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B4 Model Answers 1

All organisms of one species in a habitat/area/place/at one time;

A collection of different populations of species living in the same ecosystem

The community and the abiotic/physical environment;

Ecological Niche
The niche of an organism refers to its biotic role (what it feeds on and what may feed on it) and its abiotic role (where it lives in the habitat in terms of the abiotic conditions it requires).

Adaptions to its niche

The organism has an adaption that others dont, occupying a different niche Reducing competition

Line (through habitat) along which organisms are sampled/ measurements are taken; Should be used when there is a change in the habitat/environment;

How to place quadrats

Method of positioning quadrats, E.g. Find direction and distance from specified point/ find coordinates on a grid / split area into squares; Method of generating random numbers; E.g. From calculator/telephone directory/numbers drawn from a hat;

How to use point quadrats to find the distribution of organisms

Transect placed down Point quadrat frame placed at regular intervals Record species touching points Calculate percentage cover Use statistical test to show significance

How to decide how many quadrats to use

Calculate running mean/description of running mean; When enough quadrats, this shows little change/levels out (if plotted as a graph); Enough to carry out a statistical test; A large number to make sure results are reliable; Need to make sure work can be carried out in the time available;

Mark release recapture

1 Sample of ground beetles captured and counted (a); 2 Released and second sample captured; 3 Count total number of beetles (B) and number marked (b); 4 Total population (A) estimated from the relationship a /A =b/B 5 Detail of method e.g. pitfall trap/marking with tippex; 6 Refinement to ensure greater accuracy e.g. large number/marking in position such that does not affect survival;

Assumptions when using mark, release, recapture

mixes randomly / completely in population; marking is not toxic / does not wear off; no migration / emigration / immigration; no change in population size between samples / life span longer than time between release and recapture; no births or deaths; not trap-happy / trap shy

Why using traps to capture organisms improves reliability of data

Rules out differences in changes in the population due to births, deaths or migration

Explain why a survival curve looks like it does (use data)

Developed countries: Better medical healthcare Less disease Low death rate among the young Less developed countries: More disease Poor sanitation Poor medical healthcare High death rate among the young

Uses of statistical tests

Determines the probability of the results being due to chance Enables null hypothesis to be accepted or rejected Determines whether correlation is biologically significant

How ATP is produced using light in LDP
1 Light (energy) excites/raises energy level of electrons in chlorophyll; 2 Electrons pass down electron transfer chain; 3 (Electrons) reduce carriers/passage involves redox reactions; 4 Electron transfer chain / role of chain associated with chloroplast membranes / in thylakoids / grana; 5 Energy released / carriers at decreasing energy levels; 6 ATP generated from ADP and phosphate/Pi / phosphorylation of ATP;

Why does the inhibition of electron transfer decrease the uptake of carbon dioxide?
No ATP produced during electron transfer chain No reduced NADP produced

How carbon dioxide is converted to TP in the LIP

Carbon dioxide combines with RuBP To produce two GP Reduced to TP Requires ATP And requires reduced NADP

How chloroplast is adapted

Contains chlorophyll / pigments for light absorption; Different pigments to absorb different wavelengths; Stacking / arrangement of grana/thylakoids maximises light catchment; Stroma contains enzymes for photosynthesis; Outer membrane keeps enzymes in chloroplast; Starch grains / lipid droplets store products of photosynthesis; Ribosomes / DNA for enzyme/protein synthesis; Shape of chloroplast gives large surface area for CO2, absorption.

How Leaves adapted to photosynthesise

Large surface area to collect solar energy; transparent nature of cuticle to allow light penetration; position of chlorophyll to trap light; stomata to allow exchange of gases; thin / max. surface area to volume ratio for diffusion of gases; spongy mesophyll / air spaces for carbon dioxide store; xylem for input of water; phloem for removal of end products;

Describe how microorganisms make carbon available to plants

Extracellular digestion Starch to monosaccharides/glucose Respire the product of digestion (glucose) Produce carbon dioxide from respiration

Lower carbon:nitrogen ratio

More protein is being formed As nitrogen is used to make amino acids

Why increase in temperature causes increase in rate of photosynthesis

Enzymes are involved; extra kinetic energy / molecules move faster; molecules collide more often / more enzyme - substrate complexes formed;

Describe the role of the electron transport chain

1 2 3 4 5 6 electron transport chain accepts excited electrons; from chlorophyll / photosystem; electrons lose energy along chain; ATP produced; from ADP and Pi; reduced NADP formed;

7 8

when electrons (from transport chain) and H+ combine with NADP; H+ from photolysis

Explain why the increase in dry mass is less than the amount of 6 Carbon sugars
1 2 3 4 some hexose/biomass/eq. used in respiration; CO2 produced (is lost to air); some parts of the plant are eaten; some parts lost to decomposers / in leaf fall;

Suggest why the deep ocean has a lower productivity than the shallow sea.
Fewer nutrients available; Limited light penetration; No organic matter from terrestrial sources; Other limiting factor explained

Reasons for the difference in the amount of light energy reaching the plants, and the energy in biomass of these plants
light reflected; light misses chlorophyll/chloroplast/transmission through leaf; wrong wavelength; respiration (by primary producer); inefficiency of photosynthesis;

Why is the concentration of carbon dioxide different at different heights above ground in a forest?
High concentration of carbon dioxide linked darkness No photosynthesis in the dark Plants still respire in the dark In light, the rate of photosynthesis is greater than that of respiration Decrease in carbon dioxide concentration with light At ground level, fewer leaves/ less photosynthesising tissue/ less light

Why do plants have to produce ATP in respiration as well as photosynthesis?

In the dark, there is ATP production by photosynthesis Some tissues unable to photosynthesise ATP cannot be moved from cell to cell Plant uses more ATP than produced by photosynthesis ATP for active transport ATP for synthesis

Why is ATP useful in many biological processes??
Releases energy in small manageable amounts Broken down in one step Makes energy available rapidly Adds phosphate Makes phosphorylated substances more reactive Can be reformed

How is ATP adapted to make it a suitable source of energy in biological processes?

Energy released in small Soluble Involves a single reaction

Why do humans produce so much ATP every day?

ATP is unstable ATP cannot be stored ATP is used for muscle contraction/active transport etc ATP only releases a small amount of energy at a time

Human Anaerobic Respiration

Pyruvate forms lactate; use of reduced NAD / NADH; regenerates NAD; NAD can be re-used to oxidise more respiratory substrate / correct e.g. / allows glycolysis to continue; can still release energy / form ATP when oxygen in short supply / when no oxygen

Link Reaction
Pyruvate reacts with coenzyme A; To produce acetyl coenzyme A / acetyl coA; And carbon dioxide produced; NAD is reduced / reduced NAD is formed; Acetylcoenzyme A combines with a 4C molecule (in the Krebs cycle);

Why CO2 production greater in anaerobic conditions

(Anaerobic respiration/respiration with nitrogen) less efficient/produces less ATP; More anaerobic respiration/ more glucose/substrate must be respired to produce same amount of ATP (so more carbon dioxide produced);

How ATP produced in MITOCHONDRIA

oxidation of / removal of electrons/ removal of hydrogen from pyruvate / 6 or 5 carbon compound; production of reduced NAD / FAD; in matrix of mitochondria; electrons passed to electron transport chain / used in oxidative phosphorylation / description of electron transfer; on cristae / inner membrane; linked to ATP production; ATPase / stalked particles involved; electrons lose energy as passed along chain / electron carriers arranged in order of decreasing energy levels; substrate level production of ATP

Role of inner membrane of mitochondria for producing ATP

Electrons transferred down the electron transport chain Provides energy to take protons into space between membranes Protons pass back through membrane into the matrix Energy used to combine ADP with phosphate to form ATP

How increasing temperature affects rate of respiration

Respiration controlled by enzymes Rate increases with temperature More kinetic energy Fewer collisions between the substrate and the active site Fewer E-S complex formed

Measuring rate of respiration using a respirometer, why does the coloured liquid move?
Oxygen taken up by organism Carbon dioxide absorbed by substance (named) Decrease in pressure

What measurements should be taken to calculate the rate of respiration

Distance the coloured liquid moves Time taken Mass of woodlouse Diameter of the capillary tube

Gross productivity = Net productivity + Respiration

Why efficiency of energy transfer changes between trophic levels
1 Some light energy fails to strike/is reflected/not of appropriate wavelength; 2 Efficiency of photosynthesis in plants is low/approximately 2% efficient; 3 Respiratory loss / excretion / faeces / not eaten; 4 Loss as heat; 5 Efficiency of transfer to consumers greater than transfer to producers/approximately 10%; 6 Efficiency lower in older animals/herbivores/ primary consumers/warm blooded animals/homoiotherms; 7 Carnivores use more of their food than herbivores;

Why is the energy efficiency of single celled producers to primary consumers sometimes higher than usual?
Single celled organisms are more digestible as they contain less cellulose All of producer eater/ parts of a plant are not eaten Less energy is lost from the producer by heat or respiration compared to a plant

Why not all light isnt used for photosynthesis

Doesnt hit leaves light is wrong colour / frequency / wavelength / does not strike chlorophyll molecule / chloroplasts / there is another

limiting factor

How energy is lost between consumers

Heat / respiration: muscle contraction; faeces / indigestible material / food not eaten; excretion

Why food chains rarely exceed levels

some energy lost at each stage in the food chain / transfer of energy not 100% efficient / lost in respiration; only a limited amount of energy is available / at each stage less is available for next stage / little energy left at top of food chain

How intensive rearing of livestock increases net productivity

1 Slaughtered when still growing/before maturity/while young so more energy transferred to biomass/tissue/production; 2 Fed on concentrate /controlled diet /controlled conditions/so higher proportion of (digested) food absorbed/lower proportion lost in faeces / valid reason for addition; 3 Movement restricted so less respiratory loss / less energy used; 4 Kept inside/heating/shelter / confined so less heat loss / no predators; 5 Genetically selected for high productivity;

Advantages/disadvantages of biological control

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Advantages specific (to one pest); only needs one application / reproduces; keeps population low; the pests do not develop resistance; does not leave chemical residues in environment; can be used in organic farming; Disadvantages does not get rid of pest completely; may become a pest itself; slow acting / takes time to reduce pest population

pest take in pesticide; predators eat large numbers of pests; bioaccumulation idea / pesticide cannot be excreted / remains in the body / stored in fat / not broken down

Benefits of leguminous plants on productivity

Nitrogen fixing bacteria / named e.g.; in root nodules (of legumes); convert nitrogen to ammonium / organic compounds (in legume); released on decomposition; and converted to nitrates; less need for fertiliser;

Why would there be a higher total yield if you grow many different species, rather than one species??
Different species have different root lengths; Mineral ions/water can be obtained from different depths; Shade plants grow as well as those needing full sunlight; Pests tend to be specific; Pests will not destroy total crop in mixed system; Less fallow time;

Describe and explain the effect of adding fertiliser on the biomass of the plants.
increase growth of both weeds and cereal crop; inorganic nutrients/minerals not a limiting factor / more inorganic nutrients available

Explain why the application of herbicide increases the final yield of the crop.
removal of competition by weeds

What factors do you need to consider when doing an experiment about crops
Yield Animals Cost of fertiliser Method/frequency of application

Why is more energy used when its colder??

More heat energy lost Energy required maintaining their body temperature By respiration

Give one advantage of using natural fertiliser rather than artificial fertiliser
Contains a wider range of elements Production of artificial fertiliser energy-consuming Less leaching/slow release of nutrients

How do farming practises increase the productivity of agricultural crops

Fertilisers are added to the soil Nitrates/ nitrogen is required for proteins Phosphorus is required for ATP and DNA Pesticides prevent consumption of the crops Selective breeding increases productivity Greenhouses enhance temperature/light/Carbon dioxide levels Ploughing aerates the soil Aeration decreases denitrification and increases nitrification Crop rotation keeps the soil fertile Irrigation removes water as a limiting factor Protection of crops from birds/pests by cover/netting

How does deforestation and burning vegetation affect carbon dioxide concentration
Carbon dioxide concentration increases Less vegetation so less photosynthesis Less carbon dioxide removed Combustion releases carbon dioxide

How microorganisms and detritivores make carbon available to plants

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Microorganisms are saprobionts/saprophytes; Detritivores increase surface area by ingesting the organic matter Microbial decomposers break down the organic matter Secrete enzymes (onto dead tissue) / extracellular digestion; Absorb products of digestion/smaller molecules/named relevant substance; Respiration (by microorganisms) produces carbon dioxide; Carbon dioxide taken into leaves; Through stomata; Used for photosynthesis

Difference between the way detritivores and decomposers obtain their nutrients
Decomposers secrete enzymes / onto organic matter/ food/ extracellular breakdown; Detritivores ingest / eat/ take in organic matter/food first;

Why do detritivores increase the activity of decomposers

1. Break down large pieces of organic matter, providing a greater surface area for microbial activity 2. Add products of excretion/more nutrients/nitrogen / higher nitrogen carbon ratio; aeration by e.g. tunnelling; 3. increases oxygen content for respiration of microorganisms;

growth of algae / plants increased; death of submerged algae / plants; more bacteria / decomposers / decomposition; respiration uses oxygen; aerobic animals die

What is meant by the law of diminishing returns??

increased application of fertiliser does not increase yields; therefore uneconomic

Increase in nitrate concentrations in rivers

1. 2. 3. 4. Fertiliser run-off Nitrification Sewage effluent Nitrogen fixation

How can algal growth decrease nitrate concentration

Absorption of nitrates by algae

Used to synthesise amino acids Advantanges of Inorganic Fertilisers easy to handle / apply / transport / store; known chemical content / can supply specific needs; easy to control mass that is added / less mass needed; releases ions / nutrients quickly / soluble Disadvantages of Inorganic fertilisers expensive / more readily leads to eutrophication / environmentally damaging / uses resources to make it / does not add to soil structure / lacks some nutrients

Explain how deforestation could lead to a decrease in biodeveristy

Loss of habitat / nest sites / shelter / niche; ignore homes Loss of food; Exposure of soil leads to erosion / leaching of ions; Change in (micro)climate / levels of light / temperature / humidity; Animals move away / higher death rate / extinction;

Describe the role of bacteria in making nitrogen available to plants

Saprophytes Break down proteins/DNA By extracellular digestion/ releasing enzymes Into ammonia Ammonia converted to nitrite Nitrite is converted to nitrate By nitrification Oxidation

How does less ploughing mean more carbon is stored in the soil
Less oxygen can enter the soil (from the air); For saprophytes / soil microorganisms / bacteria / fungi / decomposers / correctly named soil organisms; For use in aerobic respiration; Less breakdown of organic matter / humus / dead plants / dead animals / other e.g.; Less carbon dioxide released / formed;

Ploughing increases the activity of nitrifying bacteria in the soil. Why? And how does this benefit plants?
Oxygen enters the soil / use of oxygen; Nitrifying bacteria are aerobic; Ammonia / ammonium ions to nitrite; Nitrite to nitrate; Nitrate is absorbed / used by plants; To make named organic-N e.g. protein / amino acids / DNA / ATP / NAD(P) / chlorophyll; Increased yield / growth;

Why do nitrogen fixing bacteria need a high rate of respiration??

Provides ATP for the nitrogen fixation More enzyme produced Which removes the oxygen

Why do plants grow more slowly, getting nitrogen from nitrogen-fixing enzymes, rather than from fertiliser??
ATP is required for nitrogen fixing/ reducing nitrogen Less ATP is available for growth/protein synthesis So greater rate of respiration required to make up for this

change in community over time; either due to environmental / abiotic factors / named abiotic factor; or conditions change due to species present

How do the species that are present change during succession??

Species change the environment Less hostile Species are better competitors

Climax Community
stable community / no further succession / final community

Limits of the size of a population of a climax community

1. named nutrient availability; 2. numbers of producers providing energy (for a food chain); 3. light intensity affecting the rate of photosynthesis; 4. disease killing (weaker) members of species; 5. space for nest building / niches; 6. reproductive rate balancing death rate; 7. competition for a named limited resource; 8. (intra and interspecific) competition explained; 9. predation described;

Description of Succession
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Colonisation/pioneering Microscopic plants at start Death/decomposition Named change in environment e.g. increase in organic matter/stabilisation New species colonise once there is a change Increase in biodiversity Increase in total biomass/more niches Increase in nutrient availability

9. Change from more extreme conditions/ more stability 10. Climax community

How does farming prevent succession

Maximum of 4 marks, two for named practices and two for explanations of effects: 1. e.g. crops are planted (not native plants); these compete with native plants; 2. ploughing returns to bare soil; destroys herbaceous plants/tree/shrub seedlings; 3. grazing by farm animals; destroys herbaceous/shrub seedlings/communities.

Why is it an advantage to have seeds that germinate better when temperature fluctuates?
Bare soil temperature fluctuates So theres more bare soil at the start of succession when there is few plants

How do you know if 2 alleles are from the same gene??
The frequencies add up to 1

Recessive Allele
Only expressed in phenotype if homozygous

Co-Dominant Allele
Both expressed in phenotype if both are present

Why observed phenotype ratios are not always same as theoretical ratios
chance related to mating; random fusion of gametes; small sample size; differential mortality

Using a diagram to show a particular allele is recessive

Parent (name or number) show the dominant but offspring show recessive So parents must be heterozygous

How two isolated populations of a species may become different species

geographical isolation of two populations; no interbreeding / gene flow; range of habitats / environmental conditions; different selection pressures in separate populations; variation among species caused by mutation; some more suited to environment than others / differential survival; Those with advantageous alleles survive and breed; beneficial allele passed on so frequency of advantageous alleles increases in the gene pool; populations become genetically different populations unable to produce fertile offspring / reproductively isolated

What does Hardy Weinberg predict

The frequency/proportion of alleles (of a particular gene); Will stay constant from one generation to the next/over generations / no genetic change over time; Providing no mutation/no selection/population large/population genetically isolated/mating at random/no migration;

Hardy Weinberg Assumptions

No selective advantage / All genotypes equally fertile; Large population; Random mating; (IGNORE random fertilisation) No mutation; No emigration/immigration;

Natural Selection
variation between members of population/species; predation/disease/competition results in differential survival; some have adaptations that favour survival; survive to reproduce/have more offspring/ pass on their alleles/genes; produces changes in frequency of allele /gene pool/ genotypes/phenotypes;

Evidence for stabilising selection

Few organisms survive at the extremes/most survive from the middle of the range;

How Science Works

Why important to check repeatability of result
Increases the reliability of the measurements; If measurements are repeatable, differences less likely to be due to measurement/personal error/ anomalies unlikely;

Why use a statistical test

(A statistical test) determines the probability of results being due to chance; Enables null hypothesis/description of null hypothesis to be accepted/rejected; Determines whether correlation/result is significant;

Accuracy and Reliability

Accurate means without error/free from mistakes when callipers used; Reliable means that figure can be reproduced when measurement Repeated/show little variation about true value;

Why good to have large sample size

allows anomalies to be identified / increases reliability (of means / averages / results);

allows use of statistical test

Why quadrats should be placed at random

To avoid bias/obtain representative results so statistical tests can be applied

Why Standard Deviation better than Range

range just shows highest and lowest / SD shows spread of majority; extreme values give false impression of variation / SD less affected by extreme values;

B5 Model Answers 9
random movements = 1 mark, e.g. degree of turning / number of turns depends on strength of stimulus / on temperature / allow specific reference to more turning at 35 than at 30 / non-directional stimulus / response

rapid response to stimulus; which is automatic / involuntary / not under conscious control;

Importance of reflexes
avoids damage to tissues; role in learning / homeostasis; posture / balance; escape from predators; finding food / mate;

How Exercise increase heart rate

increase in carbon dioxide from respiration; decrease in blood pH / increase in hydrogen ions detected by chemoreceptors;

in carotid / aortic bodies / medulla; (more) impulses to cardiac centre / medulla; (more) impulses (from medulla) along sympathetic nerve; to SAN increasing heart rate.

How generator potential created in Pacinian Corpuscle

pressure deforms / stretches membrane sodium channels; sodium ion channels / gates open; sodium ions enter causing depolarisation / generator potential created.

How rod cells allow us to see in dark

several rods have connections with one neurone / bipolar cell; idea of summation (of generator potentials); exceed threshold; individual (generator potentials) do not exceed threshold; low intensity light breaks down rhodopsin

Why cone cells give greater visual acuity

Each cone is connected to a specific neurone; light striking cone cells generating separate action potentials;

Why Myelinated faster than non-myelinated
non-myelinated depolarisation occurs along whole length of whole membrane; myelinated depolarisation only occurs at nodes (of ranvier); impulse jumps from node to node / salutatory conduction;

Nervous vs Hormonal
nervous system electrical impulses, hormonal only chemicals; use neurones, use of blood; localised, widespread response; short-lived, long-lasting; rapid, slow response;

How resting potential maintained

membrane more permeable to loss of potassium ions; limits entry of sodium ions; negatively charged proteins inside; sodium pump;

How action potential moves along neurone

Depolarisation / reduced P.D. / 70 to 40 mV; to threshold; by local currents; increased permeability of membrane to sodium ions / sodium gates open; sodium ions enter; by diffusion; positive pd inside / eq via figures; then potassium gates open / permeability to potassium ions increases; potassium ions leave; by diffusion (ONCE only); resting potential re-established;

Transmission across synapse

Increased permeability of (presynaptic) membrane to calcium ions; Ca 2+enter; vesicles fuse with membrane; exocytosis of / release of acetylcholine / neurotransmitter / other named e.g.; diffuses across synaptic cleft; binds to receptors on postsynaptic membrane / side; increased Na + permeability / opens sodium channels / depolarises membrane / reference e.p.s.p.; acetylcholine broken down by acetylcholinesterase;

How Reflexes are rapid and autonomic Rapid:

Only involves three neurones / receptor, relay and effector neurone; myelination / saltatory conduction; and two / a few synapses; chemical / synaptic transmission is slow OR electrical / nervous transmission is fast;

does not necessarily involve passage to brain / only spinal cord; same pathway used each time; higher brain centres not involved / no thinking;

Role of Ca2+ in contraction of myofibril
calcium ions bind to / move tropomyosin; to reveal binding sites on actin; allowing myosin (heads) to bind to actin / actinmyosin cross bridge formed; activates ATPase / energy released from ATP;

Role of Phosphocreatine
phosphocreatine allows regeneration of ATP under anaerobic conditions;

phosphocreatine releases Pi to join ADP;

How impulse arriving at neuromuscular junction causes sarcomere to contract

entry of calcium ions (presynaptic membrane); vesicles fuse with membrane / exocytosis / release TS; neurotransmitter diffuses; binds to receptors, postsynaptic / membrane / muscle membrane; depolarisation / sodium ions enter; release of calcium ions (from within the muscle); removes tropomyosin / bind to troponin; exposing binding sites on the actin; cross bridge formation / myosin binds; myosin head moves / pull the actin along; rachet mechanism / description / detach and reattach; ATPase activated;

maintaining a constant internal environment

Why Body Temperature must be maintained

1. Body temp./37C is optimum temp for enzymes; 2. excess heat denatures enzymes/alters tertiary structure/alters shape of active site/enzyme; 3. substrate cannot bind/eq,; 4. reactions cease/slowed; 5. too little reduces kinetic energy of molecules / molecules move more slowly; 6. fewer collisions/fewer ES complexes formed

Why more difficult to lose heat in humid conditions

reduced evaporation of sweat; due to reduced gradient / saturation / high water content of air; less heat loss by (latent) heat of evaporation;

Bodys response to cold

hypothalamus (contains the thermoregulatory centre); has receptors which detect temperature changes of blood; receives impulses from receptors in skin; nerve impulses transmitted (from hypothalamus / brain); results in vasoconstriction / constriction of arterioles / dilation of

shunt vessels; diversion of blood to core / specified organ / less blood to skin; muscular contraction / shivering generates heat via respiration; release of thyroxine / adrenaline; increase in metabolic rate / respiration; correct reference to negative feedback mechanisms;

increase in blood sugar, (more) insulin secreted; binds to (specific) receptors on (liver / muscle) cells; leads to more glucose entering cells / activates carrier proteins / opens protein channels / increased permeability to glucose; glucose leaves the blood; insulin activates enzymes (in liver); glucose entering cell converted to glycogen / glycogenesis;

How a small increase in glucagon can cause a large rise in glucose

Ref to cascade / amplification effect; 1 >1 molecule of cyclic AMP formed per glucagon (molecule); each cyclic AMP activates >1 enzyme(molecule) ; each enzyme causes breakdown of >1 glycogen (molecule); each glycogen gives >1 glucose / glycogen is a polymer; glucose diffuses into blood / glucose moves high to low concentration;

How structure of DNA linked to function
sugar - phosphate backbone gives strength; (coiling gives) compact shape; sequence of bases allows information to be stored; long molecule stores large amount of information; information can be replicated / complementary base pairing; (double helix protects) weak hydrogen bonds / double helix makes molecule stable prevents code being corrupted; chains held together by weak hydrogen bonds; chains can split for replication / transcription

Why DNA called semi conservative

New molecule has one strand from parent molecule; and one new strand

Differences between tRNA and mRNA

tRNA short chain versus mRNA long chain OR tRNA clover leaf shape versus MRNA straight chain


tRNA folded versus mRNA straight; tRNA fixed length versus mRNA variable length

Role of tRNA
anticodon complementary to codon / reads message on mRNA; specific amino acid; carried / transferred (to ribosome); correct sequence of amino acids along polypeptide;

How mutation in DNA can cause faulty enzyme to be produced

mutation; change in the sequence of nucleotides/bases/addition/deletion/ substitution; Base sequence / codon (of DNA) is changed; Different (sequence of bases in) mRNA; Attracts different tRNA / anticodon; changed order of amino acids/different protein/different tertiary; structure; inactive enzyme if shape of active site is changed/enzyme-substrate complex does not form;

Mutagenic Agents
high energy ionized particles/X-rays/ultraviolet light/high energy radiation/uranium/plutonium/gamma rays/tobacco tar/ caffeine/pesticides/mustard gas/base analogues/free radicals;

How Protein is formed

DNA uncoils/two strands separate/unzips; nucleotides of mRNA align with one strand; according to specific base pairing; RNA polymerase joins up nucleotides; mRNA moves out of nucleus through nuclear pore/into cytoplasm/attaches to ribosomes; tRNA takes specific amino acid to mRNA; anticodon of tRNA pairs with codon of mRNA/ 3 bases on tRNA pair with 3 bases on mRNA; peptide bond between amino acids; codons read sequentially/ribosome moves along mRNA; tRNA collects another amino acid from cytoplasm; polypeptide/protein released from ribosome/ polypeptide complete when stop codon reached;

Stem Cells cells that can divide to form other types of cell/undifferentiated;
Will replace themselves/keep dividing/replicate;

How stem cells differentiate

cells are totipotent / can develop into any cell type; different genes expressed; related to relative concentration of growth regulators; different enzymes / proteins determine tissue formed;

siRNA molecules are:

small / 2025 nucleotides; double-stranded (RNA);

Effect of siRNa
single siRNA strand; binds to mRNA; by complementary pairing; enzyme breaks down mRNA; prevents transcription (of certain genes);

Benefits of screening for cancer causing genes

identify those at risk of developing cancer; so as to avoid relevant environmental factors; enable early diagnosis; identify risk in families;

Malignant Tumour
cell division by mitosis; tumour cells growth abnormal / continuous / uncontrolled; tumour cells spread / invade other tissues / form secondary tumours / metastasis; via blood / lymph system;

How to transfer human gene to plasmid
use of restriction endonuclease/enzyme; same for human and plasmid DNA; sticky ends; ligase used to insert/join human to plasmid DNA;

Why bacteria useful for producing insulin on large scale

simple nutritional requirements, so cheap to grow; can be grown on waste products from other processes, reducing costs; fast growth rate, so rapid increase in cells/product; can be grown aseptically, so avoiding harm to patients; can be grown under controlled environmental conditions, to get the best yield;

Why use bacteria in genetic engineering

Easy to insert genes into bacteria;

Using a vector/plasmid/virus; Bacteria reproduce rapidly; Producing many copies of (inserted) gene; Bacteria can be grown on a large scale/ in industrial fermenters; To get a lot of the product of the gene;

Circular loop of DNA; separate from main bacteria DNA; contains only a few genes;

Gene Therapy
introduction of healthy gene / replacement of defective gene

Heat (DNA) to 95oC, to separate strands/break hydrogen bonds/denature; Cool to 40oC, to allow primers/nucleotides to bind; Primers provide starting point for copying/prevent strands rejoining; Heat to 70oC, optimum for polymerase/enzyme; DNA polymerase then joins nucleotides together;

Role of primers in PCR

enables replication / sequencing to start/ keeps strands separate; enclose area of DNA that is replicated;

Uses of PCR
replication of DNA from crime scene / tissue sample / for DNA sequencing / gene cloning

means of getting new DNA into cell / host / gene carrier

Role of Restriction Endonucleases

cut open plasmid; cut donor DNA, to remove gene / length of DNA; cut donor DNA and plasmid with the same enzyme / enzyme that cuts at the same base sequence; sticky ends / (overhanging) ends with, single strand / bases exposed; association / attachment / pairing of complementary strand;

DNA Replication
DNA strands separate / hydrogen bonds broken; Parent strand acts as a template / copied / semi-conservative replication; Nucleotides line up by complementary base pairing; Role of DNA polymerase;

DNA Fingerprinting

1. DNA is cut; 2. using restriction enzyme; 3. use electrophoresis; 4. separates according to length / mass; 5. southern blotting / transfer to (nylon) membrane; 6. make single-stranded; 7. apply probe; 8. radioactive / fluorescent; 9. reference to tandem repeats / VNTRs / minisatellites; 10. autoradiography (if radioactivity used);

Gene Probe
Strand of DNA; Short strand / up to 20 bases long; With base sequence that is complementary to part of target gene; Radioactive labelling / fluorescent labelling;

What is meant by 6bp palindromic sequence

Consists of six antiparallel base pairs / six base pairs that read the same in opposite directions;

Why deletion cause more disruption than substitution deletion causes frame shift / alters base sequence (from deletion); changes many amino acids / sequence of amino acids (from deletion); substitution alters one codon / triplet; one amino acid altered / code degenerate / same amino acid coded for; How to make radioactively labelled strands visible after electrophoresis transfer onto nylon / filter sheet; X-ray / photographic film / (auto) radiography; How genes are extracted and then inserted into bacteria 1 (cut out gene using an) endonuclease / restriction enzyme; R. cuts gene 2 reference to specificity / recognition site; 3 sticky ends; 4 use endonuclease / restriction enzyme (to cut plasmid/virus); 5 plasmid/virus; 6 (spliced) by ligase; 7 method of introducing vector e.g. micropipette / shock treatment / / calcium chloride/ions / transformation / tungsten bullet;

How Science works

How to measure something under a microscope
Measure with graticule/eyepiece scale; Calibrate against something of known size: OR Estimate/measure field diameter with a scale; Estimate number of fibres to cover diameter;

How to design an experiment

Have control variables Big range used for independent variable e.g. large range of concentrations used Large samples Random samples to avoid bias Repeats to make it more reliable, less likely to be due to human error in measuring Valid method of measurement of dependant variable Statistical tests to show significance

Describing a scatter graph

Whats the correlation How close are the points to the line of best fit

Evaluating data
Is there an overlap in ranges? What biotic and abiotic factors are there? What correlation is there? Correlation does not indicate a causal effect

Advantages of government agencies carrying out investigations

Independent/ no bias Non-profit organisation