10 f. 19v B5
p. 89 R1
Verse 36 numbered 35 V2 1 Ó Ý ] £ Ý R1 Ú ÓÐ ℄Ú ] Ú ÓÐ Æ R1, Ú Ç ÐÆ V5 » ¦ ] Ú R2R3 ½¿ ] om. B5IM1M2R1V2V3V4, placed at the end of the p¯ ada V5 Ø ] corrected from Ø to Ø V4, Ø V5 2 ¦Ø ] Ø ´ I ¿¾ ] om. IR1R2, Ø ¿¾ M2 Ò Ø ] Ø Ø V5 £Ò ] ÓÒ M2 × ] × B5 3 ] V5 ÒÑ ¢ ] ÒÑ ¢ V3 £] £? B5 Ö] £ Ö V3, ×Ö V5 4 ¦´ÝÓ ] ´Ý R1, ´ÝÓ V5 Ú Ø ] Ú Ø B5 , Ø to Ú Ø V4 ¦ Ì¸ ] Ø Ì¸ M2R2, Ø Ì¸ V5 Verse 37 corrected from numbered 36 V2 5 £¦ ] £ V3 Ë Ý ] Ë Ý IR2, ËÔ R1V5, Ë Ý R3 7 × Ò £ ¹Ñ¦ÚÐÒ ] × Ø £ ¹Ñ¦ÚÐÒ IV2V4, × Ò Ì ÚÐÒ M1M2, × Ò £ ¹Ñ¦ÚÐÒ V3 £Ý ] £ B5 8 ÝÌ ] ÝÌ M2, ÝÌ V4 Ú Ó¸ ] Ú V3 Verse 38 numbered 37 V2, not numbered V5 9 Ø¦ÑÇ ] Ø¦ÑÓ V4 Ô æÑØ¸ ] Ô æØ¸ M1 ÃÖ Ó ] ÃÖ Ç M2 10 ²Ý ¹Ø ] ²Ý¹Ø M1, ²Ý ¹Ø M2, ²Ý ¹Ø R1, Ú¹Ø V5 Ý ] M2 ÖÇ ] Ö ÖÇ V4 Ø Ø] Ø ÝØ R1 11 £ ÖÃ ] ß ÖÃ V4 × ] ×Ñ 11–12 ÚÐÒ — ¸ ] om. ´ V2, ×Ñ ´Ì V4 12 ØÝ ] Ø¥Ý ( ) marg,s R2, Ø¥Ý R3 V5 11 ÚÐÒ ÝÓÝ ] ÚÐÒ ÝÓÝ B5, ÚÐÒ ÝÓÝ V4 ¸] [ ] Ñ V4 368
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numbered 38 V2V5 1–3 £¦ – ] om. V4 £¦ – ÑÝ ] om. V5 ¾ ¾ ½ ½ Ö] Ö M1, ×Ö R1, [ ] Ö V3 3 ¹Ô £ ] ¹Ô Ó IV2 1 £¦ ] £ M2, £ V3 ÑÝ ] ÑÝ £ M1M2 £] IV2 ÑÓ £ ] ÑÓ IM1M2V2V4 4 ØÌ ØÌ ] ¹ØÌ ØÌ IV2, ØÌ ( ØÌ ) marg R3, ¹ØÌ V4 ñÝÑÓ Ú ¦´Ý¸ ñÝÑ £Ò ´Ý IV2, ñÑÝ £Ò ¦´ÝÑ V4 after the verse are two additional verses ÓÔÖ ¦Ý ¸ Ö ¸ ¹Ý ¸ ¹Ô ¦´Ý  (f. 26r V4) Ø £ Ì× » £ º ÑÝ Ô Ö ÐÀÝ £ ã ØÖ £Ò Ú Ý Ú (with ¸ and ¹Ý in p¯ a da a I, Ø £ for ¡ ¢ Ø £ in p¯ ada b V4, ØÖ [ xx ] £Ò I) and Øã × Ã £Ò º Ø í £Ò ×Ñ ¦ÚØ ¡ »âÝ×Ý ØÝ Ú ¢ âÝ ada c V4) IV2V4 (the ﬁrst numbered 40 I, 39 ¹Ý ´×ÅÑ ÐÒÓ¦Ñ ÐÒÑ» ¦´Ý )with × [ × ] Ñ ¦ÚØ in p¯ V2V4, and the second numbered 41 IV4, 40 V2) Verse 40 not numbered IR2R3V2 ? 5 é Ñ] é B5 5–7 Ò Ì — ¡ Ø £ ] om. B5 5 £Ò ] £Ò¸ V3 6–7 Ó £ — ¡ Ø £] om. M1M2V3V5 6 Ø¦» £ ] Ø» £ V4 ÖÅÝ £ ] ÖÅÝ £ R3 8 ×ÅÔ ¡ Ó ] × ØÓ IV2, × ØÓ V4 ¦ ] om. M2, corrected from ¦ to ¦ V4 Ö¸ ] Ö¸ V4 Colophon on ﬀ. 43r–43v V1 Ø × Ø× Ö Ö¸ B5, Ø × Ð × ØÚ ×Ò Ú Ö Ø £ Ö Ñ´ Ö Ö × Ø× Ö Ö¸ I, Ø é × Ø× Ö Ö¸ M1, Ø é ×´ Ø× Ö Ö¸ £ £ £ M2, no colophon R1, Ø é Ò Ö ´Ñ ÒÖ ÚÖ Ø £ × Ø× Ö Ø Ý Ý £ Ö¸ Ô Ñ¸ £ added in margin by s R2, no colophon R3, Ø ÔÚ V2, Ø × Ø× Ö Ö¸ V3, £ Ø é Ñ´× Ð × ØÚ ×Ò Ú Ö Ø × Ø× Ö ÒÖ ÚÖ Ø £ Ö¸ Ô Ñ¸ V4, no Ö Ø Ñ´ Ö £ colophon V5 Verse 39 369
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f. 26v I 10 f. 20 B5
¾ ½ Verse 4 1 ÔÚ¦Ø £ ] Ú ÔØ £ V5 ÒÇ Ú £ ¡ Ð ] ÒÓ Ú £ ¡ Ð M2 ¼¼ ] om. £ M2, êÓ ? ¿ ? ÔÚ Ø ÝÓ Ò ] ÝÓ Ò¸ M2 ¸ ] [ £ ] ¸ V4 V5 2 Ó Î ¹ Ö ] Ó Î ¹ Ö R2V5, Ó Î ¹ Ö V4 3 Ú ¦ ÝÓ ÒÑÝ ] ÚÝÓ Ò  ÑÝ V4 ÑÝ ] ÑÝ £ B5, ÑÝ¸ I ÑÝé £ ] ÑÝ £Ñ´ÝØÖ Ð £ M2 ´Ý¦ØÖ Ð é £] é £ R3 4 ÝÓ Ò Ò ] [ x ] ÝÓ Ò Ò I ÝÓ Ò M2 Ý ] Ý [x] I ´Ý¦ØÖ Ð ´Ý ( Ø ) marg Ö Ð Verse 5 6 Ø Ò ¸] Ø Ò ½ B5 , Ø Ò ¸ R2, Ø Ò ¸ R3 ØÒ¸ º ÃÖ× Ø ¹Ø ] Ø Ò ¸ ÃÖ× ¸ ¼ Ö× ¹Ø
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f. 63 V2
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Verse 7 1 × ØÓ ] × £ ØÓ V4 Ø ] Ø V5 »ÑÇ²Ý ] »ÑÇ²Ý V4 2 Ø Æ ] [ Ð ] Ø Æ B5 , Æ Ú V Ú ÒØ ] Ú [ ÝÓÝ ] ÒØ R , Ú ÝÓÝ Ò ( Ø Ó´ÌÚ Ç Úê £ ÕØÇ Ô ÑØÓ ÚØ 5 2 ? Ø Ù Ð ) marg R3 ¢ £Ô¹Ø Ó´ÌÚ Ç º ] £ ( ) ´ÌÚ Ç I, Ó¹ÝÚ Ç R2, Ø Ó Ú Ú ÝÓ¥Ý 3 Úê £ ÕØÇ ] [ Úê £Ñ £ ( ) ÕØÇ I, Úê £ÕØÇ M2 , Ó£ ? [ ´ ] ÌÚ Ç V4, ¹ÝÚ Ó V5 ¡ Ð Ñ ¢ Ø ] Úê Úê £ ( ) ÕØÇ R2, Úê £ ÕØÓ V5  ¢ ] ¢ ¸ B5 , ¢ M2 4 £Ô¹Ø Ø ] ] Ô¹Ø V4 Ø ( ) marg,s [ x ] R2 Ø ] Ó ÚÚ Ý ßÝ Ø V5 Ú ÝÓÝ Ø ] Ú ÝÓ¥Ý Ø R2 Verse 8 Ó ÚÚ ÝÓÝ 6 ÖÓ Ú £ ] ÖÓ ÖÓ Ú £ V4 ÖÓ Ú £ 5 ¢  Ø] ¢ [ ] Ø I ] ( ) marg,s R2 » V5 Ò Ö ] ÖÓ ( Ò ) marg,s ½¾º R2 Ö º ½¾º ? R3 ] £ £ V4 ¢ Ø] Ú ¢ Ø V5 7 Ð Ò ] Ð [ x ] Ò B5 ÑÇ Ú Ý ] ×Ç Ú Ý V5 8 Ò ¸] Ò ( ¸ ) subl I, Ò M2V4V5 ¹Ý Verse 9 not numbered V2 9 £ ] [ x ] £ I 11 »ÝÓÒØÒ ¸ ] ¹Ý R2 ] »ÝÓÒ ØÒ M2V5, »ÝÓÒØ Ú £Õ ] Ú [ x ] £Õ I 12 Ú £ ] Ú £ V4, Ú £ x Ø V5 ] om. B5M2V5 Ò V4 Ø ] [ ] Ø M2 Ý ] R2R3 Ø Ø V5 372
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f. 63v V2
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Verse 10 marg. note (by scribe) accompanies Ø ¸ ÒÚ Ø Ù Ø Ø £Õ Ý ØÝ Ð Ò V2 ¢ ØÒ M2 Ó Ú×Ñ Ø ] Ó Ú ( ×Ñ ) marg,s Ø R2, Ó [ ] Ú×Ñ 3 ¢ £Ô Ô Ø ´ÃÒß ¼ ] ¢ £Ô Ì Ø ´ÃÒß B5, ¢ £Ô verse » ÓÒÐ Ò Ø¸ æ ÒÝÓ¸ ×¹ 1 Ø â » Ó Ú ] Ø â » Ó Ú B5, Ø â » Ú Ø V4 2 Ø ] Ø B5 Ø M2 Ø £ V5
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10 f. 18 R3, f. 17v V4
R2R3 Ô Ø ] Ô [ Ñ ] Ø V2 ´ÃÒß ¼ Ò Ø¸ ] ´ ÃßÒ Ø¹Ý V5 Ò Ø¸ ] Ò Ø ( ¸ ) marg I 4 Ý ] Ý [ Ý ] V2 Ø´Ô Ö ] ( Ø ) marg,s ´Ô Ö R2 ´Ô Ö R3 ×¹ ¢ Ø £Õ £Õ ¸ ] ×[x]¹ ¢ Ø ¸ I, ×¹ ¢ Ø £Õ Verse 11 5 ¹Ô Ó × ¢ ´¹ÌÖ ÚÐÅ Ò ] ¹Ô Ó Ú×¹ ¢ Ø Ö ÚÐ Ò B5, ¹Ô Ó M2V4V5 × ¢ [ x ] ´¹ÚÖ ÚÐ Ò I, ¹Ô Ó Ú×¹ ¢ Ø ÚÐ Ò M2, ¹Ô Ó Ú×¹ ¢ Ø ÚÐ Ò R2, ¹Ô Ó Ú×¹ ¢ Ø ÚÐÚÒ R3, ¹ ( Ô ) Ó ( ) supl × ¢ ´¹ Ö ÚÐ Ò V2, ¹Ô Ó × ¢ ¹ÌÖ ÚÐÚÒ V4 ÚÐÅ Ò ] ÚÐ Ò V5 6 ¹Ø Ú ] ¹Ø Ò Ø ] Ò Ø Ø B5, Ò ( ) Ø M2 ×¹ ¢ ØÓ ¹Ñ Ø ] ×¹ ¢ Ø¸ ¹Ý Ø Ø [ ] Ú B5, ¹Ø Ø Ú M2R2R3 ( ) supl R2 ×¹ ¢ Ø¸ ¹Ý Ø R3 7 × ¹ÌØ ] ×¸ ¹ Ø¸ B5, × ¹ Ø M2V5, ×¸ ¹Ì Ø¸ R2R3 ¹ÌØ Ý ÒØ ] Ò [ ] Ø I 8 Ô £Ò ] Ô £ ¹ÑÒ B5M2 Ô £ ØÓ ] ¹Ì Ø  Ý ØÓ V4 ¢ Ì ¹È Î ¢ Ì ¹È Î ¢ Ì ¹È Î ¹ÑÒ I Ñ £ ¹ÑÒ V2 Ô £ ¹ÑÒ V4 Ñ Verse 12 9Ñ V4 ¸ ¹È Î ¢ Ì ¹È Î ¸ ¹È ÎÓ ¹ÑÒ V5 ] ¾ ½ ×ÑÝ¸ ] ×ÑÝ B5R2R3 ×ÑÝ M2 ÑØ¸ ] ÑØ IM2 Ñ V5 10 ¦ÑÝ Ð ] ¦Ñ ÝÐ M2 ÚÚÖ £ ] ÚÚ£ Ö V4 ØÖ ] ØÖ R2  » ] ( ) supl » R2 11 ¡ ÑÓ ] ¡ ÑÓ M2, ¡ ÑÓ V2 ËÔ £ ] ËÔ M2, ´Ý £ V4 Ø ] ×Ø V5 ØÒ Ú ×ØÓ ] ØÒÇÚ I, ØÒ Ú ( ) supl ×ØÓ R2, ØÒ ×ØÓ R3, ØÒ Ú ×ØÇ V5 12 £ ] Ó V5 Ú ÖÒ¹Ø ] Ú ÖØ¹Ø B5 ¢ © ¸ ] ¢ © ( ¸ ) supl R2 é Ñ Ò Ì ´Ñ £Ò¼ ×Ô ÔÚ Ö¸ V5 after verse 12 ¡ Ó Ý × ¡Ý 373
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f. 20v B5, f. 23v R2 f. 10 M2 f. 23v V5 5
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f. 27v I

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f. 27 V2
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1 Ì Ú ×Ò êÓ ¸ ] »ÓÔÔ ( ¸ ) supl R2, »ÓÔÔ R3, Ì Ú ×Ò êÓ ¸ V2, » Ú ×Ò êÓ ¸ V5 Verse 13 misnumbered 12 I 2 ¦ØÓ ] ØÇ R3 ÝÐ Ò ] om. V4 Ð Ò ÔÑ ] Ð ÒÔ Ñ V5 Ò âÝ ] âÝ £ I, âÝ ( )( Ø ) marg V2 3 ´× Ö ] × Ö Ô Ø ] ÒÔ Ø B5M2 B5IM2 Ý £ Ø Ý ( £ ) marg,s Ø I Ø ] [ x ] ÚØ R2 ÃÑÝÓ ] ¹ÚÑÝÓ M2 Ã [ ] ÑÝÓ V4 4 » Ý Ý ] »ÝÓÝ V5 Ú £ ¢ ÝÝ ] Ú £ ¢ Ý B5, Ú £ ¢ ÝÝ IV2V4V5, Ú ¢ ÝÝ R3 5 ÓÖÔÚ ¢ ] ÓÞÔÚ M V , ÓÖ [ ] ÔÚ V ÝÝÓ¸ ] ÝÝÓ ( ¸ ) R , ÝÝÓ R , ÝÝ V Verse 14 ¢ ¢ 2 4 2 supl 2 3 4 misnumbered 13 IV2 6 Ýâ ¦ØÖØ¸ ] Ýâ ¦ØÖØ¸ R3, Ýâ ØÖ IV2V4 Ò Ø Ó Î¸ ] Ò Ø ´ Ó Î¸ V4 7 ] [Ó] I ¿ ¿ ] om. R2R3V5 × ] ¹Ý M2V5 ¸ ] M2 9 ´Ú Ö¸ ] ´Ú Ö ( ¸ ) supl R2 ] om. R2R3V4V5 Ñ ] Ñ[ ] ¢ Ø¸ ] ¢ Ø V4 ×Ø £ ] Ñ ×Ø £ R3 Ø Ý ] Ø » Ý V5 Verse 15 misnumbered 14 B5IV2 V5 10 Ý ] Ý V5 Ý £ I Ø Ø ] Ø ? Ø B5 Ø ¢ Ø IV4 Ø Ø V4 Ø x Ø V5 £] Ý Ø Ø ß ] Ö ¥ÔÚ Ø Ø £ B5, Ö Ý ØÚ x Ø ß V5 Ø 12 ¢ ´Ý ] ¢ ÔØ V5 11 Ö ÝÔÚ Ø ËÝ¸ ] Ø ËÝ V5 ÔÚ Ø ØÓ ] ÔÚ ïÝ¹Ø ] ïÝ [ x ] ¹Ø I, ïÝ ¹Ø R2 ¢ ØÓ I, ÔÚ ØÓ M2, ÔÚ ØÇ R2R3 ¢ Ø ] ¢ ØÓ I, Ø R3, ¢ Ø V5 13 Ð Ò ¦ØÖ ] Ð Ò ØÖ B5M2, Ð Ò ØÖ V4 ÑÇ Ú ] ÑÇ Ú B5 ÝÇ R3 ¹È after verse 15 Ø ¹ÝÓÔÔ ¸ V5 Î ] ¹ÈÎ B5 374
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f. 28 V4
Verse 16 not numbered B5IR3V2 om. (given after verse 12) V5 1–3 Ò Ì — £ ] om. B5 1 £Ò ] Ò R3 2 Ó £ ] Ó V4 ÖÅÝ £ ] ÖÅÝ £ ( ) supl R2 Ö Ý £ ¡Ø V4 3 ¦Ì Ö ] Ì [ x ]( ) marg Ö R2 Ì ØÖ R3 4 Ý Ý ¸] Ý ¸ B5 Ý í Colophon Ø é × Ø× Ö × Ö¸ B5 Ø ´ÅÝ Ý ¸ V4 £ ¡Ý ¸ M2 Ý é Ñ´× Ð × ØÚ ×Ò Ú Ö Ø × Ø× Ö× Ö¸ I Ø× Ö¸ Ö Ø Ö Ñ´ Ö Ö £ ¡Ý ¡Ý M2 ( Ø é Ò Ö ´Ñ ÒÖ ÚÖ Ø £ × Ø× Ö Ø Ý Ý £× Ö¸ Õ ¸ ) marg,s R2 om. £ ¡Ý Ø× ÔÚ V2 Ø é Ñ´× Ð × Ø¼ × Ö× Ö¸ V4 om. (given after verse R3 ¡Ý £ ¡Ý 12) V5 375
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