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V

A HISTORY
OF

ART

IN

ANCIENT EGYPT.

-f<-'

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A HISTORY
Of

^rt

in

Ancient €ggpt
FRENCH
;

FROM THE
OF
rROFF.SSOR
I.V

GEORGES PERROT,
THE FACULTV OK
I.ETrERS, PARIS

MEMBER OF THE INSTITUTE

AND

CHARLES CHIPIEZ.
ILLUSTRATED WITH FIVE HUNDRED AND NINETY-EIGHT ENGRAVINGS AND FOURTEEN STEEL AND COLOURED PLATES.
IN

THE TEXT,

AV TJVO VOLUMES.

-VOL. L

TRANSLATED AND EDITED LV

WALTER ARMSTRONG,
AUTHOR OF "ALFRED STEVENS,"

B.A.,
ETC.

Oxon.

lLon^on

:

c Ha r

man an
1883.

i >

ha

i.

l,

i.i

m itkd.

Hontion
R. Clay, Soxs,

and Tayiof,

BKEAD STREET HILL.

Th£ GETTY CENTER

UBRARY

PREFACE.
M. Perrot's name
as

a classical

scholar

and

archaeologist,

and M. Chipiez's as a penetrating

critic
is

of architecture, stand so sure of a of

high that any work from their pens

warm welcome
These
has

from

all

students of the material remains
first

antiquity.

volumes are the
for its

instalment of an undertaking which
critical analysis

aim the history and

of that great organic

growth which, beginning with the
the

Pharaohs and ending with
is

Roman Emperors,
accorded
to

forms what
this

called
in

Antique Art.
its

The
is

reception
sufficient

instalment

original

form

proof that the eulogium prefixed to the

German
this
in

trans-

lation
is

by an eminent
;

living Egyptologist, Professor
first

Georg Ebers,
work,
is

well deserved

"The
art

section,"

he says, "of

broad and comprehensive
it

in

conception, and delicate

execution

;

treats

Egyptian

in

a fashion which
it

has never previously
will,
I

been approached."
hope, enable
it

In clothing
still

in

a language which

to reach a

wider public,

my

one endeavour has

been that
or form.

it

should lose as

little

as possible, either in substance

A
this
I

certain

amount of

repetition

is

inevitable
parts,

in
in

a

work of
^

kind when issued, as this was,

in

and

one place

have ventured to omit matter which had already been given

at

some

length,

but

with that

exception

I

have followed M.

Perrot's

words as closely as the difference of idiom would allow.
repetition,

Another kind of

with which,

perhaps,

some readers

may be

inclined to quarrel, forced itself
^

upon the author as the

Page

92, Vol.

I.

VI

Preface.

lesser of

two

evils.

He was
and of

compelled either
to

to sacrifice detail

and
all

precision in attempting

carry on at once the history of

the

Egyptian

arts

their

connection with the national
his footsteps
its

religion

and

civilization, or to

go back upon

now and
decav.

aeain

in tracine

each art successively from

birth to

its

The
the

latter alternative

was

chosen as the only one consistent with

final

aim of
in

his work.

Stated

a few words,

that

aim

is

to trace the

course of the

great plastic evolution which culminated in the age of Pericles

and came

to an

end

in that of

Marcus Aurelius.
and

That evolution

forms a complete organic whole, with a

birthday, a deathday,

and an unbroken chain

of cause

effect

uniting
ot

the two.

To

objectors

who may
is

say that the art of India,
included
in

China, of
it

Japan,

should
:

have been
the
life,

the
or

scheme,
three,

may be
of
one.

answered

this

not

of

two,

but

M. Perrot has been
those
either
characteristics
to

careful,

therefore,
art

to discriminate between

of

Egyptian
beliefs

which

may

be referred
or
to

the

national

and

modes

of thought,

undeveloped material conditions, such as the want or superstitious disuse of
iron,

and those which, being determined by the
art

very nature of the problems which
starting point for the arts ot
all

has to solve, formed a

later civilizations.

By means

of

well-chosen examples he shows that the art of the Egyptians went

through the same process of development as those of other and
later nationalities,

and that the

real distingfuishincr characteristic of

the sculptures and paintings of the Nile Valley was a continual

tendency

to simplification

and generalization, arising partly from

the habit of mind and hand created by the hieroglyphic writing,
partly from the stubborn nature of the chief materials employed.

To
which

this characteristic
is

he might, perhaps, have added another,
in

sufficiently

remarkable
vitality,

an art wliich had
its

at least three

thousand years of
expression.

namely,

freedom from individual

The
in
it

realism of the Egyptians was a broad realism.
detail

There

is

no sign of that research into
art

which
in

dis-

tingui.shes

most imitative

and

is

to

be foimd even

that

which. Birch. art Perrot's book was complete. allied to those the language of modern Egypt art criticism could In this particular is more closely nations ot the far east of whose does not come to within the scope M. posterity. of their vii immediate successors . No suspicion expressive power seems iar have dawned on the Egyptian arts mind. so as in the plastic were concerned. never produced anything that be called a creation. we find no vestige of of an attempt its to raise art above to imitation. and yet. Edwards. and Miss A. and of some of the with which in it numerous objects has enriched the Boulak Museum. in the work of exploration. B. during all those long centuries of alternate renascence and decay. than the great civilizations which formed troubles own Before the late intervened to draw attention of a western different kind to the Nile Valley. to give a fresh stimulus to the interest in to and encourage those who were doing their take lead England to her proper share this discovery. W. A. Mr. Perrot's its inquiry. . will be found an Appendix to the second volume. My acknowledgments for generous assistance are due to Dr. place after A short account of which took M. the finding of a pit full of royal mummies and Egyptian best to sepulchral objects in the mountain at Thebes had occurred history.Preface. Reginald Stuart Poole.

.

. THE GENERAL CHARACTER OF EGYPTIAN § § § § 1. 6. 6. 3. PRINCIPLES AND GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE. Method to be Employed by us in our Study of this Architecture . The The Valley of the Nile and its Inhabitants 1 The Great Divisions of Egyptian History — — 16 6— i 2 2 4. and that its may therefore be written 70 of the — 89 — 93 § 7. 4. Decoration I. CIVILIZATION. 119— 125 /) VOL. tion upon Monuments of Art its § 5. The Egyptian History Religion and Influence upon the Plastic Arts 44 — 44 — 69 § That Egyptian Art did not escape the Law of Change.2 1 CONTENTS. and of the Limits of our Inquiry CHAPTER II. — Materials . . Constitution of Egyptian Society — Influence of that Constitu21 . General Principles of Form General Principles of Construction. . — 96 Compact Construction Construction by Assemblage — 114 114 — ng 7. PAGE INTRODUCTION i— Ixi Jxiii— Ixiv TO THE READER CHAPTER I. 3. Of the place held in this wotk by the Monuments Memphite 8g Period. 94 96 § § § § § § 2. 5. Dressed Construction — 102 — 106 ro6 — 113 103 113 . § I. Egypt's place in the History of the World 2.

New Empire General Characteristics of the Egyptian Temple — 333 — 335 335 — 433 434 — 444 318 333 . CHAPTER III. SEPULCHRAL ARCHITECTURE. § § I. Empire The Tomb under the New Empire 255 — 254 — 317 CHAPTER IV. The Temple under The Temple under § § 3.X Contents. The Egyptian Belief as to a Future Life and its Influence upon . their Sepulchral Architecture 126 163 — 163 § 2. THE SACRED ARCHITECTURE OF EGYPT. § 4. PAGE § I. The Tomb under the Ancient Empire The Mastabas of the Necropolis The Pyramids The Tomb under the Middle of Memphis — 241 165 — 189 189 — 241 241 § 3. 4. The Temple under the Ancient Empire the Middle Empire the 2.

5. 19. 4. 17. bas-relief at 126 „ „ „ Perspective view of the Hypostyle Hall. The S/ieik/i-el-Bekd in the !\Larshes u 14 15 Hunting 9. 8. Hoeing Ploughing 4 4 5 3. 1. 102 102 124 Chambers „ „ Abydos General view of Karnak Seti L. n •> Boatmen Cattle Drovers 32 33 . 15. 6. 11. Amenophis HI 30 31 Scribe registering merchandize 22. PAGE During the Inundation of the Nile 3 2. 28 29 18. The Red Crown The Pschent Seti L in his War-Chariot Rameses IL in adoration before Seti Homage to Amenophis HI Construction of a Temple at Thebes Columns in the Hypostyle Hall. from old Cairo Karnak. 20. 21. COLOURED The Arab Chnin. Karnak Scribes registering the yield of the harvest Colossi of 16 23 25 14. from near Keneli The Pyramids. To face page . 13. with the Colossi of Memnon FIO. 26 27 16.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 10. Karnak 360 368 376 Thebes.. the plain. bas-reliefs in the Granite PLATES. Shadouf The White Crown 16 16 12. Harvest scene The Bastinado Statue from the Ancient Empire 6 10 7.

Painted bas-relief 39. at Thebes Temple of Khons. 28. 33. 50. and son Square building Rectangular and oblong building 97 97 60.. The Libyan chain. . 31. above the Necropolis of Thebes 98 99 100 61. Sekhet 40. Isis nursing Horus 87 90 91 56. . 49. 45 51 35. A Sphinx 42. Bakers 35 at a Women loom 34 35 26. Temple 63. Ptah 36.xii List of Illustrations.. 59. 53. Ranmi Horus Thoth Sacrifice to 64 65 66 Apis 67 Statue from the Ancient Empire 73 Woman kneading dough 74 The Scribe Chaphre The Lady Nai Sculptor at work upon an arm Sculptor carving a statue 75 76 79 81 51. The goddess 38. Thebes 100 100 loi loi The Egyptian Gorge or Cornice 102 Capital and Entablature of the Temple of the Deus Rediculus at Rome . 70. Touaris 63 43. 46. Netting birds Shepherds in the fields 36 36 37 30. 34.. 104 107 108 69. Ouah-ab-ra 52. 48. 32. Chephren 57. . 54 58 59 60 61 Isis-Hathor 41. 27. The Egyptian "bond" Double-faced wall . Ti. presented by Phre Amen (or Amnion) . PAGE FIG. 24. Thebes From the second court of Medinet-Abou. 52 53 Bast Osiris 37. Thebes Temple of Khons. 44. 68. 67. 47. 39 42 43 to Amen-Ra . 45. 66. Artist painting a statue 55. 65. General appearance of an Egyptian 62. 29. or Amenophis HI. 64. Temple of Khons. Thebes Ramesseum. with his wife 58. Winnowing corn Herdsmen From the tomb of Menofre Water Tournament Mariette's House Amenhotep. 83 85 54. 25.

from a Mastaba at Gizeh . . 105. 119. Modern pigeon house. representing the lands of the deceased. Arrival in Egypt of a 99. Funerary amulets Pillow 160 106. Element of an off-set arch Arrangement of the courses Off-set semicircular arch an off-set arch iii in 112 77. Granaries. FIG. 114. Entrance 112. 88. from a bas-relief 82. The Tomb of Sabou 167 Three mastabas at Gizeh 168 169 108. 79. Voussoir Arrangement of voussoirs Semicircular vault 112 112 113 So.Scarabs 103. Restoration of part of the Necropolis of Gizeh 109. Preparation of the victims 92. Sepulchral statuettes 97. 74. same Mastaba Transverse section through the chamber Figures in hiy. Transverse section through the serdabs 120. 78. Elements of the portico PAGE 108 109 11 in Egyptian construction 75. 102. 73. 104. building (first system) building (second system) 118 his 85. 84. Plan of a Mastaba with four serdabs 178 178 179 179 180 117.?/ 98. dynasty 90. 107. 83. and his son Khnem. 81. The tomb . Entef 149 152. Mummy Man and case from the eighteenth dynasty his wife in the style of the fifth dynasty in 138 the style of the fifth 89. and arrival of funeral gifts 141 Table for offerings for offerings 144 144 146 147 Another form of the table Labourers heaping up ears of corn 95.h relief. 72. 96.1 List ok Illustrations. gifts 154 158 159 159 Lid of the coffin of loi. 76. Stele of Nefer-oun 139 140 91. Thebes Elements of wooden construction 114 116 117 Wooden Wooden I. 115. Longitudinal section of the 11 8. his wife Ata. Seti striking prisoners of war with mace 124 131 137 86. Actual condition of a Mastaba. upon papyrus company of Asiatic emigrants women. xiii 71. Lintel of the Plan of the tomb of Tela tomb of Ti at 172 174 174 175 113. 153 carrying the funeral 100. Mastaba at Sakkarah 171 111. Sekhera-ka. 93. Stele of the eleventh dynasty 87. Vignette from a of Ti J*?////. The Mastabat-el-Faraoun to a 170 no. 94. Mastaba Sakkarah Western wall in the chamber of the tomb of Ptah-Hotep 116.

154. 177. 130. 165. The Stepped Pyramid 142. horizontal section in perspective .arah Construction of the Pyramid of Abousir Partial section of the Stepped Pyramid 214 215 216 147. 151. Abydos 244 245 245 246 247 Tomb at Abydos 163. Abousir 239 243 The river transport of the at Mummy 160. tomb tomb Abydos of Ma.xiv FIU. Meroe Method of closing a gallery by a stone portcullis 220 220 Portcullis closed in 152. 193 Plan of the Pyramid of Cheops 198 199 201 131. 126. Beni-Hassan General plan of Thebes . 208 209 213 213 in parallel layers 136 — Successive states of a pyramid 143. The Pyramid of Meidoum The Mastabat-elFaraoun Funerary monument represented and elevation of a pyramid in the inscriptions at 216 219 149. Section of the 144. Fagade of a tomb 168. The upper chamber. perspective. Stele of the eleventh dynasty. Longitudinal section through the lower chambers 222 Pyramidion 230 233 237 The casing of the pyramids Plan of the Pyramids of Gizeh and of that part of the Necropolis which immediately surrounds them 157. Transverse section. Facade of a tomb 167. at at at Beni-Hassan Beni-Hassan. Plan of the above 170. Stepped Pyramid at Sakk. Tomb Abydos 244 161. 123. Section of the above 164. priest 166. 128. List of Illustrations. and mummy-chamber i8i 182 122. 145. Stele of Pinahsi. Pyramid of Cheops The southern Pyramid of Dashour Section of the Stepped Pyramid 206 207 207 135. 148. through the Sarcophagus-chamber 221 and the discharging chambers of the Great Pyramid 153. Section of the above 162. 205 132. 15S. showing some of the adjoining tombs 250 251 Interior of a tomb Beni-Hassan 252 252 253 257 169. 125. PAGE 12 1. 155. tomb Chess players. The Sphinx Pyramid with its 238 inclosure. 159. 156. Double Mastaba at Gizeh Sarcophagus of Khoo-foo-Ankh Details of the Sarcophagus of K!ioo-foo-Ankh Bas-relief from 183 184 185 Sakkarah Head of a Mummy 188 Plans of the temples belonging to the Second and Third Pyramids . Plan 150.. The Great Pyramid and the small pyramids at its foot The Three Great Pyramids from the south The Pyramid of lUahoun. 124. 129.. well. 146. 127. 134. Section of the 133.

176. II. Temple at Karnak Longitudinal section of the Temple of Luxor Plan of the anterior portion of the Great Temple The Great Temple at Karnak. 191. and the neighbouring parts of the Necropolis 205. the Sphinx. 194. at Medinet-Abou hunting . 174. xv PAGE 261 265 271 172. of Temple of Luxor Khons horizontal and . Entrance to a royal 179. 203. 190. The Temple The Bari. Anubis. 182. Flaying the funerary victim 178. conducting a religious procession. . 198. 216. presenting Amen 274 275 177. Theban tombs from the bas-reliel's Theban tomb from a bas-relief A tomb of Apis The tomb of Petamounoph The most simple form of Theban tomb Tomb as represented upon a bas-relief Stele in the Boulak Museum.List of Illustrations. 195. or Kriosphinx wall of a temple 336 339 345 vertical Gateway and boundary 207. Temple 324 325 331 of the Sphinx. Vertical section in perspective of the Sarcophagus-chamber of the tomb 201. in battle Painting in a royal tomb at Gournah an offering to 273 Amenophis III. 175. 288 292 Plan and section of a royal tomb 187. FIG. Granite tabernacle 212. 1S3. iSo. Principal fa(. 349 352 or sacred boat 210.ade of the 208. 299 302 303 305 197. 189. Rameses Rameses Rameses III. 196. . showing tombs The sarcophagus of a royal scribe Canopic vase of alabaster 294 295 296 297 299 with gardens about them. III. General plan of the Great 213. 188. . 199. View of the grand gallery in the Apis Mausoleum Sepulchral chamber of an Apis bull Section in perspective of " Campbell's tomb " above 306 308 312 200. inner portion Karnak as it is at present 358 361 at Karnak 363 367 369 . Portable tabernacle of painted wood 354 355 211. in a funerary pavilion 1S6. 206. 214. 193. 173. The tomb of Rameses VI 283 Entrance to the tomb of Rameses III Hunting scene upon a tomb at Gournah 284 2S6 287 The weighing of actions 185. 192. 202. 312 A Tomb on El-Assasif of the Sphinx 313 of the Sphinx The Temple The Temple Ram. section showing the general arrangement of the temple 209. Interior of the 204. tomb Plan of the tomb of Rameses II Horizontal section of the same tomb smaller Sarcophagus-chamber in the 277 282 282 181. 215. 184.

PAGE 371 217.. 233. 231.. Perspective of the principal Chamber temple 413 413 413 245. 409 Longitudinal section. Plan of the 225. between Amen. 254. Derri 409 at 242. Plan of the 373 377 Ramesseum Bird's-eye view of the general arrangement 220.. Fa9ade of the Great Temple Dayr-el-Bahari Ipsamboul 249. Plan of the hemispeos of Derri 241. 255.\nouke' suckling 436 II. Temple Temple . Plan of the smaller temple 413 244. Plan of the Temple of Luxor 218. Temple of Gournah Facade of the naos of the Temple of Gournah Logitudinal section of the Temple of Gournah. Temple of Elephantine View in perspective of the Temple of Elphantin^ Longitudinal section of the Temple of Elephantine Temple of Amenophis III. 253. Seti. 393 396 397 398 401 section 234. longitudinal section 403 406 406 407 407 236. and 226. 228. 238.. 232. List OF Illustrations. at Eilithyia Temple of Amenophis IIL at Eilithyia longitudinal . Longitudinal section of the smaller temple 246. General plan of the buildings at Medinet-Abou 222. Plan of the Great Temple Temple at 247. Plan of the Great Temple at Medinet-Abou 224. II. Rameses The goddess Rameses Beit-el-Wnli 437 441 . The The ruins battle against the Khetas. Plan of the 230. The Ramesseum. 383 387 to at with the attributes of Osiris. Restoration in perspective of Dayr-el-Bahari 252. from naos to the back wall 393 the portico of the 229. Plan of the 379 381 382 of Thothmes Abydos 223. Perspective of the principal Hall in the Great 4x4 415 417 248. Plan of speos at Beit-el-Wali 237. 221. Gherf-Hossein longitudinal section 240. 408 I09 239. Temple 419 423 431 251. on the Island of Phite Luxor returning in triumph from Syria .xvi FIG. whom he is paying homage. Longitudinal section of the Great 250. Plan of the Chnoum 390 392 227. Longitudinal section of the speos at Beit-el-Wali Plan of the hemispeos of Gherf-Hossein . Facade of the smaller temple Ipsamboul in the smaller 411 243. Bird's-eye view of Luxor 219. The The speos at speos at Addeh Addeh . 235.

The it successful interpretation of the ancient writings of Egypt. we have added to the knowledge us by Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus. long to and inscriptions which. Even in the cases of Greece and Rome. that for thousands of years lay like those of hidden beneath the Persia. the study curious discloses many new and h . which has distinguished our makes necessary that the history of antiquity should be rewritten.INTRODUCTION. Documents soil. and Persia. to our acquaintance with those empires on the Euphrates and the Nile which were already in old age when the Greeks were yet struggling to emerge from their primitive barbarism. illustrated by paintings and sculptured reliefs. times.separate the truth from the falsehood. the chaff from the wheat. themselves to Egypt and offered the gaze of man merely excite his impotent curiosity. Day by day. their classic writers. I. Chaldsea. the narratives of the Greek writers who busied themselves with those nations of Africa and Asia which preceded their own in the ways of civilization. help of those strings of hieroglyphs and of cuneiform characters. I. have now been deciphered and made to render By the up their secrets for the guidance of the historian. as new monuments have been left discovered and more certain methods of reading their inscriptions elaborated. whose histories are supplied in their main lines by of hitherto neglected writings VOL. we are enabled to in .

photographs. of those laborious researches which have led to such great results since Winckelmann founded the science of archceology as we know it. and other reproductions which considera- of space and cost prevent the savant from possessing at home. and the scrupulous and ingenious interpretation of their meaning. which often contain when they are not packed valuable collections. perhaps. The difficulty of obtaining materials for self-improve- ment in this direction affords the true explanation of the absence. to fix the exact occupied by but those attempts have never been art. by perpetual tions reference to the great collections of en- gravings.^ rendered its still enough in itself. by various merits. its many learned writers have in our time attempted to retrace France have each contributed works which.— ii Introduction. Germany. which obliges those who wish their taste by frequenting the visitinof learn it thoroughly to cultivate j^rincipal museums of Europe. because the comprehension of works of oi plastic creations in the widest significance of that word. . each of antique which contains but a small portion of the accumulated remains of Some connoisseurs do not even live in a capital. and sometimes away in cellars or at the binder's allow them to be studied by — — the curious. To take the case of Greece. details. have is revealed to us we many to be found in Thucydides or Xenophon. or has found no time to examine their museums. difficult The w^ay. enabling us to enrich with more than one feature the picture of private and public life which they have handed down to us. in modern histories of antiquity. betrays any deep study of Greek art. place in it many attempts have been made art. in Livy or Tacitus . demands an amount of special knowledge which the great majority of torians his- are without . art. and Our national library at the British this reproach. art has a method and language of to its own. More than one learned author has never visited Italy or Greece. the only one which does not deserve Ed. but dwell far from those public libraries. absolutely successful. is thus more arduous by the obstacles which are thrown in study of art. and treats it with taste and complete history 1 — England. have conquered the But of all these w'orks the only one which favour of Europe. which have witnessed and are interesting facts of which no trace witnessing. by and distant resfions at the cost of considerable trouble expense. Museum is. The energetic search for ancient inscriptions. In the effort to embrace the life of ancient times as a whole.

and And yet question. from its origin to its final decadence. Much the disappointment aspects of thus prepared for those who. ? for the evolution new society and of a new art To that ' this question our neighbours may ^ reply that the Gcschichfe all dcr hildcndcn Kunst of Carl Schnaase does that work has one great disadvantage 2nd ed. out in fact its passion for beautiful form. that the indication ture. . where there. Bernhardy. and with the summary statement of a few general ideas which do not even possess the merit of precision." . unhappily . and its painters. in France. down to the ej^och when Christianity and the barbaric invasions put an end to the ancient forms of civilization and prepared of a for the birth of the modern world. is hardly Greece at all. " literature. he has Here neither a theoretic knowledge of art. Grote. competence.Introduction. is iii M.. but there of their literature is written for us. unfinished. But on this subject most historians say little. its sculptors. is such as those of there. a passion as is warm and prolific as its love for poetry. corrected and augmented. for those we ask. The first edition consisted of 7 vols. or Germany. of the succession of princes the mechanism of political and civil institutions is explained to revolutions. in sufficient detail. but in the fewest and driest phrases possible. 1865-1873. of Ottfried Miiller rich in . Baehr. such as the work. a single work which retraces. But who are not wood Geschichte der hildcnden Kunst. Ernest Curtius as for Mr." we are told. 8vo. They are told of . wish to picture to themselves various the ancient world. 8 vols. and appeared between 1S43 and 1864. of wars them life. great talent and eloquence. contenting themselves with the brief mention of certain works and proper names. without its architects. art quite as clear an as their litera- sentiments. nor a feeHng for it. avoid it.. following it throughout its progress and into all its transformations. and ideas. and conquests. without the leisure to enter deeply into detail. is true another truth which seems to be of a people tastes. excellent manuals. there are. valuable facts. the whole history of antique art. is always forgotten. and Teuffel in but where either in England. " is is the expression of social All this and so the history of enough. withthat of . with engravings in the text. Greece. cannot he alludes to the he indeed. And where written with left are we to find the information thus refused histories ? Europe possesses several of Greek and Roman literature. too.

of the Middle Ages and of modern times. and furnish therefore no new elements for Finally. devoted to ancient times. and explanations which do nothing to which perplex archaeologists. Chaldsa. As one might have expected. have been borrowed from other well known works. Persia. by two colleagues whom Herr Schnaase called oriental art by Carl von Lutzow. second edition. all the parts of such an extensive whole are by no means of equal value. and Egypt are discussed . we all know that the art of Tyre and Sidon was but a late reflection from that of Egypt the workshops of those two famous ports were mere factories of cheap Egyptian art objects for exportation. indeed. and. especially. For reasons which have decided author is not easily understood. so far as art was concerned. Phoenicia. are quite inadequate. It while makes it very tedious reading to a foreigner. besides. years old. and. which To give but one example of its Phcenicians before absurdity. which Assyria. by general acknowledgment. two are tory. and how many important discoveries have taken place . and of Rome. be very difficult. will it almost certainly prevent its ever say a translator. Those which relate to architecture. he takes no account of the extreme east. he speaks of the . we have vague guesses solve the many problems than brought them under its own ? The is fact is that very confusing in its results. the first part of Herr Schnaase's work is already seventeen . and that in to his assistance But the chapters in of Greece and Rome by Carl Friedrichs. finding to bulk must. No single question is exhaustively treated. The illustrations are not numerous enough to be useful. Again. for a single writer to treat with equal and the chapters which treat of antique art are the least satisfacOf the eight volumes of which the work consists. the order adopted by the appreciation or discussion. of Greece. he has said a word of Egypt now. Schnaase follows a geographical order. and. why begin with India. in most cases. and which we will explain farther on. us to follow the same course. impossible. which had no relations with the peoples on the shores of the Mediterranean until a very late date. Its great Germans. rather came under their influence . they They were revised. for the are not the two best. of China and Japan but then. not competence the arts of Asia.iv Introduction. they do not seem to have been taken from the objects themselves. Instead of well-considered personal views.

The book therefore is not " down to date. better than those of Kugler. with the society to which it belongs in a word. . The author commences with Celtic monuments (dolmens and menhirs). . . The German writer was the first to formulate the idea. Overbeck and Liibke have each written a comprehensive history of sculpture. originally in 764. The few illustrations are rot very good in quality. far superior to that of Liibke. Ed. 1865 ? have revealed numberless points of contact and for instance. objection as that of Kugler he follows a geographical instead of an historical arrangement he begins with the extreme east . which contains the results of the searches at Olympia and at Pergamus. . it is enough to say that the whole of the antique period. the fourth edition. is one of those rare books which mark an epoch in the history of the human intellect. he puts the Assyrians and the His illustrations are sometimes Persians before Egypt. flourishes. which embraces the whole history of art from the earliest times down. which has attended it the tliird edition." With all the improvements which a new edition might introduce. the arrangements adopted betray the defects of a severely scientific method. As early as 1841 Franz Kugler published his Handbiich dcr Kiinsfgesc/iidtie. whilst still occupied with the work of Kugler. It could never have the amplitude of treatment or the originality which made Winckelmann's History of Art and Ottfried Miiller's their day. The book was successful. and decays. but to give an idea of its inadequacy as a history of ancient art. since Those of Cesnola and Schliemann. but many of the cuts are common to both works. i86i. the antique His plan seems to us to be open to the same here occupies 208 pages out of 720. transmission between one phase of antique art and another. to our own day. lies before us. that part of it which deals with antiquity can never be anything but an abridgment with the faults inherent in that kind of work. occupies no more than 206 pages of the first volume. and India before Assyria.^ Manual of Artistic Archcrology so successful in published Winckelmann's History of Art among the Ancients. and their source is never indicated the draughtsman has taken little care to reproduce with fidelity the style of the originals or to call attention to their peculiarities finally. both in Greece and Asia. now familiar enough to cultivated intelligences. is now in course of publication. Liibke.] The word Plastili in the language of German critics has this special and restricted meaning it comprises sculpture The work of Overbeck. [The word "comprehensive" must here be understood in a strictly limited sense. ^ Germany had long felt the want which Schnaase attempted to satisfy.— Introduction. . deserves the success only. wished to supply for the use of students and artists a book of a more elementary character he therefore published in i860 an 8vo volume which he called Gnmdriss der KiaistgescliicJite . — . Stuttgart). which were never thought of twenty years ago. 8vo. . that it is possible to write 1 . the title Under Geschictite der Plastili. that art springs up. and then passes to the structures of Oceania and America before commencing upon Egypt he takes us to Mexico and Yucatan. . revised and corrected by Wilhelm Liibke (2 vols.

1867. which will give him a clear idea of the state of archfeology at the time when the German savant intervened to place it upon a higher footing. and Polycletus. the Psonius and great Winckelmann's History of Ancient Art should be read in connection with his Remarks upon the History of Art. Her painted vases Greece as a whole was not known to him.! : . which filled the Italian galleries. The o-reat majority of these formed part of the crowd of . upon the to given mann's attention was which most of his comprehensive judgments were founded and His yet. which even yet is never opened without a sentiment of respect. mostly of unknown origin. Lysippus. It is an answer to the objections which made themselves heard on every side the preface to Monimicnti uicditi (Rome. and the public baths. was not content with he followed it through to its consequences statino. now that a century has passed away since it appeared. The method of Winckelmann is there most clearly explained. . the student of the life and labours of Winckelmann may consult with profit the interesting work of Carl lusti. whose memory Germany holds in honour as the father of classic archaeology. marks a date beyond which modern curiosity has long penetrated. . Whiikdmajin. mann's knowledge of Egyptian art was confined to the pasticcios of the Roman epoch. Finally. for some three centuries or more. earlier epoch than Phidias and Alcamenes. opportunities of personal inspection were confined to the figures. even in regard to them. the basilicas. even Assyria. copies which issued from the workshops of Greece. . with 208 plates) should also be read.vi Introduction. and takes the place of that new edition of which the author's premature and tragic death deprived the world. sein Leben. of representations of that they never dated from an Scopas. the few cemeteries Campanian and Etruscan were still hidden in which had found their way to the light had not yet succeeded in drawing the attention of men who were preoccupied over more imNearly all Winckelposing manifestations of the Greek genius. 2 vols. uiid seine Zeitgenossen. works of the sculptors. had no existence for him . to embellish the temples. either fair In the or originals copies very few instances in which they were executed with sufficient care to be the original. However. he was not well-informed. This great savant. which is a kind of supplement to it. and to the figures which passed from the Chaldcea and villa of Hadrian to the museum of Cardinal Albani. 1 Praxiteles.a principle outlines of the science which he founded. seine Werke. Winckelits history. Persia and Phoenicia. the villas and the palaces of the masters of the world. the he beo-an by tracing and he never rested till he had filled them in. in folio. his great work.

folio. vols. the statues in the pediments and sculptured friezes of the Parthenon. He made the same mistake in speaking of architecture. 8vo. 2 ii. or at Olympia ? Now if Winckelclassic mann was perfection. Description 1794. engraved by Piroli.. thanks to their incessant labours. Monumenti Gahini delta Villa Fiueiana.to the description of the works which filled public and private galleries. among the chief scholars of 2 vols. into which the art treasures of Europe.xplain and judge the architecture of Greece. A volume containing most of his essays was givep to the world by Welcker in 181 7 {Ahhandlungen heraiisgegeben und mit Zusiifsen hegle'itet. 1784 1807 Museum Jl'orsleyunum. 8vo. 17S2 . by Enn. Albani. the Bassirilievi in the Villa antichi di Roma (Rome. Quir. . at Phigalia. 18 19). Pio-Cleinentino. London. // to Museo vii. Rome. Paris. i.Introduction. Samtnlung seiner Bricfe und 2 vols. by the edifices of Rome and Italy. of the temples has taught us so sculpture whose close relation to the architecture of certain much ? Who in temples at yEgina. Stuttgart. and over-polished taste of the critical epochs. except England. Who would then have guessed that the following generation would have the opportunity of studying those splendid groups of decorative famous those days dreamt of looking at. the lines in inaugurating the study of But the work which gave him a is Zoega busied himself greatly with Egypt. Visconti. 1820. were collected at the beginning of this century. But Winckelmann rendered a great service to art by foundincr a method of study which was soon applied by Zoega and by Ennio Ouirino Visconti. who also published his life and a volume of his correspondence (Zoega. by their arrangement and decoration. were only known to the historian by the descriptions and allusions of the ancient authors. that he pretended to e. 1808) only contains the monuments with the help of the celebrated Piranesi. begam by Visconti and continued by the Comte de i2mo. it ignorant of these. des Antiques du Musce Royal. or nearly always. These two savants classified a vast follows that he ' quantity of facts ' . his opportunities as director of the all Musce Napoleon. Beurthciluug seiner Wcrke. vol. 4to. 2 vols. masters of the fifth vii century. For the collection of the materials and the execution of the plates in the IconograpJiie Grecque et Remain. Winckelmann unfinished . eclectic. the real monuments of was hardly competent to recognise and define true archaism or to distinguish the works of sculpture which bore the marks of the deliberate. and for Coptic prepared the way place Champollion. of the Thesaeum. 1797. In such a case as this the clearest and most precise of verbal descriptions is of less value than any fragment of marble upon which the hand of the artist is still to be traced. Visconti took advantage of Clarac. It was always. Visconti. Gottingen). Visconti. or were being continually discovered by excavation. still less of drawing. 8vo.

by man than the remains of Nineveh. But the widest. Egypt iirst introduced the antiquities of that country and not long afterwards Champollion discovered the key to the hieroglyphics. enlargement of the horizon was due to a rapid succession of discoveries. behind the rich and brilliant scenery of Graeco-Roman civilization. the world of the East. had been known for nearly two centuries. of the alphabet and of the The great work plastic arts. were suddenly revealed to us. and little A later yet it sprang again to the day. the real ancient world. and more expressive. and. and their interpretation enables us to classify chronologically the works of architecture and sculpture which have been discovered. which was compiled by the savants who accompanied Bonaof . This progress was continuous. but only by the inadequate not . others rendered possible by feats of induction which almost amounted It seemed as though a curtain were drawn up. was also marked by a great increase in the energy with which all kinds of historical studies were prosecuted. lower Chaldaea. But yesterday we knew nothing beyond the names of its kings. relief history pictured by thousands of did and narrated by their accompanying inscriptions. some the result of persevering searches and lucky excavations. its its monuments in marvellous figures in preservation. The information thus obtained was supplemented by careful exploration of the ruins in Babylonia. parte to to us. and thus enabled us to assign to the of the country at least a relative date. more distinct. and again let in the light upon ancient Assyria. These long keep their secrets to themselves. as well as the most sudden. were accented and corrected at more than one point the divisions which he had introduced the groups into his picture were marked with greater precision which he had begun to form were rendered more coherent and compact their features became more precise. .viii Introduction. The imposing ruins of the palace at Persepolis and of the tombs of the kings. and the long peace which saw tlie growth of so rich a harv^est of talent. to genius. monuments Layard and Botta freed Nineveh from the ruins of its own buildings. the father of religions and of useful inventions. and These had been less tenderly treated by time and Susiana. the master's rough sketch . but after the great wars of the Revohition and the Empire its march became much more rapid.

in the basin of the Persian Gulf. Ker. and to the philologists who deciphered the texts and classified the monumental fragments which had travelled so far from the scene of their creation. I. displays community of style and unity of origin and tradition. thanks to their careful copies of and upon the and Media. the writings walls of those buildings. we owe our power to describe. were all formed upon the same cuneiform principle. the choice of expressive means and their employment. and from Nineveh to Susa and Persepolis. but.Introduction. Every work fashioned by the hand of man which has been discovered within the boundaries given above. began to be appreciated. to requirements betrays the different materials. Thus. The alphabets writing and of the arts are in each case identical. . to the toils of artists and learned men. through the shadows which every day helped to dissipate. who examined the country from the mountains of Armenia to the low and marshy plains of Susiana. in time. Flandrin provided us with more accurate and comand Texier. and from the deserts which border the Euphrates to the rocks of Media and Persia. were caused by differences of race. The clearly result of these searches that this ancient and discoveries was to show civilisation had sprung from two the valley of the Nile. although the the plans of of their buildings vary in obedience sculpture forms. and of physical conditions.Porter. prehensive descriptions. in such a vast extent of country and so long a succession of empires. and. Eugene Burnouf succeeded in reconstructing the alphabet of Darius and Xerxes. upon the inscribed stones of Persia plastic arts. the essential outlines and the leading masses began to be clearly distinguished. the original sources. upon a sound basis and from authentic materials. the great civilisation which was developed in Western There were still many Asia. their always same way of looking at living the same conventions and the same motives. notwithstandIn the ing the variety in the languages which they served. and the local distinctions which. the one in other in c VOL. of But. spite of all these differences. presented so many points of striking similarity as to prove that the various peoples represented by those famous The elements of capitals all sprang from the same original stock. from Babylon to Nineveh. descriptions ix and feeble drawings of early travellers. details which escaped us.

west. It is only within the last twenty years. and the doubt has but lately been removed. traces of which are still to be found both in Egypt and Assyria. stage by stage. others. who inhabited the northern and eastern shores of the Mediterranean. Chaldsea. British Museum people vaguely conjectured that through those countries had progressed. M. the forms very question. become well-known first Several English and French travellers. and was the epoch which witnessed considerably nearer our the own time than These two commencement of of the long series of Egyptian dynasties civilizations by the reign Menes. Cappadocia. succeeded Cyprus. These pieces of good or that made by Salzmann at Rhodes. It still remained doubtful. As for was but yesterday that the explorations of Lang and Cesnola revealed it to us. half of the among had already. since that Phoenicia has the mission of to us. in by the peoples inhabiting the plateau of Asia it demonstrating the role actually played Minor. the missing allow the archaeologist to fortune links of the chain which attaches the arts of Greece and Italy to the earlier civilizations of Egypt and Assyria. Phrygia. While the remains of Oriental antiquity were being thus recovered piece by piece. Fellows.Introduction. in the century. one by one. in the immediate neighbourhood of Rome. how the influence of these two great centres of cultivation was extended to the still barbarous tribes. Not a year passes without some lucky " find. from the east to the and inventions of a system of civilization which But it was not till had been elaborated in the distant Chaldsea. the ancestors of the Greeks and Romans. Renan. whose spoils now enrich the . and an active and prolific interchange of ideas and products began. a Greek dialect. Texier. supply. Hamilton. described the curious the still monuments of Lydia. The latter was the less ancient of the two. and its cuneiform alphabet pressed into the service of These discoveries have put us on the alert. inspired by the desire to clear up this 1 86 1 that an expedition. met and inter- mingled through the agency of the Phoenicians." such as that of the Palsestrina treasure. and of more picturesque Lycia. with its art half Egyptian and half Assyrian. First came the marbles of I . secrets no less interesting and documents no less curious were continually coming to the surface to cast new light upon the history of classic antiquity.

They were bought by Prince Louis of Bavaria in 1812. and yet it cannot be denied that. by a company of excavators presided over by Mr. began to disfigure their works. so long as we were without original examples from the great epoch of Pericles. During a single lifetime a crowd of works were produced which. a knowledge of the most masterly. which was followed by one which made the first steps down the slope of the decadence. were all stamped with the same character of easy and frank nobility. Attention being once turned in this direction. They wer€ first exhibited in the Glyptothek of Munich in 1820.Introduction. were bousrht to form the nucleus of the collection at Munich. prised in a single generation. and the most elevated of her The literary historian might as well have attempted to creations. followed each other in rapid succession. The word decadence can hardly be pronounced in connection with the admirable works produced in the fourth century before Christ. artists took to a servile imitation of nature. trace the course of her poetry without having read Sophocles.^ The ' They were discovered in 181 1 amid the ruins of one of the temples at ^gina. of simplicity combined w'ith grandeur. in spite of differences in material and subject. The death. longer than elsewhere.tliat the bas-reHefs of the frieze the sculptures of the two pediments excelled anything which had previously entered into any European museum. the most pure. so ably restored by Thorwaldsen. with all its weaknesses. we were without that most necessary material for a history of Greek art. Emphasis and a striving for effect took the place of nobility under a pretence of sincerity. discoveries .xperienced a sense of beauty never felt before they were face to face for the first time with the ideal of the Greeks. It was comarchaic hardness. and mannerism. The statues from the pediments at ^gina. . the Parthenon. after a short pause of hesitation. Cockerel). of sincerity and elegant severity. Artists declared . Art remained at a high level in Greece. as it had been conceived and realised at that happy period of perfection which followed the disappearance of the last traces of That period was but too short. without having heard of the Elcctra or the QLdipus Rex. and Thorwaldsen was occupied during several years in putting together and restoring them. xi Museum and Both artists and connoisseurs. transferred by Lord Elgin to the British in 1816. was sufficient to lower the standard. however. or even the old age of the great men who had produced these works. acfreed in assertino. that they e.

and certain power and science. and the excavations recently underall taken by Germany. much they preserved and how much they So lost of their complete excellence when employed upon buildings erected at less cost and far as the with less care than those of the capital. which was bought by the British in 1815. had given us reason to suspect this inferiority of provincial art. and a whole frieze was found. distinguishes most of the works of a single epoch. with which they are almost cotemporary. have finally removed doubts. 1 The debris of the temple at Bassae was explored by the same company in the year 1812. of the figures with which Alcamenes and same may be said Paeonius ornamented the pediments and metopes of the Temple master who supplied the sketches and models of Zeus at Olympia. inequalities. is study of these statues stiffness very instructive in making clear to us the paths whicli sculptors of classic perfection. none of the tyranny of a single master or school. Museum . the consummate facility and the natural verve of the is never absent. is composition concerned. none of the narrowness of mere fonnii/ce. they afford us what the art of sculptors had to some curious information. betrays to the execution. with other races.xii Introduction. they too are the British Museum. There is none of that dull uniformity which. not without a certain sense of surprise. possess the nobility and purity which distinguish the They show abundant great buildings on the Athenian acropolis. near Phigalia. but which must have been left local artists.^ Thus brought into immediate propinquity with the marbles from the Parthenon. They show us Alcamenes became when those work in what we should call " the provinces " how Phidias and . the results of the French expedition to the Morea and the beautiful fragments of sculpture brought to the Louvre from the banks of the Alphceus. Even before the discoveries at yEgina and Phigalia. had to follow in their progress from the and conventions of early periods to the ease and amplitude As for the friezes from the temple of in Apollo Epicurius. Each fresh discovery helps us to comprehend. after an interval of about half a century of inaction. The their inferiority by its inequalities and general weakness. how much freedom and variety Greek art possessed during its best time. but also perceptible signs of that exaggerated objectivity which we now call realism. nor any other part of the decoration of the temple at Olympia. Neither the statues nor the bas-reliefs.

Architecture. dessinees. and opened to them a new course of study. and many others which it would take too long to enumerate. A. 3 The restoration of the temple of Athene Pohas and of the Parthenon. Inscriptions. but have given us much information as to that art which. Revett. by Ballu and Paccard. The smallest remains of ancient architecture are religious care . Poirot. and Phigalia. and the temple of Athene at Priene by M. - The Antiquities of Athens. Thomas in 1879. been reconstructed and the archseologist we mean Greek architecture at its best. F. mesurees. the purest and the most comEvery year sees plete architecture which the world has yet seen. recueillies et publices. Blouet. the results of their labours. the excellent example set by Stuart and Revett. their arrangements are is their elements are grouped. the invaluable publication which contains researches. .Introduction. Measured and Delineated by J. have not only made known to us the most original and most fertile period of Greek sculpture. of Halicarnassus by M. par Paris. seientifique Expedition de Moree. Ravoisie. Stuart and N. Trezel. de Gournay. Since that time the students of the French Academy have drawn and restored all the most important monuments of Greece. their ensemble restored with a comprehension of their artistic conditions which steadily Blouet's interesting restoragains in certainty and penetration. Bernier in 1878. .^ But the occupants of the Villa Medici were not alone in these Doubtless. of imitators. Until then they had been contented with the monumental buildings of Rome and its neicrhbourhood. 1761. followed by an increasing number with such reared those splendid creations which have and care by the artist . London. measured and drawn with explained. of Latium and Campania a few of the more adventurous among them had penetrated as far as Pa. forms the most ample and varied collection of documents open to the historian of architecture But many other architects of different among the ancients. Sculpture. ordonn'ee par le Gouvernenient Fran^ais.'^ excited the emulation of the young architects at the French Academy in Rome.stum but it was not till 1845 that they ventured to cross the sea and to study the ruins of Greece and Athens ^ in later years they have travelled as far as Syria and Asia Minor in search of objects for their pencils. . * One temple at Baalbec was restored in 1865 by M. Moyau the Mausoleum . published in the account of the of Olympia tions French expedition to the Morea. Alph. . xiii The memorable exploration to which we have alluded. dates from 1845. et Fr. 1 Folio. 183 1-7. when combined with skill the statues of Phidias and Alcamenes.^ in the second half of the eighteenth century. A.

nationalities have given closely. An hivestigation of the Prineiples of Athenian Architecture.000 francs voted by the Chamber. Their partisans. Hittorf. Paris. and by certain unhappy applications of their system but the polychromatic principles of the Greeks are now confirmed antiquity secrets provided with yielded up which . comprising 691 drawings upon a ver}. the publication of the series in its entirety was resolved upon. 3 Restitution du Temple d'Empcdocle h Selinonte. . and forming fifty-two bound volumes. and explained that those walls of the Propylseum and of the Parthenon. the. A commission. all their help to the work of patiently reconstructing the past. and to augment Hittorf arrived at still more important results through their effect. - F. and that the various members of the architecture were distinguished by differences of tint. 4to. Thanks to M. and of Apelles. that of which least is painting. He was the first the minute examination of the Sicilian ruins. Ernest Vinet as secretary. with plates. are in fact planned on a gentle curve . Jules Simon. . polychrome chez les Grccs.^ Of the we know three principal branches of ancient art. Cliarles Blanc. 1 We have indeed the collection consisted of sixty-one restorations. did something to retard their acceptance by their absolute fashion of stating their convictions. l' Architecture . most important being the Rcstauratkm des Temples de Pcesfum. 185 1. the But the work progresses very slowly. and These ideas were too strongly force to the figures in relief opposed to modern habits of thought to be received without strong protestations. by too many facts to be denied. the art of Poly- gnotus.. Penrose discovered suspected by the casual observer. to describe the important part which painting played in the decoration of Greek architecture he affirmed that in many parts of their buildings the stone or marble was painted over. J. with M. and plates in folio. was appointed to superin- In 1872 this original tend the expenditure of an annual grant of 20.relics of would never have been Thus Mr. and M. by Labrouste.^ Examined thus artists and by the trained eyes of professional the necessary instruments. J. ou. of Zeuxis. and we are obliged to take our ideas of excellence from the descriptions of ancient authors.large scale. In 1S81 only five sections had appeared. London. which seemed straight to the eye. C. properly speaking . then Minister of Public Instruction.xiv Introduction.he showed how this subtle variation was calculated to add to the beauty of the buildings. Folio. Of this we have its but few remains. 1851. Penrose. which gave accent to the mouldings. too. Director of Fine Arts.

p. Leipsic. in such a manner as to leave unsolved scarcely any of the problems upon which they could cast a light. vol. and ex. {Annali dcW Instituto de 1879). that they are the decorations for the most part of small provincial cities. great though the interest may be which attaches to these works.Introduction. and have in later times been added to every year. Boissier has summed up the leading opinions in this matter in an interesting article in the Rrcue des entitled Les Peintures ^ Deux Mondes. at Athens. the taste and technical methods of the Alexandrian school. Corrispotidenza d Herculaneum i et Rapporfo intonw iii. made were in many places. 1873. described. . at Corinth. in the Greek cities of Africa and of Magna Graecia. in spite of the indolent cities . Campanian fashion in which the excavations have been conducted. They were eagerly sought after by some of the races whom the Greeks considered barbarous. But they possessed no standards by which they could define the styles of those great schools of painting which flourished in Greece between the epoch of the Persian Wars and the beginning of the Macedonian supremacy such a definition we may now however attempt with at least partial success. it must not be forgotten that they are Italian rather than Greek. But after all. with some approach to probable truth. wall-paintings of those xv which were so long buried under the ashes of Vesuvius paintings which were uncovered in great numbers under the Napoleonic domination. These vases. Since the time of Winckelmann hundreds and thousands of those painted vases of burnt clay. Gerhard led the way in 1S31 with his famous report on the Volscian vases . plained. 5). which the public persist in calling Etruscan. when compared with the productions of the fifth and fourth centuries before our era. At the most they enable us to recall. M. di Archeologica. are examples of decadence. as we now know. and nearly every day the series which they have established are enriched by new discoveries.numerous savants have followed his example. ' See upon this subject panische Wandmahrei. Vasi Volcenti /Vw/a (October i. Fraementary mural paintings of the same kind have also been discovered in Rome and in a few other neighbourhoods. classified. have been discovered. and that even the best of them. Wolfgang Helbig's Untersuchiuigen ueber die CamM. as well as by . by the Graeco-Scythians of the Crimea.^ Winckelmann and his immediate successors saw the ashes cleared from the first Pompeian wall-paintings.

and which begin to form valuable These collections in most of the great museums of Europe. the SabelHans and the Etruscans the latter imitated them now and then more or less awkwardly. traces now of the style of Polygnotus. . .xvi Introduction. and was extinguished about two hundred years before Christ. by the remains of contemporary though inferior productions. which would belong to what we call the industrial arts. terra-cotta bas-reliefs. and that it reproduced. to trace a reflection. a savant who and who deserves that his claims to our The work in which he has brought the public mind. there is no loss which lovers of art find so hard to bear. . in each century. but yet faithful so far as it goes. the style and taste of their works. analogy with all that has passed elsewhere we are justified in believing that. gratitude should be recalled to Comte de Caylus. glass. distant and feeble perhaps. now of that of Zeuxis. as the complete annihilation of the works of those great painters whom the ancients put at least upon the same level as their most famous sculptors and who would not rejoice to be able. and statuettes which are now so eagerly sought after. the product of an art which sprang up with the first awakening of the Greek genius. still less of the results to which they might lead few of them suspected what valuable aid might be afforded to the historian of art and of antique civilization. — — 1 One of the first antiquaries to whom it occurred that the examination of these little objects might lead to profitable results was the is in some danger of being forgotten. From . If we study each we may find. series of vases in the light of the judgments passed by the ancients upon the most celebrated by a legitimate induction. bronze plaques and figures. followed with docility the example set by historical painters. of a whole art which has been lost to the world ? The archaeologists of the eighteenth century never dreamt of such researches as these. so far as its resources would allow. but their principle is incontestable. ^ painters of Greece. gems. the painting of these vases. when the nation ceased to be creative and prolific. but it is unanimously acknowledged that they are an essentially Greek product. . by the multitude of small objects vases. These inductions and conjectures certainly demand both prudence and delicacy of perception. and the profit to be In the whole wreck of antiquity obtained from them is great. mirrors. and again suggestions of the hands of Apelles or Protogenes a vase here and there may have even preserved more or less faithful imitations of the actual works of those masters.

spite of the rough usage of man. 4to. more powerful. the most accomplished and well-informed are not always able to repress a feeling of astonishment life together the fruits of a long spent in travelling. 4to. and in examining the technical processes of the ancients. though unable.^ Those statuettes. were manufactured in pro- digious quantities for thousands of years. we may judge from the labours of M. of the lighter and historians of the plastic arts attempted to define the genius of the Greeks. for instance. and with forms of plastic expression which we should never have known without them. critics Even now. both by himself and with the help of specialists. xvii which were in continual use. The small size of these objects also contributed to preserve them from destruction. have shown us how narrow and inadequate were the formulae by which the early . a few of each type have therefore come down to us. to buy them with their weight in gold. Recherches Paris. So it was with these little memorials of antiquity. 1873. d'aprcs Les Figurines antiques de terre Figurines de terre 8vo. and. c/rusi/iies. 4to. 1752-64. cuite du Musee du Louvre. In times of war and revolution the poor and humble ones of the earth easily avoid the catastrophes which overwhelm those who are richer. d . Thus it is that so many more fragile products of industry have survived to our time. 4to. sitr les Femmes voili'cs dans les I' Art G/ir. and their vast numbers In gave them a greatly increased chance of being preserved. to find means of escape. i romains. Their insignificance was their salvation in the overthrow of the civilisation to which they belonged. may be et 1 consulted with advantage {Reciieil Figures de d' Aiitiqiiitls egy/Zienucs. The painted vases. have preserved for us more than one myth of which no trace can be found in poetry or sculpture and as for terracottas. 1878. a certain number of them were sure. in collecting. Recherches siir Supplement. Henzey of the value which they possess for archaeologists. Morel. when the latter perished. VOL. from the first. 1875. objects. from so many examples. to which the Tanagra statuettes have directed so much attention. numerous and better sheltered than the masterpieces of they survived More fine art. grerqucs. I. who. and the slower progress of destruction due to the action of nature. like some of our amateurs. vol. and have made us acquainted with modes of thought and life. 6 vols. which are now classified in museums in the order of their production.Introduction. cuite. and more conspicuous than themselves. 1767). Paris. un Groiipe de Praxitck. may compare them one with another and study their smallest details.

founded in Rome in 1829. They sometimes give him. and the Due de Luynes. but Greece in her lighter and more playful moments. but to the we may be permitted to allude good work accomplished. during fifty years of incessant activity. nor attempt to estimate their of division of labour. various claims to our gratitude. of course. this society has . no more than Parthenon disconcerts in Some full of these a span high. notably Plato and Aristophanes. and yet there some- thing modern in their appearance. we mean the Instihito di Cot'rispondenza Archeologica. when they examine a figures. when. when they passed from epic tragedy to comedy. for moment even those who are least insensible At the bases of such works one is apt to look of the signature some In artist of the Renaissance or of the since eighteenth century. reality they have existed ever is the fourth or third century before our era. had also found the secret. by Thanks to the Bunsen. by the Association which has perhaps done more than any other for the progress of archaeology. others are of grace and playfulness in their outlines. of a divinity and of rites which are but imperfectly described in the writings of classic authors. famous though obscure form of worship. leaving the representation of gods and heroes. as at Tanagra. from the noblest eloquence to hearty expressions of enjoyment. resemble the marbles of the dignity and grandeur. naturally led those who were interested in the study of the remains of antique civilisation. This extension of knowledge and the great discoveries upon which it was based. feel the necessity of and of the importance of ensuring a steady supply of the best and most trustworthy information. breadth of view which characterised its founders. the most precise and : accurate information as to dress and social customs as at Tegaea.xviii Introduction. to organisation. and for show a capricious abandon which a to their charm. collection of terra-cottas. These little statues interest the historian for other reasons also. Gerhard. Societies were therefore founded in many different centres with the express object of meeting those wants. and does it with an ease of which her great writers. they afford particulars of a sometimes. That origin is still Greece. But an indescribable purity of all taste suffices to betray their real origin to those who possess knowledge and delicate perceptions. she condescends to treat the familiar objects of domestic life. enumerate them here. We cannot.

They are accompanied by fine plates. which. by their size. by M. and assuring to its members the advantages of a regular publicity. and with more fidelity.^ While the Roman Instituto was thus devoting itself to research. an international one in the best it sense of the word brings together for a common end . soon established a Bullettino. necessary to penetrate into the past by paths as yet unexplored it was necessary to complement and control the evidence of classic authors by that of public and private inscriptions. It archseologists. of the wants and ideas. these inquiries were daily attracting a more considerable share of attention from the other learned bodies of Europe. stand that the writings of the classic authors. dalla direzione in strcnna puhblicata nelF occasione dt'Ua fcsta del 21 centrale dclF Instituto Archeologico. in their handiwork. Didier. been. The Acadc'mie Berlin. were no longer In order to learn more of it capable of affording fresh information. and Vienna. It is from the pen of Michaelis. called sometimes Antiali. in 1879. will also article be found interesting. may be consulted. all discoveries at any point of the Mediterranean basin were and volumes. sometimes Memorie. dcs hiscriptions et de Belles Lellres. in which really important discoveries. engraved upon bronze. was . which had been so exhaustively studied ever since the Renaissance. . or stone it was above all necessary to seek for the expression. There are. An (pp. devoted an ever-increasing portion of their Men began everywhere to underto such studies. than had been of interest registered made . of the personal sentiments and religious conceptions. Roma. 1S29-1879. 1S79. Ernest Vinet in the volume entitled L' Art ct V Archeologie 74-91. xix inauguration. upon the origin and labours of the Instituto. . ever since its . of the men of antiquity. marble. and the problems to which they give rise. such as the Etruscans. was also published German. permit the reproduction of objects of art on a grander scale. one of the most learned of modern German Aprile. the notice written for the celebration. 1879. 8vo. 1874). Some of these dissertations are so elaborate and so full of valuable matter as to have formed epochs in the history of science. were discussed. ' For the history of the Instituto Archeologico. of the fiftieth anniversary of its foundation. in fact. previously attempted. the most eminent European savants and their best pupils it finds fellowWith their aid it labourers and correspondents in every country. and bears the following title : Storia deW 8vo. antiquity than the great scholars of the last three centuries.Introduction. Instituto Ardicotogico Germano. where. month by month. the Academies of programmes Munich. nations.

indeed transmitted to us noble masterpieces of literature masterpieces are has destroyed. of facts. With the ardour for knowledge and the heroic perseverance which are among the virtues of our time. To conduct it to a successful conclusion . to collect all that the spirit of antiquity has left behind it. The language of forms is. who are only known to us by but the relics of their these Others. Another springs from the very abundance and variety of the materials to our hand. to draw into the light all that has not perished beyond recovery. nor ! and can neither determine where off : how to leave we cannot see the forest for the trees II. in itself. Of few in proportion to those which time the thoughts which they expressed in their too immortal languages. a task which had become much more difficult than in the time of Winckelmann. curiosity has refused to resign itself to such a loss. The treasures of epigraphy have been classified and shown in their full value by Boeckh. literature has perished. and it becomes very difficult to decipher when we have no words dealing with the same ideas to help us. joined to a philosophical that . however. and others. aided by vast reading spirit. and the world is now able to guess all that history may owe to them. We it feel oppressed by the ever-growing accumulation to begin our work. art. either upon works hitherto unnoticed. have . In 1830. when the Roman Institute was founded. of those remains which bear figured representations is still more complex and formidable. or upon those which have been imperfectly understood. like the Greeks and Latins. the time seemed to have come for the formulation of all the gathered facts and for their arrangement into groups. intellect. capable of wide passion for accurate detail which it distinguishes the philologist demanded one whose taste would . a rare combination of faculties was required breadth of . The study. when we possess the art difficulty of a people without a line of their literature. Borghesi. many have been lost for ever with the fragile strips of papyrus to which they were confided.XX whose whole Introduction. less definite than that of words. It has determined to discover the unpublished. and a powerful memory generalisation.

no man can appreciate the subtle differences which discombined in tinguish styles and schools. A connoisseur is to say. 1863. no education can supply the place of natural aptitudes . shall £'«<z/5(/i'«7V/^/cc<'/rf7//j'/(7//r (Paris. to trace out and of ancient civilisation. xxi survive the trying labour of the cabinet. 4). a " scholar of genius. which collates manuscripts. that who knows design. does not. and."^ A disciple of Niebuhr and Bceckh. p. ' Leo JouEERT. and widely instructed . another. a savant and an artist Books do not teach everything. We never cease to regret that politics have deprived literature of this judicious critic. its original were of bronze in Silesia a At the end of the who. who wishes to speak of art with intelhgence must study art objects themselves. but he should be able to read a part. the language of art need not be able to compose an opera. but the latter are not by themselves sufficient to form a connoisseur. the rules and technical processes must be learnt. without who one view. and to give A special preparareasons for them which will bear discussion. he excelled all his contemporaries in his efforts to embrace the whole of antiquity in has been called. who is unable to perceive the intervals which separate one note from he can neither recognise nor remember an air. tion of the gifts necessary for we have described we mean Carl Ottfried Miiller. or attempt to write its history.Introduction. In the art of dilate upon music. As a young a philologist. that tion must be undergone. or to chisel a statue. He one person. A poet in his hours of leisure. or to decide. i vol. realise for himself all the varied aspects he took the greatest pleasure in the science which weighs words and syllables. within himself. perceptive powers which such an educational process alone can give. Firmin-Didot. a love for beautiful forms. — — by the appearance of a copy whether or marble. must cultivate an intimate acquaintance with Without the them. As man he studied with passion the antiques in the Dresden Museum and the gallery of casts belonging to the University of Gottingen. He who possesses no ear. he appreciated both ancient and modern works of literature. for instance. as in music. Something more is necessary to those who wish to form judgments upon which reliance may be placed. gave evidence of a rare combinathe successful accomplishment of . any exaggeration. while yet the task which last century there was born man in his first youth. unless he be both presumptuous and ignorant.

and was like he traversed Italy and Sicily with one intoxicated with the beauty of that Athens of which he caught but a glimpse. which. Kunstarchceclogische Werke. . or by his pen to the readers of the numerous philosophical periodicals to which he contributed. schaftlichen MytJiologie. including Orchomenos in sufficient this. Die Etrusker. Berlin. of the Eumcnides of yEschylus or important monographs like his Geschichten hellcnischer Stdmme tiiid Stddtc. &c. its errors. to make public. as a His facility of arrangeless prolific spirit might have been. which has been fruitful for good even in und die Minycr and Die Doricr. which would have been. was production. Like a man who has travelled much and who loves to tell of what he has seen. . . life In the last year of his continual delight. Calvary.. all these experiences he hoped to make use of as the lines and colours for the great picture of ancient Greece which he meditated. with indivisible unity of social all its and political life. ment and utterance was prodigious all that he learnt. he issued short articles upon archaeology and the history of art. All this knowledge. In striking But the preparatory sketches of the master While he was employed in collecting materials for the work which he meant to be his highest title to honour. rally did by means of papers full of facts and ideas. for the canvas upon which he meant to portray the Greek civilization for the benefit of the moderns. he hastened never executed. written In his later years sometimes in German. all new discoveries that he made or thought he had made. he was not shut up in silence and meditation. actively discussed of his the most famous and most works and finally. he was ever ready to take the public into his This he geneconfidence when he embarked upon a new study. number to form five substantial volumes. of Festus. of that Greece whose sun so quickly destroyed him. and the great picture. death put an end to this project. either by direct addresses to the auditors who crowded round his chair at Gottingen. .^ Besides he gave to the world learned editions of Varro. one of the capital works of our century. happily remain to us. 1873. sometimes in Latin. a work which was suggested to him by one of the publications of the There was also Prolegomena zu einer wissenBerlin Academy. perhaps. and the ' GescJiichte der griechischen Literatur. of literary and artistic him down in his forty-second year. i8mo.xxii Introduction.

and to all appearance it will long preserve its supremacy. but it was not so with the French. Nicard.In all the universities into which archaeology had made good its entrance. Italian. They had nothing of the kind but worthless epitomes of University better off than in made to facilitate the passing examinations. J. to works Then comes ' the history of Greek and Roman i art divided into HiDidhiich der Archceologie dcr Kuiisf. The best English translation in that by second edition of which appeared 1850. a especially the plastic arts principal — divides — it into classes.eitch. which Ottfried Muller gave to his work. that which has perhaps rendered the greatest service to the science of archaeology is the Handbitch der Arc/i^ologie dcr Kitnsf. as well as the versatility with which he combined the most accurate scientific investigations v/ith a delicate appreciation of the beauty and originality of the Greek authors. \o\.Introduction. P. Even now it has not been superseded.^ Translated into French. from the pen of M. and also has enabled the pupils to supplement for themselves the lessons which they learnt from their professors. But M. namely. and indicates the be consulted. was well and favourably known to cultivated Germans. It opens with an introduction in which the author defines art more petent writers with as publications. but they have all lacked his breadth of view and comprehensiveness of exposition. But of all these works. incomplete as has never become obsolete. this manual has formed the basis of the teaching. Nicard's - The French translation. it at once took its place as the indispensable guide for all those who wished to learn something of antique art. the . Since the time of Ottfried Muller several other critics have attempted to rival his achievements. so that the translator was unable to make use of the additions and corrections with which Welcker enriched the edition of 1848. forms three volumes of handbooks known under the name of the Eticydopedie Roret. which w'ds published in Breslau in 1830. The arrangement of the Handbuch is very simple. xxiii it is. those to which he himself has had continually to refer during the progress of his book. the collection of edition has one great advantage over the German versions in the complete tables is with which it is provided. 8vo. It appeared in 1841. They have manuals is treated by com- much care and skill as the most ambitious few being original works by savants of the first order. and English. In this any other nation in which every branch of history and science matter the Germans are Europe. I. — En. The form of a handbitch or manual.

Not that it a mere compilation. formed a whole mythology of art and this mythology occupies the larger portion of the second part nature and of the moral world .xiv Introduction. the characteristics which it gives to form. and sometimes to reject them all. very often the opinion judgment. Greece. it . the East. Things are easily found in it. Without entering into any long discussion he sustains it . and shows great Muller cases to which he finally commits himself had been previously unknown. periods. the subjects of which treats. and to endow them with outward features worthy of their majesty. whole days. for previous writers were far from being unanimous as to the dates and significance of the remains which they had described. in which her glowing imagination personified the forces and eternal laws of was in striving to create these types. all the interesting discoveries of several generations of archaeologists. necessarily described and estimated in the historical division are again mentioned in the chapters which treat of theory but a better plan has yet to be found. the author has succeeded in classifying and condensing is into a single convenient volume. but we need here make no attempt to repel or even to discuss the objectit)ns which have been brought against it. and studies it constitution. in her best gave most of its care to the representation of those beings. with that of their statues. superior to humanity and yet clothed with human forms. one which will enable us to avoid such repetitions without any important sacrifice. It will. inconvenience of leading to frequent repetition monuments which have been . therefore. and the paragraphs which are devoted to Etruria and To this historical epitome succeed the theoretical its chapters. that Grecian art produced its noblest and most ideal works. merits which the Handbuch possesses in the highest degree. It has doubtless the . This plan has been often criticised. and it was necessary to choose between their In such different hypotheses. be seen that a comprehensive manual had to include a history of those gods and heroes which. the conditions under it works. by a powerful effort of criticism. The chief thing in a work of the kind is to be clear and complete. of the work. territory occupied and the partition of its remains over the by ancient civilization. and. He which takes antique art as a whole. the materials and processes which it employs.

after new revision of the Handbuch. largely augmented. to compose an original work. at intervals of ten or fifteen years. made no further discoveries. in his advertisement to the reader. appeared in 1835 it was the last issued during From that moment down to the day but the lifetime of M idler. he would have modified it And why. devising ? — an enterprise which he would have brought e to VOT. few years ago one of the most eminent of our modern Carl Bernhard Stark. and even easier. an independent intellect^ a pure though catholic taste. and Roman art have risen from their temporary graves and ranged If. carefully revised and forty years too soon. many superb remains of Greek. which are generally conclusive. The second edition. partly from the manuscript notes left by the author in his interleaved copy. declare. The plan of his book prevents him from launching out. would have sufficed With a little care to prevent the manual from becoming obsolete. a new manual which should fulfil the same requirements on a system of his own T. We need say no more to the objectors who attack the mere form Its one real defect is that it was written thirty or of the book. indeed. like Winckelmann. corrected and completed. recent archaeology had themselves in our museums. did he find it more useful. has his example found no imitators ? we been content to reprint word for word the text of that to a third edition ? A archaeologists. into enthusiastic periods he makes no attempt at those. For the Grseco-Roman period especially Muller had erected so complete a historical framework that the new discoveries W^elcker.Introduction. for more than much more than he had dared. .. . a few occasional corrections and additions. however. was requested by a firm of publishers to undertake a then. we perceive a sincere and individual emotion. Why have thirty years. partly from information extracted by the editor from But why does Welcker the lectures and other writings of Muller. Etruscan. that but for the respect due work which had become classic. xxv by a few shortly stated reasons. . Why having brought his materials together. lately passed when the excavations at Olympia and Pergamus . were brought to an end. brilliant descriptions which in our day seem a little overcoloured but in the very brevity of his judgments and his laconic but significant phraseology. could find their places in it without any difficulty. published a third edition in 1848. any intelligent editor could have satisfactorily performed what was wanted.

we . which will not be We explained its plan and continued. no one has been more obstinate than he in insisting upon the originality of the Greek genius. It was between 1820 and 1830 that the young savant conceived the ideas which he developed in his works it was then that he first took an important part in the discussion as to the origin of the Greek nation. his death. From 1 the traces left by the commerce and the industries of the in Stark died at Heidelberg : October. of the whole How much of it was due to suggestions Hellenic civilization ? derived from those peoples who had so long preceded the Greeks No historian has answered this question in the ways of civil life ? in a more feeble and narrow spirit than Ottfried Miiller. By the East we mean is till after the that part of bordered by the Mediterranean. and those . Asia Minor. or is so near to that sea that constant communication was kept up with its shores we mean Egypt. and in believing that the Greek race islands of . The entire work. Engelmann. . upon which archseologists had long been engaged. : July 14. can follow the course of the Phoenician ships along the Mediterranean. by which the introduction was completed. extracted from its own inner consciousness all that has made its greatness and glory. Egypt alone had emerge from the obscurity which still enveloped the It was not until three years after ancient civilization of the East. The title of his work was identical The first 256 pages of volume were published in 1878 with the sub-title Einleitender und grundA second instalment appeared in i83o. What part had foreign example taken in the birth and development of the religion.XX vi Introduction.Ty/c// (Leipsic.^ The answer is easy. Cyprus and Rhodes which were so long dependent upon the empires on the neighbouring continents. death of Ottfried Africa and Asia which The East was not discovered IMuller. from the Thracian Bosphorus to the pillars of Hercules. was to have formed three volumes. the poetry. a successful conclusion had not death interrupted him after the publication of the first part. 8vo). however. When begun to Miiller first attacked this question. the arts. that Botta began to excavate the remains of Assyrian and nothing but the vaguest and most confused information art was to be had about the ruins in Chaldaea. Now. legenda. 1879. published in the Raiie Critique of upon the part already remarks made some with that of Miiller the first Handbuch der Archaolope der Kunst. Chaldsea and Assyria. and its great colony on the Libyan Coast. 1879. Syrian Phoenicia. and the philosophy of Greece.

and thus we are enabled to recognize and describe the industrial processes and the decorative motives. The roads were undiscovered which traversed the those by sea. and even ideas. 1821. Murray. defiles of the Taurus and the high plateaux of Asia Minor. of Texier. those same models.Introduction. Syrians and Carthaginians. and the ideas which they imparted were of necessity inexact and incomplete. 1S42. and the work of Steuart. which give evidence ' of a similar inspiration now in the British Journal of a Tour in Asia Minor. xxvii we can estimate the duration of their and the amount of influence which they exercised over the various peoples who were Forty years ago this was impossible the tributary to them. which were conveyed to the Greeks and to the races of the Italian peninsula by the "watery highway" of the MediterFifty years ago the land routes were as little known as ranean. . was the first from which any definite knowledge of their Miiller appearance could be obtained. as early as 182 1. PP. Leake had indeed described. stay in each of the countries which they visited. and it was still impossible to indicate their detours. knew nothing . remains which recall. with Comparative Remarks on the Ancient and Modern Geography of that Country (i vol. or of Hamilton while he was dying in Greece. A stili existing in Lydia . one of whom bore that name of Midas to which the Greeks attached so strange a legend ^ but he had sfiven no drawings of them. Wherever they passed the Phoenicians left behind them numbers of objects manufactured by them for exportation. the rock sculptures of Upper Assyria. or to count their stages. A few years afterwards they drew the attention of European savants to the remains which they had discovered. dotted about over the country which extends from the shores of the yEg^ean to the furthest depths of Cappadocia. till 1842. and these objects are now eagerly collected. and the marks of the Sidonian and Carthaginian makers examined and classified. to bring to the Greeks of Ionia and /Eolia.'"^ which did not appear . London.31-33)' Description of some Ancient Monuments with Inscriptions and Phrygia. writings of ancient authors were our sole source of knowledge as to the style and taste of Phoenician art. in folio. both by their style and by their symbolic devices. in 8vo. The Lycian and are remains. the tombs of the Phrygian kings. London. of the dis- coveries of Fellows. they were exploring a far more difficult and dangerous region. forms.

influences which came to them partly from the Phoenicians. Europe until after Miiller's The art clear intellect of Ottfried Miiller easily enabled him to perceive the absurdity of attempting to explain the birth of Greek by direct in borrowing from Egypt. life it is man and attempting to account important to know where he was born. which. the external circumstances during infancy and adolescence. itself in the plastic arts much later than in is poetry. as the originality of the Greek intellect displayed position. Phrygians. It was not the fault of Ottfried Muller. had he but known the hereditary predisposition. partly from the people of Asia Minor. arts. the whole course of youthful study. or none but what was false. the partial falsity of his views and their incompleteness his much more obvious history and harmful in handbook than of any great in his of Greek literature. or he would give absurd explanations of them. and literature. He would find great difficulty in explaining his hero's opinions and the prejudices and sentiments by which he may have been influenced. the privileged agents of intercourse between Egypt and the East. The baneful effects of his mistake are evident in . that he was deceived as to the true origin of Greek art. Peculiarities of character and eccentricities of idea would embarrass him. highest intellectual manifestations. all pupils and followers of the Assyrians.xxviii Introduction. to Museum. he might It is the same with the history of a easily have understood. and the surroundings of his youth. and who were his parents to learn the circumstances of his education. it was that of the time in which he lived. In writing the for his actions. but materials intensity . of the man whose life he was describing. Lycians. and with whom they comWe may thus explain the exmunicated by caravan routes. and Lydians. both countries He saw that the existing remains of the emphatically negatived such a sup- were wanting to him for a right judgment and duration of the influence under which the Greeks of the heroic age worked for many centuries. travagance of the hypothesis which Miiller advocated in all his writings and. the Cappadocians. were not transported death. . The biographer who should have no information on these points. would be likely to fall into serious mistakes and misapprehensions. whose dependants they were for the time. such as their and of people their religion.

under their guidance study the contents of one of those museum . even the Phrygians and the Lydians antiquity as a whole. .Introduction. it but he fails to perceive its vast importance. of any other displayed a more intimate combination than that Aryan nation of the life of sensibility with that of internal life. you will know not where the remains of Oriental with those from Etruria how to reply. He never formally denies her indebtedness. which. He knew well enough that the Egyptians. that she owed all her glory to the organic development of her unequalled genius. These resemblances will strike and even astonish you. of those truths which he has firmly grasped. In these archaic remains there are like many traits for which those who. He in wishes us to believe that Greece in the beginning was alone " the world. the very first xxix section pages of the historical to tlie of his work. of her first endeavours. and if you are asked how they come to exist among clifterences which become ever more and more marked in the succession of the centuries. in 1830. These saloons chapters are very unsatisfactory. or to declare with that authoritative accent which never fails him in the expression of those ideas which are dear to him. the Phoenicians. Ottfried Mtiller. between the details of forms and the choice of motives. begin with the history of Greece." He goes no further back than the Greece described to us in the heroic poems he never has recourse to such comparisons as we are now continually making at most he lets fall at lengthy intervals a few words which seem to imply that Oriental civilization may have had something to do with the awakenincj of Greek thought and the directingintelligence. as Avell as in the employment of common symbols and attributes. or had but a slight acquaintance with the art of the Eastern Empires but as he thought it necessary not entirely in 1835. similarities between the general aspects of figures. are unable to account. . This tendency is to be seen even in in the plan of his work. in the chapters which he devotes archaic period. the Babylonians. he says. alone. There even to is nothing surprising the fact that Miiller. of external with . ignore those peoples in a book which pretended to treat of it would perhaps have been better not to have relegated them to a few paragraphs at the end of his historical section. art are placed side by side and primitive Greece at every step you will notice resemblances of one kind or another. . to Attempt.

from which she had drawn her first nourishment and the primary elements of that varied and luxuriant vegetation which. were adopted by the Greeks and carried to perfection by their unerring taste. His error lay in his arbitrary isolation of Greece. Miletus and the cities of Ionia. It prevents him from grasping the true origin of many decorative forms which. Nineveh. Memphis. Carthage. in due time. while the Phoenicians carried it. carried the civilization of the East into the West. but he did not comprehend and perhaps in the then state of knowledge it was impossible that he should comprehend that the bonds were no less close which bound the Hellenic civilization to the far more ancient system which was born upon the banks of the Nile. Ottfried Mliller saw clearly enough the long and intimate connection between Greece and Rome. to spread plains of Iran on the one itself over the hand and of Asia Minor on the other. setting up as its principal and successive centres.XXX Introduction. . There is no sequence in a story so broken up. why and should he have postponed fall their history to that of the decline of Grceco-Roman art ? Would its it not have been better to put the little he had to tell us in proper place. falsified. and crept up and finally — — the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates. Antioch. over the whole basin of the Mediterranean. Corinth and Athens. . became covered with the fairest hues of art and poetry. Ale. were perpetuated in and thence transferred to that of modern times and bad though it is. is not the worst result of Muller's misapprehension. Sidon. classic art. which in spite of a few more or less brusque oscillations and periods of apparent sterility. Babylon. coming originally from the East. at the beginning of his book ? This curious prejudice makes the study of a whole series of important works more difficult and less fruitful. with the alphabet which they had invented and the forms of their own worship of Astarte. Pergamus. were much older than the Greeks . and turned back upon itself. Thebes. the disciple and heir of Greece. You will there seek in vain for that which we mean to strive after in this present history of antique art a regular and uninterrupted development. His inversion of the true chronological order makes a violent break in the continuity of the phenomena and obscures their mutual relations.xandria. — Rome. in dragging her from the soil in which her roots were deeply imbedded. this.

to give to them their But Greece the proper place in the civilization of ancient times. the newly-born scientific methods. nor even for calling attention to her literature. Served by her situation on the confines of Europe and Asia and to the Thanks — — not far from Africa. We shall endeavour to bring the same care and conscience. . to give to our readers new and better reasons for loving and admiring her than they have had . we desire and hope to make that drove us to this undertaking her life better known. . the same striving after accuracy. numerous discoveries of the last fifty years. and which has more than once been overwhelmed for a time in epochs of national conflict and social decadence. This is not the place for insistence upon all that Greece has accomplished in the domains of pure thought. and We are science. by the superiority of the genius of her people and the marvellous aptitudes of her language. history has been at last enabled to render justice to certain nations whose activity had never before been properly understood.so to the theories for which they afford a basis. a history which we wish to conduct to the point where Muller left off. in a word.Introduction. to protect from destruction and oblivion the machinery of progress. to whom she has lost nothing by herself was more just in her early legends the more exact information which is now at our command. writing the history of the arts and not that of letters. thanks al. philosophy. all the complex and fragile apparatus of civilization which was so often threatened with final destruction. to the commencement of those centuries which are called the Middle Ages and Greece will occupy by far the most important place in our work. into every division of our history but the monuments of Greece will be examined and described in much greater detail than those of Egypt and Assyria. and to the comparisons which they have suggested. the processes of art. . to show a side of it which is not to be found in the works of her great writers. Greece which Ottfried Miiller worshipped. Greece was able to arrange and classify previous discoveries and to bring them to perfection. xxxi III. It was our love for Greece or even those of Etruria and Latium. and for which he was too ready to sacrifice her predecessors and teachers.

as their architects. in before. in But each proportion In the and nationality will for us have an importance to the closeness of its connection with the art of Greece. we need feel no surprise at their central and dominating position in the history of antique art. but to incite to such an ardent and intelligent study of her beauties. of giving visible expression to the highest thoughts. it and to illustrate it by the most striking remains which style has left behind. be merely an introduction to our historv as a whole. They form a school. than men . were superior both to their pupils and their masters. not. to enable us to dispense with nature. As and the Greeks excelled all other nations . their sculptors. to the orientals on the one hand. of any other race or any other epoch. found interesting. we shall endeavour to estimate and describe the ability shown by them in apprehending the lessons of their instructors. The study of oriental art will really. mutilated by time and accident as they are. works of the Greek artists. but an introduction which . therefore. and the skill with which they drew from their teachers a method for the expression of their own peculiar wants and feelings and for the satisfaction of their own sesthetic desires. their A works of art. and the Etruscans and the Latins on the other. Other national styles and artistic manifestations will pass before the eye of the reader in their due order and succession they will all be . we shall ask how much to its they contributed to the foundations of perfection . as may lead to the creation of great works. in the width and depth of their cesthetic sentiments their painters. like those pletely interpreted intellectual qualities of the Greeks. Greek art and ultimate in the case of the ancient Italians. the indispensable and eternal master. and we shall endeavour to distinguish each by its peculiar and essential characteristics. serve as models and teachers for our painters and sculptors. case of those oriental races which were the teachers of the Greeks.xxxii Introduction. combination of circumstances that is unique in the history of the world gave to the contemporaries of Pericles and Alexander the power of approaching more nearly to perfection. as some have thought. a role which they will continue to fill until the end of time. because they show to us the continual struggle of man against matter. In no other place or time have ideas been so clearly and com- by form in no other place or time have the been so closely wedded to a strong love for It results from this that the beauty and a keen sensibility to it. works capable.

The Greece which we call ancient entered late into history. Their actual situation was a very plastic forms. f . were perfectly true. as we are told by Plato. The history of Roman art will be its natural and necessary far. and for what reasons we from our illustrious predecessor. when the genius of man had. him in arbitrary isolation of Greece. without attempting to discover and explain the slow and careful stages by its Greek art as a thing self-created in which must. It would be more than absurd in these days to accept is it Our age in the age of history others the full perfection. the that ' TilllCEKS. its genius and the superiority follow but we cannot . you are but children!"^ In comparison with Egypt. in interests itself above all sequence of social phenomena and their organic development.Introduction. or in some inaccessible island. and which embodied in the work. I. eminence of Greece. In this history of ours of which we are attempting to sketch the form. we even proclaim with enthusiasm. we must first study the early history of those races which surround the eastern basin of the Mediterranean. In this sense. Appearing thus lately upon the scene. so to speak. originality of art . a priest of Sais addressed to Solon. a past of many words which. with Phoenicia. to describe the springing of Greek civilization. which he suspends. by efforts continued without intermission through a long centuries. when civilization had already a long past behind it. the of its works of plastic air. p. is xxxiii absolutely required will be comjsletely Etruscan and epilogue. we it arrived at its in order to get at the true origin of Greek its art. an evolution which Hegel explained by the laws of thought. the : procession of centuries. "You Greeks. 2 2. VOL. by means either of articulate sounds and the symbols which represent them or by the aid of Greeks could only have remained ignorant of all had been achieved before their time if they had sprung into existence in some distant and isolated corner of the world. by our plan of treatment. Greece is almost modern the age of Pericles is nearer to our day than to that which saw the birth of Egyptian civilization. as he did. apogee in the Athens of Pericles. with Chaldaea. the pre- This explanation will show how mean to separate ourselves We his admit. penetrate far beyond apparent origin . arrived at the power of giving clear and definite expression to his thoughts.

—should — penetrate into the country from the neighbouring East by all the channels of communication which we have mentioned. for future developments. INIan progresses as of those w^hich had already been established fast as he can as soon as he learns any new method of satisfying he makes his wants and ameliorating his life. moreover. as soon as the Greek race drew itself clear from primitive examples. Assyrian. Syria. and was. Such being the situation of Greece. .xxxiv different one. processes. ever turned outwards the Greek nationality was not one of those which remain for ages inaccessible to foreign merchandize and surrounding coasts like vessels at anchor. the more we study the past. it could not but happen. together with the . in contact with the Egyptian. Seeing how far civilization had advanced. would it not have been absurd for the Greeks to have turned a deaf ear and a blind eye to the experience of their predecessors to have begun again at the beginning ? Was it not better to take up the work at the point where it had been left. Introduction. . . and Median empires. modes of thought. while it the insular or peninsular character of most of the region which numerous colonies attached to the had the effect of greatly The Greek frontier was thus multiplying the points of contact. the fertile germs of art. by the accident of geographical situation. he makes use of it use of it at first in its original form. one of abnormal extent. which is on one hand upon the very borders of Asia. . and to make use. The Greek race thus found itself. In the earliest epoch of which we have any record find them estabHshed in a peninsula. we Asia.* . these islands are sprinkled so thickly over the narrow seas seems to have intended them Avhich should tempt the least venturesome that nature for stepping-stones cross to from one its continent to the other. the more surely do we recognize the truth contained in those myths and traditions which betray the influence exercised upon Greece by the people of To confine ourselves to the Egypt. always open. and upon another seems to hold out a hand to Africa by the innumerable islands which surround Between the shores of this peninsula and those of its shores. and Asia Minor. models. always Her eyes were ready to receive foreign ideas and influences. that. but with years and experience he improves it and brings it nearer to perfection. . barbarism. Thus then. the masters of the Eastern Mediterranean inhabited.

He are also finds that the Greeks borrowed from the same instructors artistic. certain necessary conventions. like the sphinx. and yet a pracGreeks were never satisfied.. in the fu-11 Even after Greek art had reached perfection and was of these early borrowings. decorative forms. and that of Greece. those industrial processes which. and to the number of his elements for comparison. although not in themselves among the antecedent conditions of art . forms and motives which had been employed in previous centuries and earlier civilizations. metallurgy. were transported to Greece and there preserved to be handed down to our modern ornamentist. Greek taste had not yet so transformed the details of ornamentation as to prevent us from recognizing the motives which commerce had brought for its use over the waves of the ^Egean or the mountains of Asia Minor. of representing the drapery with which the forms are covered. namely. the alphabet of art. of accenting its articulations. which are something beyond mere coincidences. the more numerous do those features become which are common to oriental. simple in a when their secrets word all those trades which seem so are known. sentiments. smith's work. Introduction. We find analogous methods of indicating the human skeleton. especially Assyrian. invented on the banks of the Nile or the Tigris. plastic arts. tised eye can perceive that the The marks the facilities of such a soulless and indiscriminating eclecticism . art. combinations of ornaments. stone- working and carving. nevertheless. which. embroidery. in exact proportion to the accuracy of his researches. ceramics. another alphabet which has been happily named . was not only the material outfit of civilization that the Greeks borrowed from their predecessors they obtained. weaving. more we are struck with these resemblances. with merely combining in various proportions the materials furnished by the artisans of Egypt or Assyria of their origin are continually visible. like the Phoenicians. together with that alphabet which represents the principal sounds of the voice by a few special signs. the griffin. The deeper we penetrate into what is called archaism. the The nearer we get to the fountain head of Greek art. the palm-leaf and many others. the historian of xxxv Greek art discovers siirz'ivals. we still find traces Sometimes it is a decorative motive. a crowd of plastic elements which they had employed in the expression of their own ideas and line. re- present the accumulated efforts of countless It unknown inventors. enjoyment of her own individuality. glass-making. but which.

beyond the huge ramparts of the cities of Syria. We should be unable to grasp art of . obelisks and pyramids of Egypt. to Cyprus and Rhodes. we must endeavour to . as those of the Our route will conduct traveller towards his long-desired goal. of a race that as that could not satisfy the ambitions already possessed the poetry of Hesiod and Homer. as our history of the past advances. . us from the shores of the Nile to those of the Euphrates and Tigris. The the exclusively Greek features of Greek art did we not begin by defining the foreign elements which have taken their part in the work. far discover whence they first we must and then show. and . When we have crossed the threshold of the Propylsea. and of whose art they were the heirs and continuers. the majesty of those pediments where live and breathe lifting into the azure the g-ods of Homer and Phidias. . we shall see it before us. and how can its existence be explained ? These are the but in order to arrive questions which we propose to answer at a just conclusion we must begin with the study of those nations to whom the Greeks went to school. that is. sky the elegant severity of its marble porticoes. over the plains of Medea and Persia and Asia Minor to But beyond the the shores of Phoenicia. the lofty colonnades of Persepolis. by wellchosen examples. and prepared to understand and to judge but during the whole voyage our eyes will be turned towards Greece. It was far superior to all that went before it it alone deserved to become classic. they realised their own conception. In what does its superiority consist ? How does its originality show itself. Greece was profoundly original in the best sense of the word. to furnish a body of rules and laws capable of being transmitted by teaching. of success. the fortresses and rock-cut tombs of Phrygia and Lycia. to penetrate into of those civilizations.xxxvi Introduction. we shall never cease to perceive on the horizon the sacred rock of the Athenian acropolis . by what means and with how great a measure started and how they progressed define their ideas of the beautiful. We undertake this long detour in order that we may arrive in Greece instructed by all that we have learnt on the way. and that we can only do by going back to the civilizations in which they were produced the spirit . beyond the towers of Chaldsea and the domes of Nineveh.

pompous capitals of to Alexander describe if we cross sea to visit Veil the and Clusium. and the temple of Wingless Victory when we have seen all Greece become covered with monuments of architecture and sculpture.Introduction. This omission may surprise some of our readers. disdain. after grave reflection. and we therefore beg to submit for their consideration the reasons which. IV. than they were of found almost everywhere. will it not cost us a struggle to ? quit If so many wonders and conclude our voyage of Cimon. baths. thickly dispersed near the surface of the earth. We fully appreciate the importance of such researches. without rivalling those of Athens in purity of line or finesse of execution. . and of the heirs we the the leave the Athens Lycurgus. have induced us to refrain from lake dwellings. for . from describing the first manifestations of the plastic instinct of mankind. xxxvii visited the Parthenon. among basilicas. and of the results which they have No sooner had it entered into the mind man to look for and collect the humble remains upon which so many centuries had looked with indifference. we shall now and again turn our eyes with regret to wHat we have left behind and. heaped among the bones of deer in the grottoes for which . the nostalgia of the exile. although we shall endeavour to comprehend and to judge with the liberality and largeness of taste and sympathy which is the honour of contemporary criticism. its amphitheatres. now and again. . and all the sumptuous evidence of its luxury. of Pericles. Phidias and the scene of Polycletus. In art this sketch of is our plan. the Erectha:um. the Etruscan . . bear the impress of the same style and the same when we have seen Praxiteles and Scopas succeed to taste have the . retracing the first steps of human industry. which. we shall sometimes sigh for that ideal of pure and sovereign beauty which we adored in Greece and shall feel. We to are actuated by neither indifference nor led. cemeteries with if at last its fantastic magnificence of their decoration its we find ourselves in imperial Rome. w^e have reserved no place for the the art of the caverns and the which called prehistoric.

. so far as it goes. In some of the cave dwellings. has also taken these remains in hand. or horn. has attempted to classify them and to gain from them some notion of the life led by These arms. to decide the former use of each of the objects By collating the observations of the various travellers who have savage races in question. men and animals had once contended. of the life and social habits of those primitive Eurovisited the peans is not who made all. These comparisons have enabled us discovered. and instruments which have of the old and cultivated nations of Europe. further examination brought to light the local differ- Thus the proneness to which prevailed then as now. once and certainly recognized. amber balls which were once strung upon necklaces and bracelets fragments of rough tissue seeds and carbonized fruits earthen and of skin garments vessels made by hand and dried in the sun or simply in the open air. we have been enabled to form for ourselves a probably truthful picture. buried in peat marshes and sandy shores. to a period Chaldsea. and domestic utensils shells. have been carefully compared with similar objects still in use by the savage races which people the far corners of the world. more this significant is still. the soil from recovered been tools. And that general character of those early periods being established. it is nowhere ences so marked as among those primitive cave-dwellers of Perigord patiently studied. natural The comparative method. . bone. there is nothiny which is sug'g-ests writinq. But none of these remains bear the slightest trace of a system of signs for the transmission of ideas or recollections . and. the early human families which manufactured them. . into fishhooks. into instruments of the chase. plastic imitation seems to have been peculiar to a few tribes althouo-h traces of this taste are found elsewhere. there a complete absence of metal. whom Christy and Edouard Lartet have so . perforated teeth. to say nothing of that of Greece and much nearer the primitive barbarism than to the civilization of Egypt and Rome.— XXXviii IXTRODUCTION. sometimes even sprinkled upon the surface of the Pieces of flint. fashioned fields and country roads. . bones and pieces have been found upon which the figures of animals are of horn carved with a truth and spirit which allow their species to be at . in All evidence that the remains question belong to a very remote antiquity. which has done so much for science. The use of similar tools and weapons.

of reindeer horn. divided into the pahcolithic and neolithic epochs . side at least must ever be lost in unfathomable obscurity. repay any The remains which they bringamount of toil and expense. There can be in no question of chronology. the age of bronze followed. but all this no recollection. xxxix By dint of careful classification and comparison. but. They cast some slight illumination upon those distant ages of which humanity has preserved had.those objects of art which. and then came the iron age. and with iron we are classic period. on the other hand. They people with unknown multitudes those remote epochs into which scientific curiosity yesterday. whose total would. flint axe. by repeat a {q." as it In this unlimited field. to reward e>vcavators on the sites of ancient Their chances are small of finding. of ivory.v! types with an extreme monotony . we have been enabled to discover the slow steps by which mankind raised itself from the earliest. we have been enabled to follow the march of progress through those countless centuries whose number will never be known to us. they carry our thoughts back to a point far nearer the cradle of our race than the myths of early history or even the monumental remains of Egypt and Chalda^a. perhaps. With the appear- ance of the former metal the tribes of northern Europe established a connection with the civilized surrounded the Mediterranean. the main the stone age has been defined and divisions have been traced . to the rich and varied equipment of " lacustrian civilization. to light have little to say to our aesthetic perceptions they their . oppress our imaginations if we knew it . found with the bones of the mammoth in the quaternary alluvial deposits. almost shapeless. but of Abbeville or the caverns of Perigord when from the sands we dig up the first flint implements or those fragments of bone. real no desire to penetrate. which have preserved to us the first attempts made by man to copy the outlines of living beings. and central races which in the full We those can never be too grateful for the persevering labours of who have . beauty and elegance. carried on these researches in every corner of Europe their deserts are all the greater from the fact that they could never count upon those agreeable surprises which come now and then and historic cities. of which one has sometimes been called.Introduction. it takes us far beyond those days of which our only knowledge comes from vague .

tradition. Where little neither written evidence nor oral tradition exist there can be question of historic order. unhappily. first and still farther beyond those centuries which saw the struggling dawn of history. measured shall least with something approaching to probable truth. as indeed maybe historically proved. added most likely to the discoveries of that which preceded it after each happy effort many generations succeeded one another Ever since they have without any further attempt to advance. embark upon these questions of which we have chosen declares. decided not to prehistoric art. the actual duration of the stone age. . when the at implies established relations between certain groups of facts and certain portions of time. more centuries rolled away between the first chipped flints and the well polished weapons which succeeded them than But we cannot between the latter and the earliest use of bronze. the savage races of the world have been practically stationary except where European commerce has to little profoundly modified the conditions of their therefore. From all analogies progress must . failed the attempt . been under our observation. We have. modes of interpreted by expressive forms and thought we may even attempt under all but reserve to sketch their history with the sole aid of their plastic remains. yet if The chances of error would of course be numerous us. and the word history. in question. that lives. may be applied to movement world but on the whole this law of constantly accelerated progress holds good. . people we find their successive . It is probable. in all probability. prove that it was so. nor satisfy those whom probability and a specious hypothesis will not content. had but do without metals. So long as man . then. all other materials had. because. any of estimating even within five or six thousand years.xl Introduction. the rapidity of industrial progress is like that of a falling continually accelerating. exceedingly slow body. each generation. the forces at work are too numerous and it sometimes too contrary to allow us to express tical by the mathemain the physical formula which . have been. probably we never possess. This acceleration social life are too is not of course quite regular the phenomena of complex. as the title we propose human race to is write a history. We means do not yet possess. in the beginning. In the art of a civilized feeling The remains silence of the stone age are not calculated to dissipate the which enshrouds those centuries.

The word history cannot then be pronounced in connection with these remote periods. idols which represent. could impress upon it nothing but those gross instincts which are common to man and beast we can discover nothing from his works. is nothing but an industry. and it might fairly be expected that our history should commence with them. we may acknowledge. which is content with be supplying the simplest wants. . at Mycenae and in in these attempts is beside the question . the harpoons and fish-hooks. the great goddess mother whose worship the Phoenicians taught to the Greeks. were it not that they offer no sequence. man did not cut the figures of animals upon the handles of his tools and upon those objects which have been called. beginning in Egypt and Chaldaea.Introduction. no starting point for any continuous movement like that which. I. for any utilitarian purpose it was to give himself pleasure. the knives. The more ancient portions of our prehistoric collections do not offer the same opportunities The primitive savage they are too simple and too little varied. the crowds of various utensils which we see in the glass cases of a pre-historic museum all this. with those first attempts at the representation of life. Art commences for us with man's first attempts to impress upon matter some form which should be the expression of a sentiment or of an idea. . beyond the means which he employed in his struggles with his enemies. The want of skill shown sense as works of art. tures of the cave-dwellinofs that It is not until we reach the sculp- oerms of artistic effort. we VOL. and in truth. and a rudimentary industry. as we believe. it was because he found true aesthetic enjoyment in copying and interpreting living nature. the part of the workman renders him an artist. the pins. Specimens of find the first . to those who wish to study the history of labour. mere desire on the The most hideous and disgusting of those idols in stone or terra-cotta which are found in the islands of the Greek Archipelago. are works of art but we are unable to give that title to the axes and arrowheads. who moulded matter to his will with great and painful difficulty. a- . nor can their remains be looked upon in any . perhaps a little recklessly. batons of command. Art was born. xli would have been well worth making. the needles. Boeotia. and in his never-ending effort to procure food for himself. . was prosecuted in Greece and led in time to such high developments even its competent students confess that the art of the cave-men was an isolated episode without fruition or consequence. interesting though it .

had long before been roughly figured in one or two caves in the Dordogne. p. but. Among the deposits to which we have alluded. so far as they could. results. but before those objects were sufficiently numerous or the relations effect countries sufficiently intimate to produce any great upon the habits of native workmen. Archiologie celtiqiie et gauloise {\ vol. the movements of commerce with Greece and Etruria. this art are found at but a few points of the vast surface over which the vestiges of primitive man are spread. sought after in A secret instinct worked them and inspired them with which the desire to give some appearance of elegance use. i. taken from the vegetable world. Didier. introduced From what we have said. to the objects This geometrical style of decoration prevailed all over central Europe until. 8vo. which. still copy the types mankind.shall our path when we come to treat of that pre- the Greece which preceded by perhaps two or three centuries Greece of Homer. Al. But even with the discoveries which carry us farthest back. 68). . we only reach the end of the period in question. and secondly the in they had daily Roman conquest. in the first place. will be seen that we could not have . Cavernes. passed over in silence this system of ornamentation in but we . it is generally possible to distinguish those works which are of foreign origin and such works excluded. at Mycenae. was imagined were not bare utility. this decoration proves that those by whom and who frequently employed it with such happy contented with beauty. 1876.^ Towards the close of the prehistoric age the taste for ornament to less those of man becomes very marked.xlii Introduction. nor even in that advance in other ways of that of the cave-dwelHngs does it — — ever seem to have entered into the mind of offered to him by the organic world. and in other ancient sites. again find historic it the it methods of classic art. but that ornament is always of the kind Hardly a single decorative motive is which we call geometric. when maritime commerce had already brought to the islands and the mainland of Greece objects of Egyptian. however. Like the rude efforts of the caveit men. and neither of bronze both far in in the neohthic age. with those . vol. Bertrand. By the help of the discoveries which have been lately made in the Troad. we shall study the works produced by the ancestors of the Greeks before they went to school to the nations of the East. ' Dktmmaire aichcologique dc la Gaiile. Phcenician or Chaldaic manufacture. figure 28.

a special characteristic which may serve to distinguish from the Objections have been brought against this doctrine of which Herr Conze himself examples taken from Aryan family. human nature being the whose development has been normal. others advanced without iminstincts. to use a conventional term. never entirely disappears in a literature . or rather uniformity. One would say that from the shores of the great ocean and the Baltic to those of the Mediterranean. in the universality of the the . or rather the same poverty. It was the same with a letters. and finally the its human beauty and possess ! nobility. pulse from ether sources than their own they reproduced figure in all vegetable and animal forms. a feature Semites. in its general character- from that of the various peoples spread over the continent of Europe. it has same everywhere. their less The richly endowed among them would have stopped at that point to but for the example of their neighbours. all the workmen laboured for the same masters. neither interrupted nor accelerated by external causes. system. is xliii it easy to form a sufficiently accurate general idea of the art practised by the forefathers of the historic gians. Its guiding spirit and its motives are similar. There is same richness. common to all branches of the Aryan it race. furniture. at some period of their lives. have. all has recognized the gravity . first The trace of this earliest spontaneous effort. the same combinations produced by a small number of never-changing linear elements. Greeks as —by the was Pelas- So long it left to its own inspiration. Among there are the nations which have that made name a in history at how few a true literature. one of the most eminent of German archaeologists. who stirred them on new attempts and further progress . by numerous to the the art of nations which do not belong been shown those peoples that. and still practised for centuries after the dawn of Greek civilization in the great plains to the north of the Alps and the istics. of this naive product of the imagination. under one form or another. Pelasgic art did not differ. has proposed that this kind of ornament shall be called Indo-European he sees. have a popular is poetry which more or less varied and expressive. Struck by this resemblance. turned to the style in question for the decoration of their weapons. poetry once inspired and critical All however. Danube. Herr Conze.Introduction. their apparel and' their personal ornaments. of their earthenware.

and guessed at the part which might be played by the plastic instincts with which it felt itself endowed. or evidence of the transition has escaped our researches. . This style therefore should be studied both for its jarinciple and for the resources of which it disposes. There artistic is another consideration of still greater importance series. figs. feel. and although its rapidity was intermittent. from curves and interlacing lines. accustomed to straight lines and circles. objects gleaned throughout central Europe. and show the steps artist by which the succeeds in passing from one style to another. to the imitation of nature. Nothing could be farther from the subtlety and variety of the contours presented by living organisms. art was born with the awakening of this desire to reproduce the beauty and mobility of living forms. or segments of circles. upon time and circumstance the march along the road of progress began. 44 . MycemB. from all mere abstract combi- nations. see pis. but as we shall have to notice it when we treat of Greece. But in spite of all this. In the same way the most advanced and refined forms of art draw a part of their motives and effects Irom geometrical decoration. Both in Greece and Italy approximate dates can be given to the monuments which it ornaments. . see and 46. has succeeded in suggesting by those means the figures of birds and fighting men. it seems to us better to adjourn till then any discussion of its merits.' upon which the workman's hand. they can be placed in their proper historical position.xliv Introduction. Cyprus. the remains of Greece form an almost unbroken from the brilliant humble and timid attempts of nascent sculpture to the masterpieces of Phidias and Polycletus. it was certain to arrive. Nothing can be much more imperfect or more conventional than the figures which we find upon some of the painted vases from Mycenae and Cyprus. to the representation of bodies which breathe. All that had preceded it was but the vague murmuring of a wish which had not yet become self conscious but. which is by no means the case with the . All the rest depended upon natural gifts. which move and struggle. ScHLiEMANN. if not always at the . which is Hfe-like and sincere it is found even in the most perfect works of its classic period. and speak. at last' the intellect divined the use to which it might be put. 33 and 213: Cesnola. Elsewhere force has either been wanting for this development.

with which our school-days have made us familiar it reminds us of those nations whose stories we learnt from the sacred and profane and our thoughts authors whose works we read in our youth revert to their grandiose monuments of architecture and sculpture. the nations which figure upon the stage of they each had neighbours who inhistory were not isolated fluenced them. The conventional meaning of this word postponing our study of the origin of embraces neither the primitive savages who chipped the first flint. we are enabled to avoid all excursion beyond the limits implied by our title. times rather a tendency to the creation of than art itself. but it calls up before our eyes the brilliant cities of northern Africa and hither. belonged to one historical system to those who take a wide grasp of facts they are but the members and organs of one great body. . of movement and of thought. at least at sufficient competence in painting and modelling to transmit the types of a race and the images of its gods to posterity. and the Pyrenees. indeed. w^ere grouped round the basin of the Mediterranean. The nations which. to their masterpieces of poetry and eloquence. before the triumph of the barbarians. the invasion of of the . from Memphis and Babylon to Athens and Rome. lived on the north of the Danube. As for the populations which. . they do not belong to the same system they were attached to it by the Roman conquest. and the fall Christianity. or whom they influenced. The student of plastic art finds in the remains of prehistoric art. and the discoveries the intelligence of an educated man tells him that in the ancient of science every day make the fact more certain as in the modern world. for three or four thousand years.Asia. beyond that which is generally called antiquity. to those great works of literature in which we took our first lessons in the art of Behind all these images and associations writing and speaking. . the work of civilization was continuous and universal. not long. but at a very late period .Introduction. xlv production of masterpieces of divine beauty. — — . . the Alps. by this tendency until we come to investigate Greek and Italian art. the sources of life. of Greece and Italy. by commerce or conquest each also received something from its predecessors. and in turn transmitted the results'of its labour to those which came after it in a word. in which the nervous centres. nor the cave-men. slowly gravitated with the effluxion of time from the east to the west. . . long before the opening of this period and during the whole of its duration.

throughout those ages. made an important contribution to the civilization into which they plunged at so late a period. in that accumulation of inventions and creations which. when clothed which it lenium after millenium. of the wider and more comprehensive civilization of modern Europe. It had exhausted every form in which those ideas and beliefs could be had kept unchanged. nor letters. empire. fixed and served by writing and realized by art. nations. nor expressive their received them from all. the Slavs and Scandinavians. These also were to have their modes of expression. the old world had almost finished its task. then. conquerors. rich and sonorous enough. very language they or adopted and for all this they gave practically nothing in return. neither history. who had nearly all. they took no part in the in the work which. Elsewhere.xlvi Introduction. which have given expression to far more complex ideas than those of antiquity. pre- form the common patrimony . it They are separated from . they remained in their isolation for thousands of years. all those tribes which the Romans called barbarous. existed. they did so much to provide a foundation for those in thought and feeling which are only to be found modes of modern society. the dissolution it. was being prosecuted great basin of the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean. these barbaric art. to that religion which has led to the foundation of our modern social and political systems. Hidden behind a thick curtain of mountains and forests. for milThe old world employed such force and vitality as remained to it in giving birth to the new. led to substitution for of the antique system and the and violence. have. they have neither literary and scientific culture nor anything that deserves the name of art. by many things they have no history. As soon as the victories of the Roman legions. The Celts and Teutons. to what we call antiquity. or little changed. . in spite of the apparent poverty of their share. but dominated by analysis they were to have arts and literatures. a civilization which was destined to cross every sea and to spread itself over the whole surface of the globe. and the construction of the great roads which united Rome with her most distant provinces. furnishing to civilization nothing but a few rough materials which they themselves knew not how to use . sprinkled over vast regions where no towns These races do not belong. had brought them into constant communication with the maritime after centuries of confusion cities of the Mediterranean. whose .

inventive fancy of The representation of the human figure has never reached the purity of line or nobility of expression of a Greek statue. it Why comprehend the more ancient monuments of India and China. at a was as disturbers and destroyers. doubtless. or at least are chiefly struck by their shortcomings. their severe judges. do we refuse to Our motives may be easily divined. the science of decoration has never been carried farther than by the wood-carvers. in this work ? then. — — of our studies. may be asked. weavers and embroiderers of Hindostan. might allege our incompetence for such an extended task. — We which limit have is difterent. but equally valid. but. These styles have their fanatical admirers . and decorative painting which charms facility and design. they produced none of those elements left to us by antiquity and preserved for us by that Rome in whose hands the heritage of Greece was concentrated. who but no one attempts to deny that each of those nations possesses an art which is always original. Those rich the marvellous delicacy of their ornamentation. which would be enough to occupy several lives. a civilization which has produced works both of fine and of industrial art which in many respects equalled those In all those of the nations with which we are now occupied.Introduction. who see nothing but their brilliant qualities they have also their detractors. But we have a We . of the most civilized portion of late hour. and the potters of China and Japan. those which by their age belong to the centuries with which we are concerned. and sometimes of great and rare power. a civilization which stretches back nearly as far as that of Egypt and Assyria. reasons for leaving that China. sculptures singular freedom of a by its skilful use of brilliant colour as well as by the its and power. entered upon the scene. on the other hand. countries there are buildings which impress by their mass and by called the far East -India. it When. and although they helped to found modern society. and Japan outside the and populous countries have. these nations tlie xlvii human species.

has been turned to the profit of others than its authors. has given us the sexagesimal division which we still employ for the partition of a circumference into degrees. Down almost to our own days China and its satellites had no dealings with the western group of nations. and forms. It is far as is So China separated from western mankind by the largest of the continents.xlviii Introduction. In the course of her long and laborious existence China has invented many things. written characters. by deserts. decisive reason. Neither Aryan India nor Turanian China belongs to the antiquity which we have defined. and. so to speak. by the highest mountains in the world. then. she guarded them to invent them anew. part of the public wealth. changed the face of the world not only . concerned no doubt or hesitation is possible. impassable. there is a profound difference between Egypt or Chaldsea. in the hands of Europeans. was invented in Babylon and travelled across western Asia to be adopted by the Greeks. that which the Phoenicians extracted from one of the forms of Egyptian writing. made the tour of the Mediterranean. We may cite printing as an example nearly two hundred years before our era the Chinese printed with blocks of wood. A system of numerals. and as for Indo-China and Japan they are but annexes to those two great nations religion. to the latest of the Roman Emperors. through the mediation of the Greek astronomers and geographers. by seas once finally. She was the first to discover several of those instruments and processes which. more — centres of civilization. of weights and measures. in the history of China do not belong The most remote epochs to antiquity as we have . A single alphabet. by that contempt and hatred of everything foreign which such conditions of existence are calculated to engender. useful discovery On the other hand. and served all the nations of the ancient world in turn for preserving their thoughts and the idiom of their language. It is a human family which has lived in voluntary isolation from the rest of its species. in a few centuries. have. from the time of Menes and Ourkham. in the period made From this point of view. the first historic kings of Egypt and Chaldaea. did she fail so closely make good use that the West had to . the industrial and plastic arts all came to them from one or the other of those two ereat still . and China. minutes and seconds. of her inventions. every and by the group of nations to whom we mean to confine our attention.

Assyrian. Persia. Read as a whole. this. Less remote than China. and that would have been the sum of our loss. Chaldsea. supplies of aromatic spices. however. though fluctuating with time. Greece and Rome. some portions of which were annexed for a time to those Empires which had their centre in the valley of the Euphrates and stretched westwards as far as the Mediterranean. we its art. and Arachosia. xlix Without knowing it or wishing it. the religious analyses which are VOL. defined the term. literature. The case of India is different. of jewels. and should have had to do without tea. The Assyrians. There is no evidence that up to the very last days of antique civilization the inhabitants of Hindostan with all their depths and originality of thought ever exercised such influence upon their neighbours as could have made itself felt as far as Greece. But when China is in question our impression is very different. There was a continuous comincr and ofoine of caravans across the plateau of Iran and the deserts which lie between it and the oases of Bactriana. she was never beyond the reach of the western nations. a continual commercial movement went on which.Introduction. and material wealth. The grand lyric poetry of the Yedas. of metals. and other All treasures. the Persians. and through the passes which lead down to what is now called the Punjab between the ports of the Arabian and Persian gulfs and those of the lower Indus and the Malabar coast. all those nations included in our plan laboured for their neighbours and for their successors. and philosophical speculations. all of which came mainly by the sea route. those learned grammatical now admired by philologists. of precious woods. and Phoenician industries. and the Greeks carried their arms into the basin of the Indus. was nev'er entirely From the latter regions western Asia drew her interrupted. their history proves to us that they each played a part in the gradual elaboration of civilized which was absolutely necessary to the total result. all the rich and h . bathed by an ocean which bore the fleets of Egypt. was but the supply of the raw material for Egyptian. should not expect such a catastrophe to have had any great effect we should have been the poorer by a few upon civilization beautiful plates and vases. life . the epics and dramas of the following epoch. with all Rightly or Avrongly. I. Aria. . our intellects are quite equal to imagining what the world would have been like had that Empire been absolutely destroyed centuries ago.

began with the kiosques. while Alexander himself failed to penetrate beyond the vestibule. or decoration. either for their plan. and he tells us that in the richest parts of the country the Hindoos of his time had nothing better than wooden houses. terraced mound. the Greeks would not. intellectual brilliant and development of a race akin to the Greeks less richly endowed. Recent researches have proved Meoasthenes to be an intelligent observer and an accurate narrator. huts of pise or rough concrete. at Palibothra. the most powerful sovereign in the valley of the Ganges in that in the time of Seleucus Nicator. . Let us suppose that the career of the Macedonian hero had not been cut short by the fatigues and terrors of his soldiers.1 Introduction. to have had much in common with those of the Assyrian and But there was one capital distinction between Persian palaces. like those of his subjects. centres of Arabs nor civilization . it was little Architecture. in the midst of a vast garden. Phoenicians Hindoo they merely visited those sea-board towns where the mixed population was more occupied with commerce than The conquerors previous to Alexander with intellectual pursuits. and the fine masses of verdure with which it was surrounded. but. was built of wood. So far as we can judge from what Megasthenes tells us of Palibothra. have found buildings which they could have construction. even favoured region. impressed the traveller by its situation. did no more than reach the gates of India and reconnoitre its approaches. after all. it must have produced a happy and picturesque more than a collection of effect. The arrangements seem general aspect was very imposing. the true Neither Egyptians. the capital of Kalacjoka. studied with any profit. and the richness of its apartments. worthy of the name. or The palace of the sovereign. With its commanding position. which contained large reception halls separated from one another by courtyards in which peacocks and tame panthers wandered The columns of the principal saloons were gilt. The at will. was composed of a series of buildings surrounded by porticos. remained shut up in that basin of the Ganges into which no stranger penetrated in many ways no time of the until the Mohammedan reached conquest. its great It was built upon extent. employment of those solid and durable materials which defend . the two at Palibothra the residence of the sovereign. It an artificial.

we have no information. . aptitude for the arts of design. Indian art then. in the writings of the Greek poets and dramatists. and others which are unknown. Under such conditions. in the temples of Asia Minor. no allusion to works of painting or sculpture in their epics and dramas. had his own personal physiognomy. moreover. was only in its cradle in the time of Alexander. was not so with the Hindoo deities. The other arts could not have been much more advanced. show us that the development of the plastic arts followed closely upon that of poetry. described by poets and by artists. while the artists of Greece were in full possession of all their powers they had already produced inimitable master-pieces in each of the great divisions of art.Introduction. renewed the youth of the Ionic order by their bold and ingenious innovations. which . there are none of those descriptions of pictures and statues which. with the Vedic hymns. They are distinguished . and a well marked limit is the essence is beautiful and expressive in proportion as its contours are clearly and accurately drawn. for the reasons which we have given. This difference between the two races may perhaps be exjDlained by the opposition between their Ignorant as they religions and. In giving to their gods the forms and features of men. Homer furnished the sketch from which in Phidias took his type of the Olympian Jupiter. and yet their creative force was far from being exhausted. It was the age of Lysippus and Apelles of those great architects who. now the by one or set of qualities and again by another each of immortals her who sat down to the banquet on Olympus. had these two forms of civilization entered of form. to render ideas It is the business of these arts by forms. these people can hardly have been sculptors. the oldest of the Greek singers sketched advance the figures to be afterwards created by their painters and sculptors. There is. consequently. their poetry. . H themselves against destruction by their weight and constructive repose. and as to their painting. was not so In them the persons of the gods had It neither consistence nor tangibility. were of the working of stone for building. what would the effect have been. The Hindoo genius had none of the Greek faculty for clear and well-defined imagery it betrays a certain vagueness and want of definition which is not to be combined with a complete interpreted but it .

instead of a o-reater. which divided India from that Bactrian kingdom of which we know little more than the mere names of its princes and the date But before the end of the second century B. to employ those mercenary soldiers. attached to the literature and the arts which reminded them of their superior origin and of that distant fatherland with which year after year it became more difficult to communicate. the disciples had a less. this of its fall. and of their palaces must have been in keeping everywhere no doubt were Corinthian and Ionic with these buildings.Hi Introduction. statues of the Greek gods and heroes mixed with those portraits and historic groups which had been multiplied by the scholars of Lysippus. and mere fact that it did not succumb until the year 136 B. were. .C. as we have said. Athenians. Spartans and Cretans. for which the heirs of the . wall paintings. the contact between the two was never complete nor was it of long duration.C. outpost of Hellenism had fallen before the attacks of those In such an isolated position it barbarians whom we call the Saci. Its existence must always have been precarious. Hindoos. they also called skilful artists to their court and kept them there at great expense the beautiful coins which have preserved their images down to our day are evidence of this. of their temples. and. close relations into with each other ? In all probability the result would have been similar to that which ensued when the ancestors of the Greeks began to deal with the more civilized But in the case of the Phoenicians and the people of Asia Minor. the decoration of their cities. The only frontier upon which the inter- change of idea was frequent and continuous was the north-west. could not long hope to maintain itself. Athough they were obliged. especially after the rise of the Parthian monarchy had separated it from the empire of the Seleucidae. and to pay them dearly for their services. Through the obscurity in which all the details are enveloped we They can clearly perceive that those princes were men of taste. as was natural. moreover. is enough to prove that several of its sovereigns must have been Should their annals ever be discovered they remarkable men. and perhaps some of those easel pictures signed by famous masters. would probably form one of the strangest and most interesting episodes in the history of the Greek race. Thebans. which then overran Asia. aptitude for the plastic arts than their teachers. . in order to defend themselves against so many enemies.

but the isolated members of Greek architecture and the most characteristic details of its ornament are everywhere made use of. by Cunningham ^ . in the selection is of types. Curtius has described them and They published reproductions of the most curious among them. formerly much neglected. ArchcBologisdu Zeitung. the goldsmiths. with the help perhaps of foreign artists settled amonsf them. Like the Scythian tribes among whom the Greek cities of the Eu. They imported from Bactriana these products of an art which was wanting to them. and by the remains of what is now called Grsco-Buddhic art. p. followed the Greek armies in their march towards the East with the object of supplying the wants of any colonies which might be established in those distant regions. 1871-73. And it was not only the Greek colonists who employed their skill.xine were planted. Die Griechische Kunst in Indien. are now They have been carefully studied and described Dr. It is the same with the before our era. an art which seems to have flourished in the upper valley of the Indus in the third or second century this That was so is These remains. reproduced upon their vases and in their terra-cotta figures the motives of the painting. and those drawn from ' ^ ^ ArchcEological Survey of India. The Louvre has lately acquired some curious examples of this art.^ In those sacred buildings which have been examined the plan of the Greek temple has not been adopted. and Calcutta. and soon set themselves. sculpture in . . chased. and on their obverse Greek inscriptions. and stamped them in metal. Lahore. Leitner. of elements borrowed from foreign. Some of them have been transported to Europe in the collection of Dr.are found in the north of the Punjab upon a few ancient sites where excavations have been made. 1876. liii Artisans. while others remain in the museums of Peshawur. attracting much attention. proved by those coins which bear on their reverse such Hindoo symbols as Siva with his bull. there the same mixture of Greek taste with that of India. the design. and the architecture which they left behind jewellers and armourers cut. in the arrangement of drapery. sculpture. 90. to imitate Grecian desio-n in the courts of the Alexander . the nations to the north of India were astonished and delighted by the elegance of their ornament and the variety of its forms. who had were such keen competitors.Introduction. 3 vols. Indian rajahs.

in the domain of the plastic arts. whether stone-built or carved in the living rock. marked Near the mouth of the Indus and upon the Malabar coast. We are thus on all hands forced to this conclusion that. is seen in the reaction by which the Greek genius. A curious though hardly an important episode in history. That. the native sculptors and architects were able to obtain more than one useful suggestion. Greece owed nothing to India. at least in the matter of art. India had little or nothing to give that her arts were not developed till after her early relations with Greece. except now and then perhaps for purposes of illustration. in order to explain the origin of Greek During the period with which we are concerned. or even as the Punjab. from the works of art brought in the ships of maritime traders. more than one in a less Traces of the same influence are in be found degree other parts of India. and that most of them show details which imply acquaintance with Greek architectural forms and their imitation. date from a period more recent than that of Alexander. with which she made acquaintance very late and at a period when she had no need to take lessons from others. her reach. the little which we shall have to say of the products of the Hindoos will not be connected with our discussion of the origin of Greek art. From all this it will be seen that we need not go as far as China. and we need refer to her no more. certain points of contact and reciprocal influences at work between her and the group of nations we are about to treat. and employed this upon the decoration of it and temples.liv Introduction. and it would even seem that her first stimulus was derived from the models which Greece put within : . because there were. when arrived at maturity. It is even possible that Greek palaces all workmen may there thus have been introduced into seaport towns. The helmeted Athene and to Helios in his quadriga figure by the side of Buddha. . the national. W'e cannot treat India quite in the same fashion. the important However may be is incontestable that sacred edifices of that region. moreover. precious hint as to their technique. But as Greece borrowed nothing from India. China might as well have been in the planet Saturn for all she had to do with the ancient world. as we have said. beliefs. threw itself at the command of Alexander upon that East from which it had received its first lessons. art.

landscape painting. civilization We wish through the study. decoration. and we may say the same of certain other expressions. which will often be found in We must refer those who want definitions of phrases to the Graniinaire dcs Arts du Dessin of It will suffice M.Introduction. of art. Charles words in Blanc and kindred works. unless we are obliged. historical painting. Why should we attempt. and will be discussed and justified to the best of our ability as the work proceeds. style. with much patience and ingenuity. sculpture. Stark went so far as to discuss. periailosa. We have now declared the aim of our work and the route which . Iv None will of those philosophical it discussions to which Ottfried Muller and Stark thought be found in necessary to give so large a place . Architecture. We to attempt we have not undertaken a demonstration. painting. in such a question as this. each of these sounds has a precise meaning for those to whom our work is addressed. those divergencies will become evident. and comparison of its build plastic remains.'' minds No satisfactory definition has ever been given of the word architecture. to define in all terms which awake sufficiently clear and distinct ideas cultivated . on one hand or the other. our introduction both of those authors devoted a its long chapter to the definition of art and principal manifestations. every one knows what we mean. when we use it. definitions do not lead to confusion rather than to clearness. Neither do we feel sure that. When short. kind . they are vague and obscure. 0?iinis dcfinitio in jure either to objections or reservations. arts. genre our these painting. and only acquire precision through distinctions and developments which have to be discussed at length and again they generally lead. which is certainly true in matters . and yet. conversation of cultivated for us that these should be taken in the ordinary meaning which they bear different branches diverge here the If our ideas of art and its men. work of criticism or aesthetic up the history of ancient description. the definitions of art and of its essential forms shall which had been nothing of the given by previous writers. such as industrial pages. says an old maxim. and there from those which are commonly received. But on all occasions we shall do our best to avoid the abstract and pedantic terminology which makes Ottfried Muller's first chapter so difficult to read.

me to explain the role which we have assigned to our VI. illustrations. in whatever language spoken or written. Chipiez. Without their help many descriptions and observations might remain unnecessarily obscure and doubtful. tells us that their execution gave great dissatisfaction to the author. than I had dared to hope for. I have not written a line technical points. and M. One of his translators. Huber. in 1877.^ In our days. however. In the single edition of his great work which appeared during his own lifetime. Charles to neutralise my own To his Histoire critique des Origines ct de la Foi'niatioii des Ordrcs highest prizes of grecqiics. we propose I In order to increase our chances of success. until after consulting M. am in having obtained saying how fortunate I a help which I have found more helpful. et des tours a dtages^ de la Chaldde. to follow. j\I.Ivi Introduction. to numerous figures in their text. can insert indispensable never suffice. have sought and obtained the collaboration of whose special knowledge is well calculated deficiencies. on the other hand. to which they offer an and animated commentary. p. It remains for illustrations. was awarded. xxxii. more complete. It would not I must confine myself to be fitting. d'uii Temple grecque hypHhre. M.pared. has superintended the personally execution of the drawings. mere words. more single-minded. was much noticed and discussed by connoisseurs. as a professional man and able draughtsman. As for the plates illustrations in we have together chosen the objects to be represented. Winckelmann inserted but a small number of ornament rather than for instruction. Chipiez. the text. and those for those who undertake a work of this kind make use of the great progress which has taken place in engraving and typography. Huber's preface to his translation. one of the Academie des Inscriptions. ' Histoire del Art . to praise it here. When forms are to be defined and com. Chipiez upon and all He has also taken an active part in the revision of the text of certain chapters. In all that has to do with architecture. and in the Salons the of 1878 and 1879 he confirmed his double reputation as a skilful his Essais de Restoration draughtsman and a learned theorist . .

by the fine chiselling of its gorgerin.xth century. and it would be impossible to convey them to VOL. the Assyrian from the Egyptian. The whole history of art consists of the succession of subtle changes like these. and by the general delicacy of its ornament. a practised eye would at once assign its true date to each. Ivii With well chosen phrases we may awake life the recollections of others. and more subtle treatment. and the muscles drawn over it and attached to it. if we wish to make clear the characteristics which distinguish one style from another. Between the contour of a figure from a Memphite bas-relief and that of one from Nineveh. another of the fifth century.Introduction. one of the knee. / . picture. or statue which has formerly charmed them. : . si. : of it a capital from the theatre of Marcellus or the Coliseum would look mean and poor. Their imaginations will up for a moment some landscape. Supposing that the same model had served all three artists. and in the third a want of vigour and firmness but it would be difficult to give by words a clear idea of what caused the difference. So it will. in accordance with the manner in which the skeleton was indicated under the fiesh. it would show in the one case a lively sentiment of form combined with some dryness and rigidity in another a freer. Between the contour which satisfies us and that which does not there is hardly the difference of a hair by leaning a little harder with the chisel the aspect of the one surface might have been made identical with the other. its design and its proportions. an Ionic column from the Erechtheum from one of the same order treated by a Roman architect.'' . a capital from the Erechtheum is distinguished above a Roman Ionic capital it is at once finer in design and richer in ornamentation by the side . the archaic Greek style from that of the Phidian epoch or of the decadence. a slight sweep of a line in order to mark more strongly the junction of the thigh and the If we placed three nude torsos side by side. what difference is there A tenth of difference in the an inch more or less. . I. By its double astragali. and the third of the time of Hadrian. the slightest sketch will be of more use than the longest and most minute descriptions. and give renewed to any impression which they may have some fine received from some striking natural phenomenon or call work of art. by the elegant curve which unites the two volutes. larger. But if we wish to explain the complicated plan of some great building.

which gave to each building an individuality of its own. grown more exacting. pictures and buildings concerned. give a large number of figures. so that we may say of him. just as the delicate carvings and coloured ornament of the middle asfes and the renaissance. to copy the gesture. of the engraver spread a technical uniformity over them all in which differences of school and date disappeared. by the utmost precision of technical language or the The best thing that most brilliant and life-like descriptions. We have now. in default of the objects themselves. to clothe the It seemed to the artist natural enough monuments of the past in the style of his own day required much less care than would have been needed for all and it the successful expression of the diversities of style in his models. Every one of us has his preferences and natural affinities. then. the accent. every artist his own methods and personal modes of thought.— Iviii IXTRODUCTIOX. as the Latin poet says of his Proteus : — " Omnia transformat sese in miracuia rerum. Greek in Greece. We demand from the draughtsman who pretends to interpret a work of art the same self-sacrifice as devotion and the same from the writer who is charged with the translation of a work of literature from one language into another we require him to forget himself. were reduced to dull monotony by the undiscriminating brush of the whitewasher. attempt to do throughout the course We shall. another for require . so far as the subtleties of style were concerned. we find ourselves in such favourable conditions for teaching and the reader explaining our ideas. One will be conspicuous for his interpretation of the nobility and purity of the antique. one's remarks in the presence of the can be done is to make But it is rarely that statues. they were all presented under one The hand aspect." We him to change his style with every change of subject. But we have indicated an ideal which is not often reached. we may at least give the most faithful images of them which can shall be obtained. in collections of drawings from antique remains. his treatment of oriental art or of the elecrance of our eighteenth I . in which absolute will accuracy and justice of proportion picturesque effects. however. But. It is be aimed at rather than not very long since. and even the faults of his model to be Chinese in China. and that we of this history. and Tuscan when he takes us to Siena or Florence.

the honesty of the draughts- man even all . So if carried to a great height. his glory. far as we we are concerned. Views in perspective. but shall each we we can at least ensure that those in which we give be interesting shall some for particular illustration or another. so far as it.xistinof methods it shall see that we obtain Unless instead our illustrations had that merit they would obscure the of te. find it necessary is reproduce some famous statue or some building which to . select such objects as have not previously been reproduced. of which we shall make frequent use. We shall sometimes. give the general aspect of buildings with much greater truth and completeness than a mere plan. or have been figured in works which are difficult of to access. and. in fact. familiar most people but even then we shall endeavour to give renewed interest to their beauties by displaying them under some fresh aspect and by increased care in the delineation of their forms. Fidelity in interpretation is. . of course. Chipiez will be given in plates separate from the text. e. Our readers would search in vain for the features and characteristics to which their attention. it may become. So far as possible. of course. we might call and many of our remarks and theories would to understand. when in the box. or have been ill reproduced. Most of the more important perspectives and restorations due to the learned pencil of M. lix But the mere enunciation of the principle is of vahie. we demand . tell prove either to nothing or to called them. for a great effect follows the praise which those who treat their model with scrupulous and intelligent respect are sure to obtain. it and from those who are associated with us in this task will allow. or even than an elevation. as well as the most curious or significant of the works in sculpture or painting to which we shall have to refer. We shall. his honour. or a picturesque sketch of ruinous remains.Introduction. witnesses who. and the blame to which they who are less conscientious expose themselves. know only facts which against the party know who has Our aim in choosing our illustrations will be to place before our readers good reproductions of most of the objects which are discussed in our text. be unable to figure everything that figures is of interest. We should be in the same position as an incompetent barrister who has made a bad choice oi become difficult witnesses . century.\t making more comprehensible.

and their taste for beauty. until. Wallon. We hope. the creation and descent of forms the continual changes. among the Greeks. to satisfy their instincts for luxury their p-ods and their kina^s. a companion who would help me in the necessary labour and study. those processes which imply the practice of . we shall review in due succession all the forms which the great nations of antiquity made of the tomb of use of to express their beliefs. the methods and But before had to I could be realized . which they underwent in passing from one people to another. of these plates will be coloured. without eesthetic dissertations or excessive use of technical terms. the it Sorbonne. undertake a work which is. from the Pyramids and the Tower III.Ix Introduction. engravings upon zinc and wood. sometimes slight and sometimes great. Some But the majority of our in illustrations will consist of will not. to posterity. by the judicious choice and careful execution of our figures. too. and I found him among my auditors in those first I had also to find a publisher who lectures at the Sorbonne. would understand the wants of the public and of the critics in such In this. the work. and I am free to a matter. From the earliest Egyptian dynasties and from fabled Chaldaea to imperial Rome. who et the Acaddmie the des hiscriptions at Bclles-Lettres. We propose to trace and explain the origin and to describe. at the time when M. to lodge and to transmit their own likenesses of. of the teaching of classic archceology. find an associate in two conditions had to be fulfilled. of which the first instalment is is now submitted secretary to to the public. of Babel to the Coliseum. they arrived at the most happy and complete perfection which the world has seen. which we hope. and the enamelled bricks of Nineveh to the wall-paintings of Pompeii. fall short of their more elaborate companions honesty and fidelity. I conceived the plan of this history. to give a fair idea of this course of development even to those artists who have neither time nor patience to follow our criticisms and descriptions. from the painted Ti. destined to carry far beyond the narrow limits of a Parisian lecture room. art . from the Statue of Chephren and the bas-reliefs of Shalmaneser decorations to the busts of the Caesars. entrusted me with inauguration. too. I hope. to give shape to their ideas. I have succeeded.

which. principal results of a science.Introduction. resisfned As in for my colleague ourselves critics.'' us. How far shall tell. we have taken upon . The task an arduous one. This conviction will sustain us through the labours which. make it we have heavier every day. daily is progressing with a step which becomes is more assured. Georges Perrot. advance to seeingf omissions and defects pointed out even by the most benevolent and m\'self. our work will do good service. having ixi made good its claims to the gratitude of mankind. Ct^U/ . allowed to conduct our history v'enture to promise that it That we cannot life but we be we may shall be the chief occupation and the dearest study of all that remains to us of and strength. perhaps with some temerity. and will cause one of the aspects of ancient civilization to be better understood. it but we are convinced that in spite of such imperfections as may contain. and the continual discoveries which are reported from nearly every quarter of the ancient world.

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From many of the books and papers which we. and yet we . but we illustrations. sometimes that which is called axonometric jierspective. while he his conversation enjoyed some remains of strength and voice. It will thus be seen . find mistakes in the hieroglyphs which occur in our These hieroglyphs have been as a rule exactly transcribed. Chipiez has sometimes which bear neither an artist's name nor the engraved from photographs. but we hope that no important work will escape us altogether. Maspero on almost every page. and lamented Mariette had promised us that most earnest During the winter we passed in Egypt. that our object is not aflected by a mistake or two in such matters. consider the art of each of the races of antiquity in less detail we had undertaken a monograph upon Egyptian. giving a useless bulk to our volumes.TO THE READER. his letters we obtained from tion. We against have been in some doubt this as to whetlier graphy to each section of it. As for the perspectives . Chipiez. works would be a mere repetition of our notes and would only have the effect of . The difference will be at once perceived. but after mature reflection we should append a special bibliowe have decided We than shall. Whenever our drawings have not been taken directly from the originals we have been careful to indicate the source from which we obtained them. do not pretend to offer a collection of texts we have only reproduced these characters on account of their decorative value. JNI. and because without them we could not have the general appearance of this or that monument. and we have made a point of borrowing only from authors of undoubted authorit)'. or upon Phoenician art but yet it is our ambition to neglect no source of information which is likely to be really valuable. if of course. Egyptologists may. shall have to consult we may reproduce nothing but their titles. and some precious pieces of informa- We have cited the works of M. upon Assyrian. employed the ordinary perspective. and in every case we shall give Under these circumstances a formal list of references which may be easily verified. Those illustrations title of a book have been and restorations supplied by M. work. they are in every case founded upon the study and comparison of all but it would take too long to indicate in each of these accessible documents drawings how much has been borrowed from special publications and how much has been founded upon photographic evidence. perhaps. all We may ill here express our gratitude to those our enterprise and who have helped still us to his who have interested themselves make our work complete. Our dear help.

Gue'rin. precision in its refined tones and complicated which is line. . polychromatic decoration of the Egyptians should be rendered with truth and . Ramus. as M. A. Hibon. Ernest Desjardins a view of the interior of that building. We are also deeply unbiased knowledge. and XIV. who prepared the drawings under the direction of his master. and if we have taken but one for this from his sketch-books because the arrangements of looking through them. difficulty and want we mean that called aquatint. a pupil of M. Tomaszkievicz. in the work itself. Guillaumot pfere and Sulpis. to express our acknowledgments to MM. Brune has allowed us to reproduce his plans of Karnak and Medinet-Abou. Before his Egypt — whither he went to succeed Mariette — M. accurate. We have had occasion. and Saint-Elme Gautier. J. Hector Leroux was illustration as generous it is M. which now so widely employed. The artists who have visited Egypt have helped us as cordially as the learned men who have deciphered its inscriptions. and M. Bourgoin. than have learnt more from departure for conversation from his writings. Comte. Chipiez. and to his indebted to M.d Lou\Te Museums. its Our plates II. and M. will perhaps convince our readers that is results are superior to those of chromo-lithography. G. M. Gerome. whose light and skilful If the process of engraving upon zinc has given point has so well engraved them.\iv To THE his Reader. who have drawn for us For the architecture the principal monuments of the Boulak ar.l. use of a process which had almost fallen into disuse from of rapidity. M. we begged M. Maspero was our perpetual counsellor and referee well ordered. Pierret. will satisfy our readers. we must name M. which express with such truthful precision the character of Egyptian landscape from them. Gerome opened his portfolios and allowed us to take three of those drawings. the learned conservateur of the Louvre not only has he done everytliing to facilitate the work of our draughtsmen in the great museum. Arthur Rhond has lent us a plan of the temple_ of the Sphinx. much of the honour belongs to the untiring care of M. volume were complete before we had the chance M. Be'nedite. The steel engravings are In order that the by MM. as we hope. its Sulpis to make XIII... he has also helped us frequently with his advice and his accumulated knowledge. whenever we were embarrassed we appealed . results which. . whose process has been employed all these plates have been reviewed and retouched by him with minute care.

The papyrus of Notemit was divided by Mustapha-Aga. 182. „ . . at ." i'assim. li>ie 15 from „ 2.. .. therefore. have been known at that time. II. Page 413. fool. of Pinotem II.. Vol. 411. Professor Lepsius has published a paper in a recent number of the Zeitschrift . fiir Aigyptische Sprache in which he points out that one of the leather bands. He saw it there first \i\ TheDayr-el-Bahari vault must. Page . has been in the Turin Museum for many years. British consul Thebes " lio gave half to the Prince of Wales and half to the Khedive. 1845. . p. di'Me "like. or traces. 276. The Khedive gave his half to the Louvre that of the Prince of Wales is now exhibited in the British Museum..ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS.i" rmii " of." 264. for "Vhy^ico" rmd " Physcon.. Jor " Cleanthe " read " Cleanthes. „ ." for "a. /itie 17. I." for " Sait " read " Saite Vol." 69. no/e 2.. Appendix.

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we have to the choice of several determine the meaning and value of the religious conceptions which succeeded one another during that period. Finally. In studying the past of mankind. points of view. to those inventions which in time have done so much to emancipate mankind from natural trammels and to make him master of his destiny. In undertakincr to group the great nations of antiquity and to present them in their proper order. . he who has the highest ambition of features into all will attempt to unite all these various a single picture. as a whole." . I. by wars and conquests to what Bossuet calls " la suite ties empires. and social and political institutions another to the enumeration and explanation of the various changes brought on by internal revolutions. - v^ I. One writer will confine himself to a description of manners. Egypt is the eldest daughter of civilization. THE GENERAL CHARACTER OF EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION. the arts We may attempt we may give our attention rather to the and the sciences. in attempting to assign to each its due share in the continuous and unremitting labour of progress until the birth of Christianity. K . the creative activity of a race and the onward VOL. or literature.A HISTORY OF ART IN ANCIENT EGYPT CHAPTER I. we have no alternative but to commence with the country of the Pharaohs. so as to show. Egypt' s Place in tJic History of the ]]'orld.

7..xist expression . Egypt that has preserved the earhest is attempts of man those towards outward e."" expressed. i vol. it in Egypt . ornamented so many imposing monuments. ii. more in than afford humidity for their very low-lying districts. in an often quoted phrase." he says. : . that monuments Egypt that which contain the historian first of thought by written characters or plastic the permanent manifestation ^ forms and it is in will of antique art find the earliest materials for study. we must give some account of the curious under which the people lived who constructed and We must begin. Moures).de haute Egypte. a passage upon which they deposited the mud which they had accumulated on their long journey. man appeared there when. Other rivers do immediate borders.. by the slow accumulation of fertile earth. support '^ . Marieite.Mexandria. § 2. Egypt would not have existed. The Valley of the Nile and its Inhabitants. then. When they overflow their banks it is in a violent and irregular fashion. ItitKiain. in the conditions under which this early civilization was developed. Had the equatorial rains not been compelled to win themselves for a passage to the Mediterranean. orenius in the continual search for " the best. . by describing the circumstances and the race characteristics But. for a certain narrow stretch of country on each hand. no or. . and ^ not confined to works "in the round." la Ed.. involving widespread ruin and destruction. Great floods are feared as public 1 The word is " plastic " is used throughout this work in its widest significance. ." in is any case the commencement must be made with Egypt. . p. . 10 (edition = Herodotus. Egypt began by being the bed of a torrent the soil was raised by slow degrees . first place.— A movements of But It History of Art its in Anxient Egypt. The first traveller in Egypt of which we have any record is Herodotus he sums up. the impression which that land of wonders made upon him " Egypt. of 1872. The truth could not be better "is a present from the Nile. the country at last became equal to his .

it Each year in brings with more fertility than can be exhausted the twelve months.:v^.uch higher than in middle Egypt. so 1 The river should rise to this height upon the Nilometerat Cairo if there is to be a " good Nile.J^-- Fig. In order to flow over those banks it eleven or twelve metres. — Pui'iiig the Inuiiflalinn of the Nile. it then begins to deposited." In upper Egypt the banks of the river are n-.^i»lfi^^. Thus nature has agriculturist . MM ^^^^^l^'Z^^^Wy" sfe --^-^f. but not until it has upon the lands over which it has flowed. its It rises by degrees until surface is eight or nine metres above low-water mark ^ . greatly facilitated the labour of the Egyptian river take- the upon its . itself the irrigation of the country for the whole width of the soil for \'alley. and in which every seed will germinate. 3 very different with the Nile. a thick layer of fertile mud which can be turned over easily with the lightest plough.aiJ. fall with the same tranquillity. at rise a date which can be ahnost exactly begins to slowly and to spread gently over the land.. and unless rises it must rise to a height of some more than thirteen metres it will not have a proper eftect. every plant spring up with extraordinary vigour and rapidity. foretold. it Every year. It is of the Nile and its Inhabitants. . I. it and the preparation of it the autumnal seed-time restores the virtue annually taken out of the ground by the crops.The Vallev misfortunes.

— Hoeing . — Ploughing. and was published between the years 1833 and 1845. to which we are greatly indebted. in consequence of the happy climate of the country and the their natural fertility physical properties of the Nile. of the richest vegetable earth. 381 liis.^) Thus the first tribes established themselves . It contains 511 plates.- A that there is History of Art in Ancient Egypt. a constantly accumulating capital. from the Necropolis of Memphis. partly coloured. one of sympathetically rendered the Egyptian monuments. is entitled Monul' Egypte et de la A'ulnc. whose waters. We ' know how often the lives of those tribes who live by fishing : This work of Chanipollion's. Beni-Hastan. pi. 2. 3. (Champollion. 17. 4 vols.) of the river they found themselves assured of an easy existence. V. foUo. The drawings for the plates were made by members of the great scientific expedition of which Champollion was inenls de the head. by power of producing various kinds of aliment. r'lG. Many of those drawings were from the pencil of Nestor L'Hote. says that "At the beginning of all things. This advantage was thoroughly appreciated by the ancients. on both banks of the river. the first men those 2 who have most were born in Egypt. in the country under singularly favourable conditions thanks to the timely help m\\L Fig.. speaking of the Egyptians. pi. were and their first welt fitted to nourish the . ant. (Descip/ion d< V Eg) fie. Diodorus Siculus.

except in for agricultural populations..ie et a V Archiologie ." (Les Rccits de Recolte dans rancienne Egyptc. of men and women. t. but they never failed altogether. for in those distant times local famines were far more fatal than in these days. and negroes with branches of ! palm Give us some corn bound and sent to the canal they say ' and they are not to be repulsed. 417. by the ' excellent constitution of In all the ^taxes. comme Elements chronologique. dry or too wet may reduce them to famine. The peasant is he is driven on with violence. 149). in which he says collects the tax . from a tomb at Gizeli. in Egypt. of the world Egypt was.^ beings baton of the tax-collector to fear.) may have had from starvation. they are far off and ar^.The Valley of the Nile and its Inhabitants. Those who live a pastoral life are also exposed to cruel hardships from the destruction of their flocks and herds by those epidemics against which even modern science sometimes struggles in vain. Pentaour. there are agents with rattans.. in Recueil de Travaux relatifs a la FhiMo':. played an important part in the collection of In this connection M. ages the rod has. Fig. all . — Harvest scene the . and they die of hunger. but he always had a few onions or a few ears of maize to preserve him who received the breath of Hfe. when facility of transport and elaborate commercial connections ensure In that where the demand is. Egypt. It is evident that from the foundation to the generation 10). p. at the mercy of the weather seasons which are either too . thither the supply will be taken. " The ' scribe of the port arrives at the he . ejyptiennes et assyrieiines. 5 and the chase are oppressed by care there are some days when game is not to be found. . As they are everywhere. the most favourable its soil " (i. 4. i. Lieblein has quoted a passage from the well- known letter from the chief guardian of the archives of : Ameneman to the scribe station . his children are stripped busy over their own harvest. his wife is bound in his as for his neighbours. (CbampoUion. of countries. Egypt the success of the crops varied with the height of the In bad years the peasant Nile. . . pi. presence.

Memphis and Heliopolis. 390. also will Ethiopia continually recur in these pages. and of many other cities it is important therefore that our readers should know exactly what is meant by each of . first In the valley of the time. partly by deserts. — The liastin. thanks beneficent in king of rivers.vit. to man found is himself able. beyond tradition Fig. these time-honoured designations at least . occupies the north-east angle of Africa. pi. partly by an impassable sea. History of Art in Ancient Ei.ado . The and the terms. it is necessary that they should those cities which by their be able to find upon the map respective periods of supremacy represent the successive epochs of Egyptian histor)-.iinpollion. Loivcr-. as names of Tanis and Sais. would perhaps be well of their country before some idea of the commencing our study of to give natural features their art. for the to calculate upon the forces of nature and It turn to his certain profit. 5. that they are to be found there in in the isolation The tribes who setded centuries so remote and even calculation. Beni-Hass. could live in peace. that condition was created sooner Nile Egypt than elsewhere. easy then to understand that saw the birth of the most ancient of those civilizations to study. will Middle-. Abydos and Thebes. or Libya as the ancients . the Delta. is them Egypt whose of plastic arts we propose Another favourable condition the country.) A The for life. and U(^pcr-Egypt. " Egypt is that country which. (Ch. stretching from north to south. first condition of civilization to the is a certain measure of security action of the Now. hidden as it were in a narrow valley and protected It on all sides.in.

Strictly speaking Egypt consists simply of that part of this corner of Africa over which the n-aters of the Nile flow durinij the inundation. On the other hand. which was little more than a glen higher up. Up to the point where the river divides into several arms. Sand and rock cover the whole country. that is to say for more than three-quarters of the whole length of Egypt. No water is to be found there beyond a lew wells. A little below Cairo.. one of which. that ot Damietta. all more or less exposed to exhaustion in an ever-parching atmosphere. Tht-se mountains. Egypt. in Middle Egypt the Libyan chain falls back and becomes lower. In Upper Egypt rain is an extremely rare phenomenon. especially towards the south. turns to the north-west. that on the west the Libyan chain. bounded on the by that isthmus and the Red Sea is on the south by Nubia.The Valley called it. the other. A large number of less important watercourses threaded their way through least have .. the Nile divides into two branches. which traversed by the Nile before its entrance into Egypt at the cataracts of Syene on the west by the desert sprinkled here and there with The desert a few oases. to the north and north-east five others . except the actual valley of the Nile. here widens out to a more imposing size. All these branches took their names from towns situated near their mouths. and produces neither corn nor vegetables nor trees nor even grass. the Ethiopia of the Greeks.. of the Nile and Asia by the its Inhabitants. The ancients knew which. situated not far from the site of ancient Memphis. to which may be added those districts to which the All outside this zone is uninhabited. this valley never exceeds an average width of more than four or five leagues. .. have either been obliterated or at become non-navirable . the province in which the remains of the famous reservoir which the Greek writers called Lake Mceris exist.. In a kw districts it is even narrower than this. the present capital of Egypt. stretches as far north on the west of the country as the Red Sea does on the east. since their time. " It penetrates moreover far into the interior of Egypt itself. and on the north by the Mediterranean. water is carried by irrigation.. . the Rosetta branch. For almost its whole length it is shut in between two mountain chains. that on the east called the Arab. sometimes close in and form defiles. allow'ing the passage of the canal which carries the fertilizing waters into the Fayoum. It is It is joined to east isthmus of Suez.

\. found ahnost all Egypt under the waters. we need not enter at length It is now generally into a question so purely ethnographical. Maspero. and perhaps it may have shown pretty much its present form when the Egyptian race first appeared in the valley of the Nile. carried the mouths of the Nile The far beyond the normal line of the neighbouring coasts. at the earliest historic period. Maspero. their channels still have shifted greatly from age age and go on changing. * Herodotus. the first of all kings. is Lower Egypt but as the earth there to marshy. and gradually filling up the gulf. between the two most distant branches of the river is called the Delta. pp. they said. . allowed that they were connected with the white races of Europe 1 - RoBiou. penetrated in those days beyond At one time . the — — . Histoire ancienite dcs Peuples de -we f Orient. 4. The sea. In such general explanations as are unavoidable shall content ourselves with paraphrasing M. on account of its triangular form." ^ waves of the Mediterranean washed the foot of the sandy plateau which is now crowned by the Great the Nile flowed into the sea at that time slightly to Pyramid the north of the site upon which Memphis was afterwards built. Histoire anciaine dcs Pcuples de /' Orient^ cli.- Delta had. With the slow passage of time the particles of earth which it brought down from the mountains of Abyssinia were deposited as mud banks upon the coast. the site of district of Memphis. the The Thebes excepted. Egyptian priests whose words have been preserved for us byHerodotus had a true idea as to how this vast plain had been created. existed long before the appearance of Menes. and the remainder of the country. was an unhealthy morass. The Nile forms several lagunes near the sea. History of Art in Ancient Egypt. which is similar to that of tono-ues of earth ranean a capital Greek delta (A). Here created instead wide marshy plains intersected by lakes. shut in by long and sand. ii. in fact. The never-ceasing industry of its floods had already. 6 and 7. and communicating with the MediterThe space comprised by openings here and there. and there ancient sand ridges indicate the successive watercourses.^ As to the origin of that race.8 A . a plain which now comprises twenty-three thousand square but they were kilometres and is continually being added to strangely deceived when they thought and declared that Menes or Mena.

! An astonished fellah cried out : " The Sheikh-el- His companions took up the cry. and the statue has Beled " been known by that name ever since. of the Nile and its Inhabitants.— The Valley . . thin. his lips thick but not turned his rather large mouth bore an habitually out like a negro's These features are to be found soft and sorrowful expression. its left Galcries provisoires dii Musee actual d' Antiquites egyptiennes le Vice-Roi. thin. He had large muscular chest. active. 9 the anatomical examination of the bodies and Western Asia the most ancient tombs. vol. See on this subject a curious note in Bondmi's Some ObsciTal'wns on the Skeleton of an Egyptian Biblical Archaolcgv. 16. or fellahs. although the ujDper classes have lost it by . the peasants of Sakkarah recognised at once the feature and attitude of one of themselves. and flattened. The head. his feet were long. of the rustic dignitary who managed the corvdcs and apportioned the taxation." - When Mariette discovered in the necropolis at Memphis the famous wooden statue of a man standing and holding in his hand the baton of authority. les Transactions of the Society of Histoire ancicmie. we take away the individual peculiarities these monuments race furnish in us with following : common type of the even the most remote epochs " The average Egyptian was tall. his nose short and round opened. and even His forehead was square and perhaps a sad in its expression. in all the later epochs. 251 — 253). I.'^ Increased knowledge of the Egyptian language has enabled us to carry our researches much farther than Champollion and his successors. and the study of their recovered from If statues. repeated intermarriage with strangers. was mild. narrow hips. his cheeks full and round. ci Boulaq (1876). his eyes were large and well little low. all point to this conclusion. p. A. . and thin muscular His knees and calves were nervous and muscular. in most of the statues of the ancient and middle empires. and Even to the present day the peasants. By many of its roots. . and pictures. generally the case with a pedestrian race of going barefoot. 1 the skeletons in the Their exceptional breadth of shoulder has been confirmed by an examination of mummies. ( Maspero. No. Notice lies principaux Monuments exposes dans de S. by its system of pronouns. The C statue holds the baton in hand.^ a nating in long and nervous hands. sinewy arms termiand powerful shoulders. • VOL. Mumiuy '- pp. bas-rehefs. as is legs. have almost everywhere preserved the physiognomj" of their ancestors. by his habit often too large and powerful for the body. ^ iv. 492.

p. a Boulaq (1S76). their own. dis- united and subjected to diverse two families made elements a different use of the which they possessed in common. le Vice-Roi. les Galeries provisoires dii Musee d'A7itic/uiles egyptiennes de A. in calcareous stone. 6. Some of the idioms of these in Semitic tongues are found in Egyptian a rudimentary it state. The —Statue from the Ancient Empire. and Phoenicians on the other. it seems to have been attached to the Semitic of family languages. Lepsius. and accepted by 1 Notice des priucipaux Monuincuts exposes dans S. but the separation took place at such an early period. The Boulak Museum will be referred to by the simple word Boulak.lO A its History of Art in Ancient Egypt. tribes that the who came in to establish themselves opportunity particular the valley of the Nile had both the time and the to acquire original a very physi- and of ognomy F'lG. the Thus. by its nouns of number. after having belonged to that group. The reproductions of objects in the Louvre are all from the pencil of M. the proto-Semitic This opinion has been sustained with more or less plausibility by MM. With the exception of a few woodcuts from photographs the contents of the museums at Cairo and Boulak have been reproduced from drawings by M. Hebrews. (Boulak.') Egyptians are therefore said to belong races. . while their grammatical system was still in that course of formation. influences. From this has been concluded Egyptian and its cognate languages. Saint-Elme Gautier. Drawn to by G. J. Benedite. and by some of the arrangements of conjugations. Bourgoin. There would thus seem to have been a community of root between the Egyptians on the one part and the Arabs. separated from it at a very early period. and Bunsen. Benfey. 582.

—The S/iiii-A-i/-Be/(rf. .) Ilrawii b) J. T. (Coulak.Fig. liourgoin.

.

critics 13 But other of equal authority are more impressed by the differences than by the resemblances. and to which he would refer most of the idioms of Northern Africa. Egypt must then have presented a very The different sight from its richness and fertility of to-day. But we may affirm that a Maspero. et seq.^ comers forced the earlier occupants of the country southwards without mixing with them. learnt to in Little by little the new comers control the course of the floods. probably black. and the Berbers in a family which he would call Chamitic. was perpetually changing its bed. The people whose physical characteristics we have described and whose idiom we have defined. '-^ A comparison of the languages then. and lotus. they neither deny nor explain. Maspero. half of it drowned of in the waters of the Nile. die Book ch.). ii. p. reeds. on the banks of the Nile another race. came from Asia. - Histoire des Langiies shnitiques. the Tuaregs. p. in soil other into districts it swamp. Maspero. . and set themselves resolutely to the work of improvement. was simply a huge morass dotted here and there with sandy islands and waving with papyrus. 1870. to the all the the From untouched by the yearly inuncrowding vegetation of a tropical marsh soil left most absolute aridity was but a step. The Delta. and If this were so the new indieenous to the African continent. p. and even in its highest floods it failed to reach certain parts of the . 113. and Egypt gradually arose out of the waters and became in the hand of man one of the best adapted countries in the world for the development of a great civilization. is. the other half under those the Mediterranean. ^ Annalime ei?ies sogenanntcn prehistorischen Steinaltcrs in ^^gypten * (in the Zcitschrijt fiir ^-Egyplische Sprache. to all appearPerhaps they found established ance. § 4. to them to the farthest corners of the bank them valley. by the Isthmus of Suez. which. 7. i. which remained unproductive remained so long that it changed the valley. Renan prefers to however. 18. river when left to itself. across which the river worked upon both banks the desert sluggish and uncertain way its . Veber ancienne. Histoire See Lepsius. rank the Copts.^ of the Nile and its Inhabitants. insufficient to decide the question of origin."* and to carry How many and the 1 generations did ? it require to create the country nation We cannot 1 tell. M.The Valley M. swallowed up dations.

Fig. each of which had its own laws and its own form of worship. These districts remained almost unchanged in number and in their respective boundaries almost up to the end of the ancient world. .H A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. — Hunting in the Mar: Khemi. Besides other. 8. the Egyptians had one or the and only one — the di\ision into Lower Egypt. the country of fore disappear their primitive divisions did not there- the small independent states became provinces local and were the foundation of those which the Greeks called tnviics. but . this administrative districts division into districts. lies . from a 1 ns-relief in the tcmb of Ti. commencement was made by the simultaneous establishment at several different points of small independent states. Their union under one sceptre formed the kingdom of the Pharaohs.

or Delta and into Upper Egypt. 15 North Country {Tomera. one sceptre are always called. during which Egypt was divided into two separate a division kingdoms which in — that later of the North and that of the South. of Menes. Egyptologists as the white crown. l'"lG. During the Ptolemaic epoch a new administrative division into Upper. consisted of the or the South Country {To-rcs). in the royal protocols. the lords they carry on their heads two of Upper and Low^er Eg}'pt crowns. To-incJi). had often a decisive influence upon the This state of things was of sufficiently long duration to leave an ineffaceable trace upon the official language of Egypt. because of the colour which it bears upon painted monuments that of the North is called . The Middle . or heraldic imagery. The sovereigns who united the whole territory under times course of events. and Lower Egypt was established. 9. . it preserves the memory of a period before the time stretched from Upper Egypt first the Delta to the cataract. form the complete regal head-dress ordinarily called the In the hieroglyphics Northern Egypt is indicated b).The Valley of the Nile and its Inhabitants. the papyrus Southern by the lotus. . IMiddle. — Sliadouf : machine for irrigating the land above the le%'el of the canals. Lower Egypt the southernmost point of This division has the advantage of corresponding exactly to the configuration of the country moreover. Combined with one another they pschent. each appropriate to one of the two great divisions of That of Upper Egypt is known to their united kingdom. . for a similar reason. and upon that which we may call its blazonry. the red crown.

— The I'scheiil. ii. and Thebes belong to Upper Egypt. but with the tri-partite division Middle. we may speak of Beni-Hassan as in and Abydos as in Upper Egypt. and thus give a sufficient idea of their relative positions. as it and render more definite our topographical explaFor the contemporaries of the Pharaohs both Memphis Fu. but will be convenient for us period with a to give here a summary of the principal epochs in Egyptian history. History of Art in Ancient Egypt. 12. have to deal. The monuments of the plastic arts will be arranged into groups determined by the periods of their occurrence. at the Egypt of the Greek geographers began of the southern point of and extended to a Httle south Hermopohs. Maspero and others for the lists of kings and dynasties. and if we adopted their method of speech we should be under the continual necessity of stopping the narration to define geographical positions .. ^ 3- The Great Divisions of Egyptian History. of We must refer our readers to the works M. In enumerating and analysing the remains of Egyptian shall classify we- them chronologically as well as locally. — 1 he Red Crown. Althouorh this latter division was not established until after the centuries which saw the birth of those monuments with which we will shall facilitate nations. — The White Crouu. to Each of those epochs corresponds an artistic . art. 10. we shall make frequent use of it. as well as by their geographical distribution. Fig. and it for the chief events of each reign.i6 A Delta. Fig.

At the time of the shepherd invasion. the Thebaid became the citadel of Egyptian nationality. the sacerdotal class had obtained a supremacy over the other classes of the nation. This division is inconvenient in one respect it takes too little account of the sequence : . At the beginning of its long succession of " human dynasties (the Egyptians. it fixed itself at Thebes. from the first to the eleventh d)-nast)' the Middle Empire. Maspero give necessary information in a brief form. under thirty consecutive dynasties. finally succeeded in freeing the whole valley of the Nile for the benefit of the eighteenth dynasty. is usually divided into three parts the Ancient Empire. 17 character and individuality of its own. There were indeed. This interval of time. . from the reign of Menes to that of Nectanebo (340 years before our era). and its princes. tlie political the capital and the burying-place of the human king) Memphis Memphis was kings Memphis imposed . " the In the last years of the prehistoric period. the centre of gravity began to shift southwards. like other peoples. With Thebes D . " Under first the nineteenth dynasty an inverse movement to that the twenty-first Tanite dynasty. three great revolutions in the historical development of Egypt. " This monarchy existed for at least four thousand years. The following all paragraphs taken from the history of M. I. From that period onwards Thebes was the capital of the country and furnished the sovereign. after centuries of war against the intruders. the longest of which political history takes note.The Great special Divisions of Egyptian History. which opened the in era of great foreign wars. With the commencement of the sixth dynasty. of historical events. sovereigns upon the rest of the country and was the chief market for Egyptian commerce and industry. from the eleventh dynasty to the invasion of the Hyksos or Shepherds the Nevj Empire from the shepherd kings to the Persian conquest. VOL. . During the ninth and tenth dynasties it rested at Heracleopolis. and in the time of the eleventh dynasty. of the period carried the political centre of the country back towards the north. From the eleventh to the twenty-first all the Egyptian dynasties were Theban with the single exception of the fourteenth Xoite dynasty. Middle Egypt. placed a centre of the country was at number of dynasties of divine rulers before their first . A man called Menes (Menha or Mena in the Egyptian texts) destroyed this supremacy and lounded the Egyptian monarchy.

Bubastis. Mendes. The by supremacy of her. all — 1 ceased to be the capital. and above importance. inclusive). We .C. Midille. " I propose. the best. Maspero most suggestive of the truth as to the successive displacements of the political centre and the movement of history. Delta. from the twenty-first to the twent)'-sixth the thirtieth dynasties. therefore. but..shall. This period is divided into two sub-periods by the Shepherd dynasties. centrated Sais. " Third Period. " Memphis and of the sovereigns furnished Second Period. \^. into ruin and became nothing travellers. '' Second Sail period. guided r Orient. while Bunsen and other Egyptologists B.500 of the dynasties of other. was often partitioned between jDrinces Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.600 or 3. Histoire ancicnne des Peuples dc is. bring forward his date to 3. its course of who ^ reigned in long existence. however. in fact. Theban empire. each corresponding to the political : Egyptian history into three supremacy of one town first or province over the whole of Egypt " First Period. (from the twenty-first to the thirtieth dynasties. We believe that the division proposed by M. Sebennytos.8 — A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. cities of the Delta.2. influence lost their and Thebes itself fell more than a rcndezvojis for curious . have no hesitation in making use of the terms Aiicienf. It is the . ruined by the Ethiopian and Assyrian invasions. Theban (from the eleventh to the twentieth Supremacy of Thebes and the Theban kings. '' b. <-." Mariette places the accession of fiftieth Mena or Menes at about the century before our era. The nomcs of the Thebaid. and the Tanis. ''a. The old Theban empire. to divide periods. dynasties inclusive). horn the twenty-seventh ^ to dynasties. Memphite (the ten dynasties). as occasion arises. as they believe some the Manetho to have been contemporary with each in Neither Mariette nor Maspero deny that Egypt. and New Empire. from the eleventh The neio to the sixteenth dynasties. from the sixteenth Salt to the twentieth dynasties. Supremacy of Sais and the other cities of the This period is divided into two by the Persian invasion : " First Sail period. rose into equal or superior life From in that time the political of the country con- itself the maritime districts.

It is a singular thing. to a certain extent. because the monuments still remaining savaii/s. the It Sesostris of the Greeks. The date of 980. 19 by circumstances which need not be described here. To this dynasty belonged Rameses II. From of two. sent in the seventeenth century. the eighteenth dynasty." of period of greatest power was . this greatness was maintained by those of the nineteenth. work of elimination which has been attempted by certain modern must have been undertaken. they incline to believe that INIanetho confined himself to enumerating those The dynasties which were looked upon as the legitimate ones. Egyptian chronology becomes more certain as opportunities of comparison with the facts Hebrew history increase. in 656. even more than the valour of princes and soldiers. Nubia. who. our historical materials are abundant. the names of reigning families which are ignored by Whatever may be thought has been so well said by JNI. that even as late as the Ptolemies.. Syria. "drew his frontiers where he pleased. the constant struggles between Egypt and its neighbours. taking notes which they afterwards amplified into narratives.. part Eounded by the kings of of Arabia. its was the superiority of its civilization. Mesopotamia. and Armenia.. Its a lighthouse in the profourd darkness of remote antiquity. as Renan. This supremacy declined during the twenty-first and twentysecond dynasties. who flourished in the fifteenth century. For that we must thank the Greek travellers who penetrated everywhere. according to a contemporary expression. the founder of the twentysixth dynasty. of this initial date. but. Khurdistan. long anterior to the earliest traditions of the Greek race the reign Thothmes III. when the synchronic comparison." is placed by common conB. " Egypt remains.The Great Divisions ok Egvptiax History.C. The Egyptian empire then comprised Abyssinia. in Egypt itself. and some of the collateral dynasties must have been effaced and passed over in silence. that date onwards. multiply our opportunities for was opened to the Greeks. especially with Assyria. the real creators of history. at the same time. preserve history. which made Egypt supreme over Western Asia. who brought with them their inquiring spirit and their love for exactitude. the Soudan. within a year or may be given with confidence as that of the accession of Sheshonk I. In the seventh century the country . the contemporary of Solomon and Rehoboam.. After the accession of Psemethek I.

and even those calculations had no certain point of departure. and of the its still Finally. near the southern point The nearer our steps take us to the cataracts of Ethiopia. the study of all these monuments incontestably proves Ethiopia. and too long accepted by modern historians. follow the Egyptians on the banks of their each other in such chronological order that the oldest remains. they never possessed. of taste. and as we descended the Nile. is entirely it wanting in originality. constructed by river. the less ancient do the monuments become. strangely enough. they said. we should find the remains comparatively modern but." ^ Even thus summarily stated. their written characters. " If it Egypt owed political existence to monuments of a more remote antiquity. and tombs. . we should be that the sequence of towns. The error was caused by the were true that fact that at one epoch its in the history of Egypt the Ethiopians played an important part. their art and their civil institutions into the country. It was. the Egyptians never seem to have felt the want of what we call an era. of some definite point from which they could measure the " They were course of time and the progress of the centuries. Lower Egypt. such as it existing monuments glance is reveal to us. A colony of Ethiopian priests from the island of Meroe in Upper Nubia. are found in the north. carried their civilization into the midst of savage negro tribes. The most careful calculations will therefore fail to enable modern science to restore to the Egyptians that which. satisfied with calculating by the years of the reigning sovereign. and temples in Ethiopia it was the Egyptians who . The exact opposite of this is the truth.20 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. able to find in the latter country . Apercn de F Histoire dEgyptc. "It was the Egyptians who advanced up the banks of the Nile to found cities. fortresses. Sometimes they counted from the commencement of the year which had witnessed the death of his predecessor. sometimes from the day of his own coronation. power of the Macedonian monarcliy was fully developed. the art of Ethiopia. these historical indications are enough to show how little foundation there is for the opinion which was held by the ancient Greeks. Mariette. 66. holy places. A sufficient to tell us that ' represents the degeneracy only p. had introduced their religion. They show- ever increasing signs of the decadence of love for beauty. in fact. from Ethiopia that Egyptian civilization had come. in of the Delta. the Pyramids. art.

in the mysterious depths of Ethiopia. Brugsch-Bey. to whom she lost her independence never again to to had submit to her foreign foes to the recover it. The springs of this latter stream must be where the waters of the Nile. Maspero's Hisfoire ancienne. Histoire de f Egypt. had At various times Egypt shepherd invaders. and that their execution is generally mediocre. from the south to the north until . ^ p. it was lost in the country of the negro. we may say that as :ac inoitnt tozoards the springs of the Nile. younger than Memphis. At one nation had nothing to fear from external enemies. at others to turn a bold front to Asia or Ethiopia. uc descend the current of time. 2 of the Egyptian style. the time of the pyramid-builders. and so she remained till her final race never conquest. flowed from the centre of Africa. A good idea of this process of degradation may be gained by merely glancing through the plates to part v. During the long sequence of centuries which we have divided was more The capital was at one time in Middle than once displaced. § 4. to the kings of Assyria and Persia. and by which the walls of its cities were bathed." ^ We may condense all these views into a simple and easily remembered formula . shows what the caryatid became at Napata. . TJie Constitution of Egyptian Society —Infiience of that Constitution upon Monuments of Art. as if tired by their long journey. to the princes of Ethiopia. that the spirit of Egyptian forms has been weakly grasped. the national centre of gravity Egypt. Egypt was the most absolute monarch}. period the it accordance with political necessities. plate 6.1 The Constitution of Egyptian Society. And yet it appears that the character and social condition of the At underwent any great change. at another in in Upper.that ever existed. pp. may also be consulted upon the character of the Ethiopian kingdom and the monuments of Napata. over which stretch the long shadows of the Pyramids. 382. and its at a third period in Lower Egypt. but the stream of civilization flowed in the other direction. of Lepsius's Denknuclcr . for example. Thebes is The river which Egypt worshipped. and Meroe than Thebes. and finally to Alexander. into three great periods. . 6 and 7. sought in that district . divide into several arms before falling into the sea in that district near the modern capital.

as the people believed that his career was directed by the gods with whom he held converse. p. In an inscription which is reproduced both at Ipsamboul and at Medinet-Abou." His divinity. "the representative of Ra among the living. Ptah is made to speak in the following terms of Rameses II. . This affiliation of the king to the god was more than a figure of speech. visit to Heliopolis of the conquering Ethiopian. and in war. ^ See the account of the . Histoire ancieiiiie. in the words of an inscription. as he took care to proclaim whenever he wrote his name. iig-138).xt has lately been interpreted by E. .'-^ : . The deceased Pharaohs thus constituted a series of gods to whom the reigning sovereign would of course address himself when he had anything to ask hence the the country to the other. required no doubt a large sacerdotal class. war or political The army still of scribes and various functionaries. as a god I have begotten thee all thy members are divine when I approached thy I'oyal mother I took upon me the form of the sacred ram of Mendes " (hne 3rd). and Rameses III. This curious te. . . was completed and rendered perpetual in another life. The monarchy of the Incas was founded upon an almost identical pp. All the dead Pharaohs became gods. each member of which had his own special function in the complicated and gorgeous ceremonies in which he took part but the king alone. he became to them a visible deity and. had the right to enter the sanctuary and to open the door of the kind of chapel in which the symbolical representation of the divinity was kept he alone saw the god face to face. vii. The pre-eminent dignity of this priestly office did not. however. at least in the principal temples. Such a form of worship as that of Egypt. Naville {Society of Biblical Archceology. the king v/as the living manifestation and incarnation of God child of the sun {Se Rd). . in prevent the king from taking his proper share affairs generally.22 A " History of Art in Ancient Egypt. respectively: "I am thy father. belief. The king was thus a supreme pontif. and spoke to him in the name of his people. 58. 1 Maspero. begun on earth." ^ He was ihe priest above all others. it . so that the Egyptian pantheon obtained a new deity at the death of each sovereign. whose titles may be read upon the most ancient monuments of the country. the immediate chief of all civil and military officers and. Piankhithis Mer-Amen we shall quote the text of famous inscription in our chapter upon the Egyptian temple. the blood of the gods flowed in his veins and assured to him the sovereign power. vol. depended upon him for their orders from one end of was he who led the serried battalions of the Egyptian army. Successor and descendant of the deities who once reigned over the valley of the Nile.

'^^^.. - vt .

.

to the Mahmoudieh canal of Mehemet-Ali and that abortive alike. and the cutting of a new canal between the two seas under Nekau. was now and then the scene of succeeded generation military revolts. celebrated of these preserved in famous Chamber of Ancestors from Karnak. Manuel is tlie d Histoire ancienne. which the Bibliothique Nationak at Paris. of any one The Egyptian labourer or artisan never dreamt of calling in question the orders to the will of a sincrle national who might be master for the time. without any attempt to rebel against the royal authority or even to dispute it. 14. iu adoration before Seti. pp. The most is now VOL. in yet later times. 25 find living Pharaohs offering worship The give prestige which such a theory of royalty was calculated imagined. E . may easily be They obtained more than respect idolatry. (Mariette). generation among the Egyptians. to to the Egyptian kings . they were the objects of adoration. Absolute obedience man such was the constant and instinctive habit. I. ' under foreign and native kings Fr. Lenormant. i. During all those thousands of EiG. like its modern descendant.The Constitution monuments upon which we to their predecessors. t. — was regulated. the native soldiery but never. From the construction of the pyramids of Cheops and Chephren. sometimes by the jealousy which they inspired . population. has led to the parliamentary governments of Christian Europe. shown any desire slightest to obtain the for guarantee what we should call their rights and liberties. years not the faintest trace is to — Raineses II. 485-4S6. of Brought up from infancy in this religious veneration. and ancient a spirit which.^ of Egyptian Society. These were generally provoked by the presence in of foreign mercenaries. From Abydos be discovered of that spirit from which sprung the republican constitutions of Greece Italy. from the time of Menes to that of Tewfik-Pacha. and by it every movement of the social machine. to which their hereditary qualities also inclined them. Ancient Egypt. has the civil whether of the town or of the fields. sometimes by their want of discipline and licence.

all had to obey the summons. Under worked 1 The beaters for tlie great hunts which took place in the Delta and fashion. Arthus Bertrand. as the Greeks called the species of almond which is contained in the fruit of the lotus. garlic.^ An order received by the governor. and obediently under the directions of the architect's foreman and of skilled artisans who were permanently employed upon the work they did all that could be done by men without special education. as the case may be a few dry cakes. method thought of for is enterprise. 15 — Homage to Amenophis III. like troop of sheep. ^ i). proclaimed from one village next day the whole male the workshops. Le PaJ>y?-us Mallet. the barrage of the Nile. for arranging the bricks in the sun so that they might be dried and hardened. (From Prisse. and Egyptian beans. generally. to bag or basket which holds his provisions for a fortnight or a month. 2 vols. we can only refer to them . 1S78. 58 (in is Recueil de Travaux. to who a has it . Each man Fig. the only obtaining the necessary labour was compulsion. for carrying clay and water from the N ile to carries a . the Fayoum were procured in the same t. folio. onions.26 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. These hunts were among the favourite pleasures See Maspero. etc. Old men and children. this multitude well . The work to which we here refer the Histoire de r Art Egyptien iaprcs les Monuments. p. another throughout his province is population driven.-) the brickmakers. The more vigorous and skilful among them dressed and put in place the blocks of granite or limestone the weakest were useful for the transport of the rubbish to a distance. . At the end of a certain period they were relieved by fresh levies the stimulus of the rod. of the kings and the great lords. As the plates are not numbered.

— Construction of a Temple at Thebes. returned to their own places. of the Egyptian monuments at least. were unable to dispose of those prisoners of war captured in in myriads. Now. kings of the ancient empire. perfect in the concealed parts of the structure as in those v> hich . even if it had the help of numerous slaves. Those who died were buried in hasty graves dug in the sands of the desert by the natives of their own village. and apparently employed by them in the construction of Nineveh. is only to be explained by this levy en masse of every available pair of The races. employed upon those gigantic works lation . prove that architects whole Flc. required the collective effort of a whole population of a popudevoting themselves night and day to complete the work when once begun. . from these monuments themselves.) of great ability and skilful were. arrangements in their design and the marvellously exact execution of the more important details of the masonry. Cast your eyes upon the ruins of the Athenian Acropolis their dimensions will seem to you small in the extreme if you compare them with the buildings of Egypt and Assyria on the other hand their workmanship is equally careful throughout it is as exact and that history Even supposing the architect could easily .The Constitution of Egyptian Society. 16. workmen (From Prisse. and all who had not succumbed to the hard and continuous work. . indeed. it is impossible that such works as the Pyramids could have been begun and finished in the course of a single reign by free and remunerated Certain labour. divine. like ants over their subterranean city or bees over their comb. how they had been constructed. 27 from another province. had been silent upon this subject. by the Assyrian kings. The massive grandeur of some hands. but the great bulk of the task must have .

17. its By these signs its you may recognize once. of men who had become qualified by . made it a point of honour to acquit himself worthily of the task entrusted to him. the whole work was in in the their trade. In the gangs of docile labourers each other in the workshops of course. that. ornamental at were be visible. from foundation to completion. hands of artisans whom long practice had made perfect and that each single individual among them had Fig. — Columns in the Hypostyle Hall. a certain sprinkling of who succeeded Memphis or Thebes. Karnak. there was.28 A to History of Art in Ancient Egypt. in the structural details as in the painting and sculpture.

of cattle . in order that it might be complete at masonry. have ^ . 179.. for instance. the almost religious care in the placing and fixing of be fairly expected from the practised be ensured. . tlie great temple at Abydos. (Coulak." . therefore could have nothing but their unskilled To such men as these a great part of the work labour to bestow. inches high. the plough.^ the^ harvest. and finished by Rameses consist of but a single course of generally ill-balanced masonry. commenced by Seti I. iS. 1' sis I i n!n J _ nln Figs. from the oar.— The Constitution — ) of Egyptian Society. v/hich might a trade guild. —Scribes registering the yieU of 9. its divides the building in the direction of Haute-Egyple. with extreme carelessness. Voyage dans la The same writer speaks of Karnak in a similar strain "The major axis. who had perforce to be confided. inequalities and most of the great the required time. 59. when deprived by time of their coating of stucco. the management . by their sinking. p. as a rule. p. Bourgoin. In spite of the strictest supervision. Egyptian buildings in fault. . appear and. whole building 1 "The foundations of If. 19. members of singular in could not Hence the inconsistences which have been noticed ya I i^ nin T M. it The western because was hollow. which. sometimes it is the foundations which are compromised the safety of the sometimes it is the built up columns of masonry. and the deep fissure which Mariette. which made the inclination of the Itineraire. Hence the settling which has taken place. Drawn hy From a tomb at Sakkarah. fell built. walls a source of w-eakness instead of strength. 29 experience for the special worlc upon which they were employed but the great majority were men suddenly taken from very different occupations." : Pharaonic temples are pylon.

and self-respect. was sufficient to depopulate a province and to fill quarries . Fig. But this defect was inseparable from the system under which the Egyptian buildings were erected. which charac- Greek work its best time. (statues of Memnoii) at Thebes. whose single word.. — Colossi of Amenophis III. 20.^o A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. teristic The at infinite foresight passionate love for perfection of for its own is sake. The absolute and dreaded master whose gesture. not here to be found. the is very poor and mean.

^ The Constitution of Egyptian Societv. in this sense. Kis effigy was everywhere. the sovereign who. the king before whom filled with his own glory and all heads were bent to the earth majesty the buildings which he caused to spring. in bas-reliefs upon pylons. sometimes . as if by magic. royal functionaries. Seated in the form from the earth. he was represented sometimes offering homage to the gods. the high priest and father of his people. After the king came the priests. The soil was entirely In their hands. belonging to the privileged classes. 21. Drawn by Bourgoin. The aoTiculturists were inere serfs attached They cultivated. These three groups formed what we may call the upper class of Egyptian society. They possessed among them the whole valley of the Nile. Sakkarah. upon the walls of porticos and pillared halls. The art and in so beingof Egypt was. each receiving authority directly from the king and superintending the execution of his orders. to The supreme in efforts of architect and sculptor were directed all constructing for their prince a tomb which should its others magnificence and durability. of colossal statues in front of the temples. power surpassed the power and dignity of ordinary men. or to Immortalizing him by a statue raise its which should head as much above rivals as the royal Fig. (gj inches higli. a monarchical art of the it was the direct expression of the sentiments and ideas society which had to create it from its foundations. with the exception of the roval domain. the soldiers. — Scribe registering merchandize. the lands to the soil. for a payment In kind. leading his troops to battle or bringing them home excel victorious. was looked up to by his people as one so near akin to the gods as to be hardly distinguishable from them. and the scribes or . and workshops with thousands of men. . which they were not allowed to quit without the permission of the local authorities. They changed masters with the lands upon which they lived. in spite of his mortahty.

fishermen and boatmen of the Nile. We often different find. small traders and artisans enjoyed more liberty and independence. In consequence of a mistaken interpretation of historic evidence. (Doulak. althouoh leral riohts were the same in both cases. and the prohibition of intermarriage in never obtained a footing between the Egypt. Drawn by Bourgoin. natural consequence of their life in a city and of the character of their occupations.A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. The vigorous separation of classes according to the functions. in Egyptian . who cultivate the Egyptian soil for the benefit of the effendis. groups.) asfriculturists. and they must have had better opportunities of escaping from altogether. like the This notion has been dispelled by more careful study that the Egyptians of their remains. The burden of forced labour must have pressed less heavily it upon the latter class. beys. — Boatmen. and pachas or for that of the sovereign. Their position did not greatly differ from that of the modern fellahs. 22. Tomb of Ra-ka-pou. it was long believed Hindoos. enforced heredity of professions. l6 inches high. They lived upon their gains in the same way as the peasant upon As a the share of the harvest which custom reserved for his use. the artisans The Fig. their social had castes. the and shopkeepers of the cities were in a similar condition. more power of coming and going than the shepherds. who is still the greatest landowner in the country. 5'h dyna>ty.

or of civil Fig. are united in the person of a single individual.i-pou. — Cattle Drovers. Bourgoin. 23. From a tomb.) servant and soldier. — Bakers. In families which did not belong to these aristocratic classes there VOL.The Coxstitutiox writings. of Nay. I. 24.) marrying the son of a priest. 9I inches liigh. or the daughter of a general Fig. 33 two members of a single family attached one to the civil service and the other to the army. 5th dynasty. Drawn by Bjm-goin. (Boulak. From the tomb of I!a-k. Sakkarah. offices of soldier and priest. (Boulak. of Egyptian Society. F . it often happens that the priest and civil servant.

' Fig.34 was. son of Abouna. fortunate circumstances. see the history of a certain Ahmes. as it is narrated upon his sepulchral inscription. in all A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. rather than guilds. So).to an absolute rule. (Champollion. which dates from the reign of Amosis. . d. castes in the strict sense of the word. or the favour of the sovereign could raise a man of the lowest class up to the highest dignities of the state. ii. more heredity of occupation in the ordinary course the paternal employment fixed that of the children. For an earlier epoch. 1 Even 172. Chef des Nautoniers. 381 bis ) Such events were of frequent occurrence in all those oriental monarchies where the will of the sovereign was the supreme and undisputed law. In the latter days of the monarchy have an example of this in the case of we Amasis. The but yet there was nothing approaching.\. 1851. Memoire siir r Inscription t. the founder of the eighteenth dynasty (De Rouge. Starting as a piivate soldier for the war against the Shepherds. finally raised himself to the throne. in our own days. who. From a tomb at Beni-Hassan.o. undertaken for the re-conquest of he was noticed by the king for he finally hts frequent acts of gallantry. Histoire dEgypte. and Brugsch. 25. From this it resulted that great natural talents. p. Avaris. . d' Ahnies. or various trades were formed into corporations probability. and promoted until became something in the nature of high admiral. i. similar things have Herodotus. born among the dregs of the population. — Women at a loom.

was upon their tombs. at Meidoum. however. (Boulak. 26. that most of their care was lavished. It images of the and chapels. The priests of the highest rank. steles. It is to the burial chambers at Gizeh. his caprice is quite sufficient to raise the most insignificant of its atoms to a level with the most illustrious. we must turn for those features of civilization which remained for many centuries . fellow When all is placed so high above his seem mere human dust about his feet. — Netting birds. Fig. Drawn by Bourgoin. may say the same of the The Egypt of the great for us early kings belonging to the twelfth dynasty has been preserved the tombs of in upon iioii/cs Ameni and Num-Hotep. at their own expense. consecrated deity. Sakkarah. the governors of the which they were buried. From a tomb. The tombs of the Memphite kings have not preserved All that we for us anything that can fairly be called sculpture. These tombs furnish numberless themes of great interest to the historian. statues in the recesses of their massive walls in and to the bas-reliefs their early Egyptian narrow chambers. to tiie 35 Turkey and Persia the master of surprise of none but Europeans. and at Beni-Hassan that we must go for complete types of sepulchral architecture at those epochs to the at . while they made no eftort men that his subjects to rival the splendour of the royal creations.The Constitution taken place in of Egyptian Society. We centuries of the Middle Empire.) know of the owe to the classes and methods of that art in those early times we burial-places which the members of the governing style in were the habit of preparing during their lifetime in the necropolis of Memphis. the generals and officers of the army and the great civil functionaries.

Drawn by Bourgoin.-. A faithful mirror of Egyptian society. (Boulak. that of Assyria for instance. From a tomb at Sakkarah. in A.) the desert sand which has preserved the art of that of Egypt appears to us them without material injury. 28. — Wimiowhig corn. thanks also to the climate and to Fig. battle any other nation of which we shall have to treat than which represents little but scenes of and conquest. more comprehensive and varied than . approached most nearly to the ideal which they pursued for so many lords centuries. it has .^ii.) (Boulak. — Shepherds in the held. Drawn by Bourgoin. Finally it is from these tombs of priv'ate individuals that the best works of Egyptian artists have been obtained..A History of Art . 8j mches h. From a tomb at Sakkarah. 27. the works in which they without material change Fig. by these monuments we are enabled to build up piece by piece a trustworthy representation of the Egyptian people both in their labours and in their pleasures.nxient Egypt. to these rich Thanks and monuments erected at the expense of the great burghers of Egypt.

" J \Sf^^]f)i)i\i. by the size of his tomb. and by the lleisrht 1 2? iiicher. fi . to the scribe crouching. preserved his first place by the importance of the religious bLiildings which he raised.( W %i V. cross-legged. groups. from the ploughman with his ox.) number and dimensions of the reproductions of his features reproductions which show him in the various aspects demanded by . — Herdsmen.activity which created and preserved the wealth of the country it has not . 29.lm :sL Fig. we have illustrations of all classes that helped in the work of national development. Sth clyn. From a tomb at Sakkai-ali.isty.The Constitution of Egyptian Society. upon his . indeed. But in the large number of isolated figures. the complex nature of the civilization over which he presided. (Boulalc. il preserved for us an exhaustive record of the never-ceasing. and scenes which have come down to us. even neglected the games and various pleasures in wdiich the The king laborious Egyptian sought for his well earned repose.

Maspero and others who. to This absolute power. from the shepherd with his flock or the hunter pushing his shallop through the brakes of papyrus. live in intimate declare that communion with the they were by no means unhappy. the king himself or by his agents. but while contrary. might even be called democratic. however. . to the directors of the great public works and the princes of the blood who governed conquered provinces or guarded the frontiers of the country at the head of ever faithful armies. did not forget the " humble and meek. like him. except during a few violent reigns and a few moments of national crisis. The country suffered only on those comparatively rare occasions when the sceptre passed into the hands of an incapable master or into those of some insatiable warrior who thought only of satisfying his own ambition. istics. She then gave to her princes almost without an effort all they could desire or demand. mat. does not seem. and at the same time it did not scorn to portray the peaceful life of the fields. from the time of Mena to that of Psemethek. found life easy as long as she enjoyed an easy and capable administration. all it it most placed kings and it princes above and almost apart from humanity. ancient Egyptians. speaking generally. with her sacrificed to the day the resources of the future. her teeming soil and her splendid climate. It was one of the fundamental principles of Egyptian morality that those who were powerful should treat the poor and feeble with Their sepulchral inscriptions tell us kindness and consideration. seeing everything and taking an interest in everything. It was sensitive to military glory. and Egypt. They tell us that the confidences whispered to them in the pictured tomb-houses of Sakkarah and Memphis complain of no misery. have been put in force in a hard or oppressive manner either by M. The art of Egypt resembled that of Greece in being a complete and catholic art. but that such a phrase would sound curious nection with the most absolute when used in con- monarchy which the world has ever seen.38 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. river. with those ineffaceable character- trade so certainly imparts. both of face and figure which the practice of some special Looked at from this point of view it Egyptian art was popular. It set itself its with all sincerity to interpret the monarchical sentiment in enthusiastic and exaggerated form." on the frankly depicted them in their professional attitudes.

of whom there is no lack protector against the barbarians. the bread down-trodden. a all warm shelter for who were cold in the Thebaid. learned. their feudal lords 39 and and princes of the blood. "As me. for at Sakkarah. showed hauteur to the haughty. — From the tomb of Menofre. c. the nurse of the infant. they practised is a bountiful charity which reminds us of that which the chief beauty of the Christian's morality. that passport for The " Book of the Dead" is Egyptians into the other world which found upon every mummy gives us the most simple. un Gouvcrntur de Thihes au temps de la dotizi'eme dynastie. this rule. I have clothed the naked . (ChampoUion. and lowered the shoulders of those who raised them up.— The Constitution that their kings of Egyptian Society. I have not calumniated the slave in the The lengthy panegyrics of which some ears of his master. I have given water to the thirsty. and their The prince Entef relates that in he has arm of the violent."^ and sustenance of the Middle Egypt. and at the same " I have given time the most complete description of this virtue. made it a point of honour to observe They \vere not content with strict justice. paying " arrested the ' Louvre. Maspero. 408." epitaphs consist. pi. i.) theme. used brute force to those who used brute force. knowing the fool from the wise man." that he himself on the other hand. " was a man in a thousand... are. Cf. the help of the distressed. and of a sound and truthful judgment. 30. bread to the hungry. I have been the staff of the old man. wise. . in reality no more than amplifications of this — Fig. functionaries of every grade.

40

A

HisTOKY OF Art

in

Ancient Egypt.

attention to the skilful
.

.

.

and turning his back upon the ignorant, the father of the miserable and the mother of the motherless,

the terror of the cruel, the protector of the disinherited, the defender

men stronger than themhusband of the widow, the asylum of the orphan." ^ Amoni, hereditary prince of the nome of Meh, talks in the same " I have caused sorrow to no youth under age, I have fashion. despoiled no widow, nor have I repelled any labourer, I have imprisoned no shepherd, I have never taken for the labour gangs the serfs of him who had but five, there have been no paupers, nor has any man or woman starved in my time for, although there have been years of scarcity, I have caused all the tillable land in Meh to be tilled, from the northern frontier to that of the south, and have made such arrangements and such provision for the people that there has been no famine among them I have given to the widow and to the married woman alike, and I have never made any distinction between the great and the small in my
of those whose goods were coveted by
selves, the
;
;

gifts.

-

in

Doubtless these laudatory self-descriptions may be exaggerated some respects hyperbole has ever been a favourite figure with
;

the

composers of epitaphs, and

those

of

Egypt

formed

no

As M. Maspero remarks in connection exception to the rule. with this question, " The man as he is, often differs very greatly But we may safely say that the from the man as he thinks he is."
which he set before and esteem, he would himself If only to practice, to a certain extent, the virtues of which he boasted. Many signs combine to tell us that the Egyptians of all classes The master possessed a large fund of tenderness and good-will. was often both clement and charitable the peasant, the servant, and the slave, were patient and cheerful, and that in spite of In a the fatisfue of labours which could never enrich them. country so favoured by nature, men had so few wants that they had no experience of all that is implied by that doleful word
ideal

Egyptian realized some portion of the

obtain admiration

;

dapris

Quoted by ]\Iaspero, Confarncc siir I' Histoire des Ames dans l' Egypie andenrte, les Monumcnis du Musk du Louvre {Association scicntifique de France, Bulletin hcbdomadaire, No. 594; 23 Mars, 1879). " Translated by Maspero {la Grande Liscription de Beni-Hassan, in the Recueil de Travaux rclalifs a la Fhilclogie it h FAu/teologte egyptienne et assyrienne (t.
' i.

PP- 173-174)-

The Constitution
poverty, with us.

of Egyptian Society.

41

The pure

skies

and

brilliant sunshine, the

deep

draughts of Nile water, and the moments of repose under the shadows of the sycamores, the freshness of the evening bath, the starry night with its reinvigorating breezes, were all enjoyments

which the poorest could share. We need feel no surprise therefore at the vivacity with which one of the most learned of the historians of Egypt, Brugsch-Bey, protests against the common misconception of the Egyptians " as
a race grave, serious, morose, exclusive, religious, thinking

much

of the next world, and

little

of this

;

living, in

a word, like the
cries, " that this

Trappists of former days.

Are we

to believe,"

he
it

majestic river and the fertile soil through which

flows, this azure

unclouded sun, produced a nation of living mummies, a race of solemn philosophers who looked upon life in this world Travel over as a burden to be shuffled off as quickly as possible ? Egypt examine the scenes painted and sculptured upon the walls sky with
its
;

of sepulchral chambers

;

read the inscriptions carved upon stone
will

or traced in ink upon the rolls of papyrus, and you

find

yourself compelled to modify the false notions you have imbibed as

Nothing could be more cheerful, to the Egyptian philosophers. more amusing or more frank, than the social life of this pleasureFar from wishing to die, they prayed to the gods loving people. for a long life and a happy old age they prayed that, " if possible, they might live to the perfect age of one hundred and ten."
;

They were

addicted to

all

kinds of pleasures.

They

drank, they

sang, they danced, they were fond of excursions into the country, where the sports of hunting and fishing were specially reserved for the upper class. As a natural effect of this desire for enjoyment, pleasantry which was sometimes rather free, conversation and gay jokes and what we should call chaff, were much in vogue even ^ their tombs were not sacred from their desire for a jest."
:

The

worst government, the sternest oppression, could never ex;

tinguish this natural gaiety

it

was too intimately connected with

the climate and the natural conditions of the country, conditions Never were which had never changed since the days of Menes. the Egyptians more roughly treated than under Mehemet Ali and the late viceroy their condition was compared, with justice, to that of the negroes in Carolina and Virginia, who, before the American civil war, laboured under the whips of their drivers, and
;

'

Brugsch-Bf.v, Histoire

d'Ei:yf>fe,\i\). 14. 15.
c.

VOL.

I.

42

A

History of Art in Ancient Egypt.
fruits
life

enjoyed no more of the

of their
in

own

labour than what was

barely sufficient to keep

their

bodies.

Torn from
to

their

homes and kept by
thousands
;

force In the public works, the fellahs died in
in the fields
;

those

who remained
in

had

pay the taxes

one or two years

advance

they were

never out of debt,

nominally, to the public treasury, and the rattan of the collector

extorted from them such savings as they might
of plenty, up to the last coin.

make during

years

But

still

laughter did not cease in

Look, for instance, at the children in the streets of Cairo who let out mounts to sight-seeing Europeans. Let the tourist trot or gallop as he will, when he stops he finds his donkey-boy by
!

Egypt

his side, full of spirits

and good humour

;

and yet perhaps while

Fic. 31.

— Water Tournament, from a tomb
" fare "

at

Khoum-el-Alimar. (From Prisse.)

he has been making his midday meal upon a few grains of maize tied up in a corner of his shirt. In 1862 I returned from Asia Minor in company with M. Edmond Guillaume, the architect, and I\L Jules Delbet, the doctor, We took the longest way home, by of our expedition to Ancyra.
running behind his
Syria and Egypt.

At

Cairo, Mariette, after having

shown us
"

the

museum

at Boulak, wished to introduce us to his

own

Serapeum."
passed the

He

took us for a night to his house

in the desert,

and showed us

the galleries of the

tomb of Apis by

torchlight.

We

next afternoon in inspecting those excavations in the necropolis of

Sakkarah which have led to the recovery of so many wonders of Egyptian art. The works were carried on by the labour of four hundred children and vouths, summoned by the corvc'c for fifteen

The
days

Constitution' of Egyptian Society.

43

at a time from some district, I forget which, of Middle Egypt.. At sunset these young labourers quitted their \vork and seated themselves in groups, according to their native villages, upon the still warm sand. Each drew from a little sack, containing his provision for two or three weeks, a dry cake those whose parents
;

were comfortably off had also, perhaps, a leek or a raw onion. But e\'en for such gourmands as those, the repast was not a long one. Supper over, they chattered for a time, and then went to rest the bigger and stronger among them took possession of some abandoned caves, the others stretched themselves upon the they formed bare earth but, before going to sleep they sang
; ;
;

Fig. 32.

— Mariette's

Home.

themselves into two choirs who alternated and answered one another, and this they kept up to an advanced hour of the night. I shall never forget the charm of that night in the desert, nor

upon the sea of sand. Were it its surface, and that no ray scintillated as it does even on the calmest sea, we might have thought ourselves in mid ocean. Sleep came to me reluctantly. While I listened to the alternate rise and fall of the chorus outside, I reflected upon how little those children required upon the slender wants of their fathers and mothers, who, like them, sink into their nightly sleep with a song upon their lips. I compared this easy happiness with the restless and complicated
not that no star was reflected upon
;

the weird aspect of the moonlight


44

:

A
cities

History of Art

in

Ancient Egypt.
the end of a few days, in the
I

existence which

we should

find, at

ambitious
travel,
forest,

of the West, and

regretted that
life in

our year of

our twelve months of unrestrained

the desert or the

had come

to

an end.

^

5.

The Egyptian

Rcligio)i

and

its

Injhicncc upon the

Plastic Arts.

have still to notice the profoundly religious character of Egyptian art. " The first thing that excites our surprise, when we examine the reproductions of Egyptian monuments which have been published in our day, is the extraordinary number of scenes
of sacrifice and worship which have
collection of plates

We

come down

to us.

In the

which we owe to contemporary archaeologists, we can hardly find one which does not contain the figure of some
receiving

deity,

with

impassive

countenance

the

prayers

or
a

offerings of a prostrate king or priest.

One would

say

that

country with so

many

sacred pictures and sculjitures, must have

been inhabited by gods, and by just enough men for the service The Egyptians were a devout people. Either by natural tendency or by force of education, they saw God pervading the whole of their universe they lived in Him and for Him. Their imaginations were full of His greatness, their words of His praise, and their literature was in great part inspired by
of their temples.^
;

gratitude for the benefits which

He
in

showered upon them.

Most
of

of

their

manuscripts which
matters,

have

come down

to

us

treat

those which are ostensibly concerned only with profane subjects, mythological names and allusions occur on every page, almost at every line." An examination into the primitive religious beliefs of the
religious

and

even

Egyptians
The

is

full

of difficulty.

In

discovering

new

papyri, in

'

saying of one of the characters of Petronius might be appHed to Egypt
is

" This country

so thickly peopled with divinities that

it is

easier to find a
life

god than
is

a man."
indicated

The place held by religious observances in the by Hkrodotus (ii. 37): "The Egyptians," he
all

daily
says,

of Egypt

clearly

"are very religious;

they surpass
^

other nations in the adoration with which they regard their deities."
anciennc, pp. 26, 27.

Maspero, Hiitotre

The Egyptian Religion and the

Plastic Arts.

45

determining the signification of signs which have Ijeen puzzHng egyptologists, the inquirer will undoubtedly do good work, and

"mMiji^m^M^mHmmmM

N

Fig. 33.

—Amenliotep

or

Amenophis

III. presented by Phre to (Champollion, pL 344.)

Amen-Ra

;

Thebes.

will

establish facts
;

importance

but even

which are sure not to lack interest and even when documents abound and when every

46

A

History of Art
is

in

Ancient Egypt.
it

separate word they contain
difficult to

understood, even then

is

very

penetrate to the root of their meaning. A ghmpse will be caught of it, I admit, by one of those efforts of inductive divination which distinguish modern research but even then it will remain to explain the primitive and only half-understood notions of five or six thousand years ago in the philosophical vocabularies It is here that the most difficult and irksome part of of to-day.
;

the task begins.

We

who

represent the old age,

or,

perhaps, the

prime, of humanity, think of these matters and speak of them as
abstractions,
to us,

while the

Egyptians,

who were

children compared

thought of them under concrete forms.

Their very ideals

were material, more or less vague and refined perhaps, but still Their only conception of a deity was of a figure larger, material. more vigorous and more beautiful than mortals the powers and If we attributes with which it was endowed were all physical.
;

attempt to express their conceptions
their meaning.
for

in abstract terms,
it

we

falsify

We

cannot avoid altering
are not to be

to a certain e.xtent,
all

exact

equivalents

found, and, in spite of

precautions,

we

give to the confused and childish ideas of ancient

religion, a precision
If,

which is entirely modern. under these reserves, we study the Egyptian theology in its most learned and refined form namely, that which it attained during the eighteenth and nineteenth dynasties we shall dimly perceive that it implies a belief in the unity of the First Cause of all life. But this belief is obscured behind the numerous gods who are, in fact, emanations from its substance and manifestations of its indefatigable activity. It is in the person of these gods that Each of them has his own name, the divine essence takes form. his own figure, and his own special share in the management of

the universe
particular

;

each of them presides over the production of some
of

order

phenomena

and

insures

their

regularity.

These gods are
sons.

related to each

other as

fathers,

mothers, and

They

thus form a vast hierarchy

of beings, superior to

the series.

man, and each enjoying a dignity corresponding to his rank in There is, so to speak, most of divinity in those who are nearest to the "one God in heaven or earth who was not
begotten."

These

deities are divided into

groups of three, each

group constituting a family, like those of earth, consisting of father, mother, and son. Thus from triad to triad, the concealed god develops his sovereign powers to all eternity, or, to use an

The Egyptian

Religion and the Plastic Arts.
"

47
he

expression clear to the religious schools of ancient Egypt,
creates his

own members, which
the
science
it

are themselves gods."^

How
form

should
?

of

comparative religion class

this
?

of faith
is,

Should

be called polytheism or pantheism
is

The answer

perhaps, not of great importance, and this
its

hardly
the

the place for

discussion.
polytheists.
reflection,

It

is

certain

that,

practically,

Egyptians were by dint of long

The Egyptian
arrived at
the

priests, indeed, had,

comprehension, or at

Cause which had started the river of life that inexhaustible stream of which the Nile with its fertilising waves was the concrete image in its long journey across time and space. But the devotion of the people themselves never succeeded in mountinof above the minor divinities, above those intermediaries in whom the divine principle and attributes became personified and put on the tangibility of body necessary to make them intelligible to childish understandings. So, too, was it with artists, and for still more powerful reasons as by forms only could they express the ideas which they had conceived. Even in those religions which are most clearly and openly monotheistic and spiritual, such as Christianity, art has done something of the same kind. Aided in secret by one of the most powerful instincts of the human soul, it has succeeded, in spite of all resistance and protestation, in giving plastic expression to those parts of our belief which seem least fitted lor such treatment and it has caused those methods of expression to be so accepted by us that we see nothing unnatural in the representation under the features of an old man, of the first Person of the Trinity, of that Jehovah who, In the Old Testament, proscribed all graven Images with such Impartial rigour who, in the Evangel, described Himself as " tlie Truth and the Life." In Egypt, both sculptors and painters could multiply their images to infinity without coming into collision with dogma, without provoking the regrets or censures of its most severe
least at the contemplation, of that First

;

;

;

interpreters.

Doctrine did
it

not

condemn these

personifications,

even when
'

had been refined and elaborated by the speculative
texts.

This formula frequently occurs in the
to

To

cite

but one occasion,
{Rccueil de
t.
i.

we

find

upon a Theban invocation
relatifs

Amen,

translated by

P.PihRRET
el

Travaux
the

a la Philologie

et

a V Archeologie egyptienne
:

assyrienne,

\).

70), at

third line of the inscription

" Sculptor, thou

modelest thine own members; thou

begettest them, not having thyself been begotten."

48

A

History of Art

ix

Ancient Egypt.
In the interior of the took pleasure in
essential power,

theologians of

Thebes and HeHopoHs.
" the
' '

who contemplating One who exists by his own the only being who substantially exists." Even
temples, there was a small class of mystics
as they have often

then
"

men
"

tried,

done

since, to define the undefinable, to
I

grasp

the incomprehensible, to perceive the supreme the
shifting

am

through

and transparent

veil

of

natural

phenomena.

But

those refined metaphysics never touched and influenced the crowd,

and never will. The deity, in order to be perceived by them and to touch their feelings, must have his unity broken he must, if the expression be admissible, be cut up into morsels for them. By a process of abstraction which is as old as religion itself the
;

human

intelligence

is

led to consider separately each of the qualities
it

of existence, each of the forces which
either within

perceives to be at work

man

himself or in the exterior world.

At

first

it

thinks those forces and qualities are distributed impartially to
creation.
It

all

confounds existence with
believes, as

fetishism,
passion,

when man

life. Hence the reign of young children do, that thought,

and volition like his own, are to be found in everything he His own image seems to him reflected as in a mirror with a thousand converging facets, and he is unable to distinguish the
meets.
real condition of things outside
it.

Certain celestial and terrestrial bodies

make
fill

a particularly strong beauty, by their evil

impression upon his mind by their
or beneficial effects

size, their

the average gratitude, admiration, or terror.

him with more than Driven by the illusion which possesses him, he places the origin of those qualities which seem to him the highest and most important, in the bodies which have made so deep an impression upon his senses to them he
upon himself
;

They

which alternately excite his desire and his fear. According to circumstances a fetish might be a mountain, a rock or a river, a plant or an animal. It might be those heavenly bodies which exercised much more influence over it might be the the life of primitive man than they do over us moon and stars, which tempered the darkness of the night and diminished its terrors it might be the cloud, from whose bosom came rain and thunder above all, it might be the sun which reDifferences turned every morning to light and warm the world. everywhere one of climate and race had their modifying effect, but common characteristic is to be found. It was always to some
attributes the friendly or hostile influences
; ; ;

The Egyptian Religion and the
material and visible object that the
forces

Plastic Arts.
intellect referred

49
those
;

human

drew from its own consciousness forces which, when thus united with something tangible, constituted the first types of those divine beings whom mankind have so long adored, to whom they have turned for ages in their hope and fear. As the years passed away, man advanced beyond his primitive conceptions. He did not entirely renounce them we may indeed see reminiscences of them all around us but he super imposed others upon them which were more complex. His powers of observation, still imperfect though they were, began to insinuate into his mind a disbelief in the activity of inanimate matter, and those objects which were nearest to him, which he could touch with his hand, were the first victims of his disenchantment. Thus began
and
qualities

which

it

a long course of intellectual development, the result of which

we
to

know, although the various stages of
follow at this distance of time.
star
It

its

progress are

difficult

appears certain, however, that
^wdi polytheism.

worship formed the transition between /t'//s/iis;u

no longer attributed vital forces and pre-eminent qualities generally to bodies with which they themselves were in immediate

Men

and trees but they found no difficulty in continuing to assign them to those great luminaries whose distance and beauty placed them, so to speak outside the material world.
contact, to stones
;

As

they gradually deprived inanimate matter of the properties
it,

with which they had once gifted

they sought for new objects to

which they might attach those properties. These they found in the stars which shone in the firmament century after century,

and knew neither old age nor death and especially in the most brilliant, the most beneficent, and the most necessary of them all, in that sun whose coming they awaited every morning with an impatience which must once ha\'e been mixed with a certain amount of anxiety. The attributes which awakened intelligence had taken away
;

from the inanimate objects of the world could not be
in space.

left floating

They became

gradually and imperceptibly grouped

in

men's minds around the great luminary of day, and a bond of union was found for the different members of the group by endowing
operation

This was favoured by the constitution of contemporary language, by its idioms made up entirely of those images and metaphors which, by their frank audacity, surprise and charm us
the
VOL.
I.

sun with a personality modelled upon that of man.

H

and the substance from the eye of man. the nurse and father of all life. allowed his imagination to endow it with the purest and noblest characteristics which the finest examples of humanity could show while the phenomena which depend upon its action are so numerous that there was no hesitation in assigning to it qualities and energies of the most various kinds. It although it never lost all trace of their e. See the fine hymns quoted and translated by M. the to luminous globe of the the same category as worship of humanity. and amid the confidence of that after his hours of sleep he would take up his eternal task with renewed vigour. Whether as Indra or as Amen-Ra.^ This solar god and the divinities who resemble him. it was the same cry that went up to him from Egypt and Hindostan the prayers which we find in the \'^edas and in the papyri. It commenced with the first awakening of thought. upon the path prepared for him by Aurora a hero who . there were deities who were mere entities. sun with its compulsory course. to who. full of pride and vigour. 30-37. the works of the early poets. when evening came. He was an invincible warrior. pji. 50 in A History of Art i\ Anxient Egypt. This type when once established was used for the creation of other deities. which were all. the person:ility and moral individuality of these gods gradually But its brilliance. He was above all the untiring benefactor of mankind. cast in the same mould. breathe the same sentiments and were addressed to the same god.. went his rest amid all all the glories of an eastern sunset.xistence. when man endowed all visible nature with the bounding life which he felt in his own veins. As the intellect became more capable of abstraction and analysis. gods and attained to their highest and most complete development in the some respects. its real threw off its astral or physical characteristics. pursued his daily path in spite of all obstacle or hindrance. The sun became a young hero advancing. transition from the simple fetish to complete deities. He was sometimes an angry master. whose glance killed and devoured. No effort of intelligence was required for its commencement or for its prosecution. resulted that. Maspero in his anciaiitc. to those who played such an important Hellenic mythology. form the . In part in the Egyptian religion. belonged tranquil its the material objects which received the first distance which conceals and majestic movement. both in Egypt the Histoire and 1 in Greece. . so to speak.

define polytheism as the partition of the highest attributes oi between of of a limited number not give agents. 51 some or power. Osiris of and the Apollo and Athene of the the Greeks. nevertheless. The could life imagination man these agents without at the same time en- dowing them with natural essential characteristics and to with the human it form. centuries by tradition. less more and ephemeral than man. It is in this capacity chiefly that we reproduce them. some virtue. It some all requires of the subtle Jiiicssc modern out criticism to seek the and distinguish obscure roots which attach these divinities to the naturalistic beliefs of earlier aees.The Egyptian simple embodiment oi Religion and the Plastic Arts. Sometimes absolute is certainty tained. and Egyptians.^ We life may. beautiful lu 34- —Amen Lc. as examples of those forms which seemed to the Egyptian imagination to offer the most satisfactory emblems of their gods. wished regard them as stronger.iure. Ptah. or The Auimnn. . fruin a bronze Height 22^04 inches. in ihe 1 Several of the bronzes which we reproduce may belong to the Ptolemaic epoch but they are repetitions of types and attributes which had been fixed for many . not to be at- but Ave a may is safely say that race poly- when we find these abstract deities among their theistic gods. then. but. quality. such deities as the Amen.

which it calls gods. In Egypt. the appli- they form but one cation of a single law. from a bronze in the size. p. to recognize and proclaim the unity of all cause. Travaux. 1 In his work entitled Des deux Yeux dii Disque solaire. Louvre. or even to fetish worship.5^ A History of Art in Anciext Egypt. philosophers of but the monotheistic ception Fig. and was even taught by the were days select class of priests who those con- the . Actual minds of the great mass of the Moreover. It next perceives that these causes. by efforts of conjecture. on the Its it threshold of this depths were dimly perceived. t. system had said its last word and was complete. And thus monotheism succeeds to polytheism. or gods. de (Rccueil s|)eculation at times approached monotheism . religious speculation arrived doctrine. all phenomena to a certain number of causes.ili. i. Grebaut seems to have Egyptian religious very clearly indicated how far we are justified in saying that efc. by the very people. the work of reflection of time goes on. when it had succeeded in embodying in some divine personality each of those forces whose combined energy produces movement in the world or guarantees its duration. When its religious evolution follows normal course. Still later it begins to comprehend of these causes are but for that many different names one thing. are of unequal importance. It refers. that force. 35 never penetrated into the — Pt. Thus by by on carried reduction logic and simplification. and so it constitutes them into a hierarchy. and in course makes new discoveries. 120). M. it was easily adapted to the^ national polyThe theory of emanations theism. is it and analysis. 1 method in which Egyptian myth- ology described it.

36. The Fig. if the existence of the eods were to be brought home to mankind. 53 The different gods were but the different quahties of the eternal substance.The EovrxiAN Religion and the reconciled everything. — Even in those centuries in which the ideas of the Egyptian people refined. Plastic Arts. that each of them should I magihave a form and a domicile. that they created the gods. more Greek Greek difficult than that reached in Egypt. more strongly tinged with fetishism than that of Greece. of the When newly born began to make reart first presentations of Greek deities. These qualities and energies were revealed by being imported into the world ot They took finite shape and form. Height 22"8 inches. nation therefore did well in com- mencinof to distinguish and define the gods . the work of intellectual analysis and abstraction had already come to a state of maturity which it never artists. birth necessary. when They gave they to were piously pursued the precision contour the forms roughly and by the established definition which they gave to each divine figure. Egyptian polytheism was always more mixed. the various manifestations of one creative force. in one sense. the three successive stages. in The divinities were fewer number and consein quently more fixed and decided their individual characteristics. we might almost say sketched. artists occupied same of course. were made comprehensible to the intellect of man by their mysterious It was and generation. Their task was. were most elevated and which . from a bronze in the Louvre. Osiris.

In the long prehistoric centuries. . The dlitc of the nation king. special phe- As for the lower orders of the people. while the Egyptian race was occupied in making good its possession of the Nile valley and ' have Herodotus. abstract in their and presiding over non'vina. 37. INIouth. Each animals has Fig. adoring Amen and Ptah. None of the peculiarities of Egyptian civilization struck Greek travellers with amazement than this worship of animals. and Horus. the hawk. A few more or less isolated thinkers were — the already seeking to formulate monotheism. to one of the greater deities. the goat of Mendes. Khons Sekhet. 75-86. — The goddess Bast. as symbol or attribute. ii. Actual As for ourselves we objects of popular devotion were no no doubt that these more than ancient fetishes. &c. and the military class — were Osiris Isis. they the knew and names of these public deities associated themselves with the great honours which were paid to them but their homage and their faith were . or Khonsu.54 A mind of History of Art in in Ancient Egypt. the priest. the Louvre. (From size. as the bulls Apis and Mnevis. other divinities less all more or nature. are always found the the development of religious co-existed in the nation. more heartily rendered to such concrete and visible eods as the sacred animals. Nephtisand many .^ Later theology has ceeded subtle in more semi- suc- giving more or less and specious explanaof these tions of these forms of worship.) a bronze in been assigned. life. the ibis.

vegetables. but had not that theological accumulated by its own intellectual energy. . Diocletian negotiated a treaty with the Blemmyes. Egypt. deified 55 into cultivation. It The old religion and theology of the Egyjjtians did not exjiire in a single day. transfusion. was no more killed by the Roman conquest than it was by that of the Ptolemies. that is of Ptah. others for the and it was the same with certain . imasfination these animals.Alexandria had its Egyptian Serapeum by the side of its Greek one. at Memjihis. were no doubt it had In an inscription cut in the time of fetish erudition which in hieroglyphs upon the wall and speculative ideas in all those Egyptian hooks which have come down to us. Blemmyes by Silco and the Christian kings of Ethiopia. among as the other races of antiquity. a dead city visited for its relics of the past. those peoi)le of Nubia who were at one time such redoubtable soldiers. had lost to all . in a form which betrays the last two centuries of the . but is seems so is nowhere marked it in When Egypt. But although its rites did not cease. which Egypt. Empire. We find abstract Monuments whole of its are to be found there which are Egyptian in every particular.The EoYrTLAN Religion and the brineine it Plastic Arts. That of Isis. influence only on condition of being melted do>vn and re-modelled in the crucible A little colerie of thinkers set themselves to complete this of Greek philosophy. at first it inexplicable. the influence and supremacy of the its Greek but the shadow of former indepen- when all the energy and intellectual dence and national liie activity which remained to it was concentrated at the Greco-Syrian rather than Egyptian Alexandria. but the great mass of the people returned to simple practices which had been sanctified by thousands of j-ears.. More one purely Egyptian notion may be found interpreted in the works of Alexandrian The principal sanctuaries philosophers and in the phraseology of Greek philosophy. we find an antique hymn transcribed of a temple. nothing but a heap of ruins. still to say that the higher (luahties of the Egyptian rehgion were superstitions then altogether In it Roman Egypt lost all the predominant. which was predestined to accept by the llian Certain doctrines of Plotinus are thus best explained. Although Thebes was did not allow their rites and ceremonies to fall into disuse. We else so phenomenon. in Gnosticit ism was particuLirly successful past. the worship of Vulcan. and formed nearly the whole of their religion. the ancient religion of the race towards monotheism took a form that was either philosophical and Platonic or and as tor the cultivated spirits who wished to continue Christian lost all its highest branches. Philip the Arab. was carried on up to the establisliment of Christianity. lasted until the time of Justinian. its vitality had come to an end. ' We do not mean lost. after being for three centuries subject genius. some terror for the services which they inspired find traces of this which they rendered. at Phila.^ The aspirations . and some of its elaborate doctrines still continued It exercised some remains of to be transmitted. which guaranteed to them the free use of that It was not converted into a church until after the destruction of the temple.

EMEXs ." Guided by a more critical knowledge of the past. which becomes honourable and worthy of our sympathy when it is addressed and laborious helpers of man. and in the statues of the void left beliefs by the disappearance of the national gods. the personification of the eternal forces of the world and of the which govern them. were kept free from the powerful and softening influence of poetry and art. its polytheism became a kind of universal . the gods of the Hellenic pantheon absorbed and assimilated all within the boundaries of the Roman those of other nationalities Empire. Porrum et ciEpe nefas violare et frangere morsu. xv.— A History Art 56 of in Ancient Egvi'T. Thus we may see. these laws and forces presented themselves to their minds in the forms which had been figured and described by the sculptors. p. They mocked at a people who " hardly dared to bite a leek or an onion who adored divinities which (jrew in their own Qrardens. qiiibus haec nascuntur ! Numina Juvenal. and writers of Greece. They guarded with obstinacy the ancient foundations of their early faith. their primitive seem to have put on a new life and to have enjoyed a restored prestige. without hesitation or dispute. It amazed and scandalized both pagans and Christians during the early centuries of Christianity. at least. to domestic animals. the ancient but felled still vigorous stumps of great trees which have been send out fresh shoots to renew their youth. religion for civilized orisjin humanity. quoted by Maspero. We are enabled to account for them by that inexperience which falsifies all . in forest clearings. and was adopted by nations of the lanwuao-e. such as the cow and the draught ox. the judgments of infancy. From end to end of the habitable earth. Ci. most diverse read neither and The lower classes alone. the numbers and physical characteristics of the divine types of Greece. painters. laws They accepted." ^ : and a god which was nothing but a " beast wallowing on a purple carpet. in hortis O - Sanctas gentes.Alexaxdrinus. This persistence. ' to the useful for instance. . 9-11. 46. Histoirc ancienne. as the Greeks boasted. this apparent recrudescence of fetishism made itself felt in Egypt alone. in the race as well as in the individual we see that they are the exaggeration of a natural sentiment. who Homer Greek nor Hesiod and were unable to admire the sculptors. we are now better able to understand the origin of these beliefs and the '-^ secret of their long duration.

8vo). in the excellent Manuel de I'Histoire des Religions. 1880). in the temple. which M. . but he points out the fact that this class of conceptions had a perennial influence over the Egyptian mind. That was the oldest which the world has seen.^ This stage must never be forgotten. Add to this. the deification of the king. From his point of view the custom of placing a symbol of the divinity rather than an image must be traced to fetishism (pp. to 57 would be interesting life in know why . With regard to the Egyptian religion. were alone in the world for many centuries they had to depend entirely upon their own internal forces for the accomplishment of their emancipation it is. views much the same as those which we have just described. to whom the language is indebted for tlie use of the term fetishism as a name for a definite state of religious conception. A great many and judicious observations and curious facts are to be found in the realistic . and maintained more obstinately. materialistic character of the Egyptian conceptions are very well grasped author has not endeavoured to fctichisme it is perhaps to be regretted that the make the creeds to which he gives this name of somewhat clearer.The Egyptian It Religion and the Plastic Arts. we shall find treated. were aided and example incited by the of races which had preceded them on the same road. hardly surprising that they should have remained longer than their successors in that fetish worship which we have asserted to be the first stage of races in their eftorts to . 1760." He finds traces of this animism in the worshij) of the dead. in an essay which apjjeared in 1878 in the Zeitschrift/iir Ethnologic. that other emerge from barbarism." he says. The inhabitants of the Nile V^alley. \. it . I . if we wish to understand the jaart which art played in the figuring of the. a savant with few advantages but and inquiring spirit. was nothing to begin with but an organised animism. therefore. Ernest Leroux. under the title Di/ F Egypte avccla Religion actuelle de Nigritie (i3mo). Egyptian gods.s. 44 and 45 of the French version). The author denominates the religious state which we call fetishism animism. Maurice Yernes has just translated from the Dutch (i vol i2mo. Virchow. The study of the fetish elements of the Egyptian religion has been resumed lately with competent knowledge and talent by a German egyptologist. Parall'ele de fAncienue Jieligioii de — ALgyptischen Mythologie (28 pp. tliose impressions which characterize the infancy of men as well as of mankiaid. VOL. and the adoration of animals. religious development. these beHefs were so is curiously tenacious of Egypt perhaps the reason to be found in the prodigious antiquity of Egyptian civilization civilization. It may therefore be supposed to have received more deeph'. " like the Chinese. the least remote from the day of man's first appearance upon the earth. on the other hand. which is published in Berlin under the direction of M. and to show by what workings of the mind they were adopted and abandoned. "The Egyptian religion. by Tiele. 1 a bold This was perceived by the President de Brosses. Herr Pietschmann. It is called Dcr ^gyptische Fetischdiinst und Gotlerglaube Prolegomena c?/r on. in We can still read : with interest the book which he published anonymously Culte des Dieiix fetiches .

as the case order to form part of a complex and Imaginary being. with the head of a cat do not refuse to accept this explanation.) (Drawn which to it.58 A History of Art it in Ancient Egypt. and the bird with a human head which symbolizes death. by Bourgoin. was detached and the head or body. had been consecrated which was Its symbol or at least its attribute.Sekhet. with that of a cow. they adopted as the foundation for their personifications the noblest living form they knew. and should allow of his being at once identified and called by own name. In the next place they required some easy method for distinguishing their imaginary beings one from another. the opposite arrangement obtains. -Painted bas-relief. arise fail The special characteristics of the animal made could use of were so frankly to see the difference insisted upon that no confusion Even a child could not between one deity and another. and Hathor. but yet or a lioness. adding the human a varying element animals. case of each divinity. the par- animal was selected Boiilak. these forms Is The began usual explanation of to as follows. The though more rarely.- itself afforded. by result to the constant quantity figure. in might be. They had to give to each deity some feature which should be peculiar to him or her his self. it mixed up the physical Sometimes the head of an In most of the types which characteristics created of man and beast. . that of man. between . are instances of the latter combination. who were able. sometimes. We we may even In express our surprise that the Egyptians. 38. animal surmounts the body of a man or woman . When men embody for the eye of others the Ideas which they had formed of the divine powers. Sphinx. in the heads of different In the These the fauna of Egypt ticular Fig. The required In was obtained a very simple manner.

The Egyptian Religion and the Plastic Arts. and the trunk and posterior members of the most graceful and powerful of quadrupeds. A certain beauty may be found Fig. to endow by the statues of their kings with so much purity and nobihty of form. were not disgusted by their the strangeness of such combinations.x. 59 the days of the ancient empire. Louvre. Height o '50 metres. — Sekhet. and by the disagreeable results which in extreme grotesquethey sometimes such creations as produced. But could any notion be more unhappy than that of crowning the bust of a man . ness. (Granite.) the Sphin. in which the the human face is allied to wings of a bird. 39. and a few others.

The Hindoos multiplied the human figure by itself. we know. or flat with the slender neck and head of a snake ? Every this polytheistic nation attacked in turn. Louvre.) (Bronze. torso can be at once recognized at sight as part of a statue of Zeus. in fact. costume and attributes helped to mark the difference. and painted or carved their gods with three heads and many pairs of arms and legs. It may be said that the lacking all artists of Egypt were in the that to skill necessary for generalized this. and each solved it in its own manner. But. 40. and even the Latins. and yet by the delicacy of their contours and the problem o-eneral coherence of their charactero ization. The Greeks represented all their gods in human form. we should rather seek their explanation . with the ug-ly and ponderous head of a crocodile. they were enabled to avoid all confusion between them. our minds are never Even a fragment of a left in doubt. or they a their forms such degree as to leave no scope for such subtle differences. That they did not do with plastic so. we had their oldest statues a facility — Isis-Hathor. and a head of Demeter or Hera would never be confounded with one of Artemis or Pallas. of Apollo. interpretations and awkward perhaps. they chosen". the Greeks. too. of which proceeding traces are to be found among the Western Asiatics. so They rough con- tented themselves that. or of Bacchus.6o or A woman History of Art in Ancient Egypt. find in Fig. they could have expressed anything which can be expressed by the chisel. With them. But even where these are absent. Actual of execution which suggests that. size.

3 J3 a. en .

.

namely. the bird to which we have just alluded. for a moment. is written. Fig. Benedite. The hawk. as the symbol of maternity. and its influence was so far maintained that during the decadence of the nation it a^ain became the ruling faith. and for many centuries the only. and that god (T ArcJieoIogie is figured with the PiERRET. who symbolizes the region of the South. the fetish worship. Take. some habit of action contracted the infancy of the race and fortified by long transmission. so that foreign observers We were led to believe that the Egyptian religion began and ended in the adoration of plants and sacred animals. 42 ( —Touaris. Drawn by G. form of religion which they possessed. The eyes and the imagination being thus educated by immemorial custom. have already spoken of that which we believe to be the cause of the peculiar forms under which the Egyptians figured their deities. it is not surprising that even the most cultivated section of the people should have seen nothing offensive tion of their in the representa- gods sometimes under the is complete form of an animal (Horus often symbolized under the likeness of a hawk). The goddess Nekheb. goddess. Its practices never fell into total neglect. its head appears over the brow of the wings forming her head-dress. Dictionnnire Egyptienne . plays an important part in Egyptian The vulture symbolizes furnishes the sign by which her name It Maut. that it could not be torn up even when a large part of the nation had gradually educated itself to the comprehension of the highest religious conceptions. sometimes as composite monsters with human bodies and animal heads. It supplies the character by its which the name Thoth 1 is written.^ So it is with the ibis. the spouse of Amen. thought and some hereditary in predisposition. and sometimes. art. That worship had struck its roots so deeply into the souls of the people. which was the earliest. like the vulture. is also represented by a vulture. Boulak.) The Egyptian Religiox and the in Plastic Arts.

and decomposing matter was recalled into the service of organic life. After the annual inundation the frogs.64 head of an A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. damp by snakes and lizards and Fishes. The part played sentation of the gods. the plague. Although they no longer enjoy : L — If their ancient worship. forms which have too long provoked unjust contempt. and in those days human effort was not ^1 / to be reckoned upon in the work of sanitation. an office which they yet fill satisfactorily in the towus and villages of Africa. by toads and ^. by these birds in the repreis Ibis. to be explained by the sentiments of gratitude and religious veneration of which they were the objects. perished. . was assigned the indispensable work of elimination and transformation. If left to decompose they would soon have bred a pestilence. we shall only quote a few lines " In America the law protects these public benefactors. they receive the friendly hospitality of man as in the time of Pharaoh. and. only inhabitant of the country. and the alliance has been continued to their latest descendants. sentiments which were the natural outcome of the practical services which they rendered to mankind. their appetite and to the powerful wings which carried them in a twinkling to wherever their presence was required. With his genius for history and poetry Michelet has well understood the sentiment which gave birth to these primitive forms of worship. Thanks to (from Wilkinson). they found invaluable allies in those energetic birds of prey. To birds of prey. in pools which were soon dried up by the blazing sun. and the offal of every kind which accumulated round the dwellings of the peasantry and rapidly became putrid under the sun of Egypt. Had these unpaid scavengers but struck work for a day. would soon have become the earth was overrun . you ask an Egj-ptian fellah why he allows himself to be besieged . Egyptian law does still more for them it respects them and loves them. both in the plastic arts and in writing. When the early fathers of the nation first established themselves upon the banks of the Nile. decomposing. rendered the air noisome and malarious. In addition to this there were the corpses of wild and domestic animals. left by the retreating flood all kinds of creeping things. ^ 1 See in LOismti the chapter-headed Epuration. as Michelet puts it. the multiplication of the inferior animals was kept within due limits. then. The whole of this beautiful chapter should be read .

many centuries that of the gods who correspond to Rooted by long custom the minds of the people. 65 preceded by in The worship of the hawk. the stork. K . from . had. and the ibis. he will say nothing. The doctrine of emanation and of successive incarnations of the deity. Man's existence depends upon them." VOL. the crow and the vulture. the vulture. why he patiently suffers the insoknce of the crow perched upon the horn of the buffalo. 44. Older than the Pyramids. (Height 3S inches men of Heliopolis or Thebes.The Egyptian Religion and the Plastic Arts.1 bronze in the Posno collection. it the personages of the Hellenic pantheon. Birds are allowed to do anything. then.. permitted their theology to and deafened by birds. — HoiiH . did not excite the ire of the wise In. upon the persevering labour of the ibis. or fighting upon the date-trees and shaking down the fiuit. they are the ancients of the country. I. on the hump of a camel.

we shall then understand how it was. so differently in constituted seem and so deity unequal Fi< 45. manifestation of by the hands of a sculptor the the strength and support of his life. in the latter case. for they offered the characteristic features of the animals which they had loved. to us. The — took the form 'I'hoth. Let us attempt to do so for a moment let us make one of those intellectual efforts which are demanded from the historian. like the statue fashioned tf. his — . Maspero explains that the sacred animal was it. M. Louvre. and to one of his most curious and most penetrating essays. with the forms of us.e deity. dignity. and . the son of Amen . and adored ever since us to see things as the birth of their civilization. to represent them in written characters and in plastic creations. to enter into their ideas and sentiments so as to feel with them and to think with their brains.imelltd Actual . or of a statue which In which he was attached. to be blended superstition. these figures are surbut to the Egyptians they . of an animal and clav. man himself To accustomed as we are to the created types prising by Greek anthro- pomorphism. even those things which at a later epoch seemed nothing more than the grossest creations of popular These objects of veneration were therefore enabled to maintain their places by the side of the superior gods. I'ln. revealed himself in that of a he was supposed to animate. It is difficidt for with the same eyes the con- temporaries of Cheops or even of Rameses . explain and to accept anything. just as he took man. and. that the Egyptians were not offended by a combination of two classes of forms which. respected. — like the king. seemed perfectly natural.66 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt.size.

— -^^ Fig. in giving [|\^. god and goddess of .' - . was not required of the Egyptian sculptor or painter.jYiT. as they have been sometimes accused.. vol. This latter seeks for originality and admires it.--. The Greek each sculptor had nothing beyond the his bodily form and the features of individuality to man with which to give a distinct .^^^. of a want of taste.*'. 46.^—-^. y. property. .ii_jv. . great clearness and a rare happiness of plastic they did say with expression. word. then.. 67 use an expression dear to the Egyptians. as his ex- clusive head ot some well-known animal. The its value of an artistic result is in proportion to the difficulty of achievement. To accuse them. would be to form a very narrow conception of art.Memphis. however. that the ideas of the people.:=:r4. This necessity was a great incentive to perfection it drove him to study the human form with a continuous energy which. Egyptian tion of divinitv is less favourable ^/i"*t^:"ri?i:Cjtrji^. the faithful and skilful interpretation of What the Egyptians wished to say. . ' i. Apis repeated and constantly renewed the Hfe of Ptah in a he was. mythology he was therefore obliged to make use of the most delicate and subtle distinctions of feature and contour. his living statue. We do not.^"^'''^''|i^)^'fc^ him assurance that his meaninof would be understood at a glance without any particular effort on his part.|f(5J >->- ? p||^J^ii lii^^^^xf^^^t^'^^i rendered the task i ^'^Wj^^^^^ ' of the artist too easy. At .. to sin against both the method and the spirit of modern criticism. 157.. and all art which is at once powerful and sincere arouses its interest.V^^•X to the plastic arts than the anthro- ^^^M0^'^^^^^^^^^'^'^^\ pomorphism of the Greeks..y|J2. ^-r. No more simple method of distinguishing one god from another could well be imagined than that of /a^p||v^ ! '^^\^'f'^^^"~T-^^Tf^^^-^ fAv^.|]?'^r^ii:a^-\?=^t/"^^ [U V'' '^-^\\^Mfi\%'Xv^J^'^\. unhappily for himself. .— Sacrifice to Apis.^ art was.^ The Egyptian Religion and the dotibli\ to Plastic Arts. Notes siir diffcients Points de Gramma ire et d' Histoirc dans /< Reciidl de Travaux rdatifs a la Philologie et a F Archcologie egyptiennc et assyrienne. wish to deny that their concep_. from Marictte. the employment of such an unmisthe takable sign • {(Tyi''.\\-'X giving to each.-~. Maspero. /^'-^L_^y^'^\ F^l:a2^:.

68 A Art and History of Art in Ancient Egypt. 42. Egyptian unity. installed Amen as the national god. from one end to the other of the Nile valley. the nome which contained the tomb of Osiris and it was in their reign that. had their capital in the nome of Abydos. each of these gods began by being no more than some particular nome or city. with the rise of the Theban empire he began to be a conspicuous figure in Egypt. 1 Herodotus. the chief deity of above the second rank because Heliopolis itself was neither a royal city nor even the birthplace During all this period we hear nothing of any powerful dynasty. overshadowed the ancient divinities of the soil but the final victory of Thebes under Ahmes I. each of whom preserved. with Isis. the local deity of Thebes found upon any monument earlier than the eleventh dynasty. ^ following dynasties. in speak- ing of the tombs and temples. so did its peculiar god. the authors of . Toum. however. . seemed to Herodotus to be the only Under the deity whom all the Egyptians combined to adore. or even to enumerate. but. . whose capital was Memphis. During the domination of the Hyksos. Ptah rose into but. the local divinity of in Now. already mentioned most of the chief deities of Egypt. Soutekh or Set. and sometimes it came about and a divinity were imposed upon that both a dynasty of kings Egypt by the power of what we may call their native city. . even after his fall. as if by a kind of compromise. his name is hardly to be of Amen. ii. but we . As a city grew importance. spread the worship of that god of that Osiris who. the chief divinities of the Egyptian pantheon such an attempt would be foreign to the purposes which we have in view. We have. and we shall see hereafter what magnificent temples were raised in his honour by the kings Heliopolis. . some of the dignity which he had acquired during his period course of time of supremacy. names of Ptah. In the a number of successive deities thus held the supreme place. of the country. his dignity the first place Abydos under the is combined with that of the great god of first The two dynasties. of the original shall make no attempt to describe. allied religion have ever been so closely that it was necessary that characteristics of the we should give some account Egyptian beliefs. and we shall have occasion to draw the attention of our readers to others. the statues and bas-reliefs.Osiris and Ptah-Sokar-Osiris. never rose . their national deity.

whose godhead was in conceived from ccntur). No such ideal existed for them as that which the popular conscience and the genius of the national poets created in the lord of Olympus. whose pre-eminence dates back to the remote origin Aryan race. the new capital of Amenophis IV. until at last it an ever larger and more in was defined all the famous hymn of Cleanthe as that " which croverned thinofs accordincr to law.The Egyptian Religion and the of the brilliant Plastic Arts. The Egyptian artist could find no such inspiration in a long succession of gods. that island sanctuary until The movement from what we of the of religious thought in Egypt was very find different shall find in Greece. We no frod. sis under the Roman emperors. still. a questioned. enjoyed a less ephemeral existence but Thebes and Amen soon regained their supremacy. no one of whom succeeded in concentrating supreme power in his hands. Horus and Hathor were the ascendant. to an artist who should feel himself spurred on by work of all previous generations to produce a masterpiece in which the highest religious conception.to century purified spirit. i88o). the local deities of the district. to which the intelligence of the race had mounted bv slow defrrees. . 69 His successor would no doubt had Tell-el-Amarna. no Jupiter. in the religious sentiments of the people. and the worship which was there inaugurated. Theban have been Aten. and especially Neith. 1 James Darmesteter. like that of the Hellenes. as to the protector who could give back the nation its former independence and power. the worship of the in of Philae became popular and was prolonged the sixth century of our era." We ha\-e pointed out how greatly the Greek artists profited by their efforts to endow in the piety of their countrymen with an image . good being. should be realized in the visible form.^ we pre-eminence which was never menaced or find no Zeus. when the Egyptian centre of gravity was transported to the Delta. conquered the first place dynasties. the solar disc.. Under the Persians they returned to to Amen. . in Under and I the later Ptolemies. Again. which should be worthy of the him as the father of gods and men. Ze Dieu supreme dans la Myihohgie iiido-europ'ccnne (in the Revue de V Histoire des Religions. Neither Thebes nor Sais could give birth of this great and popular laith to a Phidias .

we mean. and they transmitted their error to us. whose credulity is to be accounted for by their lack of In 1S28 in his materials for the formation of a better judgment. although the still more ancient monuments which now form the glory of the Boulak Museum were not yet discovered he might have perceived and pointed out the difference between the statues of Ousourtesen. [Wc have quoted from Professor Jowett's English version. either in these And you will find that their works arts or in music. 226. Raoul-Rochette turned his He had before his eyes. T/ia/ Egyptian that its Art did not escape the Law of Change. To this day no alteration is allowed. of art are painted or moulded in the same forms that they had ten thousand years ago (this is literally true and no exaggeration) their ancient paintings and sculptures are not a whit the immobility of : — . de I Egypte. v. and Rameses on the one hand. etc. It may be well. or to leave the traditional forms and invent new ones. and those of the Sait epoch still more should he have remarked upon the characteristics modern . - Ty)V avTTiv hi T€^'r)v aTrnpyaa-fj-iva. first lecture at the Bibliotheque Royale. vol. p. museums and in the Description. E. We need not go back to the archaeologists of the last century. These they fixed. Ed. and History may therefore be written. works which dated from the finest periods of the Theban dynasties. in the Parisian attention to Egypt.— A — yo History of Art in Anxtent Egytt. still to dispel a prejudice which in spite of recent discoveries belief in exists in some minds . and painting." This strange assertion was long accepted without question even in times. sculpture. 656. the This mistake is a Egyptian art. before embarking upon the study of Egyptian architecture. In regard to this we must cite the famous passage of Plato ^ " Long ago they appear to have recognized the very principle of which we are now speaking that their young citizens must be habituated to forms and strains of virtue. and exhibited patterns of them in their temples and no painter or artist is allowed to innovate upon them. but are made with just the same skill. . Laws. at all. The Greeks were the first to make it. § 6. — — better or worse than the work of to-day.] . very ancient one. D. Thothmes.

pp. The influence of Egypt was felt from Mesopotamia to the equator. that such a people as that which created these monuments. for realistic imitation. i. . art were both superficial and false. Its art was not so stationary as to prevent us from writing its history. even ' if almost insensible. but without accidents of contour to break the landscape. was it possible. should remain for more than forty centuries unaffected by the law of continual. M." no longer be upheld. \ol. 11. green indeed and fertile. was no Chinaman. Was it likely. Her civilization went through all the different phases it went through many complete transformations. Thothmes. Renan which seemed to him to imply the Such crude notions as this can same doctrine. Egypt perished because in attacking foreign nations she provoked a reaction which was fatal to her. we find nothing surprising in Mariette's language but even before these means of study were open to us. monotony of the And yet Egypt had periods of grandeur and decadence more marked than those of other countries. monuments themselves to tell the truth. walled in and fortified against the exterior world. 71 those which were erected under the which distinguish the monuments of independent Egypt from Ptolemies and the Roman emperors. Now period that we are enabled to contrast the statues of the Ptolemaic with those of the pyramid . old even in its infancy. Renan loves'-^ to represent ancient Egypt as a sort of China. 8\o. i." (p. " Egyptian art. in a word. Marriette protests in the following almost indignant terms against certain utterances of M. criticism should have cast more than doubt upon the assertions of Plato it should have appealed from a theory which was at variance with all historical analogies to the .Change Observable in Egyptian Art." ^ . 10. the art of t^gypt never varied. such principle instance. to those monuments which were best known and understood. What he did say. " M. He looks upon the country as a great plain. and say with consummate : confidence was " From the first of the Pharaohs to the last of the ^ Ptolemies. immovable. change ? Coi/rs tfAri/uvwgie. " The fundamental of Egyptian 1865. builders. " never attempted any as." he says. and arrived by a single spring at a degree of civilization which it never surpassed. it had its sudden moments of brilliancy and its epochs of eclipse." We even find sentences utterly devoid of meaning. 12. art was the absence of art. however. This critic's ideas upon Egyptian 1829.) - ^ See the Rente des Deux Mondes of April Voyage dans la Haute Egypte.

fashion as that which marks the seconds. some peoples who are the rest of humanity ? more attached than others to traditional customs and ancient institutions . as we have said. China. can we doubt that here. the deeper we penetrate into her history the more are we convinced that her long career was troubled by moments of crisis similar to those which have come to other human societies. The narratives of the Greek historians give us reason to suspect that it was so. but with a different general These full character. of periods of conquest and expansion and epochs of civil war or of defeat by foreign inperiods of their . and the monuments which have been discovered insist upon the same truth. In the cases of both those countries there is a certain illusion. . does move exactly in the same.72 A What right History of Art in Ancient Egypt. following one upon the other. the details of the most varied landscape become obliterated or confused waste land and smiling fields are blended together hollows and hillocks lose the vioour of their contours. it is true. Afterwards they become rare and clumsy. exhausted in the end the genius of the race ? Let us take a single example the most striking of all. which are not well be explained by our ignorance. our is a slower process. have we thus to place Egypt and China apart from There are. For certain epochs these are very abundant. How. contrasts and temporary eclipses occur again and again. their artistic and literary For one who is too far off or very short-sighted development. beautiful. to use the modern phrase. then. eyes cannot perceive any but yet it movement in the small hand of a watch. . upon the whole surface of our planet. But. vaders ? May we not believe that through the clouds which obscure the causes of such changes we may catch glimpses of those periods of decadence and renascence which. to borrow one of the favourite . man is not expressions of German decomcs. " After the sixth dynasty all documents cease they are absoluteh' — . philosophy. as elsewhere. Upon the banks of the Peiho as upon those he of the Nile. for History can admit no exception to to this law either is China or Egypt. and compel us to accept it. there were alternations of grandeur and poverty. . and varied. or altogether wanting and again they reappear in great numbers and in their nobilitj'. We enough acquainted with them to grasp the different political and social. . does not enter into our purview and as for Egypt. it is there . although their evolution they are more conservative.

15. I. 1877). the first of tlie Middle Empire. we do hving as long after our nineteenth century as epochs of Memphite and Theban supremacy in Egypt. This is one of those sudden interruptions in the history ot EtTypt which may be compared to the temporary disappearance of those curious rivers which run pardy underground.Change Observable in Egyptian Art. C/iez ks Phanwm {Rnue des D<ux ]\foi!dfs o\ Jan. L . Melchoir de Vogue. come to treat the history of the past. Drawn by Bomgoin. Boulak. 47. they will perhaps after the ' When M. in limestone. — Statue from the Ancient Empire. VOL. /J wanting until tlie eleventli."^ Fig. historians.

and standards of same tenns for the same titles for kings and habits the . -^I'wii^' :. and republic. in a vague fashion. but they will take more account of the resemblances than Our languages.71 A History of Art in Ancient Egvpt. In the distant future men will know. empire. fall look upon the ages which rolled away between the of Graeco- and the revival of learning in the fifteenth and as no longer than that which divided the ancient from tlie middle empire of Egypt. |iga£' l'"iO. . manners. seem to touch Statuette from the Ancient Empire. empire will our modern civilization. and in Christian and Rome. over that period which we call the Middle Ages. will find similar literary the same judicial nomenclature. monarchy.[5? D ^ p ^ %ly^^^^M5^_ZZ/ in limestone. and many of the differences which strike us so strongly will be imperceptible. they criticism. laws. we had a new religion and new inventions. The Roman civilization Roman sixteenth centuries . — Woman k IK ading dough. and an apparent recoil of civilization but memory and imagination will leap without effort over the gap. or that of America. that between the fall of Rome and the discovery of printing. and forms of of the differences.iwn by Bourgoin. They will perceive that Europe. 4S. there were great movements among the nations. Dr. or the latter from the dynasties of Thebes. government will seem to them continuations of those of Greece In that which we call antiquity.

Bjulak. between works of the ancient and of the middle empire nor will it confound works . but to generations which are divided from them by a vast space of time they will seem to form but one nebulous body. /3 These are different civilizations are like star clusters. These but differences be our our readers may perhaps discover duty to describe hereafter. fusion like those which the reigns Trajan Charlemagne. created in either of those are periods with as well those of the as Sait epoch. in Egyptian Art. To they seem distinct enough. then.Change Observable Ctesars. The differences almost school marked or those ot which enable Phidias from archai-ologists to distinguish a torso of the time one of it the will of Praxiteles Lysippus. tomb is of the The Theban time of Rameses very different from that of Memphis and the ancient empire the new empire con. Egypt. in transforming her sentiments and ideas. invasions. 49. cultivated eye has no need to run to inscriptions to enable it to distinguish Flo. It A was the same with sculpture. had her great convulsions like the rest of the us who among them world. Limestone. and underwent periods of conovertook the nations of the West between and and and had as upon her the same influence upon them. Fifth dynasty. them for themselves . caused their plastic expression to pass through in taste a series of changes and style. and. structed no buildings like the its greater pyramids. — The Scribe Cliaphre. Wars action the reaction of civilization. She met with of disasters. but temples were larger and their more magnificent than any of predecessors.

true judgment. in Memphis. Louvre. in in nor art the under same the cities of the Thebes. to this examine the in illustrations chapter.-itue from the 19th or 20th dynasty. How. those of Abydos were more elegant and refined than those of Thebes. had character Delta. Variety is universal in Egypt. The The Greeks Fio Jo.. dissimilar. which are arranged chronological order. Wooden st. moment was at hand when even these intermittent struggles . and Ousourtesen Rameses.76 if A they History of Art in Anxient Egvpt. In time the Egyptians were trymg by the violent but spasmodic efforts. except in the case few In the same way different had distinct schools of ture cities sculp- which were distinguished from one another by their traditional methods of conception and Neither under execution. are we to explain the error committed and by him transposterity is ? mitted explanation easy. by Plato. Language had well as art. visited Egypt too form a Plato's still —The late in its history to Lady Nai. tion its dialects as The pronuncia- of Lower of a Upper and that of Eg)pt was quite letters. local variety as well as that of different periods. painting. and in Among the works executed for sculpture Rameses II. to reconquer the indepen- But dence which had been destroyed by the successor of Cyrus. to then.

the language. devoted themselves with ardour to Philee. obtain good administration and com- . And enterprise. — a decadence slow indeed. in the Mediterranean. a its feverish seeking to deceive and Nothing could be more precarious than the political conditions under which this activity was displayed. upon the unhappy country the " for a third time. but of these simultaneous undertakings uncertainty itself seem of to sense vanishing" activity power. Some more and over betray hide years after the visit of the two Nectanebos. energetic especially the to second. Ill obeyed as he was. For three centuries the Egyptians had been accustomed to see the Greeks freely coming and going among them as merchants. the literature. the arts. Great King " could always find troops to take part in the spoiling of a country whose riches had proved so inexhaustible. by any remote chance. to finally 77 be abandoned. The latter posed as disciples before the priests of Memphis and Heliopolis. the to morrow. but none the more remediable. The Greeks would be better masters than their rivals from Persia. such as the Buildings signed with their name an are to temple at be found all Egypt a . and freely expressed a warmth of admiration which could not fail to Hatter the national vanity. as mercenary officers. Their still brilliant civilization might deceive a passing stranger. but watching her opportunity to cast the hordes of Asia own weakness. at least. the t. and they were succumb to sovereigns of foreign blocd. perhaps. Since the period of the Persian wars. the mythology of Greece. as travellers eager for Alexander. Twice already had Persia crushed Egyptian revolts.gyptians would. From them instruction. . the Persians should fail in their another and a graver danger would menace the Egyptian monarchy from the rapid growth of the Greek power if. had spread with great rapidity and the moment might be foreseen when a supremacy founded upon intellectual worth would be confirmed by military triumph and the creation of a vast Hellenic empire. The conquest of Egypt was begun by the Ionian soldiers and merchants who were introduced into the Nile valley by Psemethek it was bloodlessly completed by the arms of . the restoration of the ancient buildings of the country the construction of new ones. The independence of the country was maintained by the dearly bought services of Spartan and Athenian mercenaries. and she was. but the decadence had commenced Plato.Change Observable were to in Egyptian Art.

the national . and the best that could be hoped fashion. and her Institutions were so solid. or a i^arvenu before the descendant of a long line of kings. She thus recovered confidence in herself and in her future. and. Assyrians and Persians had by turns overrun the country. strono-er. the breaches which their predecessors had made. the Greeks came in by thousands through their example. numbers of the Phoenicians had established themselves in after Great it. but she lived no more. like youths before an old man. they were too much of connoisseurs to fail in respect form of civilization whose j^rodigious antiquity they divined. and better instructed than any of their forerunners. religion to a . and before which the most eminent among them were ever inclined to bow. and making everywhere felt the superiority of a people the fall of Jerusalem who by appropriating the useful results obtained in a long succession of centuries by more ancient races. under the Psemethcks and Nekau. Thus Egypt gradually fell into the hands of strangers after the commencement of the fourth century before Christ. freedom in the exercise of their religion in return for their The Greeks \vere clear-sighted enough to understand their taxes. the shall we intervals . or even hindrance to. for was the faithful repetition of those forms which the genius of had. Egypt was delivered from her enemies and again became mistress of Syria and of the Island of Cyprus. own interests they were too philosophical and large minded for any fanatical persecution of. and . penetrating into all parts. under Apries and Amasis. Thus Egypt lost her power of national rejuvenation. ensued which had an art of its own with distinctive features which of preIn the endeavour to trace. many Jews followed Finally. and a period Under the Salt princes. in a machine like and instinctive Imagination was dead. her power She existed on through the centuof rising again after calamity. was so homoeeneous.A plete History of Art ix Ancient Egypt. become wealthier. Ethiopians. that the social conditions of the country could not be changed in a day The teachings of her religion had been or even in a century. established by so long a course of development. that the monumental types which had been created in more fertile periods of her history were reproduced until a late date. and the hands of her artists were so well practised. Her population ries by mere force of habit. the race had conceived in its last moments of original thought.Samaria. carious repose which characterized the Persian domination.

in it together and instruction the of the studio. height 37 inches. implying.I. and personal feeling Artists parts. 51. kept transmitted practice. l»ut displaying no sincere for. great technical skill.ih-ali-ia. Nature was no longer studied or cared knew that the human figure should be divided into so many They knew that in the representation of this or that god was necessarv . the monuments intercourse a of the twenty-sixth Art became a mere collection of technical precepts. 79 Egyptians had leisure neither dynasty.K IX EgVI'TIAX ArT. Louvre. Cuey granite. Oii. They copied. perhaps.— ClIANGK OliSERVAI'. ty. by and became mere matter of routine Flc. 26th ilyna. to invent nor to improve. as well as they could. a certain attitude or attribute and thev carved the .

although his contemporary and fellow-countryman. And these varieties become still more marked when periods we compare the arts of difterent races or of different of Egypt with that of Assyria or Greece. . And yet among or those highly gifted same preoccupations. 7. of these groups professes to make a fresh reference interpret her works ' more i. We admit that a day arrived when convention was supreme in Egyptian art. if national eenius. But research must still precede discovery. the same races where art artists holds or either has held a lofty place. it is always full of striking similarity and yet two original artists never look at it . One will devote himself to the beauty of form. the great resemblance which the arts of is a single time and country bear to each other. will leave in the obscurity of shadows. art — the art antique On the other hand. faithfully than its pre- Diodorus. and so remained to the end. The sculptors whom that historian saw at work in Memphis and Thebes. tinted with the colours of the their study of an eternal model same transient prejudices. the desires. during the reign of Augustus.^ Thought was no longer necessary to them. schools. carved a statue as a modern mechanic would make the different parts of a machine they worked with a rapidity and an easy decision more characteristic of the precise workman than of the artist. with the same eyes. Let us take the example of the human figure. but it could not have begun with convention any more than the arts of other nations. accounted for by life the fact that their creators look upon the external facts of through a the glass. was in the time of Diodorus. to successively which we Each nature. 8. which another.8o staiues A art History of Art after in Ancient Egypt.xed it . although its interpretations so various. The due proportions and measurements had been ascertained and fi. traditional it required of them the recipes. One will look at it in certain aspects and will bring out certain qualities. another to the accidents of colour or the expression of passion and thought. Every work of art is an interpretation of nature. we may put it Thev brinsf to so. Thus Egyptian became conventional. to are call formed. with that of modern times. 98. So many centuries before their time. are The original remains the same. We must here define the terms which we shall have occasion to employ. groups of simultaneously. In the works of a single period and of a single people.

and progresses. however. there are. are caused either by different conditions or by the influence of some master spirit. typical forms 8i draw from them which shall be more expressive for of the real desires and sentiments of the public Between the works of these different schools. many similarities. Fig. and power ceases like the imperceptible sinking of a flood. a rich and brilliant school springs up. in the last days of reproductive strength and healthy maturity. and civilization to exhaustion takes its place. this ardour comes to an end. Wherever these schools spring up. 52. and to in Egyptian Art.) Change Observable decessors. pi. which are to be explained by There are also diversities which the indentity of race and belief. such an interpretation VOL. which it caters. art lives. be found satisfactory at points. why M . If with the greatest vigour and by admirably selected means. which it belongs becomes old and languid. (Chauipollion. it often happens that just before this period of lassitude. Thebes. But sooner or later comes a time when moves. iSo. — Sculptor at work upon nn arm. I. which interprets the its The creative characteristic sentiments of the civilization to which all it belongs. Now.

In spite of the foreign elements which had been received among them. As often as a new dynasty of kings succeeded in driving out the foreign conqueror and in re-establishing the unity of the kingdom. its Thanks society was enabled to maintain the originality of Egyptian genius and the vitality of its institutions with unusual success. and their prestige Society can increases until it becomes little less than tyranny. and in successive acres varied sliehtlv in cjeneral colour. like its literature. it was in . the invasion of the barbarians. indeed. Art requires time As a nation thus to inclose itself in mere mechanical dexterity. the great mass of the people remained the same down Heterogeneous constituents were to the latest days of antiquity. grows old. but in none of their set themselves to variations did they give rise to a new religion. or by the infusion of new blood from without. And these changes western civilization had to undergo in the early centuries of our era. The aim which they had in view was ever to restore. to the peculiar circumstances of the country. but a confession of impotence on the part of who ask From in that moment convention artificial and convention will the sense of an be supreme. so often was there a complete restoration. in the establishment of Christianity. religious thrall the expense of some great escape from its at only or philosophical revolution. the Egyptians renew the chain of their national traditions.82 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. The absorbed by the nation without leaving any apparent trace. After each period of internal commotion or foreign invasion. continually becomes more and more conventional. in all its parts. its art. civilization which for aees had been alone in the world. as Brahmanism eave birth to Buddhism. Every great period or school leaves to the generations that come after it types which have made a vivid impression upon taste and imagination. a Enjoying a regime which was founded upon national pride. Such a revolution is not the work of a day. and the fall of the Roman Empire. set of rules which will release the artist from his obligation of continual reference to nature. ideas which the people had formed for themselves of the ultimate destiny of humanity were developed. ? should a better be sought for at the risk of choosing a worse This question those is it. As time goes on these types become more numerous and more brilliant.

pi. in connection with politics and religion. As long as Egypt preserved her vitality.. — Sculptor carving n statue. the wants of the present and external influences no doubt had their effect in introducine the temples which . Every restoration is inspired by a more or less blind and This has often been asserted superstitious reverence for the past. 83 its full and glorious past that Egyptian society found the ideal to which it clung in spite of all obstacles and misfortunes. 53. iSo. set to which Egypt owed repair political themselves to had been destroyed. Its gaze was turned backwards towards those early sovereigns who seemed transfigured by distance. (Champollion. but whose presence in the memory kept alive the perpetual worship which had been vowed to them. the first idea of the artists employed was to study the ancient monuments and to try to equal thein. Each of those dynasties restoration. respect its Thebes.) equally true in to art. and to replace upon their pedestals the statues of gods or ancestors which had been overthrown.Change Observablp: in Egyptian Art. and the assertion is Fit. When new temples and new statues were to be erected.

the gesture.84 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. and from this it resulted that each new creative effort began by imitating what had gone before. the weight of the past must have seemed heavier to those who attempted to revive the onward movement. It was necessary that all buildings and statues should be in harmony with the remains which subsisted from previous ages. This conventionality must have increased at every fresh renascence. The Greeks found means to improve. because each new development had its own processes certain changes. the legacy of admitted principles and processes was continually increasing. to transmit to their successors an assemblage of precepts and receipts which provided for every contingency and left no room for the exercise of fancy or discretion. it must have been conventional in a certain degree. upon perfection itself. schools of sculpture were nothing more than institutions for teaching pupils. both in the the modelHng. but the temptation to borrow from them a point of departure. and in movement. a school established in that Athens which yet possessed so many works of the archaic period. and could not. To the school of Phidias. And this is equivalent to saying that. the more ancient of the traditional elements had acquired. or at least to Plato did not. far that all initiative power and independence of thought had disappeared. as well as its methods of looking at nature. a prestige and authority which placed them above discussion on the other. the time arrived when convention was everything. innovate. ' ' to transmit to posterity as well as those of in the its ancestors. and of destruction to his When at last the decadence of the race had advanced so liberty. until it became a source of embarrassment to the artist. of the officiating priest. arrangement of her buildings. was too strong to be resisted. and expression of the statues which adorned them. . for new attempts at progression. After each recoil or pause progress of art. At that very time Greek art was progressing with a power and rapidity which has never been rivalled. had succeeded those of Praxiteles and Scopas. who were remarkable for docility and for dexterity of hand. . from its first moment. by their constant and often repeated transmission. and even When Plato visited Egypt. The school in process of foundation accepted on trust the architectural disposition left by its predecessor. at least. like one of those elaborate rituals which regulate every word. On the one hand. Ancient types were not servilely copied.

iSo. than those of but yet quite perceptible to the less rapid. Even now these statues have not reached the age of ten attributed thousand years so persistently by the Greek philosopher to the early works which he seemed to him exactly the same as those which were being made in his presence. the statues of the ancient as Plato never saw empire which were hidden for so many ages in the thickness of Fig. works which . cities. and certainly practised observer. We are now in a better position to estimate Monuments have been brought before our eyes .) walls or in the depths of sepulchral pits. 85 that his hasty journey through the Egyptian they too had seen their periods of change. pi. in in Egyptian Art. style. less marked. if he had seen them at all. perhaps. Plato could not have helped seeing. But although the statues of the early empire were then no more than some thirty centuries old. — Artist painting a statue. Thebes. that they were quite distinct from the works which the sculptors of did see. such namely.Change Observable perceive. (Champollion. these differences. their difterent schools and developments of Greece. 54.

always supposing that he looked at them with reasonable attention.86 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. Nectanebo had in progress. contents of the Boulak museum. Chefren. is known to us chiefly through the excavations of Mariette and the But even before Cheops. the historian might have divined by analogy. always provided that the model never lost sight of or studied with anything short of passionate devotion. But the time comes thinks that such con- when his this devotion choice is relaxed. it consults nature incessantly and humbly. But it is not discouraged it tries imitation very imperfect. an art which possesses in a very high degree certain qualities for which the Egyptians have been too commonly refused credit. But mannerism is never the beginning of art. : different processes . The artist stant reference to nature final is no longer required when he has made between the different methods which his art employs. if they were in themselves an epitome of nature's infinite In the case of Egypt. is Success is then achieved. always begins by humble and sincere attempts to render what it Its awkwardness is at first extreme and its power of sees. the essential charateristics of Egyptian art during Whether we speak of an individual. every artistic career which follows its natural course and is not rudely broken through. school. and the hand sufficiently well practised. for the faithful interpretation of any model whose beauty or original expression may have caught the fancy. even those discoveries diversity. which carry us in back farthest do not enable us to grasp. is work faith. when the eye has become sure. In devoting himself to the reproduction of certain features for which he has a marked preference. and described by no very bold conjecture. The art of the pyramid builders. it takes account now of one. but ever received with docility and good but the Every work which bears the marks of frank and interesting . and their subjects had risen from their tombs. loyal effort is moment is in an artistic career which gives birth to real chefs d'ceiivre towards the end of that period. he has himself as produced types which he thenceforward takes pleasure in repeating. of a its first centuries. now of another aspect of life . or of a people. Art viamicrisni. in obedience to their it This teaching is not always rightly understood. taking its note of her answers and modifying teaching. ends sooner or in that which is technically called later in conventionality. as we can the case of .

19 inches. in the LouvTe. Height. .Fig. 55. Ptolemaic bronze . — Isis nurhing Horus.

.

selected by him the means of brineinc them to lieht and who had been mourn. We devoted to the pre-conventional had reasons for taking such a later epochs. that any detailed study must be made. call we archaic . the . Bourgoin and Benedite. either by photography or otherwise. MM. at the Universal Exhibitions of 1867 and . and that style was both indiThis style was vidual and original in an extraordinary degree. in the case of other countries. contemporary with the Theban and Sait dynasties. or. This early art is much less known than that of the While the great museums of Europe are filled with statues and reliefs from Thebes. the bas-reliefs from the tomb of Ti. In the plastic acts and in poetry they had their own style. They have rendered with fidelity and sincerity more than one object which had never . It will be found that a very large space in the present work. first 89 attempts at plastic expression. at least. namely. Of tlic place held in this zuoi'/c by the iiuvuiiiienls of Ihe Jllcniphile period. period which. § 7. is ancient empire. and Berlin are not without remarkable examples of the art in question. some may say art of the too large a space. and of the limits of our inquiry. A few specimens of these treasures. are to be found the Chephren.The Monuments Greece. I. monuments from the Memphite period are Thanks to Mariette and Lepsius. but it is in Egypt itself. The Egyptian people had already lived so long and worked so hard that they could not free their work from certain common and irrepressible characteristics. the age of perfection. at the Boulak museum. 1878. already formed. but it was not yet robbed of its vitality by indolent content or petrified by mannerism it had neither renounced its freedom nor said its last word. and many others of similar style and value. course. Paris still rare out of Egypt. the two statues from Meidoum. . It is there that the masterpieces of an art whose very existence was unsuspected by Champollion. but whom we now X were seen VOL. These figures have been drawn for our readers by two skilful artists. before been reproduced. the first of the Memphite Period. and reasons that may be easily divined. rude efforts of the modeller or painter but they carry us to the end of that and above all they transport us into the centre of the epoch which was to Egypt what the fifth century was to Greece.

than the most picturesque or eloquent writing. modest dimensions. critical and his pleasure methods borne its seeing the as if of and Egyptian art replacing own motion. us to protest. Eugene and enMelchior de Vogiie and lifelike . is of more value. were in themselves extremely improbable. reproductions of the more important objects with which at the necropolis at the museum Boulak Memphis has enriched but we were . See also Fig. will treat of the remains of early Egyptian art at a length which would seem at first sight out of due proportion to their number. by Bourgoin. The of monuments numerous of the ancient empire less those . Sketched Fig. the Theban and comparatively Salt dynasties they are of and. but later ages will also be represented by a series of monuments. that of works relating to They also have a death and burial. This volume. as a definition of style. and western archseologists had but slight opportunity to become acquainted with visited their characteristics. then. of his itself. against a which dates back to a remote antiquity even if all evidence had perished the critic would have no great difficulty in casting doubt upon assertions which for prejudice .90 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. 460. descriptions of M. they soon returned to Cairo. all with rare exceptions they belong to one category. 56. which will bring us down to the Persian . and to give tangible justification Chephren. The art of the early dynasties has thus been practically ignored by those who have never thusiastic Egypt. They enable special interest of their own. provided far as it it be correct so goes. impelled extant are by other motives than also. — our protestations. These reflections would by themselves corporate in all justify our efforts to in- our pages. The others have done something to arouse the attention of connoiseurs but in such a matter the slightest sketch. is but his task rendered much easier when in he is able to point to existing is monuments great in support of his certainty contention. historic development. under the normal conditions of out.

and one monument only differed from another in the amount of care and manual dexterity bestowed upon it. to the repetition of a lesson learnt by rote. slave to its a all own had created all that it could and had become Disposing under the Ptolemies of past. 91 This limit will hardly be over-passed in our choice of for examples for study. From the year 650 B. and painting we can abandoned itself to mere copying.- —Ti. there w'as constant communication between Ionia and the cities of easily see that it . 57. with his wife and son.The conquest. and that two reasons. Whatever had to be done. that at the latter period the evolution of Egyptian it was complete. Our second reason is this. but those changes were of no very great In sculpture importance and were mostly in matters of detail. it the resources of a great empire. architectural changes w^hich Fig. Limits of our Inquiry. was done in accordance with fixed tradition. that Egypt was opened to the Greeks in the time of the Salt princes. indeed introduced certain do not seem to have been borrowed from previous buildings.C. The art first is. onwards.

fell upon the Hellenic isles as refracted rays. in the first textiles. and vases of clay or metal. the earliest of civilinication. interest us less on her own account than on account of that unique and unrivalled people who inherited her inventions and discoveries. jewels. Thus if we wish thoroughly to understand Greece. Assyria or Phoenicia. immediately or through the imitative powers of the Syrian manufacturers. zation. even Egypt was represented. carried by the Sidonian merchants to the savage ancestors of the In this roundabout manner she had probably more influence over Greece than in their periods of more direct commuThe rays kindled upon her hearth. by the power of custom and of a tradition which had been handed down through so many centuries. it had become so original and so skilful in the management of its selected methods of expression that it could not have been very After the Persian wars such inreceptive to foreign influences. . and even perpetuate itself. it was during the second half of the seventh century and the first half of the sixth. fluences . Greeks. Egyptian art will be followed by us down to the moment in which it lost its creative We shall rarely have occasion to force and with it its prestige. and made them the foundation for a productiveness in which are summarized all the useful labours of antiquity. we must start from Memphis and go through Babylon and Nineveh. any time Greek art borrowed directly from that of Egypt. her religious conceptions and their visible symbols upon Even then the art of Egypt could dethe whole eastern world. As for the indirect borrowings of forms and motives which Greece received from Egypt through the Phoenicians. Tyre and But Greece will be the aim of our voyage. particular detail which we shall go to them for examples when any we desire to mention has not been preserved shall require to monuments. fend. after passing through the varied media of Chaldeea. but even then we for believing that such detail ior us by earlier have good reasons did in fact originate in the creative periods of the national history. but the day was past when it could provoke imitation. her literature. and Egypt will Sidon. state of things was reversed Greece imposed her language. their transmission had come to an end before the Persian conquest. If at In the Ptolemaic era the would be still more powerless. either before the time of Psemethek.92 the Delta. Now and then speak of the Ptolemaic remains of Egyptian art. A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. By the end of the sixth century.

to light temples which Herodotus so greatly admired but that and who knows to exist in the ? we may find in them more than one of those motives and arrangements which at present are only known buildings of the Ptolemies and of the Roman emperors . by the twenty-sixth are loth to think dynasty. perhaps. but no remains have yet been discovered. Are we to believe that the splendid edifices reared in the cities of the Delta.The The Limits of our Inquiry. directed excavations may bring . well Some the day. and especially at Sais. not even yet been 93 entirely Eg)q3t of the Pharaohs has explored. have perished to the last stone that it ? We is so.

be looked for in these pages even in the case of the most important and famous buildings of Egypt.— CHAPTER PRINCIPLES II. therefore. and whose throueh a lone course of centuries. We greatest possible care to our study of the details in question. its Without an attentive examination of original elements in remains we should be unable to distinguish the the work of the Greek genius from those nations. which it borrowed from other We we must pass in review the whole artistic production of several great nations who occupied a vast surface of the globe. we must not fail to extend our purview to every fact which may help to justify the comparison which we propose to institute between the arts of Greece and There is the must devote but one road to success in this double task. those of the nations by whose teachings she profited. Our task is no easy one. circumstantial description need. but upon any tomb or temple will be ourselves have examined many tombs and . No monograph we shall found. I. as such an attempt would perhaps cause us to lose sight of the main object of our work. the study of oriental In the enterprise which art is we have undertaken but an introduction to that of Greece. s Method to be Employed by its in our Study of this Architecture. but describe singly the great buildings of fertility was prolonged not attempt to shall Egypt and Assyria. but must confine our exposition to the general laws which governed them. and then give the general results of that study we must make ourselves thoroughly acquainted with all the phenomena. No such as our minute inquiries have presented them to us. . While limiting our study in the fashion which has been described. of Persia and Phoenicia. AND GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE.

thus include in a single chapter all that relates to principal or loftily accessory openings. Thus. VArt Monuments Paris. les no date. depuis les folio. By this analytical method of treatment we shall be enabled to give an account. and further researches have been made on the spot expressly for the present work. it is Arthus Bertrand. from the contributions of Prisse. when the illustrations to this work were already prepared. 1878. and with the changes which those conceptions underwent in the course of centuries. by ancient tradition. in 1880. have taken them to pieces. . perhaps. (i vol. which shall be at once accurate and not too long.Our Method temples . The test published after the death of Prisse. In this matter our only Denkmakr Egypt Histoire de aus ^gypieii und ^thiopien (from drawings of the expedition sent into '- in 1842. z vols. sketches. Temps plus recuies jusqiia la Domination romaine. The papers. of the Bibliotheque Nationale when they are classified and published we shall probably find among them several interesting documents we have only been able hurriedly to look through them. to speak figuratively. 12 vols. perienced of egyptologists. for example. Each assertion will be justified by shall we discuss the column reference to characteristic 1 examples. We shall be enabled to see how far those forms were decided by natural conditions. we have explored the pages of Lepsius and Prisse d'Avennes ' for information relating to the sepulchres of the first six dynasties. to doors and their construction. M. 4to.). jMarchandon de of the most practical and exand drawings left by Prisse became the property. Berlin. has this great inconvenience. In another chapter and its capital we shall describe the variations produced by time and materials upon its proportions and its entasis. who was one . of the general aspect of their buildings. for this purpose. : collections should be made as soon as possible. It is desirable that a complete inventory of these la Faye. . make a more particular reference to one or two sepulchres which are in unusually good preservation. We may. in the Study of this Architecture. of the constructive processes employed by the Egyptians. and of the modifications enforced by the decorative forms of which they made use. to those placed windows which were calculated to give so little light. and by means of the knowledge acquired we shall endeavour to make our readers acquainted with the notions of the Egyptians upon sepulchral and religious architecture. or by special wants. that not always easy to distinguish what belongs to the editor. We shall ^ . 95 we shall. but we shall not give any descriptions or illustrations of those works individually we shall ideal restoration merely use them for an of the characteristic tombhouse of the ancient empire. but only for the sake of giving firm definition to the type and to its main variations. which remained there cgyptien d'apiis les till 1845).

59). are pyramieioid . the vast number of remains still existing of ancient Egypt from the time of Menes to that of the Persian conquest. except that the illustrations will partake of the generalized and abstract character of the text which they accom- pany. § 2. by Charles Villeroi. in The external forms of Egyptian edifices other words. Athens. We shall do the same for Assyria and Chaldaea. Otho I. the outward surfaces of their walls affect the form of a trapezium. we shall push our among Before we work of analysis and generalization farther still. dedicated to his Majesty. in They will each refer to some essential to element found the national architecture. 58). and of the materials of which the architect could dispose. for Persia and Phoenicia. by its beliefs and social customs. 8vo. of the nationalities which are to be considered in our history.. a difficulty of choice richesse. embark upon the study of any special class of buildings we shall endeavour to define the general and unchanging characteristics of Egyptian architecture as a whole characteristics which were fixed by the idiosyncracy of the race. by the nature of the climate.96 difficulty A will History of Art be an einbarras cie in Ancient Egypt. These theoretical chapters will be illustrated in the same fashion as the others. they form part of the substantial inner constitution of of Egypt and Chaklrea. indeed. some element which is is not peculiar to any one edifice more than another. in the case of square buildings ridge in those which are oblong in plan (Fig. In order to avoid repetition and to put before the reader ideas which he will have no difficulty in assimilating. — General Priueiples of Form. and make their originality indisputable. . and a in a point. . for each. accidental variations as may be found in details of plan or ornament the arts . or Lois gi'iicrahs de Pl/iilinaisoii dcs Cohvines dans la Construction des Temples grecs de r Atitiqiiitc. but in all those to be which have similar aims and are constructed of Such elements are above and outside such the same materials. Thus in if we prolong these surfaces vertically we find that they unite at last (Fig.^ 1 A square building will sometimes end in a ridge. engineer. 1842. In most cases they will be simple diagrams composed for the express purpose of illustrating the definitions or descriptions to which they belong.

58. Horizontal lines piedominate over inclined or vertical buildings. — Square building.itkI oblong building. 97 in its when the principal facade and the corresponding one rear are vertical. the other two being. The w'as terminations of their edifices were also horizontal. as.) General Principles of Form. the natural conformation of the country had its influence upon the creations of its inhabitants. therefore. however. tend to develop in lines. Between these aspects VOL I. and length and depth rather than in height. The unforeseen and sudden variations. the pylons afford exceptions. hardly ever rains in Egypt. the Arab chain and the Libyan. it There no necessity away from the immediate Moreover. intersected by canals. are here ( . the contrasts of hill and plain.inclined. arete. unknown. I-'IG. 59 — Ktctaugular . in Upper and Middle Egypt the lazy river is accompained throughout its journey from south to north by two long chains of hills. Lower Egypt is a verdant plain. FlG. mountainous country like Greece. To this general rule. whose summits form an almost unbroken line. for sloping roofs. and stretchinc^ from the sea to the desert. which we find in a proximity of the sea.

Ch. monotone. from the Voyage de Haute Egypte 116): "Pour le M. Ces lignes planes qui s'allongent et se prolongent sans fin. are short To add ance of solidity the relative base increased by that tendency towards is to be found in every Egyptian building. of nature and the works of man which they enframe. Ch.. one of them the greatest building upon earth. and suggests an idea of unbounded 1 durability. In looking at one of these buildings. and column. Blaxc.^ The pecuHar its character of Egyptian architecture is owing to laternal extension. and to those wide-spreading bases and foundations which suggest the incHnation of the superincumbent walls." [We have refrained from translating this piece of word painting. . infinite we feel that it is capable of dimensions. — The Libyan chain.J 98 A History of Art in AnciExVt Egytt. the constructive to this appear- members of Egyptian the pyramid which architecture. 60. Granimaire des Arts all — dii Dessin (book teristic ch.). Blanc in his is En. imprinient a apaise le la nature un caractere de tranquillite qui assoupit 1' invagination et qui les varietes coeur. and that but one of of height. mais grand par sa simplicite' meme et par sa monotonie. M.above the necropolis of Thebes. extension horizontally. pier. viii. notre plaiser se borne k regarder un paysage simple. there is a striking general sympathy. et qui s'interrompent un instant pour reprendre encore leur niveau et se continuer encore. These characteristics give a look of sturdy power Egyptian ^: '^ Fir. stand upon enormous . taken moment. is architecture which peculiar to itself. size of the Wall. is its that limited by its essential to forms. " The wide-spreading base and thick is the distinguishing charac- of the Egyptian monuments. set. Par une singularite peut-etre unique au monde. Similar notions are expressed by i. qui viennent rompre de distance en distance la vaste uniformity de la se reproduisent toujours les terre egyptienne memes. lest - its suggestive rhythm should vanish in the process. The pyramids of Memphis.^ is Egyptian landscape la well characterised in these lines of {\).

e. height.— General PRiNciriES of Form. by which we mean an alternation of voids and solids in certain well defined of the essential arrangements One Fig. that of Egypt is prisonlike in its gloom size. and only 146 in to its height as 8 to 5. i.. also stamped upon it by the small number of openings ior the admission of light of which it makes use. ot solemnity. Their height base far less tlian their largest horizontal diameter. All Egyptian monuments. are more remarkable ! ground they cover than for their height [except the monoliths Ed. in it consequence of its rare openings and their small presents more imposing walls of than any other style. 99 is An appearance of incomparable gravit)-.^ proportions. or for dividing the halls of the interior and either for supporting their roofs. even the for the most lofty. and this extension of their bases gives them an appearance of absolutely eternal durabilitj-. for instance. windows play such an important part. . Egyptian architecture is shared by many other countries. but. relation is architecture between voids one of the most is and vital solids in any style of characteristics. The bases. . and also by their Compared to our modern architecture. 6i. in which arrangement. its is 233 metres along one side of its base.- — General appearance of an Egyptian Temple.]. is The pyramid of Cheops. that of the portico. a covered ornamenting the exterior and providing way." This illustration has been compiled in order ' to give a general idea of the more persistent characteristics of the Egyptian temple.

lOO A History of Art i?j Axciext Egypt. Supports of the same kind and of the same diameter may have very different heights in one and the same building (Fig. following In the case of Egypt this relation gives rise to the remarks : I. 62). mwiwm .

1^ <.— From the second court of Me<liiiet-Abou. and the entablatures which they support may differ greatlv in height (Fig. pi. {Description de !' Jigypte. {Description. 66. ^^^ Fir. ii. 33 Fig. 6. and in this the architecture Egypt is we call classic. 2.. Thebes. equal to IDT each other both in average diameter and in height (Fig. p!.) between cohimns of one size and similar design. C — Ramer^seum. t.^yy>^^yy/. In Greek . 65)... The spaces. 28. Thebes. v.-y'--//. may vary considerably (Fig.--/'^/-'A' £_^ Li. C^y SH. 66). 65.i: - -y^?'^-'': '. 66). or voids. t. ii.General Principlks ok Form.) The of proportional combinations of these elements are such that distinguished from that which they cannot be methodically classified.

6". was used with such freedom. the plain between this quadrangular architrave. termination and the upper extremity of the voids and points invariably inserted of support. but there was no approach to that rigid and immutable law which had its effect upon every detail of a Greek temple. Egyptian buildings are crowned Finally. like that of Greece. and gave rise to such varied proportions.I02 A is History of Art in Ancient Egypt. an architrave and the moulding which by the same is called the Eo-yptian gorge (Fig. in not take into consideration. have been a certain connection between the diameter of a column and its height. art there a vioduhis which determines the quantitative relation of forms to each other. The modulus. is This modulus is found in the diameter of the is column. edifice had so it little dependence upon the modulus that we need and. 67). and the standard of proportion which called based upon it must a canon. as in other countries. there Fig.^ is An architectural member. — The Egyptian Gorge or Cornice. . which is crowned by a row of battlements. all entablature. that we may say that no canon existed. and fixes a mutual and invariable inter- dependence. in Egyptian art. The elementary forms of an Egyptian In Egypt. the art of Eo-ypt was not mathematical. ' We know but one or two exceptions to this rule. this sense. It will suffice to quote the Royal Pavilion of Medinet Abou.

o <! 2 Q < o O o in X u ca P k < < faa pu .

.

we cannot go so far as to say their different properties absolutely determined in the characall . ^ 3. Without ever being absolutely incorrect. and every nation has to take them into the first consideration in We deciding upon its own architectural forms and principles. or rather in marble. . General Principles of Construction. its . changed but little since the beginning of the historic period. there are. alone. now to another. similar uses. could the typical temple. In studying a natural architecture and in attempting to assign reasons for to its particular characteristics. — Materials. with the coffered roofs of their porticos. too. such as the Parthenon. and their decorative and expressive sculpture. nevertheless. can lend forms of great variety in principle and so. The its innate genius of the race. the chief of materials. the Egyptian religion raised from the surface of the earth many buildings which varied as greatly in form and aspect as they did in The climatic conditions of the world have date and situation. with their architraves resting upon widely spaced columns. the physical and moral conditions of development. In its aspirations towards the infinite and the eternal. But although no material can narrowly confine a skilful architect. but some of them act in such a complex fashion that they are extremely difficult to follow. have here a problem whose data do not vary. many circumstances have be taken into consideration. neither the h}-po-style halls of Egypt and Persepolis. and the ardour of its none of these must be forgotten. In stone. and yet its solutions have not always been the same even in a single country. nor the Greek temples. certain systems and constructions which are only possible with those which possess certain properties. Stone. the spirit of its religion. have been realised without such a material the Greeks could never have created that incomparable ensemble whose different parts are so . could have been carried out in brick. can brick and wood. To give but a single example.General Prixcitles of Construction'. teristics of Egyptian building itself to advance. As that for the materials employed. — Materials. the)- attached themselves now to one and so gave much variety to the appearance of successive buildings under one skv and destined for principle. the perfection of faith civilization.

Brick could never have led to the employment of these forms. 68.. entitled : Le Detail B'ltiinents dcs Matcriaiix dunt se scrvaiait In Anciiiis pour la Conslnntion de icms (Rome. intimately allied one with another. in which the richest decoration is in complete unity with the constructive forms which it accen- tuates and embellishes. oblong folio. at Milan.. ..' ornaments of stone have to be replaced. i8oo.. especially by the surprise which it Santa Maria delle Grazie.I04 A History of Art ix Ancient Euytt. 68). The result is sometimes pleasing enough. „. as in the temple of the Deus Rediculus. 1 From the work of the Abbe Ucgeri. by moulded terra cotta (Pig.l . the mouldings and carved invention or ^ . The joints between the bricks have' to be hidden under stucco.^^ <^^^s^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ • -''^f «S so 75 I" at '^^ Fu. pi. v. — Capital and entablature of the temple of the Deus Rediculus Rome.-. Those who try to imitate them in any such material have to make up for its deficiencies by various ingenious devices. is a masterpiece of causes.). .

Egyptians were granite. 8 in. at Syenc. Of all the causes which modiiy the forms of architecture and determine genius. with a profound discord between form and matter as a result. at Thebes. Granite is is not a sedimentary. we can arrive style. from brick which it was unable to give. . to a depth or. it was quarried. P high and 11 ft.and limestone. important observation.] VOL. is 105 ft. * The alabaster quarries of to-day are all in the Arab Chain.'' Sandstone and limestone. near Cairo. The only granite quarries that were worked in antiquity were those of Syene now - Assouan. by Bramante 105 in the kind. of the materials used. are used nearly everywhere granite is of less frequent occurrence and suggests an .-'' The Egyptians ' also made use of both burnt and unburnt brick. especially the latter. its — Materials. the most important is the nature. less skilful artists have effects was the only material Ijut where Bramante They have demanded . near Cairo. in a more volume which intents is practically unlimited . Sandstone was chiefly obtained from two localities. The often materials made use of by the sandstone. thanks to the skill and tact displayed management of the burnt clay which afforded him by the plains of Lombardy failed. the So.^ namely alabaster. is almost entirely calcareous. where the material more despotic. and the sjirings of the Wadv Siout. was employed for lining. it a material compacted in great masses. Near the sites of all the ancient shows numerous excavations bearing witness to the activity of tlie ancient builders. if its character. still should is still we do so in the case of architecture. the dimensions of the stones which therefore infinite to all may be cut from these masses are and purposes. Djebel-Alimar. The most celebrated of these quarries is that at Mokattani. succeeded. I.200 tons. is a monolith 55 liigh. Ed. at Karnak. opposite the town of that name. less We never forget this in the case of sculpture. is never having been completely detached from the rock in which nearly g6 ft. statue of ft. Djebel-Silsili in and 3 Upper Egypt.. higli the Rameses II.— General Principles of Construction.'" A softer stone. between thesoutlieni slopes of the mountain Mahsarali. 5 in. [The obelisk which still remains . 1} in. we must begin by it judgment of the rules and principles of any appreciating and describing the materials of which disposes. upon the right bank of the Nile. and weighing about 1. The stone of which the body of the pyramids is composed was drawn from it. to speak accurately. stratified rock hke limestone . The Arab Chain it cities ^ The obelisk of Queen Hatasu. near Cairo. on the left bank of the river. in Upper Egypt. before we may say at a correct so. diameter at its base.

except the palm. but the Egyptians also made use flat of small stones or rubble. and sometimes for outward decoration. called construction by assemblage. sometimes in the construction.) Various peculiarities of construction which are comparatively seldom met with will be noticed when we come to describe the monuments in which they are to be found. .imid. The constructive elements which enter into the composition of this first class of buildings are stone and brick. compressed." that construction ihe elements of which are squared upon each face and put into close juxtaposition one with another. as they cover the voids by horizontal superposition. 70. Concrete or pise. Again. They consist of courses and The courses form the walls. although trees. lined the on the exterior by laree ones which concealed meanness of the material behind them. these elements are horizontal or vertical. The horizontal elements constitute the planes. in which the elementary units were held together by being introduced one into another. dovetails or tenons of wood. architraves. The separate stones are often bound together upon their horizontal surfaces by The blocks made use of in this form of construction are usually of large dimensions. as in the pylons. with vertical and sometimes sloping joints. ^ 4. between moulds or caissons of woodwork. They are arranged in horizontal bands. was also made use of by the Egyptians. the Egyptians built also in wood. dressed construction. In the first place. near the Great Pvr. This material gave rise to what we may call compact construction.— io6 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. Dressed Constrticiion. materials The employment what we may call of these different '' gave birth to is. sometimes for lining.^ (Fig. was obtained. In a few buildings of the latter class metal seems to have been employed. by which a third kind of construction. were rare enough in the valley of the Nile. Architraves were stone beams used to bridge over the voids and 1 We find this construction in the so-called Temple of the Sphinx.

supports take various forms of developall ment which may logical be referred In to the type which we have defined. 69. lo: which latter was composed of long and heavy slabs. the interiors the material form of support a consequence of the employed. Those of small or medium dimensions are monoliths others are The vertical . elements support the architraves and combine them one with another. courses which in this case take the name of di-nnis. Upon exterior surfaces. These vertical supports vary greatly in size. to support the covering of the building. composed of many courses of stone one upon another. Whenever the . — The Egyptian "lioml.Dressed Construction. is namely. Kn. the portico..

The number of supports depends upon the number of rows of the flat stones which They are form the roof. however. and this necessity springs every building of any importance..io8 A History of Art in An'cient Egypt. 72.^Elements of the portico. they must be made up in to rest upon intermediate supports . affirm that the number invariably decided by the length of the architraves. . — D. intervals. 70. stones which form the roof are too 'small to bridge over the whole of the space comprised within two walls. or of the roof- ing stones. always far and vertical supports are of the roof would require.. ment in our gardens which of supports we call a quincunx. This very elementary combination fulfils all the re- quirements of circulation. 71. lest they should break with their own weight or with that put upon them. to such multiplied sometimes an extent that they remind Vu.uble-fac^d us of that planting arrangewall. weight mere stronger than the The walls. -Some very long monoliths are supported at regular Figs. is We cannot. architraves.

there . Both roof and architraves being horizontal. These simple arrangements constitute a and roof. the proportions of the vertical and horizontal is elements of a building. sections. 73. disruption its equilibrium is and can only be destroyed . epitomized by Ch.Dressed Constructiox. the walls is vertical. There is no force tending to thrust the walls outwards nor to Consequently. all the pressure upon The following woodcut shows the Fig. that determined. belonging exclusively to Egypt. 109 arrangement of supports. has had results upon which we cannot too strongly insist. to say. its have been skil- is in the building itself no latent cause of perfect. fully affect the if immobility of the supports. Chipiez. architraves complete system of construction which. — Eg)-pticin construction.

which is therefore enabled to dispense with those buttresses and other lateral supports which are necessary to give stability to the edifices of many other nations. This character is most stronMv marked in stone buildings.no by A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. and maintained bv in walls of a suflicient thickness. external physical causes. and sometimes the whole of them. they are introduced chiefly and in the substructures This method of construction. Although the use of monoliths for roofing purposes was general Egypt. of building vaults. and the termination is In some generally a terrace in which wood is the chief element. . by long exposure by earthquakes. Works in brick form the transition between the construction that we have described and that which we call compact. " for monuments of Eg^'pt is confirmed and They are built. which are of much less We are.The vertical support and the architrave form the two vital elements of an Egyptian building. but it is by no means absent from those built of materials created by human industry. however. they played. never resulted in Egyp: in an architectural system .'^ We see then that the first impression caused by the external lines of the architectural explained by further study. that is to say. in its highest and most simple form is the distinguishing characteristic. of the ancient monuments of Egypt possess such vaults. . that is to say. of Egyptian architecture. they were used in antique times. and.neither did it give birth to any ot those accessory forms which spring from its use. but a secondary role in the development of art. They were never used in the buildings to which greater importance was attached of ereat monumental combinations. as said the Pharaohs Stability. to the weather. or by the hand of man. A stone roof is not often found. in eternity. examples of Egj-ptian vaults. are covered in by brick vaults. in out-of-the-way corners of the building.than those of stone or brick. the true originality'. disposed to believe that durabihtj. it must not be thought that the architects of that country were ignorant of the art of covering voids with materials of small There are numerous size. themselves." a word. 2 We may here remark that the modest dwellings of the Egj-ptian fellah are often covered by vaults of None pise. some of them of great antiquity. of compressed and kneaded clay. however. moreover. cases the secondary parts of such edifices. being confined within such narrow limits. . . the Eg}-ptian builders constructed their vaults after In spite of the facilities which they a method of their own. afforded.

because. in such a construction. vault will be in fact a false one. Off-set vaults. If the face of those stones which. 74. sesrniental vault will be obtained this but appearance than will be no the more superficial. of an off-set the form of inverted steps. be cut into the line the void of a continuous arch curve. and with their faces hollowed segment of a circle.1 Dressed Coxstructiok. the superficial appearance of a or barrel . according to the method of their construction. all the stones offer which enframe the void and to the eve the form . —Element arch. are turned to which has to be covered. Egyptian vaults I.74-) another. 1 1 may be divided vaults into two great categories. in Fic. These off-set are composed of courses to the one from (Fig.

Vcussoir. (Figs.) their joints (Fig. composed of voussoirs. 78. "]]. 77. sponding drawback. But this advantage has a correThese voussoirs thrust one against another .— I 12 A lateral History of Art are vertical. 76. radiate towards one centre or This method of construction enables the to utilize is more. such as bricks. 79. 78. in Ancient Egypt. — Semicircular vault. and — Arrangement builder of voussoirs. are true vaults. Centred vaults.) very convenient because it units constructive of very small Fig. whose lateral joints are oblique. and 79. These 2. Fig. They are Fig. and they have no lateral thrust. When they are the units in of such vaults are properly proportioned stable themselves. dimensions.

some of those at Beni Hassan have flat ceilings. into one homogeneous mass so that the separate courses became undistinguishThis latter fact has been frequently noticed in Assyria. Such bricks. call The methods employed permit the use. and unFig. in a few instances. from a burnt bricks did not differ essentially from bas-relief. when placed one upon another after being imperfectly dried. others have coves. but the radiating arch never arrived at such a development in Eg)pt as to lead to the adoption of any contrivance specially charged with the maintenance of vaults in a state of proper rigidity. I. They are not stable in themand in order to give them stability they must be kept in place by surrounding them with opposing forces which will effectually prevent their setting up any movement in the structure of which they form a part. Q . The fact that these sepulchral chambers affected the aspect of vaulted halls. But the material had little strength.' selves. The Egyptians not only employed the semicircular arch they made use. Compact in CoiistnictioH. heaven. combined. .— Compact Construction. and was far inferior to those modern concretes which have the density and durability of the hardest stone. So. to signify the canopy of ranean work. and many of their underground buildings have roots cut out of the rock in the form of a segmental vault. in what we may compact constrnction in considerable quantities. which was raised as the work progressed and the mixture dried. under the influence of the weather and their own weight. This material was used buildings which were homogeneous it was poured into a mould formed by planks. ' Another explanation has been given of the employment of the vault in subter- Marietta believed the arch to be symbolic. of the pointed form. pise. which is consequently very thick. — Granaries. One objection to this is the fact that the vault was not universal in tombs . . of moulded clay mixed with chopped straw. can only be explained by the supposition that a similar construction was common in the dwellings of the living. VOL. 1 1 and tend towards disintegration. § 5. This function is fulfilled by the wall in Egyptian architecture. by able. The Egyptians do not seem to have been acquainted w'ith concrete proper. the heaven of Amen.

of course. we have use of good reason to believe that they generally made this material for the quiescent body of the edifice alone. as may easily of it are to be found in our day. in their stone buildings. in spite of their of their aspect and ot the principles of their construction. all perished we can form a very good idea but. the people took pleasure in copying. § 6. It deserved to be mentioned. Carpentry. Thebes. but only in a strictly limited fashion. material far a enough system to form based complete upon it. 81. only found in certain well-defined parts of buildings. structed of disappearance. besides which. They made It is great use of it. the Egyptians did not carry the use of Fig. artificial — Modern pigeon house. played a considerable part in ancient Egypt. 80). have to be covered in pise. the arrangements which had characterised their work in wood . In a word. But we have no evidence that the Egyptians of wood. their paintings and reliefs often represent . which were never of any very great interest from an artistic point of view (Fig. to cut through the thickness of walls in the process of excavation. one of those self-supporting curves which we have described under the name of vaults. if only for the frequency of ancient and its use in Egypt. and the vault must be constructed over a centring If voids ~\. 81). but. Coiistriution by Assemblage. and that voids were mostly covered with stone or wood. but it modern times need not detain us longer. could carry the art of construction to this point in pise. In the most ancient epoch of Egyptian art. Those be understood. must be made use of.— 114 those A who had History of Art in Ancient Egypt. in the private architecture of both (Fig. or construction by assemblage. On the contrary. wood have. few traces edifices which were con.

and these additions often take the form of what we call panels. one of these single faces has not much more stability than each of its constituent filled obtained. thickness in comparison with matter far inferior to those well dressed stones which. i i The constructive principles which we have next to which will enable us accuracy as if have thus left traces behind them them with almost as much the carpenters of Cheops and Rameses were working notice. to describe before our eyes. cannot which they are It is the same with maintain itself in place by its own weight. The wooden their places when simply laid one upon another. heaviest beams of wood will not keep architraves. being far less dense than stone. In both Egypt and Greece still we often come upon a few columns surroundings. is at least the most logical method for those who wish to make the best use of their materials. building-s of the less durable material. though not always made use of in practice. of course. The different much more line intimately allied buildings constructed of large stones. and the material of formed. and it when wood has to be employed to the endowed with all the solidity and resisting capable. and held in place by mt^chanic'al contrivances. 82). have resisted change with neither tenons nor to help cement them. such as bolts and nails. fixed Supports of dressed perfectly stable stone truly with the plumb are of themselves. We than in need not insist upon the characteristics which distinguish assembled construction from masonry or brickwork. in so many ancient walls. standing upright amid their site desolate and of some city or famous temple But wooden supports ha\'e little their height. We may look upon the different faces of a wooden building as separate pieces of construction which should be put together upon the ground before being combined with each other. By such methods an open structure is up by successive additions. But even when thus put together.Construction by Assemblage. parts of the former are. As power a general principle. of which best advantage. and are in that announcing to the traveller the which has been long destroyed. the voids of which have afterwards to be . This process. the separate pieces must be intro- is But even when thus combined duced one into another (Fig. they will never form a homogeneous and impenetrable mass like brick or stone.

elements. members. the several at the angles. All joints are there made at a right angle. They were probably led to reject oblique lines by their unwillingness to break in upon the simple harmony of vertical and horizontal lines . S2. as they may be learnt in the representations to which we have already referred. because we examine the forms and motives which stone have architecture borrowed from wood in the case of other people We must now determine the particular besides the Egyptians. and stable whole. The Egyptians were not ignorant of the advantages conferred by the use of these oblique members because they employed them frequently in their furniture but they seem never to have introduced them into the construction of ..s. their building. This is one of the elementary rules of the carpenter's and to form an idea how it was applied in our own country it is enough to cast an eye over any of the wooden buildings of the middle ages or of the renaissance. characteristics offered by the material in Egypt. When a wall has to be built of wood so as neither to warp nor occasion to give way. art. faces It In order to form a rigid must be allied by reciprocal interpenetration was necessary to call attention once for all to these general shall hereafter characteristics of wooden construction. it is necessary to make use of a certain number of oblique Fii.ii6 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. — Elements of wooden construction.

Ed. 83. as every joint was made at right angles. which is 117 architecture. more- over. they were driven to the discovery of stability to their walls.- we have already noticed in their stone constructions . the pyramidal form was entirely absent.— Construction by Assemblage. and. . which were thus brought into more intimate relation than would in these days be thought necessary. fulfilled in the required cohesion and This requirement they thought they had exaggerating the jaoints of connection between the some other means of giving and horizontal members. 2 In this figure we have attempted to give some notion of what a wooden building must have been like in ancient Egypt.^ The consequence of this was that their wooden buildings presented much the same closed appearance (Fig. But the Egyptians also made use of wood for buildings very 1 In this respect there is a striking resemblance between Egyptian carpentry (see and much of the joinery of the modern Japanese. — Wooden building (first system\ composed by Charles Chipiez. the distinguishing principle of all their Thus self-deprived of a valuable resource. 83) as vertical Fig. 83). empire. judging from the imitations of assembled construction which have been found in the tombs and»sarcophagi of the ancient Fig.

composed hy Charles Chipiez. might be called an open system of construction. were closed from those to which we have hitherto alluded.ii8 different A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. Those but we have now to speak of another system. Fig. — Wooden building (second system). 84. of one . by contrast. The edifices upon which it . was employed were generally of small which.

have hitherto described Egyptian architecture according to the general character of its forms and principles of construction we must now attempt to give a true idea of its method of decoration. know them only by the figured representations which have We come down were httle calculated to outlast the This second system lends itself as little as centuries (Fig. We tions. still less could they stand up against the combined weight and thrust of a stone or brick vault. For the decoration of the vast surfaces. but yet it have been used only for subshould not be passed by in silence. the Egyptians made use of paint. contours and mouldings. members. polychromatic ornamentation. the first to pyramidal and kindred forms were in it of but secondary importance. method of carpentry seems ordinate buildings It . which would destroy them in very summary fashion. to was frequently used for the construction of light decorative pavilions. size. nor with any wish to produce merely a complicated. horizontal or the vertical It may have furnished either the partly used for the roofs. 84). either plain or curved. and it had a set of principles which are as susceptible of definition as those of the most ambitious architecture. also. This may be described in a very few words. § 7. Decoration. to us. side by side with . In these picture decora. for they . such a building was This allied to the portico type which has already been described. but they were distinguished by a different system of carpentering. Composed of a few vertical members bound together at the top. and that with no desire to accentuate. and it is certain that it was In all wooden structures the roof must also be of wood. Groups of figures borrowed from the animal and vegetable kingdoms form its chief constituents. 119 and in this respect resembled those which we have described. They overlaid with a rich system of colour the whole inside and outside of their buildings. the great constructive lines. because the light walls which are proper to the material could not support the great weight of a flat stone covering. horizontal lines. man is seen in every attitude or vocation. by a carefully balanced set of tones.— Decoration. Metal must have entered into the construction of these pavilions. which their style of architecture placed at their disposal.

The second is the employment of colour for the representation of life. for which purpose every surface is seized upon. disregarding particular genera and It species. Images and explanatory inscriptions are sometimes cut in the stone.I20 birds. The and of polychromatic decoration of the Egyptians is to be e. ' We here speak of the fauna as a whole. or the round shaft of a column. It will thus be seen that Egyptian decoration is distinguished by the intimate and constant alliance of two elements which are often separated in that of other races. Intaglio and bas-relief often lend their help to the ornament. become brighter and gaver in exact proportion as we near the equator and leave the pole ^ the same rule holds good . of the Italians. he also makes use of it to interpret. notorious that the colours of birds and butterflies. not satisfied to use colour to give force to the lines of a building and to increase its general effect . which. of the pole than the rule which much laid brighter in colour when this it is to be found both in grows in the neighbourhood our temperate climate. A fishes History. the more pleasure does the eye receive from strength and variety of colour. and with those composite forms which have been created by himself to represent his gods.xplained. to multiply. all other southern nations. whether the The decorator is face of a wall. and quadrupeds. it From cornice to foundation. like that of the Assyrians. which is a matter of daily experience. of the Greeks.of Art in Ancient Egypt. but in either case all figures are distinguished by their proper colour as well as by the carved or modelled outlines. but at present we are concerned only It is with the fact itself. sometimes modelled in slight relief. A building thus ornamented presents us in its with a series of pictures embodied own constitution. and of the petals of flowers. The more intense the light. upon wall and column. by the quality and quantity of their daylight and the way in which it affected their visual organs. may be in said that is some particular plant which France and Norway. The science of optics gives us an explanation of this fact. The plant whose whole season of bloom is . is covered with an unending series of wall paintings. The first is the employment of colour to give variety to surfaces and to distinguish different members of the architecture by the opposition of tones. but apparent exception only confirms we have down. like a gorgeous tapestry. and to immortalize the ideas which float through his own brain. envelop and embellish it without hiding any of the details of its construction.

a column. hardly seem to be modelled as they stand against the depths of the sky. with his clothes and furniture. "'Those villages which approach in colour to that Nile mud of which they are composed. that cupolas p. Blanx. he divined beforehand some of the discoveries of our century by the innate force of his genius. a dome. at or those sunny rocks which reflect the light in I such a fashion that they fatigue the most accustomed eyes. is . in some desrree. In art. was very much struck with this phenomenon. notice here. strongest. Cape Sunium." {Voyage de la Haute Egyph. He was one of the first to accept the views of Hittorf and to proclaim that the architects who had found traces of colours upon the mouldings of Greek buildings were not deceiving themselves and others. as in natural science. therefore in exact proportion to the and not six or seven. and southern sun . more and sun than its French or German summer. ^ We borrow these expressions from M. whose strange charm has been so often described. 1876. which become more brilliant in colour. and. tint which also serve to give force to wall paintings comprised between a late spring and an early autumn develops itself rapidly than with us. the dominant and bounding lines of an architectural composition by contrasts of and bas-reliefs. and their shadows lose a part of their value. i 2 with the habitations of mankind. during the short sister. polychromatic decoration endows buildings help us to distinguish them in such situations from the ground upon which they stand. who. The amount of light which ^ This was perceived by Goethe. when in Egypt. 114). Ch. for the absence of those strong shadows which Attention is drawn to elsewhere help to make contours visible. much During those fleeting summers of the north. with the blinded are imperceptible by an eye of difference shades it sees nothing but the simplest." - In Egypt. I. which concealed the surface of their stone and accentuated the leading lines of their architecture. frankest colour notes to the exclusion of all half-tint.1 Decoration. hardly stand out at itself all against the back- ground. a minaret. the nights are an hour long. objects of a neutral do not stand out against their background.^ a burning and never clouded sun. and to accentuate their different planes. unless that be the sky in Greece. light it receives. VOL. They also compensate. R . as I did and round towers have their modelling almost destroyed by the strong reflections. and more audaciousl)Delicate abrupt in their transitions from one hue to another. All three The warm and varied hues with which seem almost flat. the sun hardly descends below the horizon colour of flowers they receive. granting that it has become so hardened that resist much more it is able to the long and hard frosts of winter. He was not surprised by the discovery that the temples of classic Sicily were painted in brilliant tones. " conime ddvordes par la Under colour diffusion et la rdverbdratioii dune incoinpai'able liuiiic're.

286. they are always coated . 178. or those of the mass to Upon the which it belonged. round shaft of the column. upon the bare expanse of the wall. once veiled the Doubtless this is true but even in a surface of the bare walls. especially w'here sandstone or limestone was used. like the temples of Thebes. The Egyptian habit of sprinkling figures over every surface without regard to its shape. was so on the obelisk of Hatasu at Thebes . His statement must be treated with great respect. granite of the obelisks there was always a layer of stucco. but that country was the first to employ it upon rich and vast undertakings. Polychromy structural thus a help to our eyes in those countries where a blinding light would otherwise prevent us from appreciating the by no means peculiar to Egypt. but the hieroglyphs.) his long sojourn in Egypt he examined the remains of the ancient civilisation with great care and patience. "The plain surface. both from the inscription and the appearance of the monument itself he came to the conclusion that it had been gilded from top to bottom." It had been left slightly rough. and she carried it to its logical conclusion with a boldness which was quite unique. Mariette has verified that it certain that granite was often stuccoed over. upon which traces of colour are clearly visible on the sunk beds of the figures and hieroglyphics." he says. and that the gold had been laid upon a coat of white ' Wilkinson thought stucco. It is . was also peculiar to themselves. but yet we think his opinion upon this point must be There are in the Louvre certain sarcophagi and other accepted with some reserve. vol.. objects in hard stone. p.122 A History of Art is in Ancient Egypt. these figures were multiplied and developed to an extent which was limited only by the length of the wall or the height of the column. they spread over every surface and pay no attention to the joints and other structural accidents by which they are seamed (Fig. she employed it more constantly and more universally than any other people. even upon the beautiful {Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians. 2nd ed. its functions.) As for buildings of limestone or sandstone. which had their beds most care- fully polished. preserved the colour and surface of the {Itineraire. separated one from another by a narrow fillet which indicated the plane upon which the groups of figures had a footing. ^ climate such as that of Egypt. ii. while not the slightest vestige of anything of But it is the kind is to be found upon the smooth surface around those carvings. the architect could not believe that a beauties of their architecture. They were generally painted in bands of equal height. There is no visible connection between the bands of figures and the structures which they ornament right and left. 85 and PL III.) It may be said that these joints were invisible until the passage of centuries had laid them bare by destroying the stucco which. p. . granite. '' alone received this costly decoration. During 1878. above and below.

mingled with inscriptions which were in themselves pictures. But in spite of its breadth and vivacity the system had two grave defects.) remark "It was upon this coat that the hieroglyphs and figures were sculptured. The first was the fragility of the plaster surface upon which It was displayed. The contour of the figures is sometimes marked upon the stone ' : . seems to have been to make and yet these sure of absolute stability.Decoration. When de Thebes. sculptured upon the internal faces of four unequal stones in the wall of one of the rooms. or whether its powers were supplemented by the work of the chisel." . this method of decoration must have given them a most fascinating brilliancy. beneath. This surface may be compared to a tapestry stretched over the whole Interior of the building. which is injured by the unavoidable ! masonry and destroyed by the slightest earthquake Of this we need give but one conclusive instance. of indefinite duration thin coat of plaster .-rs {Dan-iption ghurale ix. Our third plate reproduces that admirable portrait of Seti 1. and.. latter the chief. instead of a built-up wall which so many causes would help to settlings of the . when once any portion of the plaster coat became detached from the wall. which succeeded each other in thousands upon every wall and pillar. there was nothing left but the crround or reverse of the stuffs The design and colour may still be distinApropos of the Temple of Khons. ch. eternal walls are lined with a rich decoration which is spoiled by the fall of a piece of plaster. because the depth of the cutting is greater than the thickness of the stucco. We have here a great contrast in principle In the between the decoration and the architecture of Egypt. which is the wonder This beautiful work in relief is of the temple at Abydos. to continue the comparison. . must have at once amused the eye and stirred the brain by the variety of their tints and of the scenes which they represented. and dressed in the most vivid colours. destroy. but as yet they have not opened sufficiently to do much damage to the artistic beauty of the work but It cannot be denied that the preservation of the ro3'al effigy would have been rnuch more certainly assured if the sculptor had chosen a single stone to work upon. these figures. if not the only aim. Egyptian buildings were new and their colour fresh. would endure as long as the massive walls upon which he laid it. Whether the pencil alone were employed to trace the designs upon the smooth walls. Jollois and D'exi'lli'e. The joints may be distinguished. .

but there a great difference between painted ornament which is subject to such damage and a woven hanging at any time before the threads of the woof have been discoloured and entirely worn out. richness. S5. 204. — Seti I. It is monotonous and confused in spite of all its Fig.) ICarnal-. sculptured figures had the so thoroughly. more importance in that the eye of the spectator was drawn forcibly to them by the very limitation of the space reserved for . (ChampolUon. is its uniformity. I'l. Thebes. guished or divined. It suffers from the absence of that learned balance between plain and decorated surface which the Greeks understood In the Greek temples. sti'iliing prisoners of war with his mace.124 A History of Art is in Ancient Egypt. The other defect in the system.

. =c KAR NAK 3AS RELIEFS IN THE GRANITE CKAjViBERS Imp Ch CKardon .Di= J 3ul' cn -'.

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To take decorative art as a whole. She thoroughly understood how to make \io-ht. though carefully and skilfully allied with the architecture which they were meant to adorn. To Egypt. durability Such a decoration was only rendered possible by the use of a material which compromised coming. they and individuality of their own. which. with her endless figure processions. made them a fatigue to the eye and the . the Greeks did not make use of so many figures as the Egyptians. absolute necessity of contrast she to perceive that by multiplying figures to infinity. did not form an integral part of it. its . tones distinguish between the various parts of a structure and de- fend its contours against the effect of a dazzlino- On the other hand. belongs the credit of having been the first to discover the obligation imposed upon the architect by the sunlight of the south — to accentuate the main lines of his edifice by means difterent of colour. and that failed is not her only short- She failed to understand the value of repose and the . she lessened their effect and intellect. and closely allied to the architecture by their subject as well as their material shape. them. and to preserve their works against the yet preserved a life destructive action of time. she went too far when she covered every surface. the places for which they were intended. then. 125 They were cut from separate blocks of marble. without choice or stint. but they knew better how to economize the sources of effect.Decoration. Such figures ran no risk of being cut in two by the opening of the Although marvellously well adapted to joints between the stones.

In order to understand the Egyptian arrangements. He is as yet unable to observe. § I. In the to first period of his intellectual development. to which thev had recourse for consolation. life man in is unable comprehend any but that which he experiences his own person. As such is the tendency of his intellect. . in attempting to explain the hypothesis. He is therefore incapable of distinguishing between life such as he leads it and mere existence. Maspero has so thoroughly understood the originality of the solution adopted by the Egj'ptians that we cannot do better. and in what kind of life. He dreams of no other way of being than his own. yet been discovered first Egypt are the tombs they have therefore a right to the place in our sketch of Egyptian architecture.— CHAPTER III. Sepulchral Architecture. we must begin then by inquiring into their notions upon death and its consequences we must ask whether they believed in another life. and he sees nothinor in nature but a repetition of himself. to analyse or to generalize. nothing: could be more natural or more logical than the conception to which it leads him in presence of the problem offered to him every time that a corpse descends into the grave. We shall find a complete answer to our question in the collation of written texts with figured monuments. -The Egyptian Belief as to a Future Life and upon their Sepulchral Architecture. M. its Influence The most in ancient monuments which have . than borrow his rendering . In every country the forms and characteristics of the sepulchre are determined by the ideas of the natives as to the fate of their bodies and souls after life is over. He from does not perceive the characteristics which distinguish him thinofs about him. at once gross and subtle.

?W|r It! "jT .

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after a certain period. when closely examined. 1879. these successive conceptions are super-imposed one soul. That historian has applied himself to the apprehension of every delicate shade of meaning in a system of thought which has to be grasped through the veil thrown around it by extreme difficulties of language and written character. M. corrections and additions (Maisonneuve. and as always happens in such a case. 594. to the word bdi^- which has been translated soul. those ideas underwent a the Under eighteenth the nineteenth dynasties. Those lectures especially in his numerous lectures at the College de France. (fapii's les Monuments ' du Musce du Louvre. and how he manaeed to harmonize ideas which seem to us inconsistent. 127 of the texts which throw Hght upon this subject. afforded the material for the remarkable paper in the journal asiatique entitled. and even. upon another the last comer did not dethrone its predecessor but became inextricably blended with it in the popular imagination. during those centuries when limits Egyptian empire and Egyptian thought were carried farthest afield. of the manner in which its persistence after death must be understood. We refer all those who wish to follow minutely this curious development of the Egyptian intellect to the subtle analysis of M. and. June.Sepulchral Architecture. — .'f>ie ancicnne. we find traces of doctrines which offer notable variations. in the Bulletin hebdomadaire de V Association scientifique de France.^ Were we to affirm that during thousands of years no change life. sophic speculation the Egyptians modified their definition of the by a necessary consequence. . Ed. but at the same time he has never attempted logical to endow it with a precision or By well chosen which it had no claim. together with some of the reflections which those texts suggested to him. " Etude sur quelques Peintures et surquelques Textes rclatifs aux Funerailles " (numbers for May. 1880). and MayThese articles have been republished in a single volume with important Or ba. and November. Maspero has often and exhaustively treated this subject. Maspero. 1878. June. nor the " Conference sur T Histoire des Ames dans rEgj. 1880). actual contradictions. comparisons and illustrations he enables us to understand how the Egyptian contented himself with vague notions. as a process of refinement. These are successive answers made during a long course of time to the eternal and As they became more capable of philonever-changing enigma. took place in the ideas of the continual Egyptians upon fact. a future we and of should not be believed. o completeness to We shall not enter into those details. We shall not seek to determine the sense which the Egyptians attached. No. and. December. for December-June.

Maspero has rendered as the double. at least. the ka. Mr. mortal life." 1 Cotifirencc.128 distinction A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. the Egyptian Hades. a projection. and a man from a man. a woman if from a woman. to the westof Abydos. between it and khou. a child if coming from a ^ child. .icts which prove that the beliefs in question were not confined to a single race. In this primitive conception we ought to find the determining cause of the Egyptian form of tomb. 381. which were superimposed upon it. Spencer's pages make us acquainted with numerous f. p. He finds origin chiefly in the illness. which the soul seems to have enveloped like a garment. has given a curious and plausible explanation of how its conception sleep. luminousness. was so deeply engraved upon the soul and intellect of the race as to exercise a much stronger influence than the later more abstract and more philosophical theories. Herbert Spencer. the conception which. of the individual. We shall not follow the soul and its internal light in its subterranean journey across Anient. in a " This doiible was a duplicate of the body matter less dense than that of the body. which was the only portal to the kingdom of the shades nor shall we accompany them in the successive transformations which made them acquainted with every corner of the earth and sky in the infinite series of their becomes (to use the Egyptian expression) what we have to do is to trace out the most ancient of their religious conceptions. and of the faintness caused by wounds or more or less transitory suspensions of animation led men to nothing but a prolonged interruption of life. But had it no other elements which belonged to the general disposition of humanity in those early periods of intellectual life ? Into that question we cannot enter here further than to say that Mr. phenomena of dreams. and. it remained unchanged in principle. Pcga. in the first chapters of his Principles this of Sociology. a term which M. He also thinks shows how these suppose that death was that He the actual shadow cast by a man's body contributed to the formation of that belief. if but reproducing him feature for feature. . but were common to all humanity. like the first teachings of infancy. or. Its constitution was already settled in the time of the ancient Empire. of of a double was formed. from the Memphite dynasties until the end. coloured aerial. In this constitution we shall find embodied the essential idea adopted by the Egyptians when they first attempted to find some eternal element in man. some element which should resist the annihilation of death for a period much longer than the few days which make up our . The Egyptians called that which does not perish as the dying man draws his last sigh. to which it entered by a cleft.

in EiSuAa 72 .Sepulchral Architecture. brought them to the threshold of the good diuelling or the eternal divclling. This belief clearly stated in a passage from Cicero " {Tiisc. in the strictest sense of the word. : strong that subsisted even after the universal establishment of the custom of burning the bodies of the dead. xxiii. who like would otherwise be irritated against them and use the almost godpower attributed to his mysterious condition for the punishment of his ungrateful posterity. ' Texts to 7. The dead were put under . the piety of its relations. on the other by the protection which they afforded even in the funeral repast they Latins believed that plished.necessary And all these things it obtained from for the sustenance of its life. The double of the Egyptian sepulchral records corresponds exactly to the ilhinXov^ of the Greeks and the -umbra of the Latins. alive. 51). who look upon : the life upon earth as a thing of is minor importance. They call their hotels. 129 This double had to be installed in a lodging suitable to its existence. had to be surrounded by objects which it had used in its former state. The following passage of DiODORUS is well known " This refers to the beliefs of the natives.^ This conception is not peculiar to Egypt. while they tombs 2 their eternal divellings (i. as it were. to provide food and drink for the support. Osiris ^ • they talked of the Osiris so Ka/xdi'T<D)/ (//. i. terra censebant reliquam vitam agi mortuorum it " Sub quoted by Fustel This belief was so 16). which were the phrases used by the Egyptians. 476 xxiv.^ By these offerings alone the could the hungry and thirsty phantom which had replaced living man be kept to take care that this guished by their if The first duty of the survivors was dependent existence should not be extinneglect.^ 1 They looked is impatiently forward to these supplies in This expression. is and so Od. this . . life we may use such a phrase. seems to have made a great impression upon the Greek travellers. took their parts. which very common the Egyptian texts. combined naming one who was dead. xi. in view of the short time they them. the protection with. in the eating and drinking. ^ The dead thus remained in close relation with the living. on the one hand by the nourishment which they received. on fixed days.. of. . but have to spend in set a high value upon those houses their call virtues of which the memory " perpetuated after death. 14). Both Greeks and when the funeral rites had been duly accomimage or shadow entered upon the possession of a subterranean dwellinoa life which was no more o and beran o than the continuation of that in the light. and. of the precarious of the dead. who. had to be supplied with the food which was. Fustel brought the more remarkable of them S vol. this effect abound.

L PP. 162). Perrot. From India to Italy all the primitive forms of fact public and private rights betray their presence.The speeches of the Greek orators are great hold upon the popular mind. Some curious details relating to the funeral feasts of the Chinese are to be found in the There are some striking Comptes rendiis de V Academic des Inscriptions. for a moment. even as their intelligence full of proofs that these beliefs had a as the time of Demosthenes. awoke their dormant thoughts and fecHngs and gave them ghmpses of the true hfe. and Albert Dumont {k Balkan et P Adriatigue. p. they had caused their sufferings.. the works of Heuzey {Mission arMologigue de Maca/oine. 325. 4S2-484). shalt . p. the life above ground and in the sunshine. 14). there would then be some neglected tomb where the dead never received the neglect which would be visited of gift-bringing friends. . Fustel de Coulange. "take this drink which . points of resemblance between the religion of China and that of ancient Eg}-pt in both one and the other the same want of power to develop may be found. Electra says when she pours a libation: " This drink has penetrated the earth 'my father has received it " (Choephoroe. iSmo. 354-356). The blood they swallowed restored and powers of thought. traces of which are still found in Eastern Europe. both the Chinese and the Egyptians failed to emerge from the condition of fetichism. For this and of its consequences we may shall refer our readers to the fine work M. Les Fricurseurs de JDemost/iine. Taking them as a whole. 1877.^ If they were kept waiting too long they became angry and revenged themselves upon those who because. abandonment. of understanding what he says and answering. 536). in Albania. Woe to the family or city which was not careful to interest the dead in its stability and thus to associate them with its prosperity! ^ These beliefs seem to have been common to all ancient peoples during that period of their existence which is lost in the shadow of prehistoric times. maybe consulted. 1879. Upon the strange persistence of this belief. .'^ be content with quoting three is grateful to the dead : together in his Cite antique We " Son of Peleus.359-364)^ Seventh edition. : have rich banquets if I die thou wilt have no portion of those smoking feasts which nourish the dead" (Choephorce. Hachette. And listen to the prayer of Orestes to his dead father " Oh my father." said Neoptolemus. pp. come and drink this blood" (Hecuba. but the talent of an Isseus understood how to make it tell with an audience. and Epirus. a upon the city as a whole as the accomplice in such Such an argument and others like it may not seem to us to be of great judicial value. La (p. Cite antique. G. late In contested cases of adoption they always laid great stress upon the dangers which would menace the city if a family was allowed to become visits extinct for want of pre- cautions against the failure of the hereditary line. 130 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. or we should not find it so often repeated in his pleadings (see Eloque/ice politique et judiciare a Athcnes. if I live thou . ^ In the eleventh book of the Odyssey it is only after " they have drunk deep draughts of black blood " that the shades are capable of recognising Ulysses. 156). in Thessaly.

? . . I Sii^iK)V/few i? o o «IF m^iij^ . and the development of rehgious The growth of the ^ i TT^ ! 1 1 i i 1 1 1 1 \i\\J' r2^ LLnJJ-LLL II i i I ! c 4f'ln^(?J )^ /a\ p ' ! r^V ^'Tv'VC^^^^^t•'' Di . Boulak. the progress of centuries more elevated ideas prevailed..J Fig. scientific spirit between life tended to make the notion of a being suspended and death ever more strange and inadmissible. 86. Drawn by Bourgoin.Sepulchral Architecture. I. —Stele of the nth dynasty.^i. I With thought.'^.n o= '1 im '-4 '^^ p..

vol.^ culture when the diffusion of intellectual and the perfection of scientific methods add daily to our accumulations of positive knowledge. it began to decompose their tissues. in the funerary ideas of Egypt. and those ill provided with means of research and analysis. clearness and freedom. Mr. and we may be tempted to smile when we think of the Greek or Egyptian giving himself the are most honourable to nature. but. Sociology. most men allow their souls to be stirred . but results became daily more evident that death not only put an end to the activity of the that. 119. but he shows us at the same time that the most highly civilised races in these modern days ' human admit and combine ideas which are logically quite as irreconcilable as those which seem to us so absurdly inconsistent of savage races.132 A History of Art its in Ancient Egypt. perceive at when we think of the beliefs of the ancients or Custom renders us insensible to contradictions which we should {The Principles of once were we removed to a distance from them. and their actions to how much beliefs greater then be prompted by the vaguest words and notions must the influence of those confused and baseless images have been in antiquity when but a few rare minds. attempted to think with originality. i. an element which the progress of reason was sure to destroy. As time rolled on men and dissolve must have found it very difficult to believe in a shadow thus placed outside the normal conditions of life. we find them in the remembrance of lost objects of affection. 1S5). Herbert Spencer. but if we seek for the source of its inspiration and its primitive meaning. in the recognition by the living of the blessings which they enjoy through the long and laborious efforts There was no doubt a perishable element of their ancestors. logical reflection It would seem then that observation and should soon have led to the abandonment of a theory which now At appears a period so puerile . those whose intellects demand well defined ideas are few indeed. in a something which was not a spirit and yet survived the destruction of its organs. pp. even in these scientific times. in feelings broken by the supreme separation. The prestige of this illusion was increased and perpetuated by its intimate connection with several of those sentiments which Such a worship of the dead surprises and even scandalizes us by its frank materialism. and it Experience accumulated organs. in the gratitude of children to the parents who gave them birth and nourished their infancy. in his ingenious and subtle analysis q{ primitive ideas draws our attention to their frequent inconsistencias and even positive contradictions . . immediately upon its occurrence.

those distant ages in which primireligion prevailed. after much striving. in our own day. When the Greek cjenius had arrived. at its complete power of plastic expression. Pallas. Apollo. and to construct worthy dwellings for their habitation. philosophy now draws the principles of a high morality but long before our days this idea and the tender. full development art did not arrive at its until the of Greece.Sepulchral Arcihtecture. clear. We have thought it right to dwell upon this worship of the dead and to describe its character at some length. Their most complete. to model Zeus. Sculptors. grateful. in a plastic form. worship of the dead had lost its high place in the national conscience. and architects still worked indeed. and to they designed for adorn its walls with bas-reliefs and pictures it those vases and terra cottas which. painters. but all Their ambition this was only a subordinate use of their talent. They realized the complete solidarity of one human generation with but with all their simplicity. and childish ideas of had no art in which to manifest their beliefs with clearness and precision. tive On the other hand. is often unable to grasp. From a reasoned out conviction of this truth and its consequences. at the decoration of the tomb. with its childish and brutal contempt for the past. have been found in thousands in the cemeteries of Greece and Italy. trouble to feed his departed ancestors with blood. and another. and art was called upon to interpret the brilliant polytheism of Homer and Hesiod. because the beliefs upon which it was based are not to be found so clearly set forth in the art of any other people. And why is this so ? It is because the Egyptian industries were already in full possession of their resources at the period when those beliefs had their strongest In the case hold over the minds and feelings of the people. They strove to give it beauty of shape and arrangement. one and the other were alive to a truth which the revolutionary spirit of our days. sentiments which it provoked had been a powerful instrument in the moral improvement of the first-born of civilization and a bond of union for their civil and domestic life. statues of was to build temples. to give outward image to those gods. milk. and eloquent expression. ! . . both Guided by their hearts alone they anticipated the results at which modern thought has arrived by close and attentive study of history. is to be seen in the tombs which border the Nile. or honey. the gods of Olympus had been created for several centuries.

or the agonies of hunger and thirst. as a whole. at Beni- Hassan. life in the tomb. and they bear witness to the restless efforts made by human thought to solve the problem of human destiny. as the their chief pre-occupation. was otherwise in the valley of the Nile. in guarding them more safely against the chances which might shorten the religious duration or destroy the happiness of their fulfilment of this duty was. of all their creations. at Thebes. view the Memphite tombs are more curious They have the great and important than those of later date. and in this respect the only difference between the Egj-ptians and the rest of the world is very much to the credit of the former civilization . Thanks to this advantage. . the most original and the most characteristic of their genius. they rapidly attained to a degree of which was only reached by other races after their development was comparatively mature. indeed. but latter the . These apparent contradictions and hesitations are of great interest to the student of the Egyptian religion. Egypt did not differ from other nations in its opinions upon the mystery of In the infancy of every race the same notions on this death. It remains for us to show the use which the Egyptians made of their superiority in doing more honour to their dead. it is less complete and homogeneous. and they had no difficulty in e. matter are to be found. In the Empire. The Greek travellers rightly affirmed. and are perfect are the type of in their clear logical expression. from a unique conception we find traces in it of new hypotheses and novel forms of belief. especially in the forms which we find in the In the time of the New cemeteries of the Ancient Empire. they Vv-ere enabled to push their ideas to consequences which were not to be attained by tribes which were little less than barbarous. of those at Abydos. Certain details. they the later tombs. We . Their sepulchral architecture was. They are the offspring of a single growth. merit of being complete in their unity both of artistic form and of from the art point of intellectual conception. the general disposition remains the same to the end.134 It A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. arrangement and decoration do not spring. These do not supersede the primitive ideas they are added to them. A well provided industry and an experienced art laid themselves out to interpret the popular beliefs and to defend the dead against final dissolution. all And again.xpressing them with sufficient force and precision. and but at Thebes. are modified.

" depended on life is " Thou are complete and (Egyptian funerary text.. &c. The first and most obvious necessity for the oljscure form of life which was supposed to commence as soon as the tomb had received its inmate." of the gods " that (Osirian statue in the Louvre. was the body. the ancient empire men were content Mariette says that " more examples would have to be brought together than he had been able to discover before the question of mummification under the ancient empire could be decided. (Mariette. body must therefore have been an but the art of embalming did not attain should not consume him. . thou august and coffined is mummy. 135 therefore. more than five or six inviolate sarcophagi have been found. again in Thy bones and its thy substance are re-united with thy flesh. as the excavations from which the their day's fellahs of the corvde returning at the enci labour. no member.) The Theban preservation of the object of solicitude at the earliest times. On of the warm it remained in sands of Sakkarah and close least. p.^ Embalming. nothing beyond a little dust upon the bottom of the sarcophagus.) . were spared which could retard its dissolution and preserve the organs to which the double and the soul might one day return. and thy flesh is place. find the ruling principle of Egyptian sepulchral architecture most clearly laid down in the cemeteries of Gizeh and Sakkarah. On each of And as for linen. No pains.) the earth The dead took tlie soil care to demand should not bite him." Under with comparatively simple methods. so long. Pierret. which might be the debris of many other things than of a linen shroud. shall. thy head replaced upon thy neck. therefore." summons resurrection intact. 10.Sepulchral Architecture. tliat which the complicated processes See P. that the bones found in the sarcophagi have the brownish colour and the bituminous smell of " Not mummies. Le Dogme de /a Rhurrection. ^ The texts also bear witness to the ideas with of embahning were undertaken. practised as it was by the Egyptians. these occasions the corpse has been discovered in the skeleton state. 16.) countest thy meiiihcrs ivhich " Arise in To-deser (the sacred region in which the renewal of prepared). thy heart is ready for thee. and found her body much the ! teeth were in place between the slightly contracted lips the almond-shaped nails of her feet and hands were stained with . that Feuilles d'Abydos. all her embalmer in enveloped. final "It was necessary . first. It is certain." {Les Tombes de I'Ancien Empire. no substance. that no authentic piece of mummy cloth fronr that period is now extant secondly. rendered a mummy the dry to almost indestructible. p. at soil of Egypt. should be wanting at the that. perfection until the period. we companions and myself — stripped — my were travelling- a great lady of the time of Ramses of the linen cloths and bandages in which she was closely same condition as it must have been when it left the workshop of the Memphite Her black hair was plaited into fine tresses.

[>. the mummy had to be so placed that it could not be The cemeteries reached by the highest inundations of the river. secondly by placing Besides this its dwelling above the highest " Nile. as at Thebes and Beni Hassan. con- sequently. as in the case of Memphis and Abydos. Had it not been for its colour of tarred linen or scorched paper. because It is who dug them did not foresee the gradual raising of the valley.) ^ Rhind describes several mummy-pits . which." her condition and ornaments. no ancient tomb has been discovered which was within In order that all the expense of reach of the inundation at its highest. 1826.artifices of construction order to conceal the entrance to the tomb. doubtless only within the last few centuries that the water has penetrated into these tombs. moreover. in the necropolis of Thebes which receive this is the water of the Nile by infiltration those but. A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. as he himself remarks. we might have shared the sentiment attributed to Lord Evandale in Theophile Gautier's brilliant Roman de la Moviie . and to prevent the ^ Passalacqua gives the following description of the mummy of a young woman " Her hair and the rotundity and surprising which he discovered at Thebes regularity of her form showed me that she had been a beauty in her time. 8vo. and. were therefore established either upon a plateau surrounded by the desert. by careful scientific embalming. {T/iebes. and concludes by saying that "the peculiar beauty of the proportions of this mummy. had so greatly impressed the Arabs themselves that they had exhumed it more than once to show to their wives and neighbours." architects we shall see that the Egyptian in made use of many curious. or in the sides of the mountain ranges and in the ravines by which they were In the whole valley of pierced.first The and corpse was thus preserved from destruction.) . 153.136 henna. and that He then gives a minute description of she had died in the flower of her youth.^ The Hmbs were embalming should not be thrown away. flexible and the graceful shapes but little altered under the still firm and smooth skin. its Tombs and their Tet!a?i/s. and the smell of naphtha which arose from the body and from the numberless bandages which were strewn about. with an effort of good-will we could almost sympathise with those emotions of tenderness and admiration which were excited in the breast of the young Englishman at the sight of the unveiled charms of that daughter of Egypt whose perfect beauty had once troubled the heart of the proudest of the Pharaohs." {Catalogue raisonne et historique des Antiquitcs : decouvertes en Egypte. of the level attained in recent ages by the waters of the Nile. the Nile. and its perfect preservation. seemed to be still supported by flesh in some parts.

gain. Mariette was fond of especially in the case of the pyramids. and leave it naked and dishonoured upon the . Thus identified by its resemblance and its inscriptions it served to perpetuate the life of the double. more often. intrusion of 137 any one coming with evil intentions. of the The had to liability mummy to accident be provided against. but even to render Fig. penetrating to the sepulin the dead. led to the provision of artificial support for it in the shape of Art was sufficiently advanced not only to reproduce the costume and a statue. with the greater ease. The statues were more solid than the stood in the VOL. possess himself of the gold and jewels with which it had been adorned. mummy. and nothing The body gave but one T . It aspired to portraiture and the development of writing allowed the name and qualities of the deceased to be inscribed upon his statue. the individual characteristics of his physi. which was in continual danger of dissolution or evaporation in the absence of a material support. be brought to light. sands.that there are mummies in Egypt which will never. that he might. destroying and thus inflicting a second death worse than the first or a thief might drag the corpse from its resting place. saying. The idea of the unhappy condition in which the double would find itself when its mummy had an been destroyed. But in spite of all this pious it foresight.Sepulchral Architecture. L way of their multiplication. in Enemies their might succeed chres bodies. ordinary attitude of the defunct and to mark his age and sex. in the strictest sense of the word. sometimes and subtle happened that greed of private hate or. with a fertility and patient ingenuity of invention which has often carried despair Into the minds of modern explorers. S7. Boulak. — Mummy case from the iSth dynasty. ognomy. All kinds of obstacles and pitfalls are accumulated in the path of the unbidden visitor. the upset of every calculation.

Calcareous stone. Finally. Conference. p. i. 381. 88. and consequently the double was assured a duration which practically amounted to immortality.ro. vol. so that they might be kept out of sight and safe Fig. Other effigies were placed in the chambers of the tomb or the courts in front of it. Hence the astonishing number of statues which are sometimes found in a single tomb.1 Maspero.) a Philologie et a F Archeologie Egyptitnne . we know that persons of consideration obtained from the king permission to erect statues in the temples. 155. diffe rentes ^ Maspf. . The images of the dead were multipHed by the piety of surviving relations.^ We shall see that a special recess was prepared in the thickness or of the built up portion of the tomb for the reception of wooden stone statues. (In et the Recueil de Trai\iiix relatifs Assyriennc. from all indiscreet curiosity. From the Louvre. — Man and his wife in the style of the 5th dynasty. chance of duration to the double twenty statues represented twenty chances more. where they were protected by the sanctity of the place and the vigilance of the priests. Notes sur Points de la Grammaire et d' Hisioire.138 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. p.

Sepulchral Architecture. may therefore count upon it immortality. preserved by the magnificent statue of diorite which is the glory of Boulak. If the double required from annihilation but the continued e. that of Chephren.xty centuries and have found an asylum in our museums where they have nothing to fear but Those which remain intact the slow effects of climate and time.. 139 From tions the point of view of the ancient Egyptians such precau- Many of these effigies have come were by no means futile. would be still alive. Limestone. From the Louvre.xistence of the image. of the 5lh dynasty. the builder of the second great pyramid. and thanks to the durability nothing to preserve . and his son Khnem. 89. hi. to us safely through fifty or si. in the st\Ii. — Sckhcm-k. down i:=C J '0 ^/m^i\^/tm Fig.-i. wife Ata.

by the ' Jars. when these were consumed.. was only to be prolonged by attention to conditions most of which the world itself. this posthumous existence which is so difficult of comprehension to us. together with the fruit of .I4Q of its A materia]. The dead-alive had need of food and drink. Different kinds of dates are also found.' and afterwards. It was entirely a material life. which he obtained from supplies placed beside him in the tomb. 90. all which seem to have been once filled with water. would have every chance of lasting as long as But. mxq Fig. unhappily for the shade of Pharaoh. are found in many tombs of epochs. — Stele of Nefer-oua. could not long continue to be observed. History of Art it in Ancient Egypt. Boulal.

a .

.

Notice Monuments .. and — Maspero). Birch.' The Egyptians ants to preserve did not trust only to the piety of their descend- them from a final death by inanition in their At the end of a few generations that piety neglected tombs. &:c.^ and they were repeated from on days fixed by tradition and sometimes by the expressed wish of the deceased. : water. xii. at the great festival. Quarters of meat have also been found in them. to speak more relations and friends of At the foot of the stele upon which the deceased could find room. 387. master of the year. note i. or. A conduit was reserved in the thickness of the wall by which the odour of the roast meats and perfumed fruits and the smoke of accurately. at the festival of the lesser burning. 27. p. Etudes si/r quelques Peintures fuiierains. vol. ^ In one of the great inscriptions at Beni Hassan. pp. perhaps. which are easily recognised by dieir well-preserved bones. of which he had his share. all the festivals on the earth But should my sepulchral priest or men (plain). bread. at the festivals of the beginning of the year (little year. It in the tomb in for the celebration of these anni- was a kind of chapel. vegetables. the god of the was represented dead man the dead. terminating on the hill (of Anubis). I Ka. of the Past. repasts which took place periodically in the tomb. cakes. 1880. fowl. close of the year. recently translated anew both by Isl. 71. I sacrificed to them their food. p. p. My priest has verified (I chose a priest for the procured them from the irrigation of my work-people (I made him slaves. Records conduct them wrongly may he not exist. corn. might grow cold and relax its care besides. the sycamore. et seq. prosper the name of my father. upon which the share intended for the double was deposited and the libations poured. was placed a table for offerings. Chnoumhotep speaks thus " 1 caused to I I completed the existing temples of the Ka. the five at the twelve making (of the entry of grain. sacrificing to Osiris.An open and public chamber clusion of the funeral year to year was contrived versaries. See the Catalogue oi Passalacqua. a saloon which all the the incense might reach the concealed statues. at the festival of bread — Ed. 123. diminution of the Brugsch and Maspero). nor his son in his place. opening of the year. pro- bably relatives of the deceased. and elsewhere. people. ^ In each opening of the serdab contrivance which in the tomb of Ti. beer.— ' — 143 Sepulchral ARCHtxECTURE." intercalary days. May-June. 151. Maspero) monthly and half monthly festivals. fields pure herbs.) monuments. increase of the year. served my statues at the great temples. Maspero and Professor Birch. 1 Maspero. a family might become . catde. I ordered the sepulchral offerings of bread. are represented resembles in form des principaitx in the act of burning incense in a the Ov/xLa-nipiov of the Greek de Boulak. — at the festival of the great burning. in all the festivals of Karneter. at Sakkarah. beer. in the Journal Asiatiquc. The first of these feasts was given upon the con- ceremonies. (Mariette. — Maspero).

the founder of the siir les fourth dynasty. vol. of They devoted to the purpose the revenues also charged with the some part of their property. ministers were attached to the the sepulchral chapel of Cheops. —Table for offerings. 92. which was deposited in a temple at Siout.^ We which we have find that. Each a point of duty to give renewed princes restoring sovereign made it life to the worship of those remote who represented the first glories of the national history. {Transactions of 'he Society of Biblical Archaology.) . Recherches Monuments que I'on pent atlribuer aux six premieres Dynasties de Manethon. which was maintenance priests of the to priest or who had rites perform the ceremonial described. of the table for Boulak. many changes of rdgmie. the builder It of " great pyramid.) in the case of It was the same a still older king. p. by which offerings should be regularly made to the prince's statue. Seneferu. Louvre. 1 See the paper by M. but the honours paid to the early had become one of the of — Another form offerings. perpetual foundation. even special under the Ptolemies. 41. (De Rouge. ^ vii. which has preserved for us a contract between Prince Hapi-Toufi and the priests of ApMotennou.144 extinct.believe may seem a difficult to " that foundation of the ancient empire should have sur- vived so kings Fig. A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. pp. 1-32. 93. It All those who could afford provided against such con- tingencies as these by giving their tombs what we now call a Fig. Maspero upon the great inscription at Siout. national institutions Egypt.

like those Scythians described by Herodotus. We know what treasures of this kind have been obtained from the Egyptian tombs and how they fill the cases But neither was this habit peculiar to Egypt. It was common to all ancient people whether civilized or barbarous.3 A later custom which would seem to have established desire . drink. . often decorated in VOL. 71. at the death of a chief. They were by Mariette upon some of the bas-rehefs at Sakkarah. L U . fees. iv. as for instance his food and for certain identified . jewels. his wives and servants that they might accompany him to the next world. were secured to them at a small expense instead of slaying them at the door of the tomb. of our museums. • the papier-mache loaves cf the All Egyptian collections contain cofters of painted wood. a wooden table. In the tomb of the personage called Atta.72. Toml'fs de r Ancien Eiiipin.Sepulchral Architecture. 145 Besides which there were priests attached to each necropoHs. and other objects of which they might have need in the next lite. Tombes de t Ancien Empire^ the p. she found means to give the same advantages to her dead without Those personal attendants and permitting Scythian cruelties. Traces are to be found even in the early traditions of the Hellenic race of a time when. . itself a little we mean the habit of placing in the tomb those statuettes which we meet with in such vast numbers after the commencement of the second Theban Empire.87. 17. art and religion. supporting terra-cotta vases and plucked geese carved in calcareous stone. domestic officers whose services would be so necessary in another life. p. clothes. they were represented upon its walls in all the variety of their occupations and in the actual moment of labour.) The vases must have been full of water to when they were placed in tomb the stone geese may be compared modern stage. When she began to reveal herself in the arts Egypt was already too far civilized for such practices as these thanks to the simultaneous development of science. has been found. officiated at each tomb in turn.^ The same sentiment led to the burial with the dead of all arms.* Mariette obtained some from tombs of the twelfth referred to the may be same 1 ^ ^ Herodotus.'-^ the Greeks sacrificed. who. (Mariette. So too with all objects of luxury or necessity which the double would wish to have at hand. Their services were retained much in the same way as masses are bought in our days. In a few rare cases the objects destined for the nourishment of the double are represented in the round instead of being painted upon the wall.

The siije and the richness of their ornament depended upon the wealth of the deceased for whom they were made. some they are in in height. As a rule they do not exceed from eight to twelve inches. it is also explained by the picture in chapter tilling. 94. back as Memphite These statuettes are of different sizes and materials. Some are in limestone. and a sack meant for grain hangs from their shoulders.146 A History of Art in Anxient Egypt. granite. tliat Dead. when covered with green or blue enamel. They are like a mummy in appearance . Book of the dynasty. (Description upon the breast and hold instruments of agriculture such as hoes and picks. from a tomb dt I'&gypu:) at Gizeh. figures It is therefore easy the most brilliant fashion. . XC. seems tologists are ritual date to be one of the most ancient. The meaning of all this is to be sought in the Egyptian notions of a future life . has been called Egyptian porcelain. which served to hold these statues in the when they were placed tomb. and some in but as a rule made of that kind of terra cotta which. of the Ritual. The texts of the Ritual and of certain inscriptions call these little answerers from the verb ousheb. their hands are crossed Fig. and the sixth chapter of the engraved upon them. — Labourers heaping up ears of corn. to answer. which shows us the dead in sowing and ouskcbti or harvesting the fields of the other world. but there are a few which are three feet or more wood. which is Egypt- now inclined to far as the beHeve the essential parts of this period.

Pierrkt.. &c. Dictionnaire ifAirhe- See also. PiETSCHMAXN {Dcr Ei::\ptische FetiscMicnst. 96.a Figs. to the services Maspero 12. .) . vol. p.une Tahhtte npparteiianf a M. p. 155). -'^mmsWi f "Av. a note by M. ii. Rogers. walls they saved him from fatigue and from the chance of want. in connection with the personality attributed to them and which were expected from them. Conf. 95. .' stitute for its tenant in the cultivation of the the help of the attendants painted and sculptured upon the seagf — ' « — Sepulchrnl stnUiettes.ouvri-. from the I. Su7. (Reawilde Travaux.Sepulchral Architecture to divine the part attributed to 147 They answered With to them by the popular imagination. character and significance of these statuettes. In his desire to take has well grasped the ihis 1 is another branch of the same old idea. v. ologie egyptienne^ vol. the name traced upon the tomb and acted as subsubterranean regions.

that these scenes were not anecdotic. natural state . lead to the death of the do7ible by inanition. and various accidents. cally unaltered until our day. We visited the tomb of Ti a short chambers had been opened and cleared. every precaution against the misery and final annihilation which would result from abandonment. By the brightness of their colours and the sharp precision of their contours these charming reliefs had the effect of a newly struck medal. It was how form and colour had been preserved intact and fresh under the sand. might. Some believed that they were an time after its marvellous to see illustrated biography of the deceased. of continuing in the next world his career of honour and success in this. There are a few steles and tombs upon which the dead man seems to have caused his services to be described. It was the same with furniture and clothes the narrow dimensions of the tomb. Such an inscription is so far biographical. a setting forth of the joys and pleasures of the Egyptian Elysium.On the other hand the funerary statuettes were made of the most indestructible materials and the bas-reliefs and paintings were one with the These have survived practithick walls of stone or living rock. the Egyptian thought he could never go too far in furnishing. As an example of such narrative . and this work which was four or five thousand years old seemed to be but lately finished. The its ingenuity of their contrivances is extraordinary. On a few very rare occasions they seem to be connected with circumstances peculiar to the inhabitant of the tomb. through comparisons easily made. no doubt. It was soon perceived. Such scenes from the daily life of the people continued to be figured upon Egyptian tombs from the old empire to the new.148 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. provisioning and peopling his tomb. When their study and comparison were first begun different explanations were put forward. as we have shown. with the object. moreover. future life. . would forbid the accumulation there of everything which its sombre tenant might desire. Food in would not keep. a representation of his achievements or of those over which he had presided during the others saw in them an illustration of his course of his mortal life . Both these interpretations have had to give way before the critical examination of the pictures themselves and the decipherment of their accompanying inscriptions. and a similar spirit may extend to the decorations of the stele and walls of the tomb.

o y. > .

.

Sepulchral Architecture." Again. perhaps. and we feel that they are carrying out a task which has been imposed upon them as a dut}'. that the fields. p. that o. Tombes de l Anden Emf>in\ " . the stacking of the crops of the tomb. 88. and the butcher up to the sculptor. the baker. But all this is exceptional. supply of wheat in return. epigraphs 151 we may . As a rule the in subjects occur upon the tombs again and again.xen are driven into It is for the ploughed and irrigated.). the persistent fashion which figures by which the flocks and herds and other possessions of the deceased were numbered are too great for literal truth. Ti sees the stalls of the oxen and of the small animals. Histoire ^ A?ieieiiiie. We shall leave M. and here is what we " To see the picking and pressing of the grape and all the find. Mcmoire siir les Monuinents dcs six premieres Dynasties pp. but first we must draw (i). Maspero to sum up the ideas which presided the that the soil at the construction of the 1 Egyptian tomb. from the labourer." The Again. For whose benefit do they take all this trouble } If we attempt to enter into the minds of the people who traced these images and compare the pictured representations with the texts which accompany them. " To see the picking of the " flax. wheat is is threshed. labours of the country. 80 et seq. like the Hebrews same in the time of Jacob. characterizes traditional themes. Maspero. 88-92. the reaping ot the corn." It is is for the dead that the vintage takes place. that the flax picked.On the other hand the pictured tradesmen and artificers. De Rouge. Among a these the often reproduced painting of a band of Asiatic emigrants bringing presents to the prince and demanding. which o^rand-vizier to the two first King-s eives us the h'fe of a sort of o o o ^ also the inscriptions upon the tombs of those of the sixth dynasty feudal princes who were is buried at Beni-Hassan. the gutters and water-channels of the tomb. supply of his wants that all these sturdy arms are employed. cite the long inscription of Ouna. They. S^e Mariette. seem to apply themselves to their work with an energy which excludes the notion of ideal felicity. one and all. the transport upon donkeys. we shall be enabled to answer that question. Conf. labour conscientiously. Let us take by chance any one of the inscriptions which accompany the scenes figured upon the famous tomb of Ti. In the latter there are historical representations as commentaries upon the text.

and he ate and drank with her gulfs of the lower world in the . they were meant to preserve the dead from danger and to insure him a happy e. pis. and he crossed reaping. tilling. more than once. The real tilling. his avpi'^^'^ saw himself going to the chase upon the surrounding walls and he went to the chase eating and drinking with his wife. in the valley Kings. 393). our readers' notice to the fact that he.'52 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. 12-14). see Pierret. the statuettes placed in his ' tomb carried out for him under magic This word. alludes to a conception of the future life which differs somewhat troni the early Egyptian notions. 1- IG. on his walls were for him reaping. was employed by the Greeks to designate those long subterranean galleries cut in the rock of the necropolis at Thebes. and belongs rather to the Second Theban Empire and its successors. " The scenes chosen for the decoration of tomb walls had a magic intention whether drawn from civil life in the world or from that of Hades. . them in safety. called the Valley of the sense to all . 362. are brought together by Jomard in the third volume of the Description (Antiquites. vol. iii. Didionnaire d' ArcMologie egyptienne. and So. too. — Arrival in Egypt of a company of Asiatic emigrants (ChampoUion. uvpiy^ (flute).xistence beyond the tomb Their reproduction upon the walls of the sepulchre guaranteed The double shut up in the performance of the acts represented. pp. For the reason which led the Greeks to adopt a term which now seems rather fantastic. crossing in safety the terrible barque of the gods. modern egyptologists apply it in a more general tombs cut deeply into the flanks of the mountain. 9S. and housing housing. . The chief passages in ancient aufliors in which the term is applied either to the subterranean excavations of Egypt or to other galleries of the same kind.

like the sorcerer's pestle Goethe's ballad. \. and. have great difficulty in realising a state of mind so different from what ours has become after centuries of progress and thought. Those Such a belief is astonishing to us . We. 393). And. in his The workmen painted his food . and he was thus encouraged to construct his tomb while he was yet alive. Arrival in Eijypt of a pis.dotcb/c for upon the sides which they laboured . the mysterious ceremonies which accompanied his burial.-. nor a Jouminl aiiaiique. Relations. the world of vassals of the sepulchre was as real as t\\e.v. 'jS. company of Asiatic emigrants (ChaDipollion. it imagination to which we moderns are in no early races had neither a long ' enough experience of pp. . papyri made shoes for him and cooked they carried him to hunt in the deserts or to fish in the marshes.v. influence in all OJ the work of the fields. (. and scenes represented in another world. 420." demands an effort of the way equal.Sepulchral Architecture. 362. The Egyptian thought that by filling his tomb with pictures he insured the reality of all the objects.i"/. The him certainty that they had been the cause of some benefit their regretted to consoled and supported them on their return from the cemetery where they had left ^ dead in possession of his imaginary domain.. thought that they were doine a service to the deceased when thev carried out all the picture of a slave might well satisfy the Fi'. shadow of a master. 419. too. May-Tune. 1S80. VOL. after all. drew water for him and carried grain. things. people.

Imagination had then a power over a whole race which in our days is the gift of great poets alone. They found no more difficulty in giving life to their carved and painted domestics. than to the to the mummy or statue of the deceased. women. but in the primitive days of belonged to all people alike. In the efforts which they made to forestall the wants of the helpless dead. fiction than those which had gone before. they attributed to prayer . They did not appreciate the difference between living things and those which we call inanimate. — The tomb of Ti . them to distinguish sufficiently capable of reflection to enable the possible from the impossible. carrying the This power to endow civilization it all things with life and personality is now reserved for the poet and the infant. They endowed all things about them with souls like their own.154 A History of Art power in Ancient Egypt.'' Fig. they were not content with providing the food and furniture which we find upon the walls. Is it not natural to revenge upon the table against which he hurts tenderly to the doll which he holds in his himself. 99. representing funeral gifts. or to speak arms . or the child to take phantom which they called the double. the hmds of the deceased. They had a secret impression that these might be insufficient for wants renewed through eternity. and they made another step upon the way upon By a still more curious and still bolder which they had embarked.

beef. as the case may be) in order that he may give provision of bread. the 155 all power of multiplying. recite the words inscribed upon this stone. beer. in the wall decorations. geese. scribes. a stele. . that he mav give thousands of loaves of bread. thousands you love life : ' See above. master of Karnak. or ministers entering into this tomb. In the lower division they are offered directly to him who is to profit by them . to be engraved upon their tombs " Oh you who still exist upon the earth. . milk. to the ka . if you w'ish to be entombed in your own sepulchres and to transmit your dignities to your children. . Every sepulchre has of them had circle more or less complicated inscriptions. presented to him : individuals. 87 and 91. Most of these steles were adorned with painting and sculpture all tablet which varied in . is asked to pass on to the defunct are by the intervention of Osiris the doubles of meat and drink pass into the other world to nourish the double of man. if and do not know death. an upright stone form and place in different epochs. accompanied by his family. if not. you must listen to their recital say. first objects of the necessity to the inhabitants of the tomb. or even q2iasi-x&2i\. the god is charg-ed to see that thev are delivered to the ritrht address. : Under " this an inscription is carved an unchanging formula Offering to Osiris (or to some other deity. that its image should even be given in paint or stone. presents offerings to a god. offering to Amen. . that is to say. But it was not essential for the gift to be effective that it should be real. in the upper. . but always served the same purpose and had the same general character. We find therefore that many Egyptians caused the following invocation to jjassing strangers. . wine.Sepulchral Architecture. liquid. if you wish to be in favour with the gods of your cities and to avoid the terrors of the other world. as . or." Below this the defunct is often N son of M shown in the act of himself receiving the offerings of his family. by the use of a few magic sentences. In both divisions the objects figured are looked upon as real. you must if you be scribes..^ In the semi- which forms the upper part of most of these inscribed slabs. and all of good and pure things upon which the god subsists. priests. The first-comer could procure all things necessary for the deceased by their enumeration in the proper form. after who is usually Osiris. the dead person. . clothes. perfumes. Figs. whether you be private bread. The provisions which the first god . .

from M. and to the goodwill with which the Egyptian intellect lent itself to their bold fictions. sun. Like house of the living. hereditary another epigraph of the same period. thousands of geese. and estates charged with his support. de Roug^. For any city placed near the eastern border 1 \Ve borrow the translation of this inscription. etc. Man grows from the early glimmerings of infancy to the apogee of his wisdom and strength he then begins to decline and. p. and offerings of his friends and relations " he received had priests retained and paid to offer sacrifices to him he had slaves. La prince of the nome of Meh. Man has his dawn and his settinsj. thousands of double. in the west of the country. i. the house of the double. thousands of garments. The double. In Egypt the sun sets every evening behind the Libyan chain thence he penetrates into those subterranean regions of Anient across which he has to make his way before the dawn of the next The Egyptian cemeteries were therefore placed on the left day. As soon as the Egyptian began to think he perceived the most obvious of the similarities between the sun's career and that of man. of the prince all ^ good and pure things to the ka. bank of the Nile. 4to. the the tomb was strictly oriented._ Conference. p. jNIaspero {Conference." '^ This analogy between the house and the tomb is so complete that it embraces details which do not seem very congruous. it An invocation of the same kind is to be dates from about the twelfth d3nasty. vol." the necropolis of Memphis and those of Abydos and Thebes. found in hait. A few unimportant groups of tombs have indeed been found upon the eastern bank but these exceptions to a general rule are doubtless to be explained by a . and there we find all the . According to M. when thus installed in a dwelling furnished for his use. . 382).156 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. ends by disappearing after his death into the depths of the soil. more important "cities of the dead.. 171 {Rcciieil de Traraax. but after a mystic principle of its own. at Beni-Hassan. as well as the reflections which precede it. . of jars of drink. the inscription of Amoni-AmenemSee Maspero. the tomb deserved the name it received. beasts of burden. or Entef " Thanks to all these subtle precautions. p. All the known pyramids were built in the west. He was like a great lord sojourning in a strange country and having his wants attended to by intermediary officials assigned to his the visits . thousands of oxen. Grande Inscription de Beni-Hassan. that is. like the magnified evening . 282. question of distance. Maspero.). service.

iitation. - 148). Maspero Hor-Khom say.. after completing his subterranean journey and triumphing over the terrors of Anient. *" The symbolic connection established bv man between the course of the sun . at Abydos. as is proved by the tearful funeral " The mourners before the ever-to-be praised songs translated by M. vol. 'O chief. 43 The tombs in the Arab Chain form. sees the sun rise as youthful and ardent as the Why then should not man. towards the setting sun. February-April. their natural hal. new series. and the Egyptians followed out the analogy by the way in which they disposed their sepulchres. of course." * ^ {Ibidem. nor at Thebes is there a tomb which is lighted from the west or presents its inscription to the setting sun. oh ' Among . were turned to the east. p. the west was the real quarter of the dead. that is towards the sun at its zenith. and seem to be waiting for the ray which is to destroy their night and to rouse them from their long repose. In spite of these exceptions. an exception to this rule.^ Each morning morning before. 1881. "It is so. the gods lament thee. sur quelqucs Peintures p. the openings through which their inmates would one day regain the This light. The cemeteries of Beni-Hassan and of Eilithyia {El-Kab) are also in the Arab Chain. 'D/ of the wider parts of the Nile valley. 14. cast off the darkness of the tomb and again see the light of day ? undying hope was revivified at each dawn as by a new promise.' The friends who close the procession repeat. "four times out of five." {Les 1 2).^ But neither at Memphis. funcraires (Journal asiatique.''' not a single stele which does not face in that In the ne- Abydos. xix. as thou goest toward the West. They were placed in the west of their country. from the shadowy depths where they dwell. however.Sepulchral Architecture. Abydos. Toinhcs dc I'Aiicien Empire. "In the further wall of the chamber. p. but their doors. a burying-place in the Libyan chain would be very inconvenient both for the transport of the dead. vol. ^ in the Riviie archeologique. and im'ariaHy facing eastwards. the dead have their eyes turned to that quarter of the heavens where the life-giving flame is each day rekindled.and there direction.'^ the cemeteries of the right bank we may mention that of Telhelwhere the tombs would have been too far from the city had they been dug in the Libyan Chain.^SPERO. ii.'is/«yt. The unusual circumstances which took them eastward of the river forced them also to neglect the traditional law. p. To the West." Thus. and for the sepulchral duties of the survivors. Amarna : ' praisewortliy one. both door and stele are more often turned towards the south. the is door of nearly every tomb cropolis of turned to the east.) Mariette. is a stele. to the West." says Mariette. to the excellent AVest ' ! " M. is In the necropolis of Memphis.

the military chiefs. had to be content with a hut of earth or when dead. described were The ideas and beliefs which we have common he felt his last hour approaching. Le riche a des honneurs que le pauvre n'a pas. where the mummies were heaped one upon the other and confided to the care of priests who performed the funerary rites for a whole and his own life paintings in the royal was well understood by Champollion. Those who. on the iS5th and following pages of his Letlres d' Egypte. could not.158 A History of Art ix Ancient Egypt. brick. expect to have a . accompanied by scarabs and other charms to protect them against malignant coffin also it spirits.xious as Pharaoh himself to insure the survival of" his double to all Egyptians. alive. Sec. nth dynasty. The less poor among them took measures to be embalmed and to be placed in a coffin of wood or papicr-niackc'. When and to guard against the terrors of annihilation Mais. the priests. they had to be content with expensive arrangements. tomb of stone or this. (See his remarks on to explain the the tomb of Ranieses V. of the king.) . when of reeds. irrespective of class. ioo. — Lid of the coffin of Entef. the humble peasant or boatman on the Nile was as an. jusqu'en son : tre'pas. to the humblest of the for those As Egyptians at least who less did not belong to this aristocracy. and functionaries of every kind down scribes attached to the administration. a habitation for eternity thev could not look for jovs in the other world which they had been unable to procure in that such So tombs as those which most less fully embodied the ideas we ha^e vilege described must always have remained the exclusive priof the oroverninfj classes. The painted figures If upon the helped to keep off evil influences. who used it tombs at Thebes. more or These consisted Fig. they could afford they purchased places in a common tomb. the princes and nobles. Louvre.

Om/ja and ti. The . son of Petenefhotep. 6. IU3. the cowherd. his wife and children. E. the son of Petenhefhotep the boatman. his wife and children . "Pipee. . from Hermouth " . father of Phratreou. Louvre. from Thebes "Psenmoutli. the carpenter. lii. — I- uiierary amulets. chamber at once. " Aplou. — Scarabs.^ It 159 was the frequent custom to put with the dead those pillows of wood or alabaster which the Egyptians seem Pigs. necessity for continually rearranging their complicated head-dress. . 104. . his wife and children " Psenimonthis. 1875. Le Blant {Tables egypfiennes a Iiiscriplioiis grecques. ioi.). the carpenter. his wife and children " Medledk. Louvre. his wife and children.Sepulchral Architecture. which does away with the in sleep." . the fuller . 102. mention is made of a priest who charged to watch over a wliole collection of mummies. the papyrus 1 Upon is known as the Papyrus Casati. " This is the list of bodies belonging to Osorvaris : — " Imouth. the mason " Amenoth.^. 8vo. There are many more lists of the same kind. is still used by the Nubians and Abyssinians. to heads have used from the most ancient times for the support of their This contrivance. The above p. is cited from M.

for ever by his . — Pillow. the fortunate ones of the world. Some from the of these are packed in the leaves of the palm. as we Whether kings while they were made their preparations alive. he has made a monument for the first time he has embellished sculptured his name for ever . 1862... first lines of which run thus has Burial-place of the Poor. allowed themselves to be surprised by death. H. They have been hastily dipped rather in a bath of natron. those in who were so easy no expense in their circumstances in this life that they could place themselves in the same happy condition in the ne. corpses are found deposited surface.. its See in the interesting work of Mr.). at Thebes as well as at Memphis. in the loose sand two or three feet others are roughly enveloped in a few morsels of linen. See also the great inscription of " The hereditary chief .^ precautions have been omitted. 8vo. On the other hand. Tombs and their Tenants. p.. they still burial. Sometimes even these slender Bodies have been found in the earth without vestige of either coffin or linen swathes.i6o A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. The sand seems to have been intrusted with the work of drying them. London.. spared anything connected with their or private individuals. the chapter headed 2 A : Beni-Hassan. the district Mariette.xt.^ ' and caused their tombs to be constructed Their forethought when living and the Rhind {T/icbes. 83. 105. under their own eyes. They never so often do. which has dirtied than embalmed them. Tomhes de V Ancien Empire. But those who could procure even these sHght advantages u-ere still among the favourites of fortune. On the confines of all the great cemeteries. and they have been found in our days in the condition of skeletons. to embellish his it Khnumhotep . . Louvre. PlO.. Many were unable to obtain even this minimum of funeral honours.

Whenever we moderns have opened any of those ancient tombs which have we have been met by the same discoveries. Ed. Cyprus or Greece. to speak more accurately. to the edifice which surmounts the actual grave. good example thus being all or rather." [Birch. 7th series. penetrated with similar ideas. Records of the Fast. as plain The grave in or other receptacle for the coffin is and simple the most sumptuous monuments of our cemeteries as in the most humble. vol. in Asia Minor. chamber of Karneter assigned their place. when all piety or pride stimulates to the decoration of a tomb. The palaces of the princes and rich men of Egypt were so lightly built that they have left no traces upon the soil .] was. from them that we have obtained our treasures of Egyptian All the other nations of the ancient world followed the set. Our is funerary architecture . In Papyrus IV. their lifetime xii. " To be laid to tomb which he had made for himself and furnished with every necessary was the greatest good which the gods could insure to an Egyptian. in order to conform to the Egyptian custom that in Antony and Cleopatra commenced rest in the that tomb which Augustus 17). many of their tombs have subsisted uninjured to our day. his dependants of It ranks. is based ujaon our belief that the tomb of the deposit confided to eternal life. those attached to his house. again to see the light of day. and chefs doeuvres of art which their depositors had intended never happily remained intact. all As that for the narrow of |)it it is into which the it lowered. in Etruria or Campania. : ' : Journal asiaiique. 165. they took similar courses without borrowing one from the other. he has sculptured the names of all his household he has The workmen. piety of relations spared nothinc^ that could add to the beauty i6i and were to which be the eternal convenience of dwellings resting places of their inmates. but it is and art. the painter the care of the architect. Maspero.— Sepulchral Architecture. it empty that the vital part has escaped to rejoin the current of things a Under such conditions the tomb becomes above all commemorative structure. the same astonishing The tombs are filled with precious objects sight meets our eyes. VOL. L Y . no doubt. we demand that should . t. Augustus. Whether it be in Egypt or Phcenicia.' " (From the French of M. In modern is times. he has reckoned amongst p. 67. at Boulak we find the following phrases Be found with thy dwelling finished in the funerary valley in every enterprise which thou meditatest may the morning 7vhen thy body shall he hid be present to thee. note i). p. xv. ordered to be finished after their death (Suetonius. a more or less sincere its is manifestation of the grief of a family or of society at large for the loss of one of "mortal coil " members. the sculptor and given to the outside. .

but is and confines herself to the within furnishes the pretext dead The is the admiration of the living that her real incentive. from end to end of . When a man is condemned by illness or accident to keep that his he may room. a constructed building which was con- They looked upon the spicuous at a distance. even to the distant spectator. and Campania with the produced by Greek taste. shape of a regularly constructed but the chief object of solicitude to the proud possessor portico For tomb. The . the innumerable objects of gold and silver which now fill the museum of Athens thus the tombs of Bceotia were filled with those marvels of grace and delicate workmanship. to throw a iuimdus of earth above it. the terra cottas of Tanagra and those of Etruria . ideas of the ancients on this matter were. He gathers immediately about him all the . tomb as an inhabited very different. the accustomed during life.xcavation and of building it visible parts of the tomb.i62 A its History of Art in Ancient Egypt. in the sepulchres discovered by Dr. Impelled by such ideas as these. as we have seen. . Greeks or the Etruscans. pediment and columns . proper name of those mysterious people) buried. Schliemann. all the more that they seemed well guarded against intrusion for the Thus the Achseans of Mycenre (if that be the sake of gain. existence. to which they had been So we find that the Egyptians. was its internal furnishing and disposition. necessaries. later. She its leaves walls workmen the task of e. or. the ancients filled their tombs with precious objects and decorated them with sumptuous art. the side In those sepulchres which were cut out of the fronts were carved with frieze. house as a house in which the dead was to lead some kind of Rich men wished their tombs to look well outside. most beautiful painted vases ever Identity of religious conception thus led. the comforts. Art makes no attempt to to be deep enough and properly closed. the luxuries. comforts and luxuries which he can afford and death is an illness from which there is no recovery. but it was to the inside that their They wished to find there all the chief attention was turned. into the lodging. were willing enough. illumine darkness. such a of him there was no removal should he be discontented with his of a mountain. for her activity. he takes care to surround himself with everything want. when they built their own tombs or those of their relations.

He thinks that he has qualified himself to discourse upon Egyptian architecture because a few shouting Arabs have landed him. and have painfully dragged and thrust him along those passages of the interior which will ever be among his most disagreeable recollections. 2). and many an European leaves Egypt without seeing any other ancient building. Until Egypt became a mere geographical expression and her venerable civilization lost its independence and originality. The Tomb under tJic Ancient E??ipirc. At that distance their peaks seem light and slender from their height above the horizon (Plate I. a very different character from that This character is more strongly marked in Egypt than anywhere else. In spite of the wonderful panorama which repays the fatigues . exhausted. and we shall not have to repeat them of the moderns. of course. so that sepulchral architecture among the ancients had. of those raised the tombs which date from the time of the ancient empire. ^2. the most interesting to the traveller are. The tourist's first visit is paid to the Pyramids. when we describe the funeral customs of other ancient peoples. and therefore we have studied it in detail. which. as a whole. to funerary arrangements which bore a curious resemblance one to another. and he sees nothing of the real constitution of the structure he has come to visit. upon the topmost stone of the pyramid of Cheops. however.The Tomb under the Ancient Empire. The general observations to which it has given rise have been made once for all. and above the dust thrown up by the teeming population of the city. i6 J the antique world. the Long before his arrival at Cairo he sees the summits artificial mountains rising into the air above the vapours by the sun. We of a shall then confine ourselves to pointing out the slight differences which naturally spring up in the several interpretations common have belief to We still show how the varying circumstances of time and place caused the Egyptian tomb to pass through certain modifications of form and decoration. were never of so radical a nature as to affect its general appearance and arrangement. Among Pyramids. these latter remained practically unchanged. During all this his eyes and thoughts are entirely given to the preservation of his own equilibrium.

this word . pp. in dating from the Ancient Empire.^ This type. reserve the for future treatment. or ottomans.164 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. of which the principal ones are figured in the Denkmceler. This name was given by the labourers employed upon the excavations. as we see them to-day from being the most complete and interesting of the sepulchral monuments left to us by the early dynasties. these monuments. and used it ever after to designate that particular kind of tomb. of which Lepsius was the the interest. of the ascent. we shall assign the first place to those private tombs. as a whole. 23 et scq. Mariette was struck by the fitness of the expression. and seemed well adapted to their long and low shapes. p. their arrangement and ornamentation are less rich and expressive than those of of the many sepulchres built by private individuals. first which we shall refer hereafter. ' Briefe aiis ^'Egypten. which are to be found necropolis of the to Memphis. ' Lexicographers do not seem to know the origin of foreign. which was first clearly brought to light by the many and deep excavations carried out by Mariette. our review of the successive forms taken by sepulchral architecture. . (1869). royal burying-places as they are. we shall enters into more content ourselves with epitomizing his descriptions. perhaps Persian. xix. a bench of stone or wood.impression made upon the their colossal mass. can be to perceive traced to a single type. Notwithstanding a few differences. in their comparatively restricted dimensions. of the Rcvtic archcologique. Mariette will be our constant guide in this part of our study. these tombs. The largest and best preserved are not so old as some of the tombs in mind by far are the necropolis of Memphis. 1-22 and £1-89. what we may call a theory of the mastaba. therefore. After having he published his opened in many In all hundreds essential . better to the definition of a tomb suggested Pyramids to us by our study of the national beliefs. We and in shall. which bear some resemblance to those divans.^ matters we shall allow words to is speak for themselves necessary for detail than when he our purpose. they believe it to be 2 Vol. and of the overpowering. the Pyramids. Many answer latter. has been known for some years past by the Arab term masiabaj^ which means literally a bench. which are found in every room of an oriental dwelling. Uefore the Prussian commission left Middle for Upper Egypt they had studied 130 private tombs. and.

The space over which the is monuments which we propose lett to describe are spread. who describes the early capital of Egypt as it reaching to the foot of the Libyan chain. to the plateau which lies along the foot of the Libyan chain. the cemetery in the world. to confirm the assertion of Strabo. miles. which crop up from the plain between Gizeh and Chinbab. The same sand covered the coffinless corpse of the pauper with its kindly particles. . therefore. in all probability. on the bank ot the Nile. For forty centuries itself.'Egj'plen. such as Heliopolis. The formation of this plateau makes it peculiarly well adapted for the purpose to which it was put. and extends largest from AboH-Roasli to Dashour . being more than fifteen miles in length. of which the seems to site may still be traced by the more or less barren hillocks strewn with blocks of granite and fragments of walls. have been confined between the canal which is called the Bahr Yitsscf and the Nile. and of an average width ot from two to two and It was. either to lay bare the rock and to construct the tomb upon it. covered by a layer of sand which varies in depth from many yards to a few feet according to the inequalities of the ground beneath it. in a word. In walking Upon the plateau which. It was easy.. but in - making it 137) gives this necropolis a length of more than forty-five extend to Meidoum he seems to be exaggerating. close upon the river. to have been the largest city of Egypt. and to have boasted an antiquity which only Thinis rival. could Excavations have apparently. and Memphis seems failed.but with time 1 Ebers {. or to dig the mummy pits in its substance. It would thus have formed a very long and rather narrow city. it is thus.in the sand. there was a continual procession of corpses from Memphis and probably from towns on the other side of the Nile. Age after age the dead were interred by millions in this great haven of rest.^ its and suburbs. and the winds might be trusted to quickly cover the grave with sand which would protect it when made. i6t THE MASTABAS OF THE NECROPOLIS OF MEMPHIS. On the contrary. the burial-place for Memphis a half miles. extends westwards of the stepped pyramid in the manner which the necropolis was developed can be readily seen. p. at Sakkarah. At first there was plenty of room. It consists of a thick bed of soft limestone.The Tomb under the Ancient Empire. and the corpses were strewn somewhat thinl\.

^ Those which are to be found in the more northern part of the necropolis. were made use of by the Phcenicians. Sometimes these new comers even intruded into the tombs of those who had gone before them. we pass a first zone tombs which date from the Ancient Empire. both in arrangement and in decoration. and the Etruscans.xtent by the non-employment of those family tombs which. The mastabas of Sakkarah will receive most of our attention. built a tomb for himself. The Egyptian sepulchre was a personal appanage.^ The number of tombs was increased to a prodigious e. the most spontaneous. and that without always troubling themselves to conceal their usurpation by effacing the name of the rightful owner. the Greeks. The son. The general appearance now presented by these monuments may be guessed from the sketch which JVI. 1862. with his wife and all his family (c. that of . eastwards. to any extent they pleased. from the pyramid towards the cultivated land. Ancient and Present. by a brother and sister whose statues were found in it. when he in turn became the head of a family.) we shall often have to refer. All the niaslabas belong to the period of the Memphite empire. each human couple marked their passage through the world by the erection of a new tomb. 32) thought that the word Sakkarah was an ancient name derived from Socharis. We may therefore look upon them as the freest. until at last bodies were squeezed into the narrowest spaces between older inhabitants. to whose interesting work {Thebes. in the neighbourhood of the Great Pyramid. 2 Mariette {Voyage dans la haute Egypte. and the most complete expression of the ideas formed by the men of that remote age concerning death and the life beyond the grave. both above and below ground. i/s Tombs and their Tenants. 8vo. economy of space had to be practised. ivith a Record of Excavations in t/ie Neeropoiis. and in describing them we shall often have occasion to quote the words of Mariette. p. a second which possesses sculptures of the twenty-sixth dynasty. Bourgoin is. as we shall see. We may quote as an interesting example of such usurpation the Theban tomb first opened by a Scottish traveller. Each generation. a Memphite form of Osiris. Henry Rhind. but it also contained Sebau. The husband and father of a family admitted into it only his wife and such of their children as died young. differ only in unimportant details from those at Sakkarah. Those who built them were able to give free play to their fancies. son of Menkara. This tomb seems to have been made in the reign of Amenophis III.1 66 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. a high official of the time of the Ptolemies. and a third which dates from the Greek period. iv.). and to develop the structure. Longman.

The Tomb under the Ancient has " Empire. in those instances is where an be clearly is error of a few degrees - to be discovered. they are arranged upon a symmetrical plan so as to resemble a chess board on which all the squares are strictly oriented. The other mastabas figured by us have been more or less restored. Drawn by Bourgoiii. is by the fact that the divergence from the perpendicular lor in some cases so slight that. with four faces of plain walling. and at the pyramids of Gizeh. their ridges. 106). 106. always runs due north and south. each being inclined at a stated angle towards their common it is centre. were the walls prolonged upwards.i. the necropolis of the west. The mastaba is a massive structure. Such an idea is refuted. — . more justly to the space comprised between two hori- zontal sections of an obelisk. supposing the obelisk to have an oblong base. or aretes. rectangular on plan. 167 sent us of the tomb of all Sabou (Fig. in plates .Actual condition of compared a mastab. would not meet some eight or nine hundred yards. upon which these structures are planned. The mastaba might be Fig.^ The more carefully built mastabas the rectangle are oriented according to the true astronomical north. of Lepsius's first volume (map of the pyramids of Gizeh and panorama taken from the simimit of the second pyramid). to each other well shown and xviii. and. " The major axis of All the others show the same intention. The tomb of Sabou. however. it is to The way in which the mastabas were arranged with respect xiv. This inclination has led some people to assert that nothing more than an unfinished pyramid.

" p." almost to the Pyramids. 107. " Institut d'Egypte. —Three mastabas at Gireh. 24. on the west of the Great Pyramid. vol. Fig. in each direction. Even at Sakkarah were streets between the rows of tombs. into mere formless heaps of and yet the general arrangement can be clearly followed. builder. nor that on the west to that on the east. Although not varying much from true orientation. We the often find that the northern face " not strictly parallel to southern. v. another.^ They are sprinkled about in a rather haphazard fashion. The sand under which many of them are buried leaves their forms easily distinguishable. and exactly aligned one with counted fourteen rows of them. .i68 A History of Art in Ancient EovrT. the mastabas of Sakkarah are not arranged with the symmetry which distinguishes those on the south and west of the Great Pyramid. pi. 619): The fol- "From the top of the building one sees an infinite quantity of the long rectangular structures extending They are carefully oriented. monuments. Perspective view. a attributed to carelessness fault in on the part of the is common these tombs.) It follows that the chess-board is arrangement which is so con- spicuous at Gizeh there not here to be noticed. i. but they are so the regularity of its ' The general aspect of this city of the dead. vol. and not to a difference of intention. and made a great impression upon the members of the lowing are the words of Jomard {Description. {Denkmnler. and as many on the east. I Since the time of Jomard tions still many of the mastabas have been changed by the excavadihris. after the pLin of Lepsius. Here we find them well interspaced and there actually placed one upon another. making nearly four hundred in all.

. The Sakkarah mastabas are built either of stone or brick. such as the Mastabat-el-Faraoun. " Our general notion of Egyptian architecture would lead us to fact. This latter stone was used for the Stepped Pyramid. The mastabas of stone are of two kinds those of a very : hard blue siliceous limestone and those of a softer chalky limestone which is found upon the spot. with a proportionate length and thickness. many of them alleys. such as the Temple of the Sphinx and the passages and chambers of the greater pyramids. look for the use of huge stones in these mastabas. Apart from the ceilings. .The Tomb under the Ancient irregularly placed. — Restoration of part of the Necropolis of Gizeh. Empire. brick-built sepulchres are of two kinds also. The tombs upon which it was used seem to be much the oldest in the necropolis they are also the least rich and important. 169 and they are often so narrow. the blocks are of an important average height of about half a yard. But the Sakkarah architects were more modest. that the being nothing more than blind inexperienced visitor may " " well fancy himself in a maze. architraves and other places where big stones were necessary. Fig. and. and parts of important monuments. The more Z VOL. " The I. in certain monuments. were constructed of very large blocks. ioS.

of would collapse but solid stone. more ancient. The whole of our description will be pervaded by " Now accounts of the minute precautions devised to that end. in. these mastabas are constructed with care on their outsides alone. for the retaining strength of their covering of .) . whether of brick or stone. but under the eighteenth dynasty and those which followed it. which of Gizeh. and all The this in most cases without any cement to give it coherence. the are comparatively large (i5'2 x 7'2 x 56 in. that of the deposit committed to their charge. of blocks of stone mingled with the flakes struck off by the masons. — The Mastabat-el. Both kinds are dried simply in the sun. like the pyramids and most of the mastabas They are confused heaps of ill assorted materials. while a yellowish brick others. used for the yellow bricks are a mixture of sand and pebbles with the black bricks are of earth and straw. and. Their The yellow bricks seem to be the employment begins and ends with the Ancient Empire. (8"8 in. on the other hand.I70 A The clay . of rubbish. a little The former latter are always small x 4-4 in. All these mastabas. The core of their walls is composed of sand. is elaborate are of black brick. History of x^rt ix Ancient Egypt. with it.Faraoun.). mastabas Sakkarah are not homogeneous constructions of masonry and cement. the chief preoccupation of their architects should have been to give a stability to their sepulchres which would have insured their perpetuity. appear for At first the first time about midway through the fourth dynasty. The black bricks. they came to be exclusively used. x 2'S in. 109. in. betray an of neelieence in their is amount Conlife." construction which astonishino^. sidering the ideas which the Egyptians had formed of a future Fig. they were rarely employed.

The flat mouths of the jars were covered with stones. There are mastabas of all sizes. — Entrance to a M. They were placed in of this epoch. 6 in. 149 by 74. pointed at the bottom and without They each contain a thin film of yellow clay deposited handles." is The roof of the mastaba . but soil Fig. the smallest about 12.i?. Marictte.iba at Sakkarah. under the notion that the water which they contained would quench the thirst of the dead man below. those Mariette often made use to guide him in his excavations. they are rather more numerous covers the ceilings in that part of the chambers. The highest are not more than from 26 . Each successive course is slightly set back from the one below it. high. At Gizeh the walls form a smooth plane gently inclined from the perpendicular. and the water would last long enough to satisfy at least the immediate necessities their curious position of the inhabitant of the tomb. That of Sabou measures 172 feet by 84 that of Ha-ar. by 19 ft. that of Ra-en-ma 169 by In 81. a plain surface without irregularity of any kind but the at a slight depth. " to 30 ft.The Tomb under the Ancient " Emitrk. a which circumstance of which soil of the Like which are found all the vases upon the roof of the mastabas are roughly made. i/i At Sakkarah the outward faces of the mastaba are not smooth. 6 in. no. by the water with which they were filled. and that of Hapi no more than 25 ft. .t. above it is sprinkled with vases buried These vases are pretty evenly distributed. height they vary less.

But when. It has no internal chamber. the roof. When the recess is found near the southern angle of the eastern face. we then know that we have come upon a regularly completed tomb. " Still in turn. This exceptional arrangement is. stele. we meet with a door. 6th dynasty. " Next after the eastern face. in most instances. — Lintel of the tomb of Tela. high and very narrow. either a deeper. When the . or rather.: A The is History of Art in Ancient Egypt. : The general arrangement almost always. as follows easteni At a few metres distance from the iiorthangle we come upon a quadrangular niche or recess. is " principal face of the mastaba turned to the east. supporting the architrave which. Several of these lintels. and more carefully built recess. Louvre. very i. in front of which are two monolithic columns. III. when there is. found upon this face. caused by some occasionally found local circumstance which may readily be perceived. the entrance is upon that which is turned to the south. comes that which is turned to the north When the entrance is in the northern wall the door is invariably at the back of a kind of vestibule. is with or without inscription. epoch are carved upon this recess an unimportant we occasionally substituted. miniature with a door in the centre. instead of the niche or recess. in the depths of which those long vertical this grooves which distinguish the steles of For the actual masonry of the tomb. the recess acts as substitute for one. The name of its proprietor is often carved upon the lintel. the tomb begins and Fig. its chambers. ends there. supports more seldom than in the northern face. In is four cases out of five the entrance to one. without base or capital. larger. of a peculiar shape. in relative importance. at a few metres distance from the south-eastern angle. in the depths of which a monolithic stele of white limestone covered with hieroglyphs is placed or a regular architectural fagade in .i. or (2) find. are to be seen in the Louvre.

It is always destitute of both openings and its on the south ornaments. in a few. debris of ages by the paths which modern curiosity has established through the and the depths of the soil. and the well. upon the plateau between Memphis and the desert there gradually arose a metropolis of the dead more populous than that of the living. too. the latter to chamber. We shall begin by visiting the chambers planned by the architect in the building itself. solid. receive the funeral offerings. the serdab. being represented merely by one of those external niches which Mariette has described. we have no evidence that it ever played any more ambitious role than that of completing the inclosure. and that. until. It suffices to say here that some ombs are wanting in one. as long as the mastaba continued to be built. in fact. with Mariette. This arrangement was the earliest. to those recesses of the tomb which were meant to be for ever inaccessible. When we have clearly established a general type nothing is more easy than to recognise and point out its variations. the former to present." have thus explored. the less ambitious tenants of the necropolis were contented to reproduce it. We have described its form and general aspect. The last-named of the three is the only part which is never wanting. . It remains to describe the contents of those hu^e blocks of masonry.The Tomb under the Ancient entrance is Empire. they are of an unaccustomed importance. some in another of those constituent parts whose meaning and uses we shall attempt to determine. The interior of a mastaba is composed of three parts the chamber. But in these pages. it is important to study the species when fully developed and provided with all its organs. how this single type of sepulchre was repeated We many thousands of times with but slight variations. the principles upon which it was oriented. 173 arrangement is sometimes the one. and. of the two which we have described. we shall afterwards penetrate. — It is natural that we should first turn our attention to the This was a kind of neutral ground upon which the quick and the dead could meet. as in a natural history. and its average size. We have explained. we have noticed the materials of which it was constructed. " As for the western face. the outside of the mastaba. In them the chamber is in a very rudimentary condition. sometimes the other. Many of the mastabas are.

from Prisse.— Mastaba at Sakkarah.. but the figures and the funerary inscriptions cover all the central part of the richly decorated wall (Fig. 113. " These chambers have." Ptah-Hotep.— Pbn of the tomb of Ti.. 114. but there are none where the walls are carved and in the stele plain. Figs. depend upon the door for light. upon the formula with this complicated whole. At its further end. in fact. and always facing eastwards. which otherwise would be is ment to be seen where the innermost complete darkness. that the stele is the one indispensable part of It was.». 115). to the facade. " At the foot of the stele there was often a table for offerings. |*»~_J mm Fir. entered by the door in the middle of as a rule. There are some chambers stele which the walls are bare and the engraved. in latter arrange- tomb of chamber. of which we reproduce the principal side. then. is lighted from the roof. " The chamber sculptures with . stands the inscribed tablet or stele. We see. divided into interior ' mastaba is may be tomb several chambers (there are It three in the of Ti). but generally there only one. the stele proper is on the left. . 112. in the roof. sometimes covered and paintings such as those whose character and meaning we have already pointed out. that the Egyptians depended for those magical agencies by which Osiris became the active medium of transmission between the living and the dead.1/4 " ' A The is HibTORY OF Art of a in Ancient Egvft. but there are a few instances in which they are lighted from openings A in remarkable example of the the Ti. is sometimes quite bare. In the tomb of which it was inscribed.

nt MM n i\ I I M H II n I I II ly f M I JJJJJI i .

.

several statues at Boulak. " As a rule this was the only piece of furniture in the chamber ." In Figs. of a future prison. This was upon the ground (Fig. of which we shall often have to speak (Fig. Gizeh which has i'our "Sometimes there is the serdab has no communication with the other it is parts of the mastaba. on each side of the stele and always placed upon the ground. 92). The entrance was in fact left without a door. they for the dead. Its strict meaning is a dark subterranean opening. and serdab. but in other instances a narrow quadrangular opening. it The workmen employed upon and their the excavations christened the ^ name has been generally adopted.The Tomb under the Ancient in Empire. - This is a word of Persian origin adopted by the Arabs. either two small limestone obelisks. alabaster. high. now museum VOL. is found. entirely walled in. the other in the innermost part of the mastaba. a passage in the masonry." This chamber was left open to every comer. very large stones. ' The tomb of Ti had two serdabs as well as three chambers of Ti were found. it was to The Egyptians life believed these statues to be the most certain guarantees. or corridor. I. A A . a sort of pipe or conduit. we at the top for the reception of offerings. the best preserved being . cave. some remains of which were found in place when the tomb was opened. narrow. which unites the serdab with the chamber. or limestone. or passage. at 1 16-1 19 we give the plan and three sections of a mastaba serdabs.^ " The use of the serdab in it . while they were separated only by a few stones from the chamber where the 1 One of these exceptions is furnished by the tomb of Ti. It is so small that the hand can only be introduced into it with difficulty. Hidden from sight in their dark were protected from all violence. one of these was In the latter in the close to the door. The large public hall near the entrance to the tomb was separated from the two chambers farther in by a corridor closed at two points by doors. and oftener on the north than the west. To this rule Mariette found but two exceptions in the many hundreds of tombs which he examined. oftener on the south than the built of north. 114). always with the exception of the mummy itself. or two objects in that material resembling table legs hollowed out but occasionally find. laid flat 771 granite.^ " Not far from the chamber. is revealed by the objects which have hold one or more statues of the been found deceased.

29 . is Maspero {Etude to siir quelques Peintures funeraires) the tenant. seem to relief. i. and the statues ' In a Theban tomb described by M. This curious it idea. of n mastaba with four Serdabs. of the deceased appeared in the or chamber i • pi. 120). And no objects other than statues have ever inscriptions No been found in a serdab. the niche which sometimes took . my . and the conduit by which the often pierced. These Fig." have been intended to permit of the free circulation of the dutib/e. — Longitudinal section of the same mastaba.. this in a p. Fig 117. p. . was open to every chance passer by.^ have been found in a serdab except those upon the statues. Sociology.) m . also. we find a statue in one of those front courts which. to the statues. chamber. . 95 of i. to allow it to : made speak thus " I have come. •^ . but that cannot dispense with an opening altogether. mastaba iii. that the of the dead can pass through a very small hole. . f ? "* found in other situations also. 2 i." So that the function of the serdab was be to afford a safe and final were. vol. Harmhabi. vol. relations met together. I have breathed It is also possible that this conduit may the scent of the perfumes and incense. . i • i • its place. The Iroquois contrived an opening of very small diameter in their tombs. . received I have bread joining the embahiied offerings to my members. pi. 192. 24. especially at the time of the fourth dynasty. But this court. allowed the smell of fruit and fat to intervening wall was incense and the smoke of burnt " come to their nostrils. through which See Herbert Spencer. ii6. in the public hall of the tomb. See No. as well as the have been in great favour. Principles of the soul of the dead could pass and repass. pass from its supporting statues to the chapel in which spirit it is honoured.178 friends A and History of Art in Ancient Egypt. he was sometimes portrayed in high and of full life size.^ Sometimes. There is an example of Lepsius {Denkiiiccler. because. is found among many nations. 44). not to mention the numerous bas-reliefs upon which the figure to asylum no doubt. at Gizeh (Fig. . vol.— Plan (Lepsiu-.

and nine-tenths of them were found in These precautions were not efficient . square or rectangular is division. we have penei. have now described all those parts of the tomb which were above ground. the tangible body.section through the serdabs. of burial " . which was freely left open.. the serdabs. we must mount ./. 179 danger from careto guard against such chances as these that the inventive architects of Egypt contrived a safe retreat in the heart of the massive structure which should provide a reserve of statues against every contingency. Fig. When all those which were exposed to accident should have perished. But even we have it. —Transverse section throujih the chamber. arrive at the opening of the well. The well is an artificial in plan. at the bottom of which the chamber in which to the the " mummy To is deposited. to which that phantom was obliged to attach himself unless he wished to perish entirely. the well or pit./. 118. never round. through our third internal excavation. these would still survive and would furnish to the double the material support. — Transverse .The Tomb under the Ancient which they both contained were It was less or malicious hands. We have not been content with visiting the chamber only. We trated into the farthest recesses. 119. not arrived at the actual place we shall reach however.y:. ill conceived. and have of discovered the those Fig.^^/4^/imiMmmii'Myy^. The serdab kept guard over its deposit the museum of Boulak contains at least a hundred statues from the ancient empire which were found at Sakkarah.y-. in continual Empire. secrets massive walls -yet which their constructor thought to hide for ever from the eye of man.

of the mastaba (Fig. it has a depth of si. the well is sunk from the tloor of the largest of the internal chambers. but whether it opened upon the roof or upon the floor of the chamber.^r<'^/.. depth varies. as a nearer to the north than to the south. 122). or roof.^?/:i'. secondly through the rock upon which the mastaba founded. As there any mastaba either within or without.iS.iSo A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. but.*5». it follows that it passes vertically first through the mastaba. in the tomb of Ti. however. staircase to a was never will be seen that the well 5^^^^^«j. it is about forty feet. The built part of the well is carefully .: " The well is generally situated rule. platform. it was always closed with the utmost care by means of a large flat stone. As the well begins at the platform and ends in the rock carved mummy is chamber.^5^^>". namely. upon the major axis of the Its mastaba. it must have been a very inaccessible part of the tomb.:v:. and.xty-five or even eighty feet." In one single instance. Now and then. on an average.

which he make out a few phrases which Ritual of the Dead. directed obliquely wards the south-east. that is to say. This passage. he contrived to seemed to belong 'to the ^ This figure is a composition by Mariette for the purpose of showing the relation between the subterranean and constructed parts of the tomb. {^Notice des principaux 3fonuments. does not describe. Ed." —The and mummy upper chamber." tomb ot in this we find one of tombs of the ancient Ti the well takes the form of an of the inclined plain like a passage in the pyramids. the room with a view to which the whole structure has been planned and to which all its other parts are but accessories. mummy pit could only be reached by means of * "When is the bottom of the well is reached a gaping passage seen in the is rock which forms to its southern wall. " This mortuary chamber hall is vertically under the public survivors above. however.) [It shows. so that the togrether in who came the latter for the funeral ceremonies had the feet. It was generally of fine limestone. like the chamber above.^^-''y^ mastaba. 121. Of its those explored by him Mariette found but one which had . The sarcophagus was placed in one corner of the chamber. It was rectangular on plan with a round-topped lid squared at the angles. and on a few occasions of opaque black basalt. but generally without and ornament or its inscription. the well opening from the floor of the U])per chamber. Suddenly it becomes enlarged into a small cavern. In the common form of well the ropes. corpse of the deceased under their at a distance which varied according are large to Fig. does not parallel It is quite the axis of the to::y. an arrangement which is not characteristic of the mastaba. 22.^»^'-M//. chamber. sometimes of red granite. I8l distinguishing In the characteristics empire. which is the mortuary chamber properly speaking. which run not high enough to allow one to walk upright. the depth of the well. walls ornamented in the middle of decorations.] . well. and the Empire. p.— The Tomb under the Ancient constructed of large and perfect stones.' The mortuary chambers all carefully built.

123. —Double mastaba al Gizeli.. . and the two edges were bound still more tightly together by a r'lc. is The fits under-side of the cover into a corresponding made with a rebate at its edw which groove on the upper edge of the sarcophagus." So far as we can judge from the few human remains which have been gathered from these ancient tombs. Finally. " The Egyptians did not always trust to the mere size and weight of thg lid for the secure closing of the sarcophagus. transverse section (from Lepsius. inscriptions.l82 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. which was discovered at Gizeh and belongs to the fourth dynasty (Figs. t. the process of embalmment was then carried on in simple and elementary fashion. as if all these precautions were not enough. wooden bolts were affixed to the under-side of the lid which fitted into slots in the sarcophagus and helped to render the two inseparable. and it was this imperfection that the Egyptians attempted to neutralize. very hard cement. 22). 122. 124). i. pi. Mariette found none at Sakkarah with On the other hand we find them upon the sarcophagus at Khoo-foo-Ankh.

183 by the innumerable and complicated precautions which they took to insure that the corpse should not be disturbed so careful in its envelope of stone. Within the sarcophagus we little find the same sobriety of sepulchral furniture. rest against the walls. In later times. not to was up the sarcophagus from the outer The statues. Perspective after Bourgoin. and the various objects which we have described in . Two or three large and furniture of the mummy pointed red vases.g-^^ V - }M Fig. No scene is more frequently represented upon the walls of the public chamber of the mastaba than the killing and flaying of victims for the funeral ceremonies (Fig." nothing has been found there but the mummy WScMk' wm<. " As soon as the mummy was in the sarcophagus. pillow (Fig. the sarcophagus sealed. Boulak. it was the one he had used during his life. nor amulets of any kind. itself. Like those which are found upon the roof. the vases must have held water for the double. so far as we know. their use has not yet been determined. containing nothing but a thin deposit of clay. 125). 125 -Sarcophagus of Khoo-fno-Ankh. These beef bones must be the remains of the quarters of meat which were placed in the tomb for the nourishment of the dead. times a chamber comprised neither nor funerary statuettes. S^'. As for the drinkine cups. Height I -33 metres. Somefew ox bones bestrew the ground. they were air.fr' --^-i^'"^'''^-^^^^^p^-. The pillow was placed under the head of the mummy. 105) Beyond a wooden or alabaster and half a dozen drinking cups of alabaster.The Tomb under the Ancient Empire. when the preparation of the mummy seal better " understood. Red granite.

. and the dead IIIIBiilii'WI .i84 place.lu'l1lf''!!!V'!'^lli)l!lll!l^lly|||lll i^l!l^^^ . opening bottom of the well was walled up the well itself filled with stones. r'CT'TJ'i'ii! „ ti^''''!'''|^^T^)'''^l». the A was History of Art at the in Ancient Egypt. earth. . . and sand.

i/'i~-r-*^ ^^f^ - A IF ElG.^-^. In certain Theban tombs. Liverpool. We shall not re-state the evidence which enabled Mariette to apportion the 142 painted and sculptured mastabas explored by him in 1869. and when it is found. 98). and one. of the great are work of Lepsius. to and fro have to may be guessed how many journeys be made before a few cubic )-ards of dt'bris are It ! cleared by such means as this We make have so far followed Mariette.— The Tomb under the Ancient well little is E^nMRE. 185 the first difificulty. many hands and no it time are required to remove the rubbish with which is filled. the wooden shovel and the little rush basket which is filled with a few handfuls of sand and pebbles. Boiikak. 125 — I!as-relief from Sakkarah. namely. use of his ipsissiina verba. . in the museum at section of Fig. case K). B . I.] r. [There are two in the British Museum. . models of fully rigged boats have been found there are some of them in the Louvre {Salle Civile. we must being told refer those readers who not contented with general rules but wish to know the exceptions also. We. a very fine one. and then carried on the head to be emptied at a convenient distance. Ed. VOL. The in only mechanical helps which the Egyptians have ever used such work are those which we ourselves have seen in the hands of Mariette's labourers. shall not go into all the changes which variety of taste and the progress of art introduced into the arrangement and decoration of Egyptian buildings they do not affect the general statements which we have made. To his and have frequently had to pages and to the plates J I ^ ^ J\ 1 ^ ^ tA^ Z'^'' .

to certain that those monuments form a chronological series extending over a space of from twelve to fifteen centuries. 1 86 the first A six History of Art dynasties. endeavour to estimate their style and composition but we shall postpone all such examination until we come to treat of sculpture. found varying depths the bowels of . it leads in to the mummy chamber which the earth. to separate phenomena which are intimately connected. and of the way in which the earliest Egyptian artists treated the human form. in order to make our reliefs fill description complete. and to destroy the unity of natural groups. and that during the whole of that long period. a mere frame for the stele. . to which the most conspicuous place was always given.. Sometimes this chamber is nothing more than a recess in the facade. being raised well above the surface of the . perhaps. We have thus been driven to separate the figured decorations of the tomb from the architectural arrangements which enframe and support them with the latter. included object in the landscape living rock which (i) a built up part which. soil. It is in AxciiiNT Egypt. The constructed part inclosed a chamber which was sometimes internal and sometimes external. and in which the priests officiated before the stele. the general character of Egyptian sepulchral architecture remained unchanged. was a conspicuous and (2) a subterranean part cut in the was never more than a few feet below the surface of the sand. . perhaps. The subterranean part chamber. The is is structure also contains a retreat in its thickness where the statues of the deceased were walled up. in order to marshal our facts and to make them easily understood. We may sum up the foregoing details by the following general description of the Egyptian tomb as it was established in the early should. We should here. when complete. in those years when it the national until put on the form and colour which retained the last days of antiquity. and of the statues which by a judicious choice of examples. are we now concerned. attempt to convey a true idea of the which cover the serdab. the sides of the chamber. usually The well composed of the well and the mummy sunk from different parts of the building whole at traversing is its depth . a chamber in which the relations of the deceased deposited the funeral offerings. This tomb. A didactic and analytic method is so far despotic that it compels us. We ages of the national civilization life. alone.

and took trouble to hide them. find the serdab only in the mastabas of the Memphite necropolis. those private tombs which were contemporary with the All over Egypt. every one of the cemeteries. 187 of Such are the constituent elements ot the »iasfaba. and that is the This retreat for statues has not. we may call the public . of the royal tombs of the first six dynasties. they still preserve their skin. that is to say. as a rule. as yet. It fulfilled in the happiest manner. and by the changes ot fashion. As always for the other parts for of the tomb. in Pyramids.uard make from those images which but less were supposed to thev attached less dotible annihilation. the same in certain particulars by the rank by the nature of the soil. When they had learnt the secret of preserving the body from corruption. neither has it been met with in the tombs of the two Theban empires. a little attention will suffice differ their identification even In in in those sepulchres instances which find most from the mastaba. as mummy upper structure.The Tomb under the Ancient Empire. o. by the size of the tomb. 126).'' Its absence under the Theban princes is. They considered that they had done enough for their preservation by putting them in the precincts of their tombs and temples. in spite of the dampness of our climates. or of later epochs. no or matter where they are situated what their date. more or less distantly separated from the mummy chamber sometimes the living rock. modified of the deceased. elements are to be found. Sometimes we chamber in which the miraculous nourishment of the double took place. been found in any serdab. Of all these elements there is but one which does not persistently reappear in monuments other than the mastaba. their teeth and their hair (Fig. Why then do we. and. perhaps to be explained by the progress made in the science The heads of more than one mummy have of embalming. so that after a long series of centuries in it should be pretty much the same condition cease the to as on the day after death. they did not indeed. now been exhibited in the cases of European museums for many years. . and so under the guardianship of their venerated religion. importance to their safety. one of the conditions imposed upon the Egyptian architect by the strange conceptions of a future life which we have described. but always to be easily recognized. And yet it was connected with one of the most vital hopes of the Egyptian religion. some the we shall in chamber contrived others the whole tomb is cut in the the find the chapel.

As a rule all these variations are easily explained.i88 well almost A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. 126. Similar tombs are to be found near the pyramid of Mycerinus. 3. tombs in the neighbourhood of the Pyramids. . p. 16. — Head of a Mummy. it disappears. The Fig. 4. and Atlas. Some of these sepulchral grottos declare their extreme antiquity by their imitations of wooden architecture ^ others by their inscriptions dating from . and 5. and may be connected without difficulty with that primitive type which we have attempted to define by its most wide-spread and constant features. Figs. ' Description tie T Egypte. Louvre. we mean the /lypogeum. especially some which face the western slope of the Second Pyramid. pi. 647. or subterranean tomb. Aiit. v. Another method of sepulture was made use of in the Ancient Empire. \. Egyptian Commission has described several rock-cut. vol. vol. a method which afterwards came into general use in Egypt. sometimes ceases to be vertical and becomes a long corridor with but a gentle slope.

THE PYRAMIDS. The most imposing those palace. before whom all foreheads were bowed into the dust. was the private tomb of the great lord or rich citizen of primitive Egypt the pyrmnid was the royal tomb for the same epoch. either in art or religion. As his head towered over those of his prostrate Diasiaba . indeed. with variations. 189 long upon and fifth dynasties. They are generally composed of one or two postpone their study small sculptured chambers. some are in a marvellous state of preservation. The subjects rise during life. but. upon one of which the well opens which leads to the to a later mummy chamber. not only for construction of well Mem- phis did not ignore the facilities offered by the easily cut limestone and mummy chamber. . We shall not dwell these rock-cut tombs. should his sepulchre high above the comparatively humble tombs of his proudest mastabas. In consequence of this separation the elements in question have not all had the same fate. but also for those open parts of the tomb where the funeral rites and the ceremonies of the Ritual of the Dead were performed. We shall here chapter. but. We of shall Middle Empire affords us richer and more complete e. buried them to the must have looked small enough beside servants. the themes presented to her by the generations which were ruled by her first six dvnasties. than develop. almost a god himself. In the whole course of her long vitality Egypt did little more. the tomb of that son of the gods. We were led to do so by the fact that the enormous <nass of the pyramids and their peculiarities of construction compelled their architects to separate elements which are found closely allied in the mastaba. before the sand had summit.xamples of them than the earlier period.The Tomb under the Ancient the fourth Empire. so. after death. It prodigious masses. as the time the content ourselves with pointing out that the architects of rocks. They were considering ant-hills at the foot of a may seem that in the mastaba before the pyramid we have reversed the natural order. the pyramids. while others have disappeared . the New Empire has left us the most important examples of this kind of sepulchre. In the in case of the mastaba all survived or perished together.

'' . that the pyramids were bulwarks by which the ancient Egyptians attempted to keep back the sand from the fertile valley of the Nile. and in the term pii'-aa. The words which mean a royal tomb or a tomb of any kind. But egyptologists now seem to be unanimous in rejecting both these derivations.' says Herr Brugsch. the same turn for ' ' . Still less need we occupy ourselves with the theory. and was used by pyramid are never used in that sense in any of the texts. in Ancient Egypt. We shall not trouble ourselves to prove that they were not observatories. 1879). 1 History of Egypt (¥Mg\\s\\ version.^ to the term Each royal pyramid had its own name. de Persigny was well worthy of his policy. at the bottom ot which some modern writers would set unlucky astronomers to watch the passage of stars across the meridian. we are told. which made. epithet which was peculiar to itself Thus the largest of them all " was called the brilliant dwelling of Choufou " the second. Murray. '^ol- i- PP. We obliged to make use of the private tomb in our restoration of that which trace was peculiar Philologists back the etymology of the word irvpafiU to the ancient language of Egypt.I go left A History ok Art behind. however. They are. and from their language it to have attempted has been adopted into that of every civilized nation.72. The science of M. and suggested by the similarity between its shape and that of a tongue of flame. fire. . with a meaning which is scientifically exact. derived from Trip. We shall not waste our time in noticing: and refuting those fantastic explanations of the pyramids which have been given in modern times. height. Its origin has been sought for in the Coptic term pi-raina. 73. Those sloping tunnels. simply because the orientation of the tomb was habitual with the Egyptians we have already explained Its meaning. some stir in its time. have not the remotest likeness. were hermetically sealed. and minute precautions were taken with the sole object of obstructing and concealing their entrance. which Moses to signify the reigning Pharaoh. The term was first employed by the Greeks. a composite rrvpafils. " the great The word pyramid the third. " that which is on high. There was in both. are therefore and hardly a trace to the king. . The four slopes of the pyramid faced to the cardinal points." appears therefore to be a purely Greek term. refuted by the fact that the terms which are supposed to have meant a occurs continually in Exodus.

k \i. such as Herodotus. and one all the pyramids with but few exceptions. 97.^ general character.^ The Pyramids are sepulchres. 1161. They are the gigantic and impregnable their colossal dimensions have dwellings of the mummy been invoked to bear out the arguments of those who would attribute to them some other destination. or rather group of pyramids." It is proved still more definitely. c.^ our day thinks of either starting or discussing such theories as these. it must be remembered that in all Egypt no pyramid. either in the days of antiquity or in those of the middle ages. . 96. knowing as we They are . Even without direct evidence we might assert that it was so.] . carefully sealed up tombs. Herodotus. et Dc hi D(Sti>iation et dc P Utilitc fervianente des dii Pyramides nouvelle dEgypte Memoire ^ de Nubie contre les Irruptions saHonneuses dcs Sciences Dlsert.///d' interpritation de la Fiible d' Osiris ct d'Isis.)— Ed.-'^ and Strabo. xvii. Diodorus. by W. ii. some being no more than twenty feet high. ^ Mariette. by the sarcophagi which have been found in the interna! chambers. has been published (Trijbner. which is not the centre of a necropolis. Juillct. suivie s d'. 1877. the If Empire. but they are in fact to be found of all sizes. There are. . without exterior openings of any kind. -' ' FlALiN DE Persign'y. because those chambers had been entered and despoiled. several obscure points in in No the history of the pyramids. They are massive. the neighbourhood of Memphis. of course. Their e. [An excellent translation pp.The Tomb under the Ancient fantastic invention. Alphonse Marietta. simply conceived. but sometimes intact.. Diodorus " Siculus. in-8. it such a costly barrier had been either useful or necessary should at least have been prolorrged from one end of Egypt to the other. Paris. is to be found. if that be possible. 1S45. which stimulate to fresh research and lend themselves to many but there can be no doubt as to their different explanations . 1844. . 8vo. Besides this. 4. 64. without doors. several details of their construction. empty in most cases. p. of this work into English. The pyramids were hermetically sealed. Itiiicraire de la Hautc-E^yptc. as in the pyramid of ]\Iycerinus. Dheloppements du adressc a V Academic 127. Strabo. a fact which is enough by itself to indicate their iunerary character. 191 same want of reflection and common sense.xploration and the interpretations of the Egyptian texts have confirmed the assertions of those Greek writers who were most familiar with Egypt. in would not have been found assembled. 1. gr. tombs without windows. All entrance is forbidden even to their most carefully built corridors.

A different arrangement had therefore mummy chamber. a winding passage appears. temple. entrance. it must always have been of the most restricted dimensions. Those who seek for treasure do not. as to height. and thus stumbling accidentally upon the descending passage That he was reduced to employ at some distance from its mouth. which leads to the coffin" (xvii.^ it is very certain that had they perceived any signs of an original doorway. wanting. they would have directed their attentions to it. meeting with nothing but the solid this method at the risk of masonry shows that no external indication had been left of the opening through which the mummy had been carried in. right side for their attack was perhaps owing to the survival of some ancient tradition indicating the northern side to be that of the fact. c). The casing seems to have been then complete and consequently the four sides of the Pyramid must have been free from ddbris and That the Arabs should have chosen the generally uniform. like archaeologists. and as it would have had to be lighted from the door alone. The open part of the monument was separated from that which was The chapel or destined to be sealed up from the outer world. strike out lines of exploration in all been found to be in all the Perhaps too the Arabs may have been it has directions for the satisfaction of their curiosity. When in the ninth century the KaHph Al-Mamoun wished to penetrate into the Great Pyramid he was only enabled to do so by breaking into it violently.192 A History of Art in Ancient EoyiT. The pyramid includes two of those four parts into which we have and the divided the typical Egyptian tomb . guided by the traces of previous attempts made either in the time However this may be of the Persians or in that of the Romans. the pyramids had a stone which could be moved away . mummy chamber was not unknown Very nearly at the middle of their sides. do the precautions which the Egyptians took elsewhere to guard but direct proof of the fact is not their tombs against intrusion . in which the successors of the prince buried in the pyramid to Strabo. As for the funerary way of including it in to be devised from that adopted in the case of the mastaba. which. they go straight to their point. there were obvious the thickness of the monudifficulties in the ment itself. it contains the well chapel. near the centre of its northern face. 1161. when this is done. ^ The existence of the passage leading to the He says : " . as a pyramids as yet explored. It would have been difficult to preserve it from being crushed by the immense weight above it. p.

were all more or less mutilated. the Ethiopians. combined with the sacredness of the spot and the vigilance of the established Fig. 127.— Plans of the temples belonging to the second and third pyramids . during which the Hyksos. the Assyrians. thrown headturns. in is it not probable that the some of them the innermost recesses of the c c . and allow us to follow the very simple plan upon which these chapels were erected and that is all. priesthood of the necropolis. remains of those buildings are in such a condition that traces of such an arrangement would have vanished had there been The walls have disappeared. The . depend. or that it still lies under Were there any scrdabs concealed in the thickthe veil of sand. called the The seven or eight statues is of Chephren which were found at the bottom of a pit in what Temple of the Sphinx. and the Persians overran the country by were not sheltered in some well dissembled must more than once have been struck off their pedestals and broken. from Perring. ness of the temple walls ? That question cannot be answered. In the course of so many centuries.The Tomb under the Ancient Empire. such statues as retreat foremost into the depths of the earth. all The any. proving that this want of precaution was sometimes disastrous. been discovered. I. 193 and the priests told off for its service performed the prescribed The rites. As such vast importance the portrait statues was attached to the preservation of upon which the prolongation of life after to death was made so largely idea of hiding VOL. like those of the unlucky Chephren. however. lower courses of masonry are still in place. was erected at some distance from the eastern face. but we may assert with confidence that it has either been destroyed by the hand of man. remains of such buildinos have been found to the east of both That of Cheops has not the second and third pyramids. to preserve the august images of the sovereign from insult or destruction. that the Egyptians depended solely upon the profound respect which was felt for the royal person. or. It is possible.

we should have to take some pyramid to pieces from the first stone to the last. 3 and 4. they would have been ill placed for the fulfilment of the office assigned to them by the Egyptian faith. Ed. In the plants of our gardens and orchards. 1881. of its office as the sepulchre of the ancient kings of Egypt. 1S81. 1882. and the envelope of the seeds thickened and made to shed perfume. This disproportion is to be easily The simple method of construction which distinguishes explained. vol. The Moniteur Ff.yptien of March 15. We find stamens changed into double flowers. We see the same process of development in the tombs of the early Egyptian monarchs. iii. while the funerary chapel remained of modest dimensions. be asserted that the images of the deceased would. if hidden in the pyramid. Quite lately M. effort 1 This pyramid was opened on February 28. however. and as a consequence of the which they made to perpetuate their rank even after death. a full account of the entrance and exploration of this pyramid. giving us expense of others. pyramid. [Since this note was written. pyramids themselves may have occurred to those who caused those monuments to be built ? It is obvious that no hiding-place could be more secure. we see cultivation develop certain organs petals. No such retreats have yet been discovered in any of the galleries which have been explored by modern curiosity. which will perhaps never be reached by the most persevering explorer. In a word. liv.^ Before w^e could say that such an arrangement does not exist elsewhere. or rather as the part of that sepulchre that corresponded to the least interesting parts of private tombs. We have hitherto spoken only of the social purposes of the .— 194 ^ History of Art in An'Cient Egypt. has been published by M.] . At such a distance they would not have heard the friendly voices or the magic chants nor would the scent of the incense have reached their nostrils. but it does not follow that they do not exist in some corner which has not yet been reached. Under at the the influence of their pride of station. Maspero believed that he recognized a serdab in a subterranean chamber with three niches which he found near the mummy chamber in the Pyramid of Ounas. the last king of the fifth dynasty. it Circumstantial accounts of the discoveries to which led have not yet been published. contains a short account of the opening. the stone hiding-place which protected tlie mummy took a size which is oppressive to the imagination. It might. be too far removed from that public hall to which his relations brought their offerings and their pious homage. together with the texts discovered. Maspero in the Reaicil de Traranx.

the seem was to heap up the earth over the corpse. peculiarities which do not affect that general type which seems to be as old as the Egyptian itself. so as to form an artificial hillock which should be visible from a distance over the level plain. make known their final The most simple way of under the directing lead of chiefs have been stuncf bv the desire to resting-place by some conspicuous sign. monarchy As soon as a society had sprung up on the banks of the Nile to organize itself latter which attempted or headmen.). and of the materials of which they are composed. 195 pyramid permitted almost indefinite extension. be foreign to the purpose which we have before us.) Perring (J. We have now to consider the pyramids from another point of view. 8vo. while architecture. such as those contained in the great works of Vyse^ and Perring. properly speaking. 1839-42. London. The tumulus is to be found in most districts of the ancient as well as of the modern world. and would moreover. we may content ourselves with makinof a few general observations. (3 parts. to 3 vols. some to the peculiarities of construction which distinguish a few. The two books just mentioned are within the reach of all. The Pyramids of Gizeh. it is to be found in pre-Christian times arriving at the desired result ' Vyse (Howard). of their variet}' of form. and References to the Several Plans.) .The Tomb uxdek the Ancient the Empire. works which gave to the world the accumulated results of long and costly explorations. was not yet sufficiently advanced to make use of those grandiose orders which distinguish the porticos and hypostyle temples of the Theban period. 1840. Operations carried on at the Pyra/nids of Gizeh in 1837. from Actual Si/?Tey and Admeasure- ment. L. with an Account of a Voyage into Upper Egypt. and an Appendix. must not be looked for in these volumes. Such a proceeding would be a mere duplication of those excellent manuals. (London. This was the origin of that funerary mound which modern archaeologists call a tiumiliis. from that of their probable origin. such as that given by Baedeker or Isambert. We do not think it necessary that we should eive even a succinct account of the more important pyramids. tions will refer to the Some of these observa- pyramids as a whole. But to confine ourselves to our own province. illustrated by Notes the Spot by J. with Sketches taken on Andrews. Thanks to the precise information and the numerous figures which they contain. We take the pyramids as known. large oblong folio. Descriptions of these monuments.

literally lo to say. by uniting the various tribes under his own sceptre. they better to construct the whole body of the tumulus in the Its size its harder material. from the rounded slopes of the mound. Its birth We must have taken place after Menes had. that Homer. The pyramid is but a built mound. finally a increased with the constructive it skill material appliances of builders. perhaps. and makes it a much safer place of deposit and a much more lasting monument for the body committed to its charge. The built-up tumulus of masonry took a form very different. or after a by covering them with a thin coat of brickwork. This substitution adds very greatly to its chances of duration. enemies than a few handfuls of earth and grass. so as to fix them more But. They began. gave bricks which still remain good their manufacture and their constructive use seem to have been understood by the Egyptians as soon as they emerged from . Tradition ascribes those tumuli which are yet to be seen on the plain of Troy to the observance of this custom. found few experiments in that direction. cannot doubt that the pyramid sprang from the mound. of is We which all is know the frequent expression display a signal. when moulded and dried in the sun. in The its definite lines. in those distant ages which were called by the Egyptians themselves the times of Hor-schcsoti or slaves of Horus. it securely. squared forms of brick or cut stone infallibly give to the edifice upon which they are employed one of those more or less rigid When they leave the hands forms which are defined by geometry. The funerary architecture of Egypt commenced in the same fashion. pyramids cubes of the builder they are either . for the worship and admiration of posterity. as the Greeks of the heroic age.196 A among History of Art ix Ancient Egypt. thev were enabled to build monuments upon the graves of their rulers which could offer a better resistance to injuries of time and human primitive barbarism. until became first a hillock and and mountain of stone. caused the whole race to take a distinct step onwards in civilization. or parallelopipeds. to accumulate over the corpse of a warrior a sufficient number of spadefuls of earth to signalize it. Thanks to the facilities thus afforded. It is a tumulus in which brick and stone take the place of earth. Gijixa xeJety. The Nile mud. among well as the Scythians of Herodotus and our ancestors the Gauls. by placing a few blocks of stone upon their mounds. with the impenetrable rock for its base and flanks of solid masonry.

1 The base of the great pmniid at Sakkarah is a rectangle. . It has been said that each face was dedicated to one of the four powers of Amen. are built upon a base which is practically square. perhaps. in it the sharp angles which form the three arttcs of the tetrahedron there had been a lack of material. The three great pyramids at Gizeh Hke most of these structures. large or small. or pyramid built upon a triangular base. cylinders or cones. and in most instances upon one with sides practically equal. and so in the end to form national forms can alone be given. 197 They present the general appear- ance. the abode of the dead. placed back to back in pairs. four faces.The Tomb under the Ancient or prisms. and as suffer in consequence. But not a single pyramid of that kind has been discovered in Egypt. measuring 390 feet from north to south. this early As soon as architectures." We are not yet sufficiently well acquainted with the genesis of the Egyptian religion to be able to decide traced : how but far into the past the four it powers of Amen may be is quite possible that they were derived from the four faces of the strictly oriented pyramids. Were we inclined to enter into this discussion we should rather. tombs towards the west. an arrangement. which corresponded to the cardinal points of heaven. if looks as if the structure would The its four-sided pyramid has more dignity and more amplitude . The most simple of all would have been the tcfralicdron. of one of those forms. \\"e may say that architecture was born on the day when man began trical to use the unyielding materials by which definite geome- development was reached he set to work to combine those elementary forms in different proportions and to add to their effect by elegance and richness of decoration. p. The form adopted for the royal tomb was one of the most simple which could be chosen for a building. Empire. When the first pyramid was buiit upon the borders of the desert man was on the threshold of the movement to which we have referred. and east. The whole of the pyramids. 96. are built upon a right-angled base. attribute the shape of the pyramid to the prevailing Egyptian desire to turn one face of their another to the come. ^ Mystic reasons for this shape have been given. - Mariette. Itincraire de la Haute-Egypte. whence the hoped-for resurrection was to The three-sided pyramid would not have lent itself to such is There also something unpleasant to the eye . they possess the essential properties. and 347 from east to west.

north is From Meidoum a distance of the south to Abou-Roash flies. about one hundred have been discovered. extreme degree.. ^1 'WS: •'.xamined . or which seem to be copies of one model..- ill m Mi -^'m J:'A-f Fig. differs in an refer only to their height.igS A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. in this whole number there are not two which resemble each other in all We do not particulars. and 218 feet which have been e. miles as the crow Between these two points. 454. — Plan of the Pyramid of Cheops. 43^ which may it' w '%(r '-'S'I'f. in a fashion seem to counterpoise and sustain each other which is impossible in the case of the tetrahedron. Now.( !:: ' 'W4 •i ">> (!) . 1 28. sixty-seven of by Lepsius. these their four-sidedoffer To observer in the buildings more diversities than in would at first sight be believed. characteristic possessed in common by is those rehcs of Empire which we an attentive call pyramids.^. The one the Ancient ness. which The three large pyramids at Gizeh are 482. be called the northern and southern boundaries of the pyramid field.

ElG. These differences in height are easily explained by one of those national habits to which we have already alluded. On one wall we find paintings and sculptures carried out with the greatest care and finish. mummy in its grave with the prescribed ceremonies. those at Dashour is not quite 100 feet. 129. that those finished. which thenceforward remained //i statu quo. while on . who had ordered such works died long before they were and it would seem that their heirs were content with They placed the doing no more than was strictly necessary. he caused the sarcophagus to It often happened be carved and the funerary chapel to be built. —The great pyramid and the siaall pyramijs at its foot . is about 190 inserted. . Every Egyptian. one of the largest of those at Abousir is about 165 feet hieh .The Tomb under the Ancient hiq^h respectively. Between these two extremes many of intermediate sizes may be The Stepped Pyramid. as soon as he arrived He dug at years of discretion. they filled up but being the well and sealed the private parts of the tomb . Thus only can we explain the state in which several important tombs have been discovered both at Memphis and at Thebes. Empire. near Sakkarah. the well and the mummy chamber. little 199 while at their feet are several pyramids which hardly exceed from 50 to 70 feet of vertical height. set about building his own tomb. they did not chapel. occupied with the preparations for their continue the decoration of the own funeral. from Perring.

he emplo)'ed crowds of imIt . was the same with the sepulchres of the kings.200 A History of Art is in Ancient Egypt. and so it would be futile to attempt to found any calculation as to the duration of the different reigns upon the number of these concentric layers but we may assert in a general way that the highest pyramids correspond to We know. so to speak. History thus confirms the truth of the induction which arises from begun in the centre of a tree in successive years. size with its mummy chamber. his immediate anxiety came to an end but that was no reason for interrupting the course of the work. Each sovereign began the construction of his pyramid as soon as he found himself upon the throne. pressed workmen to clothe it in layer after layer of dressed stone or brick. These layers are by no means equal in the excellence either of the workmanship or Some show supreme negligence in others we find the of the materials employed. The higher and wider his pyramid. may be easily recognised in the Pyramid of That curious structure was built in concentric layers round a nucleus. Year after year. fact has been observed in regard to the Stepped Pyramid and the pyramids at It would seem that the work was assigned in sections to different corvees. the more efficient a guardian of his body would it be. Abousir. . in red paint. therefore.^ The construction was thus and was developed outwards. in case his life and his reign should be cut short. the longest reigns. (Mariette. required more hands and more time. 45-) . . and Mycerinus. Voyag.e de la Haute' This method of construction Meidouni. We have no reason to believe that each coat had to be finished within a certain period. But. each reigned about sixty years. each successive coat. and the more impressive would be the message carried down by it to posterity as to the power of its builder. first another nothing tion of the to be seen but the rough outhne. Cheops. by the artist charged with the undertaking. The comple- work must have been suddenly arrested by the death of the destined inhabitant of the tomb. that the kings who built the three great pyramids at Gizeh. pyramid moderate of When this a point had been reached. Egypte. like the timber As the pyramid grew in extent and height. whose consciences varied greatly in elasticity. became its in time nothing but the nucleus or many times size. namely. by the witness of ancient authors. he began with those constituents of the tomb which were He pressed on the work until he had raised absolutely necessary. p. The same builders of the Ancient Empire and their materials both at their best. so that the edifice raised in comparative haste at the beeinnine of his kernel of one reisfn. Chephren.

from which he received the paper entitled Ueber den first hint of this explanation).^ — — Flu. 177-203. encounters several grave objections. 130. If we deduct from its total volume the core of rock which it incloses^ and the openings which it contains.The Tomb under the Anxtext the study of those structive Empire. Hke Perring. he could not have counted upon giving it the colossal dimensions which it jjresents even in its actual injured condition. yEgypU?i.See also of his Meidoum. Briefe aus y£gypteii. though very ingenious. which. 201 monuments and from a comparison of the conprocesses made use of by the architects of the pyramids. 42 (in speaking of the Pyramid . objections while He has brought forward an elaborate theory of construction.. from the south. nucleus of rock under is commonly supposed. During he ascertained that a profile from the Mokattam across the Nile valley into the western desert would present the contours expedition in March. — The three great pjTamids . Lepsius. . his the great pyramids was originally Cope Whitehouse that the much more important than 18S2. pp. and Mariette. It 341. has been suggested by Mr. either in horizontal courses or in courses sloping towards the axis of the building. D D . that the pyramid grew by the appHcation of successive envelopes of stone round the central mass. the masonry first When Cheops 1 Lepsius. p. Ban dcr Pyramiden. ^ '' pp. in the Alonatsbericht of the Berlin Academy. The area of the great pyramid is more than double that of Saint Peter's at Rome. began to think about building his tomb. 1843. point out those itself We shall we endeavour '-' to explain the system by the help of special illustrations drawn for us by the author of the Guide in question. 41. 1.^ not The author of Baedeker's Guide has been content with believing. First part. VOL. 1878.

had to be entrusted to the same hands. could not do it himself. and. even a his father. son who was sincerely devoted to the memory of would have burthened himself with the continuation and completion of such an enterprise ? The new sovereign would have enough to do in commencing and carrying on the erection of his own tomb. those pyrainids \va^ obtained upon their concludes that a large part of the material of sites. under his own eye for so many He years. for its construction. there still remains the detached stances has been enormous mass of 3. monuments. would be irresistibly tempted to make use. moreover. He cites (ii. so long as he was not too sternly reminded of the end by disease or the infirmities of age. and carried away. he Moreover. the external completion. to in primitive must have amounted a total of Even now. and quarried above the level at which LEVEL OF / THE 3 Mill SCALE OF MILES O mT~ 2 4 S iiiinm~ MEDITERRANEAN 10 Herodotus an the Stones were finally placed. men were too For of an heir.202 A its History of Art integrity in Ancient Egypt.600 cubic yards. gratitude piety or upon the sagacious to reckon the closing and final sealing up of the pyramid." . 125)33 conveying in imperfect form the tradition that the pyramids were "constructed from above. or to arrest that course of sliown in the annexed woodcut. must have felt great reluctance to order the cessation of the work which had gone on Even four or five thousand years before our era. commencement of its a death had carried off projector. its builder and destined inhabitant was obliged to depend upon his survivors. of the accumulated material and collected labour of his predecessor. must have been a greater of the which.246. in the case long and costly matter. when so much of its sub3. The reigning king. Supposing that.479.600 cubic yards. two work upon this colossal can we believe that any successor. or three years after the scale.

his pyramid would still present the aspect which necessarily belonged to it during the period of its construction an aspect which has again distinguished the great pyramid since it was despoiled of its casing. or from some other motive. a large base which had never received either its cope-stone or its casing. 203 being a continual source of pride and pleasure to himself. his pyramid would. or. on the other hand. in leno-th as thev neared the summit. As each course was set back from that upon which it was placed. Upon two-thirds or three-quarters of each face. still incomplete. seem to have been left in a comparatively imperfect state. the final ensemble looked like an enormous staircase with steps gradually diminishing the final cope-stone . So too with those of Mj-cerinus and Chephren. have presented to us a shape like that of some other edifices of the same kind. perhaps. after Empire. with be surprised by death with his tomb still upon the ground. Chephren. Other pyramids.The Tomb under the Ancient development Avhich. we have Some may refuse to believe pyramid should Cheops intended from the beginning have the dimensions and the internal arrangements which we now see. very unfinished. therefore. with the casing of polished stone which was destined to hide the inner courses of the masonry and the entrances. of the Egyptian princes There were many who from want of patience or zeal. must have been there to overlook the smallest details of their execution. disposal. But why should he not have done so ? If he had died at the end of a few years. might end in giving him a monument still surpass- ing those of his famous predecessors. Have not absolute monarchs existed at all times. whose infinite power seems to have made them forget the eternal limits of time and space ? Sometimes Fortune has been cruel to them but often she seems to have placed herself entirely at their that his . We are ignorant as to the condition of the three great pyramids of But they appear to Gizeh at the death of their projectors. and Mycerinus. even when that had been put in place so as to show the total height. its failed to carry on the enterprise of their predecessors to destined conclusion. have been finished in most of their details with a care which would seem to indicate that Cheops. likely to He was. These observations theory to which that furnish us with an initial objection to the referred. Among the causes which combine to make the roj-al tombs of .

after the example of the mastaba. which is not nearly so carefully oriented as the others. Finally there are pyramids built chiefly of stone which is kept in place by a carefully constructed skeleton. pyramids have no more than one or two entrances. where the roof of the mummy chamber is about 33 So too in feet below the lowest course of the pyramid itself the Stepped Pyramid.204 the first A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. the same variety in the position of the mummy Sometimes this is within the sides of the pyramid itself. for instance. . 131). giving access There is narrow galleries. 132). to pyramid. of brick. sometimes ascending. in the pyramid of Mycerinus. as in that of Cheops. so that the building itself is absolutely solid. which lead to one or two chambers of very small dimensions when compared to the enormous mass which rises above and around them (Fig. (Fig. which distinguishes that edifice. The great pyramids at Gizeh are built of fine limestone from Mokattam and Toura the chief one at Sakkarah of a bad clayish limestone from the neighbouring rocks at Dashour and Abou-Roash there are pyramids of unburnt brick. sometimes descending. is cut out of the living rock upon which the pyramid stands. chamber. where the whole complicated system of corridors and cells. were much better than when dynasty succeeded dynasty. is cut in the Most of the rock. This construction is to be found in the pyramid of lllahoun. If we were better acquainted with the condition of Egypt in those remote epochs. six dynasties so unequal in height and appearance. . the is very unequal length of the reigns the most important. no doubt. at the entrance to the Fayoum . sometimes. be enabled to give other reasons for their want of uniformity. The pyramids differ also in the materials employed. so to speak. it This arrangement is to be found. The chances of completion and even of preservation in its complete state enjoyed by a pyramid must have greatly depended upon the descent of the When king succeeded king in one family those chances crown. In the subterranean part of the Stepped Pyramid This the proportion of voids to solids is far less insignificant. whether the break were due to internal revolution or to the failure of the legitimate line. It is even possible that some of those pyramids which are now to outward appearance mere heaps of ddbris never received the mummy for whose reception they were designed and built. we should.

Another point of difference most of the pyramids are built round a core of living rock. at various heights. — The pyramid of Illahoun. It is built over a hollow inequalities in the rock which is up with masonry.- more than obscure. 20: has four entrances and a series of internal passages. and ' make egyptologists The weight of this stopper is about four tons. and others like it. as it The end of Fig. central axis singular also in having. p. Egypfe a pelites Jounu-es. from the phn the long passage which leads to the thirty chambers which have been counted beneath this pyramid has been found in the neighbouring sands (Fig.— The Tomb under the Ancient Empikk. could be raised and lowered. staircases and cells. in the block of granite cut into as to open at wilj chamber about twenty pavement of which a huge the shape of a cork or plug was so placed free passage for the descent into a is and leave a second chamber. words must not. But the pyramid of Mycerinus is just : the reverse of filled this. a sort of large well. The of the surface were usually taken advantage of so as to economize material. the purpose of which is too small even to have contained a sarcophagus. 134). be taken too literally. a feet square and eighty ^ feet high. and it has long been a puzzle to how it. horizontal galleries. upon and at the point upon which. 131. M. all its galleries converge. E 259. Perrot's Ed. therefore. .Arthur Rhone. It is which make it little else than a its subterranean labyrinth. in perspective. horizontal section of Perrircr. which is embraced by the lower courses of their masonry. .

133). however. 2). is to be . or the summit ?^ 'a '. is no less diversity the the We are most familiar with the shapes of the great pyramids at Gizeh (Fig. I. while above they suddenly back to from an angle of 42° indication 59'. A second variation. The lower This part of sides make angles fall of 54° 41' with the horizon. from Perring. The slope of its faces becomes its less steep at about half their height. iol i? FjG. preservation. but we make a great mistake when we imagine all the royal tombs at Memphis to be built upon this one model. The southern pyramid of Dashour otters us one of the most curious variations upon the original theme (Fig. i. Its angle-ridges are not unbroken straight lines from base to summit. " ' !. the same regular slope from smooth and polished casing which disting.2o5 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. less a greater show with in the plateau. 132. more unlike the Gizeh type. Mycerinus. 130 and PI. They do not all present the same simplicity of form.uished those great monuments when they were in complete to base. the builder No has yet been discovered as still of this pyramid. their images have been multiplied to infinity by engraving and photography. — Section of the pyramid of Cheops . latter slope does not greatly to differ the 43" 36' of the other pyramid in the same neighbourhood. labour. did not his fear to increase his task by rearing in pyramid over a depression external aspects of There pyramids.

he thought himself justified in attributing it to the fourth king of the it first dynasty. from 38 feet is 2 inches to 29 feet 6 inches. from the base to the sunimit. elevation is Its present about si. . 207 the great pyramid of Sakkarah. . from Perring. considered by Mariette as the oldest of them all. Each of its sides is divided hori- zontally into large steps with inclined faces.The Tomb under the Ancient found in Empire.x 190 feet. Does this want of completion result from accidental causes. will be seen. that rather tends to the pyramidal form than achieves is a rough sketch for a pyramid. the Stepped Pyramid. — The southern pyraaiid of Dasbour . 134. of each step this building it nearly 7 feet. or Apis tomb. 133. — Section of the Stepped Pyramid . therefore.Serapeum. was which Taking a passage from Manetho as his authority. J •» /. It The width it . Ouenephes or Ata. and he was inclined to see in the J 3 Fig. ^'CC Fig. from tlie measurements of Perring. The height of these steps decreases progressively. of the Ancient Empire.

of representations of such a pyramid in different stages of completion (Figs. . or. if the builder were still sanguine as to time. In order that this system may be more easily understood. full be referred to ignorance of the pyramidal form on the part of its builders ? of Mariette is beauties of the If the conjecture Pyramid is not only the most ancient building in Egypt but in the whole world and in the remote century which witnessed its construction men may not yet have learnt to fill up the angles left in their masonry.2oS or must A it History of Art i\ Ancient Egypt. The apex pyramid. A commencement was made by (Fig. on the opposite page. it erecting a very narrow and perpendicular pyramid crowned by a pyramidion. restored from the measurements of Perring. where the slopes of the pyramid left the earth. with the of this pyramidion of the the first mass. they may have been quite satisfied to leave their work in a condition which to us seems imperfect. 137) . like stumpy obelisk This finished. 135. the Stepped . 136 a to 142). four perpendicular walls were erected to the height of the pyramidion. a series well founded. he might seek to push on farther. a second pyramid. The space between the sides of the pyramid and the inner faces Then. might be put in place and work considered at the line finished (Fig. sloping masses were erected against so as to form. 136). Fig. we give. a pyramidion of a single stone. The Germans have evolved a complicated system of construction from notes made by Lepsius upon the details of the masonry in different pyramids. — The Stepped Pyramid .

which served as the was rectangular block. 140 and 142). 13S. 1. 141. I". 136 — 142. Fig. In the case of a long reign this operation might be repeated over KiG. or it was contrived in the thickness of the masonry itself. as the casing of stone went on increasing in thickness.52. The mummy-chamber was either cut in the rock before the laying of the first course of stone. — Successive of a pyramid. galleries were left for ventilation and VOL. 209 filled in. 136. 140). 139). or huge obtained (Fig.The Tomb under the Ancient of these walls was Empire. and thus a kind of terrace. Fig. This again disappeared under core for a new pyramid (Fig. 137. whose gentler and section larger a pyramid of sides reached the ground far beyond the foundations of the terrace. according to the system advocated Baedeker's Guide. I. A large pyramid would thus be composed of a series of pyramidal envelopes placed one upon another. 139. ir and over again (Figs. states Fig. Fig. E . 138). slope (Fig. Figs. F'iG.

was older and nearer his death. the exterior is which approached. and there is VEgypte. among the southern one example of such construction at Gizeh. . It is. and always nearer the base than the summit. for the introduction of the sarcophagus and the either mummy. x. the angles left by the At thus be unfinished pyramids. Jomard describes one of crude and much crumbled brick at Dashour. more careful do we becomes more and more careless In its find as fact. but neither in these breaches made by violence. broken slope which has such a strange effect. when tested by facts. less. and trusted the casingr to conceal defects of workmanship. pyramids. behind the one below. nor in the ancient and 1 There are other stepped pyramids besides that at Sakkarah. encounters some very grave objections.) These steps are often found. at all hazards. it also. or in its immediate neighbourhood. upon whose life the whole operation depended. there is a like that at pvTamid with a double slope Dashour. but the continuation of the slope to the ground would have been pre. cut for themselves a passage through the masonry. each being set back about 1 1 feet high. The builders became final less sure of the morrow all .. he adds. the size of the to monu- ment. an effect which could not have entered into the original calculations of the architect. at Dashour. vented by the stoppage of the works at the point of intersection of Hence the the upper pyramid and its provisional substructure.^ Sakkarah. between Sakkarah and Meidoum. they pressed on so as to increase. 5. in their search for lost galleries and hidden chambers.2IO A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. about 140 feet Its height is divided into five stages. We into are told that the system of construction here set forth the fact that " the is rendered almost certain by the pyramid the deeper we penetrate the construction. as each new envelope was commenced." the chances of being completed became The mass of stone to be worked and placed was greater. {Description de At Matarieh. he says. This system of pyramid building would explain the curious shapes which we have noticed in the Stepped Pyramid and the Both of those erections would southern pyramid of Dashour. while the king. p. successive stages would be waiting for their filling in would have been pyramid of gentle slope the upper part of a constructed upon the nucleus which was first erected. The explorers of the pyramids have more than once. But although this theory seems satisfactorily to explain some puzzling appearances. vol. The upon the axis of the mummy-chamber is always found pyramid.

the his:h vestibule with its wonderful jiiasonry. in internal chambers. could those slides and settlements be prevented to which the want of homogeneity in the structure would otherwise be sure to lead ? But we are not told of that any such junctions old and new work are to be found even ment assured. These and fin- pyramid. giving access. at about one-third of the whole height. we are told. but we think the advocates of the new theory should have begun by There is pointing them out ii they their exist. The whole of these arran<jements. a proceeding which. arrangements had been fixed irom the beginning. have any signs reported. namely. of the junctions of different surfaces and slopes which must have existed according to the theory to find which we are noticing. the galleries leading to the where a practised eye could hardly fail to note the transition. leaving thickness the necessary galleries The same observation applies to the discharging chambers above the mummy-chamber. 2 1 which they were the means of been. contrasting with the comparatively gentle slopes which were built against different parts of the it. at least. properly fitted to the earlier and the the later parts were to be of the final stability monu- would have demanded a minute and scrupulous care which was not common with Egyptian workmen. We do not say that there are no such transitions. in those points where they would be most conspicuous. without numerous through bonding-stones. the nearly upright sides of the cubic mass with which the pyraniid began. appear to have been conceived and carried out at one time. How. or at least. We should expect.1 The Tomb under the Ancient carefully constructed passages to Empire. the intention had been from the first to place the now find it. Not a sign is to be found of those more or less well-veiled transitions which are never absent when the work of one time and one set of hands has to be united with that of another. and by the same brains and hands. if were built ished separately. mummy-chamber where we why should the builders have complicated their task these ever difficult junctions to build the ? Wouki ? by imposing upon themselves it not have been far better in its pyramid at once to the required height. How is system to explain the position of the mummy-chamber in certain pyraIf its internal if mids ? Let us take that of Cheops as an example. the chambers and the structural voids above them. Or are we to believe that they commenced by one building a hill of stone composed of those different jjyramids . another difficulty in their way. discovered.

they found a true resisting base upon which they rested. the architect provided for the lateral tying of the different sections of his work. The difficulty of deciding upon the position of the chambers in advance. In both of those buildings all necessary of precautions were taken to guard against the weaknesses of such a system. There is but one pyramid which seems to have been built upon a system which. would lead may easily be imagined. Upon the external sloping face of each step he found two casing-walls. and of constructing the galleries through the various slopes of the concentric masses which were to form the pyramid. and that they are approached from without by subterranean passages. but we may be sure that no architect. resembled that which we are noticing in some degree. we mean Now we find that the whole the . We may here call attention to a circumstance which justifies all our reserves. 143) Moreover. they reached no higher than the to the apex of the single step. so that in the flat mass (see Fig. could have had sufficient in adherence one to another. and that they afterwards carved the necessary chambers and corridors out of its mass ? One of the heroes of Hoffmann. was thus avoided. as Lepsius proves to us by a partial section of the pyramid of Abousir. The disintegration to which it ever thought of employing it. by multiplying those parallel wedges disposed around a central core of which it is composed. but these did not extend from the ground monument. made use indeed of some such method in giving doors and windows to his newly-built house. though much less complicated. 134). placed one upon the other in the fashion shown by the section which we have borrowed from Perring's work (Fig. Lepsius made a breach the southern and the examination which he was thus enabled to institute led him to suggest a rather more probable system of construction. of the complicated net-work of chambers and passages in that pyramid is cut out of the living rock beneath its base. . the fantastic Crespel.2 12 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. The observations made by Lepsius in the Stepped Pyramid and in one at Abousir seem to prove that some pyramids were constructed in this manner. either in Egypt or elsewhere. It is difficult to understand how separate slices masonry. and the builder was able to devote all his attention to increasing the size of the monument. within anotlier. face of this pyramid.Stepped Pyramid of Sakkarah.

1824. 144. — Section of the Stepped Pyramid at Sakl<arah . transverse section in perspective from the geometrical section of Lepsius. et - Voyage au Temple de Jupiter Amnion fig. s of his paper. abutting. (Berlin. substance. its is Two to walls of fine limestone blocks inclose a which they are bound by perpend stones which penetrate This method of construction has its faults. Ueber den Ban der Pymmiden. 8 of his paper.^ courses of stone laid out to the segment of a circle. — Construction of the Pyramid of Abousir in parallel layers.The Tomb under the Ancient Empire..A. xxvii. 143.Egyte. upon Fig. Veber den Beiu der Pyramiden. at ' These edges.~'--- FlG. . from Lepsius.' Do first these parallel walls reach from top to bottom ? A detail discovered by Minutoli would seem to indicate that a base was constructed of sufficient extent for the whole monument. pi. fillinj^ in 213 of rubble.) Fig. 4to. Fig. 3. but it so rapid that its employment is not to be wondered at. ^ and folio. dans la Haute. its courses formed a kind of inverted vault. In the lower part of the Stepped Pyramid Minutoli^ shows concave ^^'. -^V\sx<S«WS«S$S^^--5S.

Egypt. This curious arrangement should be studied upon the spot by some competent observer. been lately put forward. the Meidoum and the Mastabat-el-Faraoun. 145 — Partial section of the Stepped Pyramid . they afford another argument against the notion that all the great pyramids were built round such a pyramidoid core as that represented by our Fig. Variety is universal in that Egypt which has so often been described as the land of uniformity and immobility no two of the pyramids resemble only. But however this may the rock. or whether they meet each other and penetrate deeply into the structure or not. The pages remains were edited in great part by Professor Ebers. chambers have yet to learn that they were ever made use of in those pyramids which inclose the mummy-chamber and its avenues in their own substance. so far. We — each other exactly. We do not aeree with this opinion. be. ^ dealing 'with the These two monuiiiental ' B/EDEKER. as the former i. from Mimitoli. namely. which some Pyramid of at least. As we do not know whether these curves exist upon each face or not. part 1878. 136. which has. We have yet to speak of two ancient monuments in would recognize unfinished pyramids. But these all monuments which have subterranean Fig. we cannot say what their purpose may have been. monument is concerned. The views of We Lepsius as to the enlargement of the pyramid by the addition of parallel slices are worthy of more in the respect. and their truth seems to be demonstrated case of belong to that category of some pyramids. however. .2 14 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. fear that this system must be regarded merely as an intellectual plaything.

. as a mass formed of three square towers with slightly inclined sides superimposed one upon the other. which were opened and examined by ]\Iariette. is called It is.^ The Mastabat-el-Faraoun or " Seat of Pharaoh. 215 sepulchres seem to us to represent a different type of funerary architecture. . p." as the Arabs call it. by in Arabs the Haram-el-Kabbab. Mariette found a quarry-mark traced in red ochre which seemed to him to form part of the name of Ounas. one of the and 147). false pyramid. It 340 is long. by the ancient empire. same great lateral structure Upon a block lying at the foot of the of which had once formed a part. 45. strictly speaking. this is the tomb of Snefrou I. one of the greatest kings of the third dynasty. it is about 66 feet high. from Perrins.The Tomb under the Ancient Empire. in the pyramid of Mycerinus same sloping niches. It is oriented like the the pyramids. vol. resemble those galleries. Fig. others those of a cone. . i. a royal tomb with the internal arrangements which . and 240 deep. 109 Voyage dans la Haufe-Egypfe. and meriting conspicuously from the jalain The monument which rises so near the village of iMeidoum on the road to the Fayoum. and the third than the second. The remains of a fourth story may be distinguished on the summit of the third some see in them the remains of a small j^yramid. Judging from the names found in the neighbouring mastabas..'' not so much a pyramid. the second being less in area than the first. or "the fact. 146 —The Pyramid of Meidoum . it the same chambers. is a huge rectangular mass with sloping sides . ^ last kings of the fifth dynasty (Figs. a type created special notice at our hands.

. and the little monument which Righa. — Tlie Mastabat-el-Faraoun . they were sometimes composed of a mastaba and of one or more high square tower-like erections upon it. 147. tombs in the Memphite region were not always pyramids. the that is called the Pyramid of concludes Fig. that it is not the Mastabat-el-Faraoun itself?^ M. the titles The latter hypothesis the more probable. vol. Who can say asks Mariette. in support of this conjecture. Funerary monument represented in the inscriptions.2l6 A to History of Art in Ancient Egypt. certain other structures of a similar character. those of priests attached to the service of we often come upon some monument with a form similar to that represented by our Fig. structure They seem is therefore. certain blocks Upon are the platform of the Mastabat-el-Faraoun be found which. 14S. it bonding-stones. From these he the principles of — mastaba and the pyramid were sometimes combined under the ancient empire. or that has lost its former crown. The royal Forage dans la HauteEgypU. from their position. from Lepsius. p. must have been to hint. 34. i. Mariette cites. people buried in the necropolis at Sakkarah. 148. such as the large tomb situated near the south-eastern angle of the second pyramid at Gizeh. Among of Fig. either that the was never finished. the whole ending This in one of those small pyramids which we call pyramidions.

at the very gates of the capital and upon the boundary between the desert and the cultivated land.i^ypte. There are. Their venerable antiquity the memories. The pyramids have never failed to impress the imaginations of those foreign travellers who have visited Egypt. Voyage dans la Haute-F.^ When the art of Egypt had arrived at its full development.The Tomb under the Ancient type allowed of numerous combinations. VOL. We shall find the pyramidal form employed But the to crown buildings in Phoenicia. or in the representations of them upon bas-reliefs. 45. Rhind. T/ielvs. discovered in the Empire. These. Judaea. 94. all combined to heighten their effect. Those nations who came under the living influence of Egypt could hardl)^ then. vol. i. Tombs and p. they are the tombs of the native monarchs. The princes of the twelfth dynasty seem to have constructed some in the Fayoum. 80. partly fable. But the pyramid properly speaking was confined to the Wemphite period. and other jalaces have pyramids which empire. Mariettk. were built in connection with the labyrinth and upon the islands of Lake Mceris respectively. Both Thebes and Abydos offer us many examples of its use. Ihcir Tenants. was the chief reproducer of the Egyptian pyramid as it was created by the kings of the ancient Napata. We shall not attempt any study of these remains. were the last of the pyramids. its ii. some of which seem to belong to Entefs of the eleventh dynasty but they are small and carelessly constructed. ' Lepsius. indeed. may be counted by dozens. The pyramid was employed as a terminal form throughout the whole of Egyptian history. and elsewhere. Like those in Egypt. I. The pyramids of Hawara and lUahoon correspond to those which. pi. . 217 many of which are to be monuments of a later period. the southern annexe of Egypt and the copyist of her civilization. Like all the . Meroe. partly history. in the necropolis of Thebes. either in those sepulchral edifices which are still extant. which were attached to them by popular tradition their colossal mass and the vast space of ground which they covered. a few pyramids of crude brick. . such purely geometrical forms would seem unworthy of its powers. as they did not allow of those varied beauties of construction and decoration which its architects had gradually mastered. part p. upon the rocks of Drah-abou'1-neggah. kingdom of Ethiopia. escape from the desire to imitate her pyramids in their own manner. Denkiiur/cr. F F . we are told. so far as we can judge.

however. cornice. had. . give to her royal pyramids the air of grandeur which distinMemphis. Gebel-Barkal (Napata) " fifth" is 39 feet square at the 35 feet square at the base and 60 feet high the Their proportions are not constant. We must return.2i8 other A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. but they were by nature with power to assimilate the lessons of their former masters. taken against the the violation of the royal tomb ' (Fig. Ethiopia Thus the upper generally part of their eastern faces. The Ethiopian guishes the great structures of pyramids were generally so narrow and steep in slope that In their whole character was different from those of Egypt.^ latter edifices thus lost some of that appearance of indestructible They remind one solidity which is their natural expression. The people of who inhabited the region which we now by the reconquered call names Nubia not their political and the Soudan. Add to this that an at once of the obelisk and the pyramid. they are neither original nor interesting. to that type for a moment. the Nubian pyramids is always far greater than the length of one side at its base. bears a false window surmounted by a about as incongruous an ornament as could well be conceived. how far the art of workinsf and fixine stone had advanced even at the time of shall. period the when Ethiopian divided and weakened Egypt. for they are oriented. affords The Great Pyramid elaborate us a curious example of the precautions 132). At point where the ascending gallery one side at the Thus the Great Pyramid was 4S2 is feet high. products of Ethiopian art. On the other hand. and one which expresses nothing either to the eye or the mind. indeed. unintelligent taste overspread them with ill-devised decoration. the " third pyramid . Even during the monarchs reigned over a remained the clumsy She never learnt to pupil and imitator of the northern people. We therefore. independence a thousand years before gifted our short era. take ill-designed variations the first dynasties. in as few words as possible. Egypt the base line was always greater than the vertical height. in order to show. no further notice of these more or upon the type which was created less by the Egyptians in the early days of their civilization and fully understood by themselves alone. but the height of base and nearly 50 feet high. The upon the Upper Nile the proportions were reversed. while the length of " at base is 764 feet.

from Prisse. 1 sliding in 50 and 1 masked the entrance to the latter show the arrangement of these portcullis The narrow passage leading to the discharging chambers above the mummy-chamber. ii. we suppose them arrived. tells us of a subterranean conduit which Fic 149. the sarcophagus-chamber grooves. and would search no farther.^ The violaters of the tomb would believe the corpse to be in this unsuspected reservoir. This block was so heavy and so well adjusted. ' Hfrodotus. that entrance could only be obtained by cutting a passage through the surrounding masonry. being of limestone. The Tomb under the Ancient Empire. this had been finished the waters would perhaps have invaded it by infiltration. led to an unfinished If chamber cut in the rock at about the level of the Nile. did not offer such an unyielding resistance to the Formerly the mouth of a gallery. which. which tools brought against it. still opens upon a small vestibule which would separate flat them ol from Figs. who no doubt thought the work had been completed. 219 branched off from that descending' corridor which was the only entrance to the pyramid. they would find another obstacle to their success which would be likely to arrest them longer than extremity of the great gallery. . stones. 124. at which The upper the first. — Plan and eIe\ation of a iiyramicl at Meroe . and. because Herodotus. the mouth of the former was closed by a block of granite which exactly fitted it. when followed to the end. seemed to be the continuation of the entrance corridor. or if they guessed the deception and persevered till they found the entrance to the ascending gallery. 5 1 itself Four blocks granite. remained open. admitted the waters of the Nile.. would be likely to lead our supThe posed robbers into the upper part of the pyramid. This seems to have been intended by the constructor.

129. result. 130. of closing a gallery by a stone portcullis. Etudes snr T Architecture £gyftien9ie. that Another ingenious arrangement which demands our notice is of those discharging chambers to which we have already These chambers were explored. — Method Dashour. 151. Du Barry de Merval.. The unbidden visitors would thus have explored the interior of the pyramid high and low without _ 1 _^-' ' Fk. from the southern pyramid of Drawn in perspective from the plans and elevations of Perring. and trouble and even supposing that they expended considerable time in the search. not without trouble. jip. high up the end wall of the grand it was left open. alluded. 150.^ . they might easily have failed to penetrate into the mummy-chamber itself.220 A History of Art is in Ancient Egypt. ./^///"/'^''^''^^^^^^Sj^"/yy ^ //A Fro. in entrance to this passage gallery . — Portcullis closed.

The Tomb under the Anxiext

Empire.

221

by Colonel Howard Vyse and. J. L. Perring, who at once comprehended their use. The roof of the sarcophagus- chamber consists of nino slabs of fine red granite, like those which form the walls They are i8 feet 9 inches long and their of the same chamber. In spite of their ends rest upon the side walls of the chamber. thickness and of the hard nature of the rock of which they are composed, it was feared that they might give way under the enormous weight of the masonry above, for the floor of the

zdx^^S^S.
ElG. 152.

— Transverse

section, in perspective, through the s.arcophagiis-cliamber

and the

chamber
pyramid.

is

still nearly 340 feet below the actual apex of the This danger was met in the fashion figured above.

As
five

the structure

grew above the roof of the mummy-chamber,
left,

one above the other, to a total height of 56 feet, which would relieve the flat ceiling of the mummy-chamber of the weight to be placed above it. The first four of these chambers were of similar shape and had flat roofs, but the roof of the fifth was formed of sloping slabs.

small chambers were

222

A

History of Art
ridcje,

in

Ancient Egypt.
chamber a
triano-ular section

meetino- in a

and

privinsf

the

(see Fig. 152).

Thanks

to this succession of voids

immediately
discharged

over the main chamber, and to the pointed arch which surmounts
them,
the vertical pressure of the
itself

superstructure

is

and distributed over the lateral parts of the pyramid. These precautions have been quite effectual. Not a stone has been stirred either by the inward thrust or by
the crushing of their substance
;

from the chamber

not a block

is

out of place but
of

those which have been disturbed by the violence

man

;

and,

moreover, the whole structure
ruption nor settlement in
galleries

is

so

well

bonded and so well
disin

balanced that even his violent attacks have led neither to
the

apartment of Cheops or

the

which lead

to

it.^

Fig.

153.

— Longiludinal

section tlu-ough the Imver

chambers

;

perspetti\e after Pening.

Pyramid is which opens immediately into the vestibule of the King's Chamber. As this corridor is 28 feet high and 7 feet wide, the visitor can breathe more freely than in the low and narrow passages which lead to
built

The

glory of the

workmen who

the Great
gallery

the

masonry of the Grand

Gallery, the

The discovery of these chambers was interesting from another point of view. The name of Choufou was found continually repeated upon the blocks of which
^

was written in red ochre, and, in places, it was upside down, must have been written before the stones were put in place. It cannot therefore have been traced after the tradition which assigned the pyramid to Cheops, that is, to Khoufou, arose and so it affords conclusive
they are formed.
It

thus proving that

it

;

corroboration of the statements of Herodotus.

The Tomb under the Ancient
it,

Empire.

223

and can examine at his ease the beautitul blocks of Hmestone from Mokattam of which its poHshed walls are composed. The faces of these blocks have been dressed with a care which is not to be surpassed even by the most perfect examples of Hellenic The internal faces architecture on the Acropolis at Athens. with equal care. No cement has been must have been worked

employed in the fixing, and the adherence is so perfect that, in the words of Abd-ul-Latif " not a needle, not even a hair, These joints arc not even can be introduced into the joints." ^
to

be

distinguished
is

without
with

careful

examination.
care.-

The

roof

of this gallery

built

no

less

Each of the upper
it,

courses

is

slightly set off

from the one below

so that in time

they come so near together that the opening

may be

closed by

These, beinof held a sinsfle stone, or rather, row of stones. between the two upper courses of a quasi vault, play the part This method of vaulting has been employed in of key stones. other parts of the pyramid, especially in what is called the Queens Chamber, which is almost directly beneath the king's, or sarcophaguschamber. The same care is conspicuous in those linings of red granite which form the walls of the two chambers. Even the fine limestone used for the walls of the Grand Gallery was not considered rich and solid enough for the walls of the apartment in which the prince in whose honour the whole of the colossal and it was determined to use edifice w'as reared would repose the richest and most costly material of which the Egyptian
;

architect could dispose.^

The
which

plain sarcophagus, without either
is

inscription or ornament,

still

in

the King's Chamber,

is

also of red granite.

The

external casing of the pyramid has entirely disappeared, as

we have
1

already said.

On

account of their moderate size the
effect ahiiost

This

in the
^

is no exaggeration. Jomard expresses himself to the same same terms. {Description de l' Egypfe, vol. v. p. 628.) The extremity of this gallery appears on the right of Fig. 152.

^

The presence

of this lining in the " Queen's

Chamber

" also

led to

its

being

dubbed a funerary chamber, for no trace of a sarcophagus was found in it. If we had any reason to believe that the pyramid was built in successive wedges, we should look upon this as a provisional chamber, made before it was certain that the pyramid would attain its present dimensions. As the work went on, it would be decided that another, larger, and better defended chamber should be built. In this case the first may never have been used, and may always have been as empty as
it

is

now.

!24

A

History of Art
it

in

Ancient Egypt.
to

stones of which
fitted for

was composed would seem

be especially well

use in building those great cities which, after the collapse

of the ancient civilization, succeeded each other, under different

neighbourhood of the Memphite necropolis. This made of more than one kind of stone, if we may believe an ancient text which has been interpreted by Letronne with the skill and sagacity of which he has given so
names,
in the

casing seems to have been

many proofs.^ The author, named Wonders of the World,
this

work

"

upon the Seven tells us that the Egyptians employed upon the most brilliant and varied stones, which were
Philo,

of

a

treatise

carefully fixed."
result

He

mentions as contributing to the splendid
is

white marble, basalt, porphyry, and a green breccia from
called verde antique.

Arabia, which must have been what
as for his white marble,
it

And

must have been the white limestone from Mokattam, which, in its best strata, is almost as white and Marble, properly speaking, was only fine in grain as marble. introduced into Egypt by the Greeks, and that in very small
quantities, for the use of sculptors.

Philo says nothing of granite,

its use was so general that it must have found a place in the scheme of decoration." The various kinds of stone must have been so placed as to form zones, and perhaps patterns, of different colours, white, red, black, rose, green, and so on. To form an idea of the effect we must think of Giotto's campanile at Florence and various other Italian buildings of the same kind. It has been questioned whether the testimony of this Philo is to be depended upon, as few of those who have busied themselves with the pyramids seem to have laid much stress upon it. It seems to us to be worthy of great respect. We do not know

but

'

Their presence
I'f

These observations are to be found in one of the early works of Letronne. Rechenhes Geographiqiies is in no way hinted at by the title, which is
:

Critiijues

sur

le

Livre

'

De

mcnstcra orhis term'' (8vo. 1844).

The

treatise, IlEpt

rmi

kiTTa. 6ea/xaTojr,

Byzantium.

may have been written either by Philo They both belonged to the third century

of Heraclea or Philo of

before our era, but the

and numerous errors incline us to believe that the little work must have been from the pen of some unknown rhetorician of a later date. - These are the words of Philo, which we have translated rather freely HoiKiAai
bombastic
style
:

8e Kai 7rop<^i'pai
IJ.a.pix.apin)'!' rrj

kWoiv

<^i'o"€is

dA\7;A.ais eTriScSo/iei'at, koI

tu

fih' idTiv

r)

Trcrpa Xcvkij Kai

8t AWiottlki] Kat /AcAatra Koi /xera TavTr/v 6 /caXoi'p.O'OS aljiaTiTy]';

XWo%'

eira jroiKt'Aos kui 8iu;^Aojpo5 airu -nji A/aa/St'as KeKOixLafji.wo<s, p. 2,259, A.


The Tomb under the Ancient
when
Philo lived, but

Empire.

225

pyramid was Middle Ages, because in the time of Abd-ul-Latif it had almost its original height, and its ascent was still very difficult.^ On the other hand we have proofs that, although the author of the Seven Wonders of the World may have written more in the tone of a rhetorician than of an eyewitness of the wonders which he describes, he took some of his
that the casinq- of the
still

we know

in place, at least in

part, durino- the

information from excellent sources.

In fact with the exception of

Pliny, he is the only ancient writer who gives us an approximately true statement of the length of the base line of Cheops' Pyramid. While the measurements of other writers are very far from accurate, the figure given by Philo is only 16 feet 6 inches in

excess of the truth.
'

The

idea of decorating such an expanse of

According to the calculations of Letronne, the Great Pyramid must have been In the time of Diodorus it was slightly over feet high when it was complete. feet in that of Abd-ul-Latif it measured 477 feet 3 inches. In 1795 it was only 456 feet and a few inches, so that it lost about 24 feet in the course of eighteen This lowering of the summit was mainly caused by the destruction and centuries. removal of the outer casing. Since it disappeared the Arabs have been in the

482 480

;

habit of loosening the stones

on the top and launching them down the

sides for the

amusement
this.

of travellers

;

the smooth casing alone could prevent such outrage as

The common
is

world
at

erroneous.

least

Cheops is the highest building in the Even if we take its height when complete, it is surpassed by two modern buildings, as may be seen by the following table of the

idea that the Pyramid of

most

lofty buildings

now

existing

:

Feet.

Spires of Cologne Cathedral

Fleche of the Cathedral at
Spire of
St.

Nicholas,

Rouen Hamburg

533 500 480

Dome

of

St. Peter's,

Rome

476
473 456 450 443 417 411

Spire of Strasbourg Cathedral

Pyramid of Cheops
Spire of
Spire of
St.
St.

Stephen's, Vienna
Martin's, Landshut

Spire of the Cathedral of Freiburg, Breisgau Spire of

Antwerp Cathedral, not including the
Cathedral at Florence
St.

cross

Spire of Salisbury Cathedral

Dome of
Doine of

404 396
371

Paul's,

London

Fleche of Milan Cathedral

363

Tower of Magdeburg Cathedral
Victoria Tower, Westminster

344 336
293 287 266

Rathhaus Tower, Berlin
Spire of Trinity Church,

New York

Pantheon, Paris

Towers of Notre Dame, Paris
vol..
I.

226
(;

G

226

A

UlSlDRY OK

A RT

I\

AnCIENT
in

EgVI'T.

surface with varied colour
taste.

was quite

accordance with Egyptian
;

They loved polychromatic ornaments
surface

they covered every
in

available

with the gayest hues
the

;

they delighted

the

most brilliant tones. They could hardly think of covering such an immense surface with paint, and as it was necessary, in any case, to cover it with a smooth casing, it would be no more difficult to employ many kinds of stone than one. They would thus obtain a kind of gigantic mosaic which may perhaps have been heightened in effect by the use of gold. We know that the pyramidion of an obelisk was frequently gilded, and it is probable enough that similar means were sometimes taken, in the case of the more magnificent and carefully finished pyramids, to draw the eye to their topmost stone and thus to add to the impression made by their height. No more fitting adornment could be imagined for the sharp peak of a pyramid rising nearly five hundred feet into the pure blue of an Egyptian sky. But this is a conjecture which can never be verified. Even if the topmost stone were still in place upon any of the pyramids it would, after all these ages, have lost all traces of gilding but the whole of those edifices have their apex more or less truncated. Even before our era, Diodorus found the Great Pyramid crowned by a plateau six cubits square.
juxtaposition
of
;

sometimes been supposed that the pyramids, when complete, were terminated by such a plateau as that described by Diodorus, and that it bore a statue of the king whose mummy rested below. This hypothesis is founded upon the passage of Herodotus which treats of the Lake Mceris. " There are," he says, "in the middle of the lake, two pyramids, each fifty fathoms high (309 feet) each of them is .surmounted by a colossal stone statue seated upon a throne." ^ Herodotus insists so often upon having seen the Labyrinth and Lake Moeris with his own eyes, that we cannot affect to doubt his assertions we shall therefore confine ourselves to a few observations upon
It

has

;

them.
In the descriptions which he gives of the three great pyramids,

and among

construction,

comments upon the methods employed in their Herodotus does not say a word which can be construed into the most distant allusion to statues upon their If he had seen colossi perched upon those lofty summits.
his
I

Diodorus,

i.

63. 64.

-

Herodotus,

ii.

49.

The Tomb under the Ancient
pedestals,

Empire.

227

whose he had heard trom his dragomans exaggerations he has elsewhere so naively reproduced that they had formerly existed, would he not have made some allusion to them in that passage, at least, where he explains how they raised such huge stones to so great a height, and describes the successive
or
if

stages in the construction of a pyramid

?

^

Would he

not have

found
of

room,

in

the elaborate antithetical passage in which

he

contrasts the virtues of IMycerinus with the imaginary wickedness

Cheops and Chephren, for moral and critical reflections called up by the sight of their statues upon their respective pyramids still more if one of them had happened to be missing ? Would he not have attempted, through some popular tradition, to have accounted for the presence of one statue and the absence of another ? It is evident, therefore, that Herodotus neither saw any statues upon the Pyramids of Memphis nor had he any reason to suppose those structures had ever been crowned in such a fashion. He lays stress upon the seated statues of the pyramids in Lake Moeris because they were new to him, because he had seen nothing of the same kind in the neighbourhood of the ancient capital.
;

Unless we are very much mistaken, this superposition of a colossus upon a pyramid was a novelty devised by the architects
of
the

middle

empire,

when,

under

the

Ousourtesens

and

Amenemhats, it was proposed to revive the pyramidal form of tomb with which the early Pharaohs had obtained such imposing
results.

Although most conservative on the whole, the
at

art

of

Egypt attempted,
this

each period of renascence, to introduce
details, at least, of the ancient forms,

new
and
the

combinations into the

was one of the number. Another innovation of the same kind

is

to

be found

in

decoration which covered, ag-ain according to Herodotus,- another

I M. Maspero has given in the Aiinuaire de F Association pour F Enanu-agement des Etudes Grecques and elsewhere, several extracts from a commentary upon the second book of Herodotus, which we should like to see published in its entirety. We may point out more particularly his remarks upon the te.xt of the Greek historian in the

matter of the 1,600 talents of silver which, he says, was the value of the onions,
radishes,
(ii.

and

garlic

consumed by

the

workmen emi)loyed upon

the Great Pyramid

125).

He

has no difficulty in showing that Herodotus

made

a mistake, for
p.

which he gives an ingenious and probable explanation.
^

{Annuaire de 1875,

16.)

Herodotus,

ii.

148.

Diodorus

(1.

Strabo, who also appears to have seen it, He says it was four plethra (393 feet) both

89) speaks of the same pjTamid, and asserts its funerary character (p. 1165, c).
in

width and height.

This

last

dimension

228

A

History of Art

i\

Ancient Egypt.

pyramid constructed at about the same time, namely, that which formed one side of the Labyrinth. " It had," says the historian, " forty fathoms, and it was sculptured with animals of large size. The entrance was by a subterranean passage." From the Greek word used {eyytyXv-n-rai) we see that Herodotus means that the faces, or perhaps only the principal face, of this pyramid about two hundred and fifty feet high, were covered with bas-reliefs. There is in Egypt no other example of a pyramid so decorated. The architectural works of this period have almost entirely vanished, but we may, perhaps, look upon it as one of their characteristics that the bareness which they had inherited from the early creators of Egyptian art, was relieved and adorned by
the intervention of the sculptor.
It

their

was the desire for such ornament pyramids into gigantic pedestals

that
for

made them convert
statues.

According

all the analogies afforded by later ages, these statues must have been those of the princes who built the pyramids in question. We have no reason to suppose that any of the kings of the first six dynasties erected any colossal figures like those which were set up in such numbers by the Theban dynasties with the single exception of the Sphinx, none of the statues left to us by the ancient empire greatly exceed the natural size. But it is evident that such figures as would be fit to crown the pyramids of Cheops and Chephren would have to be of extravagant size even if no more than their general outlines were to be visible from below. Seen from a point nearly 500 feet below, and in consequence of the inclination of the pyramid faces, at some considerable distance laterally, even a statue fifty feet high, like the two colossi of Amenophis III. on the plain of Thebes, would appear small enough to a spectator. Its artistic results would be very slender, and yet its erection would require prodigious mechanical efforts. It would have required all the multitudes of labourers, the patience, and the time, which the But Egyptians alone dared to expend upon their monuments. perhaps it may be said that these colossi were statues built-up of comparatively small stones. To this we must answer that

to

;

every colossus as yet discovered in Egypt is a monolith. A statue, of whatever size, made in different pieces would form
is

obviously exaggerated, because in
is

all

the Egyptian pyramids that are

known

to us

the shortest diameter of the base

far in excess of the height.

The Tomb under the Ancient
an
exception
it.

Emph^e.

we know

whole practice of Egyptian sculpture as Until such works are proved to exist we decline
to

the

to believe in

them.
a

The problem was
mids
ing
in

much

simpler one in the cases of the pyralofty.

to

Lake Moeris. They were not nearly so Herodotus they were about 309 feet
Herodotus could not himself
sank as
is

Accorddoubtless

high,

including their statues.

Situated as they were in the middle of

the

lake,

have measured
below the
level

them,
of the

and

his statement that they
it

far

water as they rose above
reserved, as in the cases

an obvious exaggeration.
other

When

the bed of the lake was formed, two masses of rock were no doubt
of the

pyramids,
it

to

form the

core of the projected edifices, and therefore

is

likely

enough

dipped In his amazement at the below the surface of the lake.^ scale upon which the Egyptian Ijuildings were conceived, Herodotus has too often attributed excessive dimensions to them thus he says that the height of the Great Pyramid was
that the lowest courses of the constructions themselves

but

little

;

eight plethra, or about

820

the

truth. for

It

is

therefore

nearly 340 feet in excess of probable that the figures which he
feet,

gives

the

lake

pyramids

are

also

exaggerated.

These

pyramids were, on account of their comparatively modest dimensions, much better adapted to the ideas of the Ousourtesens and Amenemhats than the gigantic piles of Cheops, Chephren, and Mycerinus. Finally there is not a te.xt to be found, outside the pages of Herodotus, which mentions pyramids surmounted by statues, and upon none of those monuments which in one way or another bear representations of the pyramids are they shown in any other way than with pointed summits. Thus do we find them in the papyri, upon those steles of the Memphite necropolis which
'

If the

passage

in

which Herodotus makes the statement here referred

to be

taken in connection with the remarks of Diodoriis, a probable expLanation of the
old historian's assertion

may be

arrived

at.

Diodorus says that the king 6pvTTo»'
iv

Tavryp' {Xifxvqv Sub.) KaTeAtTrev ev
TT/i' /ici'

filirr/ tottoj',

w

Ta<j6oi^

wKOOo^rjrre sat ovo Ti-upa^t^a?,

By this it would ajjpear that, in excavatmg the bed, or a part of the bed, of the famous lake, a mass of earth was left in order to bear future witness to the depth of the excavation and tlie general This mass would probably be reveted with stone, and, in magnitude of the work. order that even when surrounded and almost hidden by water, its significance should not be lost, the pyramids raised upon it were made exactly equal to it in height.
lavTov, T7)v 8t T^s ywi/atKo?, trraSiat'as to
vij/o'S.

—Ed.

A

History of Art

in

Ancient Egypt.

commemorate the priests devoted to their service, and in those tombs at Memphis, Abydos, and Thebes where the pyramid,
placed upon rectangular figures of various heiglits,
terminal
eleinent.
is

used as a

Neither

in

the

small

number

of

pyramids

which have come down to us comparatively intact, nor in those which are represented in reliefs, is there the smallest sign of a truncated summit or of any platform which could by any possibility have borne a statue. We may say the same of those small px'ramidions which have been found in such great numbers in tombs and which fill our

museums.

It

is

well

known

that

these are votive offeringfs in

Fig. 154.

— Pyiamidion

:

l.ouvie.

connection with the worship of the sun.
says

"

The
hand

principal figure,"

M. de Rouge,

" is

generally

shown

in

a posture of adoration,
is

with his face turned to the sun.
to the

On

his left

the invocation

rising, and on his rio-ht that to the settinsf sun. These arrangements are modified in various ways, but they are always upon the same genera lines as the orientation of the tombs themselves." ^ These minute pyramids also end in a point whether they be of basalt, granite, or calcareous stone, and it is

natural that
^

we should

look upon them as the faithful reproductions
Egypiiens exposes dans
Ics

Notice somiiiaire des

Aloniiiiients

Galeries dii Louvre

(4th edition, 1S65, p. 56).

and. which would afterwards have to be filled up. the workmen charged with the final completion of the edifice worked downwards from one course to another. covering the immense steps which each face displayed five or six thousand years ago and now displays again. This apex once fixed place. and when the stones were too large to be lifted from hand to hand. Even Herodotus saw that this must Any other way of have been the method of completion. As the workmen approached of the base they left above them an ever increasing extent polished surface. it was a protection. These difficulties would have unnecessarily complicated an operation which was a simple The masons could then make matter when begun from the top. great scale of those funerary monuments which which furnished a type. and forming the only safeguard its against the degradation of the pyramid by removing or its copestone violation by breaking into the passages Avhich led to the mummy-chamber. We may believe. 125). And again. 6 ur Tu a! Mrara aiTT/s wpi'iTa. consecrated by the most venerable of the national traditions. with the final casing which protected ihem for so many centuries.^ proceeding would have been too dangerous after the slope of the sides had been made smooth and continuous by the completion of Workmen could only have kept the casing of polished granite. use of the steps for their own locomotion.The upon a small To-Mh unuer the Axchint ELmpire. (ii. sloping at such an angle that no foot could rest upon it. above all. points of resistance could not have been obtained for the elevation heights of the materials to ever increasing without cutting or leaving holes in the casing. that the pyramid terminated in of the ancient empire in a pyramidion. nothing could be easier than to fi. . So long as the pyramid preserved its cuirass intact. a defensive armour. employed were varied in the way suggested. /i«Tu 6e Tu e— o/xeru TOiTwr iii—oUvv . if The casing gave to the its continuous lines which were necessary to the materials make pyramid those beauty complete. . their footing upon such a surface. then. But. it furnished colour effects which had their beauty also. . it was difficult tor those ' 'E^tTTOiiy^T. by means of a complicated arrangement of ropes and ladders. of that structure facing the four cardinal points we may call the normal Egyptian tomb.K windlasses by which the largest blocks could be raised with facility. with its 51 or 52 degrees of elevation.

have been reduced by the action of time into heaps of debris. According grey limestone. A." he says. sunk into the upper face of the course below by mortices which would correspond to the trench in the living rock As to whether the external in which the first course was fixed. or whether the work were done after they were in place we cannot say with any certainty. faces of these blocks were dressed to the required angle before they left the quarry. and they show.ivov to ttum €pyov. to who meditated But all know where it begin their attack. Ang\x%U 1841. The lower part of this pyramid is still covered with long blocks of the finest granite. of various materials. p. and it is to that of Mycerinus that we must now turn if we wish to have some idea of the care with which the work was done. so we need feel no surprise if blocks of granite or other rock are shown to have formed jart of it. In such a matter we should ' find. v. to who seems be so well informed. The and easily cut. 640) but according to Philo. rather less precision: 12). this obstacle once pierced the secrets of the building. t. " Jomard. the elder Pliny. autem saxo naturali elaborata et lubrica " {JVat Hist." ^ The pyramid of Cheops has been entirely despoiled of its outer covering. especially those which were built of bricks. and so thoroughly polished. but it is most likely that the methods of proceeding changed with the progress of time and the succession of architects. to "Est So. xxxvi. the casing stones of the Great Pyramid were "a compact more homogeneous than those of the body of the building " {Description tie F Egypte. and adjusted by their external faces. as Letronne " long ago remarked. . carefully built than the casing was comparatively easy to learn inner mass was much less the joints were comparatively open. as was at first supposed. . is hardly to be recognised. p. diversity similar to that 2i'>'ap/xoj' h\ Kai KaTiti(T\t. if we entered into details. too. though with 2259. uiixTe BoKeiv okov tov KaracrKfr'acr/LiaTos fiiav eliai TrtVpas av/j-^tviav. At the foot of the Great Pyramid several blocks have been found which seem to have formed part of the casing of that edifice. as we have already said. this casing was formed. " is so well adjusted. The whole work. fixed and polished in the most perfect manner.. in which the and the stones were soft pyramidal form Philo. They were not. that the casing stones were placed one upon another. " tells us with what extreme care the casing was put in place. that the v/hole envelope seems but one block of stone. Hence we see that some pyramids. harder and .They are trapezoidal in form.232 A History of Art violence to ix Ancient Egypt. ^ Joiinial des Savants.

H 11 VOL. upon paper.- The Tomb under the Ancient Empire. or become dislocated from natural causes. which seem to have formed part Such a section seems.EDEKF. Herodotus (ii. these awkwardly shaped prisms offered less inducement to the pyramids as those who looked upon their places I. By Ethiopian Syene. the granite of The Greek have thought that the whole of the first course. stone we must understand. . This system. and the materials of which they were composed.R. while their position in the angles of the internal masonry enabled to them keep independently of the lower courses of the casing. In his time the pyramid was in a good state of preservation. 338 (ed. to the faces of the graded core. moreover. ' B. ^ '""-^ — j~ —— -v TiG. does not seem to have been carried out on the same principle from top to bottom. 233 which we have already shown to have characterized the forms of the pyramids. and partly independent of the monument which it protected. was of this stone. seems thickness of the pyramid. 155 — The casing of the pyr. first p.. their internal arrangements. of 187S). did not give a its homogeneous envelope with a thickness of own. Egyft. so that they could easily be carried off. the of its lower casing. throughout the His mistake was a natural one. — En. ^ ^g^ . 2 On the other hand. unlike the first described.nmids . 127) says that the course of the Great Pyramid was built of a parti-coloured Ethiopian stone TrpwTov So/xoi' (iiTToStt'/ias Toi' \iOov AWtoTTLKov TToiKiXov). and he never thought of asking whether or no the core was of the same material as the outer case. triangular prisms ot granite have been found at the pyramid of Chephren. as historian several to illustrations prove.^ simplest that could be adopted for the filling in of the angle between two of the steps. clra\Mi in jier^pective from the elevation of Perrinc. open quarries than the easily squared blocks of Cheops. . The prisms had no alliance one with another they had to depend for their security entirely upon their adherence foot of the Thus some . The casing of the Second Pyramid. parti. but it is far inferior in solidity to the trapezoidal section.

while the difficulty would be enormously increased if the coat were to have a — considerable thickness of its own independently v. . would evidently be easy enough to cover the pyramid with a coat of cement working downwards if its surface did not greatly overpass the salient angles of the steps. but without their Such is the case with the Second Pyramid.^ In other pyramids we find at different combinations again. prove that some of the pyramids contained long texts. of the pyramid. Ed. They may have wished Philo speaks. which bears an inscription of some length. upon which blocks of granite are to be found which are still rough in face. vol. explorers of the Pyramids of Gizeh were surprised at the all absence of beyond the masons' marks the silence of those enormous structures seemed amazing but soon Colonel Vyse discovered in the pyramid of Mycerinus the sarcophagus of that king. The The variety which is so conspicuous in the architectural conis struction of the pyramids first also to be found in their epigraphy. but rather that they should ever have been completed. and it is quite possible that yet other materials entered into the composition of the casing. Antiqiiiles. with mortar. three pyramids at Sakkarah to be opened. which contain the names of kings and other information which is of great importance to the historian In 1879 and 1880. But we ought in fact to be surprised. Recent discoveries. In the double-sloped erection Dashour. no doubt. 155. not so much at the unfinished state of a pyramid here and there. Sometimes we polish. and the mummy case. find the revetment in a state of .— 234 — in A History of Art Ancient Egypt. gypsum. the blocks in place. is composed of a hard cement formed of chalk. and cut to the proper angle. which still remains in place. the courses of casing stones are vertical instead of horizontal. Description de f Egypte. 7. ' The determination to use a concrete such as that described affords a good It reason for the prismatic shape of the granite blocks used in the lower courses. too. It would seem that the patience required for the minute completion of such a terribly long and tedious piece of work was not forthcoming. Mariette caused of the Egyptian religion. by to obtain the parti-coloured effect of which making simultaneous use of granite and concrete.^ while a brick pyramid — the final most northern — in the same locality. fixed. of which full details are yet wanting. . The upper part. like the casing shown '^ in Fig. which until then had inscriptions . was covered with semi-completion slabs of limestone. p. now in the British Museum. and pieces of burnt brick.

. the last which he was destined to of One them was silent make in the soil of Egypt. were found.The Tomb under the Ancient remained unexplored. ordered a second pyramid to be opened. brightened the last days of Mariette. The text of the inscription which covers the walls it is almost identical with that in the tomb of Papi. those which walls are covered with fine hieroglyphs painted green. Mariette of the excavations. 235 and empty. has the advantage of being M. portcullis the last Pharaoh of the similar to dynasty. Papi and his son Merenzi. . with the exception of the finest of the wall opposite to the entrance. . which turned out fifth to be the tomb of Ounas. have already been figured were stones When these obstacles were passed " the continuation found. filled with debris. the first part of polished granite. encouraged by this first success. upon the spot. recognised certain formulae and phrases which had already struck him in another place. in ^he He has observed FebruanS. Pleasure at this discovery. Without presenting any very considerable difficulties. . . This wall with is like which precedes alabaster. . that the G. These texts make up a composition analogous to one which covers the walls of certain little known Theban tombs. The sarcophagus of black basalt. " M. so far as monumental remains are concerned. Empire. Maspero. . Maspero has always believed that there ' is no such gap. upon the walls of which the inscription continued. 1881. is The mummy-chamber. . whom Mariette had previously entrusted with taking squeezes from the inscription in the tomb of Papi. the roof finally sprinkled with stars of the into a same hue.^ In March as director 1881. IMaspero. He w-ished to verify. of the passage was found. . M. the sixth and the tenth dynasties a great gap exists. opened a pyramid belonging to a difterent group. the successor of M. a theory which he had long upheld in spite of the adverse opinions It is well known that between of the majority of egyptologists. . The passage opens that chamber half is it. but in the others the inscriptions and sarcophagi of two kings of the Fragsixth dynasty. and is effectively is decorated painted ornaments. In this pyramid. M. Charmes. Journal des Dehats. The side the second of the close-grained limestone of Tourah. they demand careful examination from those who would comprehend their meaning. covered with hieroglyphs. but complete. ments of a Ritual of the Dead were recognized among them. without inscription. IMaspero.

and elsewhere. at Abousir. ninth. Hence M. " its but Time time has done work during the . similar remains . an Arab writer of the thirteenth century. Where. those of the in the Abooseer. have either been destroyed by the violence of man or engulfed by the encroaching sand. 1881. all those accessory structures which surrounded them. and fulfilled their own well-defined offices in the general monumental ensemble. and tenth dynasties are those between Sakkarah and the Fayoum. In any case science will profit by the new own showed excavations which he When about to undertake. so to speak. . here and there it rises as much as eighty-six feet above the surface of the plateau. The summits of the great structures have been slightly lowered the gaping breaches in their flanks have been gradually widened and although In spite of their stripped flanks and open wounds they still rear their heads proudly into the Egyptian sky. grouped chronologically from north fifth those of the fourth dynasty at Gizeh.236 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. preserved. but their size and the beauty of their masonry will ever make the three great pyramids of Gizeh the most striking objects to the traveller and to the historian of art. Maspero the is pyramids will tell us much. to at pyramids south . are. ' * Moniteur Egyptien. they formed truly regal avenues by which the funeral processions of the Egyptians reached the centre of the necropolis as long as Time. Maspero thinks that the pyramids erected by the sovereigns of the seventh. Hitherto they have attracted but little of that examination which discovers the most curious secrets. seems no fear more than fears the last natural. eighth. are to be found. A of the Third Pyramid. The causeway which led to the Pyramid its of Cheops still exists for some 400 yards of length ." ^ cross-examined by such questioners as M. are those wide and substantial causeways. March 15. these three pyramids are wonderfully well In their presence.^ After having afforded an unyielding roadway for the transport of so many heavy materials. . even in their actual state of partial ruin. those of the twelfth of Marietta as well as his Fayoum. similar causeway is to be distinguished on the eastern side At Abou-Roash. Considering their age." he cries. the oriental hyperbolism of Abd-ul-Latif. The future will show whether he is right or wrong. The excavations the tombs of the fifth and sixth dynasties to have been at Sakkarah. whose large and carefully adjusted blocks excited the wonder of Herodotus. for example. " All things " Pyramids! And yet few hundreds of years.

but in the thirteenth centurv. 156. the image of Harmachis. of that eternal life which. The great Sphinx. and their gentle slope gave easy access to the western plateau. Immovable among the dead of the vast cemetery. is ever destined to triumph over darkness and death. was well calculated to prepare the eye of the traveller for the still more colossal masses of the pyramids. 237 were above the level of the highest inundations. cut from a rock nearly 70 feet high. or the Rising Sun. Abd-ul-Latif . Empire. he personified In the plain they the idea of the resurrection. but in the days of Herodotus his vast bulk.^N Fig. like the morning sun. His head alone now rises above the sand. although even then he had been mutilated. was placed at the threshold of the plateau. F ^- •n {) •i^ E3 M&K^' a5 w <4^ V~ J:jW^-^ ^^ .The Tomb under the Ancient their civilization lasted. —Plan of ihe Pyramids of Gizeh and of that part of the necropolis which immediately suiTOunds them. His features have now been disfigured by all kinds of outrage.

was able to admire his serene smile. his head enframed in a richly carved wig which added to its size and dignity. 157. v. the stylobate Upon this pavement rested the the Both stylobate and pavement are now in almost every case concealed by sand and dSris. According to Jomard. . the surbase of the second pyramid was a stylobate. — The Sphinx. ' Description de VEgypte. fig. 2. which is less foundations of surrounding pyramid. Antiqiiitcs. xvi. pi. His body was never more than roughly blocked out. 643. The with soil around each pyramid was carefully levelled and paved dressed limestone slabs. monuments upon the eye. vol. or The latter. funerary chapel of the pyramid. and gave additional definition to their The area thus paved was inclosed with a wall. was raised. and a plinth about - 3 feet high. which had bases. in front of which the temple. 10 feet high and 5 feet thick. traces of them have been proved to They added somewhat to the imposing effect of those exist. banked up than the others.238 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. p. Fig. vol. v. no doubt. in two parts — See also in the plates.^ an opening towards the east. compensated in some degree for the deficiencies in the modelling. but a painted decoration. but at the pyramid of Chephren. of which traces may still be found.

The Tomb under the Ancient Empire. the private tombs were erected in close ju. and a few with statues Upon the causeways which connected placed upon their facades. each being provided with a stele. upon the esplanades erected by the Pharaohs to the memory and for the adoration of their ancestors. about whom Herodotus tells one of those absurd stories invented by the Egyptians of the decadence. Of smaller pyramids were raised for their wives and children. driving before them the bleating and lowing victims for the funeral Priests in white linen. these some haU' dozen still exist upon the plateau of them has been recognized as the tomb of that daughter of Cheops. amid all the bustle of the Egyptian jour des marts. we might almost say its festivals. with which his dragomans took such delight in imposing upon his simple faith. from Perring. most of them bas-reliefs. and blind alleys which gave access to the private tombs. like that of the living. — Pyramid with itb iiiclosuie. One of Gizeh. the long rows of mastabas stretched away for miles through the vast necropolis. 158. advanced endless processions of mourners. . flitted hither and thither. On the days appointed for the commemoration of the dead. At the foot of the mountains of stone under which reposed the ashes of the Pharaohs themselves.'' Around the space which was thus consecrated to the adoration of the dead monarch. all this The city of the must have afforded a curiously animated scene. all those who had been near the Pharaoh and had received some of his reflected glory. dead had its peculiar life. But amid the coming and going. with their hands full of fruit and flowers. friends and relations of the dead rites. or sepulchral tablet KiG. Memphis with the necropolis. in the countless streets. 126. The great ones of Egypt. being adorned with painted upon which the name of the deceased was inscribed. it was the giant forms of ' Herodotus.xtaposition one with another. Abousir . grouped Distributed thus by their tombs as closely as possible about his. lanes. reigns. ii. 239 was magnificently decorated.

Of all this harmonious conception but a few fragments remain." he says. we begin to be amazed. and thus. the pyramids are yet among those monuments of the world which are sure to impress all who possess sensibility or powers In a remarkable passage in the Description gdnerale of reflection. " a portion of polished casing. with their poUshed slopes and their long office. almost to be stupefied by their size.240 A History of Art in Anxient Egypt. ^ shadows turning with the sun. and thousands of others which are but little less. possesses. do possession of the Pyramid of Cheops. nor the imagination grasp their mass. in a fashion. Jomard has well defined the effect which they produce upon the traveller and the impressions which " The they leave behind general effect produced by the pyramids is very curious. As we approach them this effect diminishes but when : . hundreds of stones each containing two hundred cubic feet and weighing some thirty tons. which relects the rays of the sun and declares its identity to people at a vast distance. We touch them with our hands and endeavour ' Jomard remarks " It still that the upper part of the second pyramid its still reflects the rays of the sun. in their its honours to the curious visitor. look like those of high mountains standing out against the sky. hardly embrace them. symbolized the royal dignity and the almost superhuman majesty of the kingly the pyramids. and by the harsh voices of the Bedouins who have taken own fashion. we arrive within a very short distance of their sides a totally different impression succeeds . It is the sense of their simple grandeur of form and of the disproportion between the individual power and stature The eye can of man and these colossal creations of his hands. its by the footsteps of a few casual visitors hurrying along deserted avenues. The necropolis is almost as empty and deserted as the desert which it adjoins. We then begin to form some idea of the prodigious quantity We see of dressed stone which goes to make up their height. The silence is only broken by the cry of the jackal. But despoiled though they be of their ornaments and of their proper surroundings. to be oppressed. Their summits. When quite close to them their summits and anHes can no longer be seen. de Memphis et dcs Pyramidcs. and. that gave the scene a peculiar solemnity and a character of its own. Morning and evening this shadow passed over hundreds of tombs. The wonder which they cause is not like that caused by a great work of art." . when seen from a distance.

upon the bank of the Description de V Egypie. the most form of tomb in the necropolis of Memphis. because they are the . p. vol. We have yet to follow the development of the same idea through the later years of Egyptian civilization. have shown how the mastaba. explained in No other race has given birth in its funerary architecture. the greater is our admiration obstacles. are yet penetrated by the same spirit. we are able to understand for ^ all these thing-s.The Tomb under the Middle to realize the Empire. by the development of art. what machines they used. which though sensibly modified by the great change in proportion. in another by the inevitable progress of ideas. v. may be every detail by a master-idea at once original and We therefore dwelt upon it at some length and We found it described it with the care which it demanded. that is to say. . and how many years it must have taken and the less dress. or at least in its youth. 241 power which must have been required to quarry and fix such a number of colossal blocks. which was no more stationary in Egypt than elsewhere. a type which well defined. [ i was that of Abydos VOL. The most ' important necropolis of the First in Theban Empire left 597. to In one place we shall find it modified by the nature of the soil to which the corpse had to be committed. are the most interesting to the historian. and by the caprices of fashion. to a type so pure." the patience and power which overcame such § 3. both in arrangement and in decoration. by the colossal dimensions which the pride of the Pharaohs gave one part of their tomb. ancient We works created by a people results of the sincere is in its infancy. The ToDid under the Mieidle Empire. was an expression. to and unfettered expansion of vital forces this when there is no possibility of a desire The mastaba deserved therefore to be imitate foreien models. . 1. how many men must have been employed on the work. of the ideas In literature and in art the of the Egyptians as to a future life. Upper Egypt. carry. A?iti'juili-s. the royal tombs of the Ancient Empire. again in the pyramids. especially the case very carefully studied. and in localities more or less removed from that in which she gave her first tokens of power.

" ^ Under such conditions it may readily be understood why Mariette should have concentrated so 1 much of his attention upon finds. Although many Egyptian towns could show tombs in which the members of Osiris. On Isis and Osiris. which took place in the end of the great first number is of sepultures from the years of the monarchy to until ancient civilization. As. of the myths which the opening through which the setting sun sank into the bowels of the earth to According the Egyptian belief. conclude that to the spot in choosing a final resting-place as near as possible where the great luminary seemed to make its nightly plunge." its life. and thence through the opening to the west of that town which gave access to the regions of Ament. or any Egyptian during his own . was situated to the west of Abydos. who. This sun of the infernal regions is Osiris. or the object of such deep devotion. It was. he is but hidden for a moment from the eyes of man. But the author from whom this Plutarch derived his inspiration must have known the ancient fiction according to which the soul could only pass into the next world by betaking itself to Abydos. of all the Egyptian gods. "are those of Egyptians domiciled at Abydos." says a well informed Greek writer. they believed they were making more completely sure of triumphing. the other. " The richest and most influential Egyptians. 159). as that at Abydos. none of them were so famous. if we may be permitted to use such a phrase. to from one end of the Nile valley centred in it. were re-united by Isis and Nephthys. over darkness and death. safely at Thebes or Memphis (Fig. as the mummy would be reposing . " were ambitious of a common tomb with Osiris. which had been dispersed by Set. head. in the early centuries of Christianity. We the Egyptian intellect had established an analogy between the career of the sun and that of man we may therefore for its nightly transit. the faithful laid great stress upon burial in the neighbourhood of some holy martyr. the Holy Sepulchre of Egypt. know how . the family." he says {Revue Critique. character of the city of Abydos. was most universally adored. The sun is not extinguished. xx. A The History of Art in Ancient Egypt. like him. it.242 river. Hence the voyage of the dead to Abydos which we find so often represented on tombs an imaginary voyage. c. after the death of could deposit upon the ladder of Osiris a stele. 1881). January 31. no " All the tombs which have yet been discovered at Abydos. Maspero themselves. upon which the tomb actually containing his body could be represented and unmistakably identified with its original by the formula inscribed upon it. be explained by the peculiarly sacred and by the great popularity. M. At all events. confirmation of this statement in the monuments however. Pseudo-Plutarch.

Abydos. sometimes vertical.. vol. (ChampolHon.^RiETTE. would be upon the roof of his temple. . T Emplacement de cette -Ville. upon which the consecrated steles were placed. 159. The situation of this tomb-district. 1S80. was the flight of steps which led up to the temple of that god. the is subsoil ' remainder of the space occupied by the tombs the of a very different nature. sometimes horizontal as in the tomb of Ti and the pyramids. succeed his M3 in all his researches he did not itself. at Abydos as at Denderah. " The hard and impenetrable stir M. discoverine. Arrangements similar to those of the mastabas at Sakkarah are found. ii. probably in the immediate neighbourhood of the artificial mound called Koum-esSoulian. — The river transport the of the Mummy. the same materials. In the article which we quote above. In spite the of" Empire. folio.^ One district of this necropolis made up by a vast number of tombs dating from the time of the ancient empire. tomb of Osiris but vet dieeino- campaigns afforded results which is are most interesting and important from every point of view.The Tomb under the Middle Abydos. where is central cemetery. Dcscnpiitni des Fcuilks exccutees i. and particularly from the sixth dynasty. Maspero has set forth the considerations which lead him to think that the staircase of Osiris. Mariette calls to has allowed arrangements be adopted similar to those on the plateau of Memphis. Mariette thought that the sacred tomb was 1869 vol. which may cover its very site. . but on a smaller scale the same funerary chambers. pi. the sand it the only covering to a stratum of living rock in which to cut the well was easy In and the mummy-chamber. M. Consequently the tomb of Osiris. which — Fig. the same wells.

dynasties."^ An exterior chamber its chamber was closed was often built in front of the pyramid. — Section of the above tomb.Egypte. formed into a clumsy cupola by means of roughly built oft'-sets. Well. are The tombs properly speaking. The pyramid stands directly over a chamber in its foundations which shelters As soon as the latter was in place. are entrusted to mummies have been Fig. and being always left ' Mariette. uniformly built of crude brick. 161. mummy-chamber. all Abydos have no subterranean story. and especially of the thirteenth. eround has been excavated down over-lies the hard rock. drawn in perspective from the elevation of Mariette. at others it. pre- sented when Imagine a inulti- tude of small pyramids five or six metres high. some points." ^ so soft that but few This formation extends over nearly the whole of the ground upon which the tombs of the eleventh. and funerary chapel In the few instances in which the to the friable sandstone constructed. Hence the peculiar aspect which the necropolis of Abydos must have intact. the door of the mumm)\ by masonry.244 rock this is is A friable History of Art in Ancient Egypt. — Tomb at Abydos " . . carelessly oriented or not at all. and within they are Fig. vol. i6o. i. This of Mariette calls the northern cemetery. - Ibidem. the which opening has been lined with " rujjble. packed closely together. they are hollow. not dug. twelfth. there covered with a sandstone in course of formation at . and These pyramids always stand upon a plinth. 1879. Voyage dans la Haute.

sometimes this chamber was absent and then those rites were carried through in the open air. the entrance the foot of the stele. was This multitude of little hidden under a layer of white stucco. monuments. which. must. served for the Empire. Sometimes tomb had a surrounding wall of the same height as its plinth this served to mark out the ground which belonged to it. for funeral offerings. rites 245 but performance of the sepulchral . drawn in perspective from the elevation of Mariette. when complete. as a rule. This latter was sometimes erected upon the plinth. When this part of the work was Fig. — Tomb at Abydos . A little cube of masonry is sometimes found at the Fig. tombs. The pyra- midal form was given by setting each course of the bricks slightly back from one below it. — Section of the above tomb. each face army. have looked like the tents of an encamped finished. destined. sometimes let into its face. no doubt. 163. in its turn. was covered. before the stele of the deceased. These generally great care. were no most constructed with the were part without casing. tive privacy assured and comparaeven in the which for absence of a funerary chapel. with a coat of rough concrete.The Tomb under the Middle open. all of the same shape and of much the same size. could be closed. and when the friends of the deceased met to do him honour. . . 162.

ill Abydos. so far as their materials still are concerned. —Stele of the eleventh dynasty. are standing. As these tombs were all upon the surface of the ground they have suffered more than any others from the attacks of man. And rg mrrnFrmM imt: lilil!llill:y$^ll-vv|i IKflil ^^ MW^^^^Mr^ETt^iti ^sr^^f! stAlti Fig.) although these constructed edifices. (Boulak. 164. Those which are reproduced among these lines of text were only recovered by Marietta by dint of patient excavation.246 A History of Art in Anxient Egypt. Drawn by Bauigoin. they will soon follow the in many thousands which once stood of Osiris. serried ranks round the sepulchre The only remains of this necropolis which are likely to .

165. (Boulak.Fig. New Empire.— Stele of Pinahii. Drawn by Bourgoin.1 . priest of Ma : Abydos.

.

These facades are cut into the cliff-like sides of the hills of the Arab Chain. one belonging the New Empire (Figs. figure religious Middle. When the cutting was made. K K .Hassan antl at Siout. as they are called. T. which are as interesting and social have alluded above to the varied scenes which cover the walls of their chambers. 249 be preserved are the numberless steles which Mariette rescued from its debris. Its ceiling is often cut into the form of a vault. Most of the tombs have but one the statue of the deceased. Such a tomb was called a a-Trtoy by the Greeks. sometimes in one of the angles.The Tomb under the Middle Empire. A deep square niche is cut. the deep shadows of which stand out strongly against the whiteness of the rock. and Prisse d'Avennes we have finally to speak of those famous protodoric columns. 164 and 165). Champollion was the first to appreciate the importance of the grottos of Beni. VOL. to the historian of ideas as to the student of political We . both situated between Memphis and Abydos. much of the attention of egyptologists. sometimes opposite to It once contained the door. in which some have thought they saw the original model of the oldest and most beautiful of the Grecian orders. This portico leads to a chamber which is lighted only from the door. Ever since his time they have received. however. interesting for various reasons. 1880. They are. We are at present concerned. for the smallest and most simple tombs as for those which are largest anci most elaborately decorated. two or three columns were left to form a portico. of those They form about four-hfths of the total number monuments now preserved in the museum at Boulak. These are the same. about half-way up their total height. We have already referred organizations. thioiivcrts work published by Mariette.^ to the We to two of them. ' All these steles are figured in the last gene7-al des 4to. Lepsius. high above the surface of the river. the most important of which have been reproduced by Champollion. the other their Whenever to motives did not affect choice. cut their tombs horizontally out of some rocky eminence. to their inscriptions. therefore. the Catalogue pendant les Fouilles de cette ]'itlc. Monuments d' Ahydos. during the period we are now considering.Hassan. i \o\. the Egyptians preferred. The most examples of these constructions are offered by the tombs of the twelfth dynasty at Beni. with but slight variations. Paris. with the arrangement of the tombs themselves.

the opening of a square well is found this leads to the mummy. — Fa9ade of a tomb at Beni-Hassan. The chamber upon which dead. the place of reunion for the friends and relations of the As INIariette very truly remarks. the spite tomb of Numhotep of all at Beni-Hassan. which is excavated at a lower level. chamber. chamber. from the in in first step which the traveller makes that. i66.250 A History of Art ix Ancient Egypt. he perceives differences of situation. the . the portico opens is the funerary chapel. In a corner either of the only chamber or of that which is farthest from the door. Fig. but a few have two or three.

We have already found pictures like these in the mastabas of the Ancient Empire. before him. among his own possessions he fishes and hunts. showing some of the adjoining tombs. and among them the figure of the dead is carried hither and thither in a palanquin. or give themselves up to gymnastics or to games of skill and chance. — Facade of a tomb at Beni-Hassan. his cattle defile . till the earth.The Tomb under the Middle traditions of the Empire. 167. cut down trees. cultivate the vine and gather the grapes. the decorators ol governed the tomb of Ti at spirit which Sakkarah still insjaired the painters who covered the walls of the The defunct is at home tomb of Numhotep at Beni-Hassan. . his people build boats. and here we find them again. 251 " The Ancient Empire are still lull of vitalit)-. Fig.

Neither statues. composed of three large chambers communicating one with another. in perspective from the elevation of The ot necropolis of Siout. p. and. decoration the But Beni-Hassan the painted becomes more enter personal occupant of the ^ tomb. disappeared. otters the same general characteristics.!5- A at to History of Art this IxNt Ancient Egypt. mummies. 51.Hassan.xternal by a wide portico. which are never found elsewhere. The mummy-pit is reached from the innermost of these chambers. i. Lepsius (i. Voyage dans la Haute-Egvpte. the mouths of the wells could and could so readily be cleared. princes of the The tomb of Hapi-Tefa.ihove tomli. — Interior of a tomb at Beni-Hassan. It is the most remarkable. and their conspicuous appearance is remembered. in the Libyan chain. i68. — riaii of tlie . that all objects of value and interest must have been abstracted from the mummybe found so easily. in spite of the accumulation of sand. and with the e. When their accessible Fig. inscriptions into precise and copious biographical details. Many centuries ago the acacia doors. and consequently a contemporary of those nome Meh who is are buried at Beni-Hassan. this should not cause surprise. 169." I'iG. a of feudal prince the twelfth dynasty. 6c). nor any other movable objects have been found air in these grottos. Drawn pi. which are mentioned in one of the situation texts at Beni. . ' Mariktte. vol.

all Happily.) The rich necropolis ot Thebes has not preserved any nionuments from this period in such good condition as those of Abydos. Deni-H. Thus the sepulchre of the King Ra-AiioiibKhopcr-EiiteJ is what the Greeks called a hcmi-spcos. They were structures . But since travelling in Egypt became the fashion their sufferings have The mania for carving names upon every surface. it was partly built and partly hollowed out of the living rock. which was nowhere more complete than preserving souvenirs of all places of interest. 253 civilization. 369.Hassan. The smoke of torches has also done its work reducing the brilliant tones and blunting the delicate contours.Hassan. that is. the more interesting examples are great works to which to refer.Tmpollion. has destroyed the whole of one in wall. Before the facade thus built against the mountain. (Ch. however. Maspero has discovered. — Chess players. The tombs of the other i)rinces belonging to the family of Entef were built upon the open plain.The Tomb under the chambers in JMiddi. some remains of the royal tombs of the eleventh dynasty. Beni.assan. two obelisks were reared. of the the present of century. 170. Beni. very remote times.Siout. Several of these tombs resemble in their general arrangements those of the feudal princes of Meh and . reproduced in those we have already had such frequent occasion Fig. and for begun. in the district knowni as the Drah-Abonl-Ncgs^ah. M. or Siout. pi.e E^^'IRE. perhaps before the fall of the antique The inscriptions and the painted walls alone remained intact practically down to the commencement climate. The dryness of the and at difficulty detaching them from the wall contributed to their preservation.

66). to some extent. but the kings had not ceased to confide their mummies and the perpetuation of their glory to pyramids. masonry. they were often employed. but in those which at tombs were confined to putting old elements It made together in a new fashion and with new proportions. the large internal development. arrangement had occurred So. Finally. \o\. but merely as the They were built culminating points in a more complex ensemble. has any sepulchre been discovered which shows the monumental facades. discontinued some of the ancient arrangements.^ To complete our observations upon the tombs of the first Theban Empire. is quite certain that the Middle Empire made no original inventions It appears to have in the matter of sepulchral architecture. upon a rectangular platform or tower with walls slightly inclined from it preserved its efforts the perpendicular. Rapport sur 1 tine Mission en Italie list (in the Recueii dc Travaiix. Some idea of their shape may be obtained from our illustrations of the Abydos. p. in any other district where the tombs of the early epoch are found. too. which were the work of the thirteenth dynasty. frequent use of one mode of sepulture which had previously been quite exceptional. It would seem that the idea of this . and seem at one time to have been crowned by pyramids. not as self-contained monuments in themselves. The Abbott Papyrus gives a of these little pyramids. and the simple and dignified lines of the artificial chambers in the Arab and Libyan chains. ^ Maspero. . Time has treated them with great severity. No mastaba is known which dates from this epoch. and in their present state it is impossible to verify the assertions of Herodotus as to But it the peculiarities of their casing and crowning ornaments. It is difficult to form an accurate idea of the appearance of those monuments when complete. but the Memphite architects have left nothing which cut tomb at all resembles the grottos in the mountain sides of Beni-Hassan Neither in the neighbourhood of the pyramids nor and Siout. ii. it will be sufficient to recall what we have already said about the pyramids in the Fayoum. but these were no longer of such colossal dimensions as under the Ancient Empire.254 in A History of Art in Anxient Egypt. had that of the speos or rockto the primitive Egyptians. by the colossi with which they are said to have been surmounted. and the figured decoration of their walls. while their character was complicated.

or shepherd kings. the eighteenth.The Tomb under the New Empire. first The subterranean tombs for which the Theban Empire favour during the succeeding centuries. the Egyptian taste for ample dimensions and luxuriant decoration is more freely indulged. The word speos seeming to the Greeks to give an inadequate idea of the depth of these excavations and of their narrow proportions. priests. however. In them the art of the New Empire gives a clearer indication of all the changes which the progress of ideas had brought about in the Egyptian conception of a future life. are in no way inferior to the tombs of the sovereigns. The architects of Seti and Rameses had resources at command far beyond those of which their early . rivals could dispose. and high officers In extent and richness of ornament some of the latter of state. Every traveller visits the royal tombs which lie in the gloomy ravine called the Babel-Molouk. too. were masters of Egypt . and to give to certain . and the twentieth. after the Hyksos. sometimes from the base of the clifts. their expulsion. hardly made use of any sepulchre but the chamber hollowed laboriously in the rocky sides of that part of the Libyan chain which lies to the west of Thebes. or pipes and modern archDeologists have often employed the same picturesque term in speaking of the Theban tombs. They were. therefore. Five-and-twenty of these tombs are royal the rest belong to wealthy subjects. the most important variations upon those which have gone before. The three miles is about in length and has a mean valley width of about eleven hundred yards its sides are riddled with galleries penetrating more or less deeply into the mountains. . had shown so marlced a preference. the nineteenth. In them. 255 § 4. Our studies must firs't. The Tomb under the Neic Empire. which here and there attain a height of 400 feet. by whom the glory of Egyptian arms and culture was spread so widely. . enabled to indulge their employers' tastes for magnificence. became firmly seated in pubhc We do not know what the funeral customs may have been during those centuries when but. warriors. or the Gate of the Kings. the great Theban dynasties. and starting sometimes from the slopes. because in them we find the most original types. they called them avpl'^^es. be directed to the royal tombs.

it would still be comparatively small and unimportant beside the colossal mass which overshadowed it. In such a system the important point was this envelope of the mummy- chamber. They had to distinguish the royal from the private tomb. ever more imposing and better fitted parts tomb a splendour had to safeguard the precious deposit hidden within it. whose services and high social position are indicated for us by more than one stele from the Ancient Empire. therefore. He was a thorough master of the dressing and fixing of stone and other materials but. on the other hand. the . were covered with a cuirass of still harder and more durable materials. proportion is easily explained. to throw solemn colonnades about their courts. Two periods of national renascence.>56 A of the History of Art in Ancient which Egyi'T. and to greet the visitor to the temples with long naves clothed in all the o-lorv of colour. The disWhen the pyramids were built. In order that all access to the sarcophagus might be more safely guarded against. and to which it belonged. had little more to learn. which. in the thirteenth and eighteenth dynasties. the actual mason. It had no suspicion of those rich and varied effects which the later Egyptians were to obtain by the It was majesty of their orders and the variety of their capitals. to push the apex of the pyramid as far up into the sky as they The height erew as the flanks swelled. Supposing the latter to be decorated with all the taste and richness which we find in the tomb of Ti. was the stability of the monument. not till much later that it learnt to raise the pylon before the sacred inclosures. workman. so that it became. an envelope composed of thousands of the most carefully dressed and fixed blocks of stone. the art of architecture was yet in its infancy. . by one process of accretion. Nothinc^ could be more simple than the course of proceeding of the earlier architects. And such parts were never those upon which the pyramid builders had lavished most of their attention. had to intervene before these marvels could The earlier of these two periods is only known be realized. and no means to such an end could be more obvious than to make use of a form of construction which allowed the height and extent to be added to ad infinitum without compromising Their one idea. in their turn. could. been previously unknown. the funerary chapel was separated from the mountain of hewn stone which inclosed the mummy-chamber.

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even in their ruin. We are forced Quess at its architecture. The funerary chapel had to be expanded into a temple in miniature. in the pylons . The highest expression of the new form of art was in the temple. into a temple where the . therefore. which they laid their plans. in honour of the great deities of the country. They afforded no opportunity for the happy combinations of horizontal and vertical lines. He would have fulfilled the wishes of neither prince nor people had he not found means to give an amplitude and a beauty to those tombs which should stand a comparison with the sumptuous edifices which the same kings liad erected. The simple and massive forms of the pyramid did not lend themselves to success in such an enterprise. at as we have nothing but descriptions. they realized the ideal towards which Egyptian builders had been tending for many centuries.The Tomb under the New to us Empire. For this purpose it was necessary to give increased dimensions and greater importance to a part of the royal sepulchre which had been hitherto comparatively neglected. The second Theban Empire may be studied under very different The architects of that epoch excelled all their skill predecessors in the with which they used their materials. sphinxes. in another part of the city. was to embodv some of these elements in the design of the tomb. in porticoes and forests of columns. for the contrasts of light and shadow and splendour of decoration which distinguished the epoch. In the century which saw the construction of the great temples of Abydos. the development of which was rather in a horizontal than in a vertical direction in the long avenues of and colossal statues of the kings. The experience of the Middle Empire proved that it was better to make a fresh departure than to attempt to foist upon the pyramid a class of ornament which was destructive to the simplicity in which so much of its grandeur consisted. to guide our imaginations. of Karnak. the architect who was charged with the building of the royal tombs could dispose of artistic and the ability with all the resources of an empire which stretched from the southern boundaries of Ethiopia to Damascus and Nineveh. charm by the grandeur of their conception and the finish of their execution. and of Luxor. and their genius is still to be seen in Iniildings which. In a word. conditions. which are once incomplete and exaggerated. The problem. 259 by a few works of sculpture to in our museums.

or the pipe. we have been compelled to omit the central portion. to which previous The situation of the sepulchre. could receive tlie homage and worship of his people. In order more important groups within the scope of one page. or had seen him pass in some of those long processions which are figured upon the walls of Medinet-Abou (Fig.b proper. The Libyan chain to the west of Thebes offers no platform like that of the necropolis of Memphis. Like the chief men among his subjects.26o king. From the reign of Seti I. would be difficult to imagine any site better calculated for the isolation and concealment of the mummy than this valley. rejoined the deities from whom he was descended. and to give it effect nothing more was required than the separation of the chapel from the tom. To this form the general movement of the national art also pointed. the sovereign loved to take his last repose in the immediate neighbourhood of the city in which he had dwelt during his life. in which the streets had so often resounded to the cries of triumph which greeted his return from some successful campaign. . onwards. . 172 reproduces only a part of the long plate given in Wilkinson. In the time of the Ptolemies it contained the bones of no less than forty Egyptian monarchs. the kings chose for their place of sepulture the wild and deserted valley in which Belzoni found the tomb of that conqueror. which consists principally of columns to bring the of hieroglyphs. where the rocks split and crumble under the sun. must have helped to suggest the temple form of their tombs. Its cliffs and intersecting ravines offer no sites for constructed works hence the ordinary form of Theban tomb is the spcos. The speos. which is but an exaggerated form of the exploits of these princes. flanks of the Libyan chain that all its inhabitants sought that asylum for their dead which the inhabitants of Memphis found upon the eastern edge of the desert. was no longer a matter of question.^ His tomb was a cavern like that of Fashion and the physical conditions of the country his subjects. which were greater than anything of which Egypt had to boast in the whole of its glorious past. It ' Fig. and the sand blown hither and thither by the winds from the desert fills up every crevice in the cliffs. governed him as well as his inferiors in rank. A who had History of Art in Ancient Egypt. after Thebes had become a populous city and the real capital of It was in the rocky Egypt. 172). tradition had so closely allied it.

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all To Mariette belongs the credit of having at last removed doubt but on the subject.^ But the plain at the foot of the range offered all that the It was still within the district consecrated architect could wish. certain edifices were raised which Their funerary signification was are still. to the dead. a character which was doubtless left common to all the temples on the bank of the Nile.The Tomb under the New Empire. to the worship of those great deities the principles of race. properly The speaking. in great part. effect in spite of the confused hints to that last given by the Greek writers. They were certainly temples. extant. to increase and to embellish them. We have here then the facts which determined the course ot the Egyptian architects. From the princes of the ^ dynasty down to the Ptolemies. The famous buildings at Lu. a difference itself. d! Egypte et . however. and yet its level surface presented no obstacles to an unlimited extension of any buildings which might be placed upon it. 1S3 of the second edition). but. life by the king. on the other hand. until within the It is few years. In the space inclosed between the left bank of the river and the first slopes of the Lib)an chain. those probable enough that the number of these greater than to it buildings was formerly much which have come down is at present. no constructed building of any importance was possible except at a great expenditure of time and labour. and elsewhere in Egypt. translation of the inscriptions and royal ovals which cover their walls has sufficed to show that they were national monuments. in its richest and most complete development. Their general arrangements do not differ from those of other religious edifices. and even to Nubic of Champollion See the description of the Valley of the Kings in the Ldlirs fp.xor and Karnak may be taken as typical examples of the temple. as the representative of who were at once and the faithful protectors of the Egyptian century they never ceased to found Century twelfth after such the de temples. which was not perceived until the texts which contained the history of each temple and of the prince who claimed the credit of its erection were deciphered. never completely understood. both in Thebes There is. public sanctuaries consecrated the people. us are still in sufficiently good preservation to enable us to discern and define their true character. 26 J Nothing could be easier than to mask the entrance in such a place.

Roman emperors.xor the collective too.264 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. and twentieth. pp. fallen columns. that of the three great Theban " dynasties. and it could have formed no The beautiful and finished part of his tomb. . Some kings. character of the great buildings at secrated to Ptah and Neith. period. especially by Physco. found something of the same kind in the temple of Abydos. as soon as they believed themselves to have a firm hold upon the country. Persians. begun by Ptolemy Philopator by his successors. 234. a point of honour to add to the creations of One prince . the eighteenth. nineteenth. took care to inscribe his to call Each of these work had been great own name upon it. was the con- Memphis which were and in the neighbourhood of the Theban necropolis. temples at Karnak and Luxor.) little temple of Dayr-el-Medinet.^ These temples are monuments raised by the kings themselves to their like the own glory. The Greek prince was interred far from it. they lifted damage caused They strengthened foundations.-Egypferi. He found there a cenotaph consecrated to his own memory by Seti I. and successive work of many generations. while the king himself was buried in the Theban necropolis. the accumulated results of 1 Ebebs. Such. The foreign conquerors themselves. whether Ethiopians. prove that it was so. set themselves with zeal to obliterate the traces of their own sovereigns. . 235. they restored the faded colours of the painted decorations. we find a group of temples whose physiognomy is peculiar to themselves. This cenotaph was near the tomb of Osiris. who reigned in periods of recuperation after civil Avar or barbaric invasion. The at Karnak and Lu. or Greeks. set themselves to repair the by time and the violence of man. suggested to Ptolemy Philopator by a journey to Thebes. and a fourth a laboriously chiselled obelisk. particularly in the Western Chamber. . we must look upon the temple as a mere freak of fancy. and thus violence. It is alleged that the situation of the temple in the necropolis. it every successive family which occupied the its throne held predecessors. upon both posterity and temple as we see it his own contemporaries is to bear witness to his piety. indeed. 2 {. built a hypostyle hall. whether his contribution to any or small. and the nature of the subjects represented in the interior. Nothing exactly like them is to be found elsewhere ^ and they all belong to one But on the left bank of the Nile. They are not. If we accept this opinion. has often been considered a funerary monument. or a court surrounded by a colonnade another added to the long rows of human or ram-headed sphinxes which lined the approaches a third added a pylon.

40 pages VOL. ^ >^^ yf /*^ *> J^^ y \JiJi^ \ j_ f^^^ —Rameses in. he . laid the foundations of an edifice destined to carry the memory of his glory and piety down to the latest posterity.. We 1877. his successor finished In these decorations the founder of the temple in his name. of whose career we know enough to strongly The excite. folio. (Atlas. > iJu-Ui^^^ Fig. I. y < ^. our curiosity. Di'ir-el-Bahari.rr^^lWK-ii'ftlf'"""'^'^^ ^\t€^i '-11 ^'H. // ( Jl VI /. M M . . § letterpress.). or in his great hunts and thus." ^ 1^'lk. i. these temples are separated from Bab-el-Molouk only by the slopes of the surrounding El-Assassif. while yet alive. Leipsir. oldest of them is that at Dayr-el-Bahari. know witli that -1 Mariette. In those cases where the decoration was incomplete at the it death of the royal builder. 265 Each temple was begun and left finished by the king who planned it. several generations._ The Tomu under the New Empire. but too little to satisfy. It was built by the regent Hatasu. 4to. or in the eventful moments of his military career. bunting sides . from Medinet-Abou. so far at least as construction was concerned. was represented either worshipping the gods. 173.Surrounded on all by tombs and packed into a comtlie paratively narrow space.

at the time of Diodorus. the great here conqueror seemed to live and breathe on every stone majestic and calm. and.^ Erroneous though without interest. when surrounded by the enemy. with his threatening hand raised over the heads of his conquered enemies. It deals with that battle fought upon the bank of the Orontes. in trust brother. The artists to whom the decoration of the temple was committed. Diodorus. His prowess was cele- brated by Pentaour. this latter designation is by no means edifice. governed Egypt with for her ? and energy III. An episode of the war against the Khetas may be walls. Next which is in point of age to the building of Queen Hatasu . were charged to represent the chief actions of Hatasu as regent. there menacing and terrible. perfunerary origin to the sistent tradition ascribed a The . fifty-six feet in height. a distant region which must have been either seems to southern Arabia. for seventeen years. Numerous sepulchral and many mummies have been drawn from their recesses. the wife and skill Thothmes her II. is that called the Ranicsseiim this is no other. a contemporary poet. as the members of the Institut d' Egypte have clearly proved. in which Rameses. §§ 47-49- . in an epic canto which Rameses is there made to ascribe his has survived to our day. His seated statue. inside and out. than the so-called Tomb of Osymandicis which is described at such length by Diodorus. whole temple. it Thothmes Where does mummy repose Is in that ravine on the south-west of the Bab-el-Molouk which is called the Valley of the Queens. they deal at length with the enterprise of which the regent herself have been most proud. the country of the Somalis. because the tombs of many Theban Or is it in the slopes of the princesses have been found in if ? mountain behind the temple itself? excavations have been found there. i. namely.. as it be. it proves that.266 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. the king and his comrades in arms. recalled Rameses II. won safety for himself by his own personal valour and presence of mind. of the recognized. although their works do not give us a detailed history of her eminently successful administration. like force in repose. which seems to have made a great impression upon . or the eastern coast of Africa. to-day it lies broken upon the was raised in the courtyard Battle scenes are to be distinguished upon the remains ground. sister of Hatasu.. the maritime expedition aeainst Ptint.

ive been the structure which Strabo calls the Memnonium. colossi of Amenophis vi). The true name of the author of both temple and colossi might easily be confused with that of the mythical Greek person. what the pretended tomb of Osymandias is to Rameses II. Medinet-Abou. but the slight traces which exist cover a vast space.. Its bas-reliefs its represent one of the greatest events in Egyptian. Rameses II. in ancient. is Rameses III. to his appeal for help and. It was commenced by Rameses I. in each nome. and finished by his grandThe first Rameses and Seti figure in it with son. for the service of and thus the building reveals the annual sacrificial celebrations itself as a temple to the perpetual honour of the two first princes of a race which did so much to add to the greatness and prosperity the attributes of Osiris. and the similarity of sound must have helped to perpetuate the mistake 1 to among all the foreign travellers who visited the country. the victory won by Rameses over a confederation of the nations of the north and west. 816). just noticed had but a They were each . p. His presence pervades both the temple itself and adjoining pavilion. the founder of the nineteenth dynasty. A curious passage in . still by prince entirely disappeared. who heard snatched him from the very hands of his enemies. continued by his son. Tiir: Tomb under the New Empire. we might almost say. no doubt formed 18 part of a this similar and near the site of the The temple Ramesseum has almost pi. known built to the ancients as the Statues of RIemnon. Seti I.. to play a great part in the politics of the Mediterranean.must have been one of rare magnificence. enumerate the sources of revenue set aside by the king. III. and the temple of Gournah. history namely.. of those who were called the This victory was mainly instrumental in driving westwards certain peoples who were destined. The famous building (fig. inscriptions . situated in the same district of Thebes. Each of the buildings which we have single proprietor. which might be called 77ie Second Ramesseum. and near which he seems to place the two colossi (xvii. maritime races.ige which the Hellenic imagination persisted in discovering everywhere in Egypt. and suesrest that the buildino. precipitating himself into the milc'e. dedicated to the memory of the some one to individual but there was nothing to prevent this course association in a single temple of two sovereigns who might happen was taken in be united by strong ties of blood. 267 safety and all the honour of his victory to his father Amen.. The of Egypt. in more recent times.^ This must h.

But the Thebans themselves deny that it is Memnon. It is possible that those funerary temples of which we have spoken were an original invention of the successors of perhaps that constructed by Hatasu at Dayr-elThothmes Bahari was the first of the series. Every century added its stone. some of the additions having been made as recently as in the time of the in Roman Emperors. How to account for its exceptional situation we do not know. moreover. princes in whose honour they were erected performing of the acts of worship before Amen-Ra. to those local deities which. However this may have been. who is often accompanied by Mout and Khons. p. and more particularly those of Thebes.-Xmenophium had vanished. and Thothmes III. great temples upon the right bank of the Like them. . shows .268 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. the Theban god par exellence. This colossus is a statue of Memnon. The great deities of Egypt. or of in Egypt. They declare that it represents " Phamenoph (l>a/Aao<^). It is said that Memnon came from Ethiopia into Egypt. are They contain numerous representations never forgotten in them. became the supreme at gods. \2) shows us. as soon as was invented all the other temples in the district may be more or less immediately referred to it. Memnon. 1. after the establishment of that city national as the capital of the A\hole country. namely. and each successive king engraved his name upon its walls. its In this size. fragmentary walls and shattered statues. the temple at Medinet-Abou which bears the ovals of Thothmes II. and that he penetrated as far as Susa. like almost all the other sacred buildings of Thebes. ' than by a colossal statue which I saw beyond the Nile the sun. respect the its it resembles. the other two members of the Theban triad. spite ot comparatively small river. according to the common tradition. the new t)pe became a success . It shows signs. not far from the pipes. vi. creation was a gradual and impersonal matter. however. These temples were therefore it . in speaking of some sonorous stone which was shown to him at !Megara. 232) of the visit of the sorcerer to ruins." he says. Those gods were as much home in the temples of Pausanias knew how foreigners : {Attica. that in his time the colossus was surrounded by nothing but '' such as broken columns and architraves. who was born in their own country The story told by Ph£Lostrati'S [Life of Apollonius. that the Eg)-ptian scholars of his time properly to convey the name of the prince represented in the colossi to " I was less struck by that marvel. consecrated. Only one of those Theban temples which rise upon the left bank of the river is free from all trace of a funerary or commemorative purpose. Even then the monumental completeness of the " . of having been frequently enlarged and added to.

both in the statues which were placed against the piers in the courtyard and in the bas-reliefs upon the long flat surfaces closely of the walls. indeed. Thus. Amen-Ra. temple we find Rameses seated in a naos and receiving . the latter I. of those things Pictures which made his happiness or his honour while alive. Hence the tendency which . and would help to relieve the ennui of the monotonous life after death. but in the funerary temples ot the left bank they found themselves associated. capacity the deceased prince in was worthe shipped as a god by his of Gournah. By these attributes they deity became more the alHed of with the In the great who was of common future protector dead this and the guarantor their resurrection. greater variety and more detail. with the princes to whose memory the temples were raised. the own I. in the bas-reliefs on the internal walls of the mastabas. so personal and anecdotical as those of the temples.The To. and Rameses again. Khons. The images presented to our gaze by the chamber walls of the mastaba are not.mb under the New Empire. paredral as the Greeks would say. of the pleasures and the It is more serious occupations of a rich the Egyptian. came more general in conqueror with be figured of and especially when that individual in preference to those which were their application. family. 269 which we are speaking as in their own pecuHar sanctuaries on the right bank of the river. homage same of his grandson. of some famous feat of arms would give joy to the double ot him who had performed them. with the progress of civilization. The analogy which we the western temples at the the are endeavouring to establish between Thebes and the funerary chambers of is completed by the biographical nature ot which form almost the sole decoration of those temples. the more historic incidents in life of an individual. at least. In both places they received the same homage and sacrifices. To embellish the tomb of a pictures his battles and victories was to surround him after death with the images. easy to understand how. worshipping the Rameses II. to was a king. pictures tion of the every-day life. These princes were represented with the attributes of Osiris. recalls the scene which is carved upon almost all the steles. and with time. at one and This presentation of ofterings to the deified king. and. but they contain an epitomized representa- private tombs. as represented in the chambers of these temples.

y^) i . or taking their breasts. In the interiors of all these courts and halls we are sculptured. Similar pictures are to be met with here and there in temples proper. concerned. hardly find any subjects treated but those which are purely . motives as these continually repeated. thus came in time to play an important part in sepulchral decoraroyal personages were tion.270 is A marked History of Art in in Ancient Egypt. a him upon their knees and nourishing him from theme which is also found in royal tombs (Fig. between that of the necropolis and that of the city. to the epoch of the Ptolemies. temples in the necropolis are funerary chapels which owe their It . for instance. but in such cases they are At Luxor. as may be seen by a glance at the bas-relief figured upon the opposite page (Fig. the invariably on the outer walls. of his We find such religious divine protectors (Figs. such as female deities assisting at the birth of a king. . 33) . . are. frequently met with in the Theban tombs but it is evident that in many cases scenes were sought out for reproduction which would have a more particular application there is an evident desire to hand down to future generations concrete presentments of any political or other events which History and biography might appear worthy of remembrance. histori- On cal the right bank of the river pictures of a mystically religious left character are universal on the bank those with an aim are more frequent. against the peoples of Syria are thus displayed and at Karnak it is upon the external walls of the hypostyle hall that the victories of Seti I. especially when kings or other . upon wall and column alike. . especially in those at Beni-Hassan. religious . 174). 14 and 176). the first so the bas-reliefs of Theban Empire. from the first Theban kings . indeed. is not so striking and conspicuous as to be readily perceived by the first comer who crosses from the one bank of the river to the odier but the variations are quite sufficiently marked to justify According to him the the distinction propounded by Mariette. will be seen that the difference between the two kinds of temple. campaigns of Rameses H. or one god presenting the king to another (Fig. and Rameses II. or the king paying homage to sometimes one. sometimes another. The constant and universal themes which sufficed for the early centuries of the Egyptian scenes similar to those of the monarchy were not abandoned mastabas.

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(Champollion. 160. In which those gods were perpetually adored for the services which his fete-day could . renewed VOL. 273 increased size and the richness of their decoration to the general magnificence and highly developed taste of the century In which they were built. I. Auienophi^ H. Fig. They were foundations made to the perpetual honour of a deceased king.The Tomb under the New Empire. But it is enough for our present purpose to have indicated the places which they occupied in the vast architectural compositions which formed the tombs of a Set! or a Rameses. Hpon the lap of a o-odde " pi. chapels In which be kept and the memory of his achievements but they were at the same time temples in which the national gods were worshipped by himself and his descendants.^- . 175.) They had each a double function to fulfil. ^- .— Painlins in a royal tomb at Gournah.

2/4 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. to Amen. the portraits in bas-relief upon the between /-n 1 walls of the public chamber. The different parts of the royal tomb were closely connected under the Memphite Empire. burnt of the victims (Fig. the purely religious buildings. the elements fat . 176. and we consideration of their architectural shall defer the differ arrangements. have a right to be considered temples. Through Fig. they had done him while aHve and for those which they might In their latter capacity these buildings still do him when dead. Brought thus into juxtaposition one with another. the chinks of broken StOUe by the pieCCS '^ which the wcU was hlled up. and the change in arrangement must have been a consequence of some modification in the Egyptian notions as to a second life. 177). In the his hand. the funerary prayers. reached his attentive senses. mastaba the double had everything within reach of Without trouble to himself he could all make use of of the matters which had the been provided corpse in the for the support : of his precarious existence mummy pit. and through the conduits conof the trived in the thickness of the walls. the statues in the serdab. presenting an offering Decoration of a pier at Thebes. which in only details from those of speak of the Egypt. until we come shall to religious architecture of We here content our- selves with remarking that the separation of the tomb and the funerary chapel by some mile or mile and a half was a novelty in Egvpt. the magic formulae the of and incense.— Amenophis III. the grateful scent of from Prisse.

was obviously destroyed as soon as the division of the tomb into two parts took place. 275 tomb were mutually time gave renewed helpful. This concentration of all the acts and objects. and the chamber in which the corpse reposed ? Before they could have accepted this divisii^n of the tomb into two parts the Egyjjtians must have arrived at some less childish conce|)ti(in of the fulin'c life than that ol th(-ir earlv civilization.. — Flaying the fimeiaiy victim.. (Lloulal. would seem in to be danoer of losinof the benefit of the services held in upon the Theban Is it plain. ^. They so lent themselves to that intermittent act of condensation.e^' ' ' • "- ' ^' .?./:^ '.^ .. From a tomb of the 5lh dynasty at Sakkaiali. \t~S/i'e '"i ' -^^i ~^l\ 1 --. At such a distance it its honour would neither hear the prayers nor catch the scent of the ofterings.. y ''V -V " \ !i - . which from time to substance and life consistency to the phantom upon which the future of the deceased depended.'/ >*^--'''"' «''*. hidden away in the depths of those horizontal wells in the flank of the ''%]-r'\ ^^'^^. ''• " '3' a FlU.. which had for their aim the preservation of the deceased for a second term of life. The mummy. 177.. to speak..) Western Range of which we have spoken. .The Tomb under the New of the Empire. :_. . i'^:** ' . 'r -''-: "^ -(.. .:.:.-'._ _ ^ :i. to And the double ? in be supposed that he oscillated between the colossi the temple where the funerary sites were celebrated.

did not take its complete and definite Being more spiritual and less form until the Theban epoch. logical point of view the just .. they added Tartarus and the Elysian Fields to their beliefs. or a Rameses. indeed. and. to the subdivision of the sepulchre than the more primitive idea and this subdivision was necessary if the public and commemorative part of the tomb were to receive a splendour and amplitude befitting the exploits of a Thothmes. they were less opposed . from their evidence of its persistency is. they . thanks to the protection of Osiris and the other deities of the shades. But when of being embarrass it is a question of notions which are essentially incapable defined. was at last enabled to return to earth and rejoin the body The problem of death and which it had formerly inhabited. and they described and figured the joys which awaited upon the Happy Islands. The indescribable being which was the representative of the deceased after death became gradually in time it escaped from its less material and more spiritual enforced sojourn in the tomb and approached more nearly to This soul. The more progress of ideas and of art had then advanced so that . which we have just described tended for many They were taught centuries to become more and more general. is Contradictions do not its adaptability practically infinite. passed a period of probation and purgation in the under world. they expressed their hopes that the earth upon which they poured After a time out wine and milk would like lie lightly upon it. the in strictly human intelligence is singularly content to it rest . but it was not until the nineteenth that it became definitely adopted. already been made under the eighteenth dynasty. introduced the heroic fathers of their race into the councils of the gods. a future life was resolved in much the same way by the Greeks and by all other races who drew much of their inspiration from the They all looked upon the corpse as still alive when Egyptians. in that Ritual of the Dead which. vague generalities. but a more intelligent and less material notion gradually superimposed itself upon the ancient belief. These various hypotheses are contradictory enough from a they exclude and destroy one another. although certain of its parts date from the most ancient times. far. Dayr-el-Bahari proves that the change had a Seti. plentiful. like the nocturnal sun.76 A History of Art i\ Ancient Egypt. that which we call the soul. entirely banished That primitive conception was not minds . The beliefs material.

— EiiUMiice tu a rov. pi. — ^. for their benefit and lor that of the remotest posterit)'.. (Dt:scrip:ion dc 1' Egypie. filled 277 with and the country magnificent edifices.il tomli.»»- 31^^ Vi'. Empire. were it not that the Egyptians.. like all the other races of antiquity.The Tomb under the New ambitious desires could be satislied. he was working before the ejes of the public. We should call them cenotaphs. 79. In constructing and decorating the iunerary temple upon the plain. 17S.) The and to other division of the tomb the is that which contains the well dwelling-place of the royal sepulchre the mummy-chamber. . ^vhich. like the temples of the two Rameses. the problem placed before the architect to that was diametrically op|)Osed which he had to solve in the other part of his task. ii. in so far as they belonged at one and the same time and funerary architecture. believed in the real presence of their dead in the were original to religious buildings erected in their honour. eternal illustrious The second half of in tlie its had but be as sumptuous and lu. dead.xurious way as the first.

made it was carefully masked with sand and rocky deh'isr The that 1 existence of the temples in the plain it unnecessary that final fine the tombs themselves should be entered after 111 many cases the sites are wanting for such external constructions. 4to). and his best ingenuity was taxed to devise means for preserving from the sight of all future generations those with which patience and alone. p. found them The doorway. and we have every reason to a kind of porch. they declared that they could not farther. in Mariette also believed that as soon as the mummy Egypt and Nubia. to which all access was no doubt forbidden to the curious. t. by the visits of the living and the more completely the mummy was concealed. Bruce and others. 1820. the greater were the deserts of the faithful servant upon whom the task had been placed. or a small pyramid. the royal tomb seems to have been constructed without any such external its show as would call attention to situation. unaware of its existence until they encountered it in the bowels of the rock. in is accounted for. opens upon a ravine which the entrance to the is filled with the waters of a mountain torrent at certain seasons. ii. is of the utmost simplicity. The tomb 2 of Seti for instance. (^Voyage dans la Haiite-Egypte. and another it. He and his assistants cut and carved the living rock by the light of torches. Those prodigies of skill were executed for the benefit of the deceased Important though it was that the sepulchre of a great man should be ornamented to the greatest extent possible. c^c. it was of still greater moment that his last resting-place should not be troubled . was in place. who disengaged the entrances to the royal tombs. the external door was closed and earth heaped against it in such a way as effectually to conceal It is thus that the clashing between the tomb of Rameses III. For long years together he pursued his enterprise in the mystery and shadow of a subterranean workshop. with inclined sides and crowned by But the explorers. I. the walls works of the best artists of Egypt were to be covered. The workmen did not see the entrance of the latter. and were.) . suppose that. Belzoni. 81. fact.^ the rock. When Belzoni's workmen found advance any tomb of Seti. But the task of hewing out the tomb was a very different one. because the passage was blocked with big stones to such an extent as to be impracticable {Narrative of the Operations and Recent Discoveries within the Pyramids.. The tombs of private individuals usually had a walled courtyard in front of them to which access was obtained by tower. after the introduction of the mummy. In order that this blessing of undisturbed peace in his eternal dwelling should be secured. cut vertically in without propylEea of any kind.278 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt.

Some words Diodorus are significant in this direction. of the survival of some tradition as to the Diodorus." This assertion cannot be accepted literally. The course. were open in the time of the Ptolemies several of them seem to have been shown. situated close necropolis. its obstacles." . because twenty-one tombs have already been discovered in the Bab-el-Molouk. that at the time of the Ptolemies. they preserved the secret.- The Tomb under the New operation Empire. who used the tomb as a hidingplace from the recruiting officers of the viceroy. and we have still good reason to to suppose that there are others which yet In remain beautiful be found. but that at the time of Ptolemy the son of Lagus. for their construction and preserved in the national archives there were some who knew their situation. It was difficult. but the opening had been carefully concealed with rough pieces of rock and general rubbish by the fellahs. to the Roman and other travellers who visited Egypt. - "Above in the living •s'orthy Memnonium." says Straeo (xvii. although to one of the most frequented paths in the had been previously unknown. by the inscriptions upon their walls. that Anemenheb. 46. of 279 had been performed. some of them in a state of semi-completion. 46). which. which makes twenty-five in What the priests meant when they spoke to Diodorus was all. through the ardour and patience which characterize modern research. only seventeen remained. that fitteen of the tombs which are now accessible. We know. The royal cemetery of the Ramessides has possibly much more to tell us before its secrets are exhausted. no more than seventeen If through the plans made of their entrances had been discovered. ' entrance to the tomb always ran a certain chance of being discovered to and freed from prevent i. It was open. of interest. private 1S72 of Professor Ebers discovered a tomb. They would remain concealed in it for weeks at a time until the officers had left their village. The royal precautions taken to hide and obstruct the openings of the tombs were thus successful in many cases. as national objects . "The priests say that their registers attest the existence of forty-seven royal tombs. no doubt. besides four in the ravine which is called the Valley of the JFes/. "there are royal tombs cut rock to the number of forty their workmanship is excellent and well the . Some of these have only been discovered in our own times. of attention.

pp. and that upon the first steps of one of the staircases a heap of stone rubbish had been collected. that the discovering cord hune from this beam. at an oblong chamber 13 feet 6 inches by 12 feet.. This had been about two feet wide. as if to discourage any one who might penetrate beyond the well and pierce It seems likely that the the barrier beyond its gaping mouth. and there was no sign of a passage. Let either us take as an example the finest and most complete of all the tombs of the Ramessides. and two feet and a half high. thrown across the well. . either open or concealed. by which access to a lateral chamber. and it was after well ended in nothing that the screen of masonry on the other Belzoni had therefore only to follow the side had been pierced. 233 et seq.28o A History of Art in Ancient Egypt.Across the well a beam was still lying. e>r. which himself to be lowered into the well. which here barred the passage. as in the case of the pyramids. whereabouts of the burial-places of those great sovereigns whose memory was a consolation to Egyptian pride in the clays of national abasement and decay. in a wall covered with stucco and painted decorations. against a forced entry into the gallery by an enemy or by some robber in search of treasure. made. A wide and deep well. walls The A had served the purpose of some previous visitor to the tomb. But Belzoni was too old an explorer to be deceived by such On his first arrival at the edge of the well he had appearances. llights of steps. that of Set! I. which led at last to the sarcophagus-chamber itself. seemed to indicate that the Belzoni caused extremity of the excavation had been reached. Belzoni ' Belzoni. and we find that the precautions adopted were similar to those which we have described in noticing the royal tombs at Memphis. and traversing two long and or anything that looked like After descending two richly decorated corridors. perceived in the wall on the farther side of it a small opening. were everywhere hard and firm. A plank bridge was road opened for him by earlier explorers. and a new enlarged. Provision had to be made. without discovering either sarcophagus the site of a sarcophagus. yarrafh'e of Optrations. . or to a second series of galleries might be obtained. at some unknown period.^ remarked that throughout the whole course of the excavation the doors of the chambers showed evidence of having been walled up. and without resonance. Belzoni arrived. the opening was series of galleries and chambers was reached.

that of Siptah 370 feet. r. Is it not possible that Belzoni only discovered a false sarcophagus. He cut a hole and brought to light the first steps of a staircase. in spite of his admirable perseverance. tioned a figure which gives their passages . all 281 violator of the tomb knew the secret of these arrange- ments. A wall had been raised at the foot of these steps. another entrance to the tomb. In the sarcophagus-chamber of the Belzoni discovered a contrivance same kind place. which led to an inclined plane by which the interior of the mountain was deeply penetrated. . they may even impress our imaginations more profoundly than the artificial mountains of Cheops and Chephren. the lid had been raised and broken. as that which had failed to stop him almost upon the threshold of the tomb. and that the mummy was deposited." the open air that it was. and is This beautiful sarcophagus now in the Soane Museum. in these narrow and heated galleries. he says. into Ed. where there is no ventilation and where the smoke of the torches rapidly becomes stifling. is 416 feet long.These subterranean tombs are hardly less astonishing than the colossal masses of the pyramids for the sustained effort which they imply if we take the trouble to reflect upon the peculiarly difficult conditions under which they were constructed. of ' Rameses and although no one of the other tombs quite many approach it in dimensions. Belzoni held his hand before completing the e. We have already men- was in . fact. some idea of the surprising length of equals that of Seti. and was the work of some native Egyptian robber. in a chamber at the end of this corridor ? The point at which the fallen rock arrested his progress is tour hundred and eighty-three feet from the external opening. beyond which a settlement of the superincumbent rock put an end to all advance after a distance of fiftyone yards had been traversed. "reasons to think so but \OL. he does not give his reasons.xploration. and still lies. placed to deceiv^e unbidden visitors like himself. sound given out by the floor when struck the explorer From the perceived that there must be a hollow space under the base of the sarcophagus. At such a depth.— The Tomb under the New first ^ Empire. The tomb III. it is not astonishing that. and consequently that its first opening took place in very ancient times. O . and about one hundred and eighty below the level of the valley. ^ Behoni beheved that this passage led again " I have. The sarcophagus of oriental alabaster but empty. in " .

y////'r'. iSo. we have thought is better to give the plan and section of that of Rameses the II. animals.'v//////////'///. the same tomb from Prisse. — Horizontal section of far . there is not a single surface.. an anthill is a single chamber often contains . Still more surprising is the elegance and completeness of the decoration. A ( 11' J5 . — Han of the tomb of Ramefes 11. figures are in too numerous here to count. or ceilings.?82 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. piers. whether of walls. with ornamental designs.y/////////^^^^^ "^^^iTZx^ZTTm-^ m M Thev T Fig. ^__-x^//////////. . Colour everywhere it is used to give there it salience to the delicate contours of the figures in 1 relief. and carried up by narrow and steep corridors to be " shot " in the open air. 270 feet. In the tombs of Seti and of Rameses III.-0 55 ?. 179. . of men and of such places an enormous Fifi.//'/w/////w//.y. which is not covered with the work of the chisel and the brush. which as less generally known. but the plan a little more complicated. others varied between 200 and For the construction number of cubic yards of rocky debris had to be cut from the interior of the mountain. with the figures of gods and genii. it is The tomb of Seti having been so often reproduced. These swarm like ants many hundreds. from Prisse. The general arrangements are pretty is much same those of Seti's tomb.

stucco.ireau. And to obtain all this but an artificial one was available.li de la Nubic.mailer sarcophagus-chamber H. in which the air constantly warm and dry. — The -. and all tended to the same ' Piuioraina dc l' Ei^vpti. . it was hoped.) never reached greater perfection than in these characteristic productions of its genius. the pictures have preserved their freshness of tint in the most startling light fashion. iSi. that the patient artists of exquisite Egypt drew these masterly contours. 283 In upon the carefully-prepared surfaces of white is these sealed-up caverns. But yet all this work was not labour lost. harmonious effect no It was by the smoky of little glare of torches. (I'rom pi. folio. These ijictures. would be eternal. were all inspired by a single desire. In which the details change continually from one tomb to another. and elaborated the harmony of their colour compositions. Egyptian art Fig. in the ' tomb of Rameses VI. 21. or by the flickering flame tarra-cotta lamps. upon which they were to be inclosed in a night which. and yet no human eye was to enjoy them after that day upon which the final touch was to be given to their beauties. suspended from the roof by metal threads.The Tomb under the New laid flat Empire.

destined for the service and the food of a shadow. Like those which we have found in the tombs of the Ancient Empire. Both in its scene which take from the walls of a private we general arrangement and in the details of its ornamentation. . Fig. Ideas had progressed to some purpose since the days of the Memphite kings. (From Horeau.2 84 A History of Art ix Ancient Ecyi't. working through end. 182. these pictures have. still It will suffice common enough in the royal if we notice those which are Rameses III. to be seen in the sepulchre of the first in the series of small chambers in two passages. a sovereign power to save and redeem. turned these shadows into realities. Osiris. beyond a doubt. the same meaning and value as those in the mastaba. pi. The all-powerful influence of prayer and faith. The personages and articles of food represented on the mastabas were shadows of people and shadows of material sustenance.. 21. But in the Theban tombs their significance is only secondary. Like the hunting tomb (Fig. the double of the defunct proprietor of the tomb. 183). they had a sort of magic virtue.) Representations of this kind are tombs of Thebes. —Entrance to the tomb of Rameses III.

They believed that the judges in question were living men. hastily translated for them by the accompanying priests. 285 the sepulchres in the Bab-el-Molouk gave expression to the new. by that high moral instinct of which the oldest first The conception tomb.^ imitation of the sun — rise to in the appearance of the dead before Osiris and his assessors gave one of the most curious errors made by tlie Greeks in speaking of Egypt. One of the early tra\'ellers. according to its conduct during the (ew short years passed by it on earth and in company with the body to which it had belonged. It had to appear before the tribunal of Osiris-KhentAment. and that they were charged to decide whether sepulture should be granted to the dead or not. around whose seat the forty-two members of the infernal jury were assembled. every and prosperity of which Unless the depended in no way upon his merits or demerits. They were greatly struck by by the Egyptians to the sentence of this tribunal. But in time the Egyptians would appear to have realized that the double was not the only thing that remained after the death of a human unit.more was wantino-. inhabiting the it by sacrifice and prayer. just and the unjust were to come to one and the same end. and their tribunal an earthly one. and we know how it has served as the foundation for that of Bossuet. in from the time of Diodorus to can find nothing either the figured monuments or in the written texts which hints at the existence of such a custom. they do not seem to have always understood what the dragoman. A\'e much fine writing. The scene in cpiestion is figured upon many of the tombs visited by the Greek travellers. somethino. they found frequent allusions to this act of the importance attached trial and judgment. egyptologists have been agreed upon this point. this soul had to perform a long in and difilcult subterranean journey and almost upon his footsteps during which it had to undergo certain tests and penances. man had a double. to the hieroglyphics Ever since the key was found. was that of the double. told them as to this matter. This something was the soul pages of their literature give evidence. we do not know which. and in many of the illustrated papyri which were unrolled for their 1 This belief gratification. Their powers of apprehension were quickened. more philosophical. N K\V E.— Tllli ToMli UNDER Till'. always in a hurry. without whom they could not stir from the frontier. and sometimes not esjjecially intelligent. and kept alive in Good or bad. the Sun of Night. the continuance [ba). his . In the fragments of some funerary inscription or of some of these manuscripts. From this jjeriod of trial it would emerge with more or less honour. in all probability. and more moral conception which had come to overlie the primitive beliefs. but.Ml'IRE. Instead of vegetating in the interior of the tomb. in Every Egyptian was placed a sepulchre befitting his station anil fortune. gave currency to this belief.

235-249. on the other hand. 1S45. Coming under the eyes of the Greeks. pp. Lords of truth and justice. it was modified by their lively imaginations into that \\ivnp<natTia. and De Witte. ibidem. that negative confession which we read in chapter cxxv. 183. pp. ox ic<cighing of souls. and perhaps upon those monuments decorated with Egyptian motives which were sprinkled by the Phoenicians over the whole basin of the Mediterranean. before the the light.- The impious soul was flogged. 707-717. During terrifying it. ^ Maspero 44 and 45. 647-656.}86 A History of Art " in Ancient Egypt. and had to fear the sentence gives a translation of into of an august tribunal. the death of annihilation. underwent a second death. hideous forms of evil sprang up before relations and did their best to arrest its progress by and friends liad to ask no permission before tliey placed him in was in the other world that he was brought up for judgment." the soul had to plead its cause. and there it had to repeat.) 291-307 . The just soul. after centuries of suffering. They weighed its actions in a pair of scales and gave judgment according to their weight. pp. 1844.^ But those incorruptible judges were not guided solely by the testimony of the ba in its own favour. it its transit across the infernal regions. Revue archeologique. — Hunting scene upon a tamb to at (Joumah. 208-212). pp. 1S44. (Champollion. (See Alfred Maurv. with an amount of assurance and success which would depend upon its conduct in There.) it was admitted it contemplate the supreme verities. was delivered to storm and tempest. \s\\\&i\s(i find in the Iliad (xxii. had to conquer in many a combat before ^(«% Fig. 171. . ^ This weighing of the actions of the deceased was represented in the illustrated specimens of the Ritual of the Dead and upon the walls of the tombs. where success in a combat between two heroes depends upon the result of that operation. it French in his Histoire Ancimne. of the " Book of the Dead" which contains an epitome of Egyptian morality. and. pi.

-* T=^m^ Fig. Such beliefs afforded a wide scope for the individual influence of the artist and the poet. fi. in any other people of antiquity.r . the sun Osiris and of other soultriumphed in the end over all reappears each morning upon the of it eastern horizon. -Eiitt^. and accordingly we find that they were modified with a rapidity . On con- the other hand. from such early times. — The weighing of actions. arrived surely at last at those celestial dwellings where it became incorporated among the gods.ad in the which is unique in Egyptian art.fS_ .. 287 Thanks and. took on a very definite form.. although they did not escape the operation of the their temperament was sufficiently servative to give to each of their creations a peculiar consistency.The Tome under the New threats."t Aasaj.'i^f^rt!r!j?i!^i9SiS5?^ Li%k — f l.l Hifual of Museum. such as Anubis.xity and Their Hades. that they were sure to clothe the plastic expression of this theme in a richness and brilliancy of colour which we do not find to the same degree eternal law of change. and features which varied but little throutrh a . 184. imagination spared no effort to represent ^YIth The Egyptian soul had to the greatest possible precision those mysterious regions where the undergo its appointed tests. obstacles. British (From an illustmte.'C|5»?ifv t*»'-^i->-=s-v-| aLMlmi. as it to the help protecting gods.) tJu D. But the Egyptians were accustomed. Empire. if we may call it so. :-:y^lwgittgt<. to give a concrete form to all their ideas.

i. from a bas-relief. left in the living rock. Thus the tombs of the Theban period embody the Egyptian solution of the problem which has always exercised mankind. The tomb. that the perilous like those of the voyage of the soul had to be undertaken. pavilion . tortures those against . chambers where the infernal gods and their and so the acolytes sat enthroned in all the majesty of their office passages of the tomb were expanded here and there into oblong or square chambers.288 A History of Art . in Ancient Egypt. whom sentence had already been pro74-) nounced. in a funerary 1S5. their roofs supported by pillars . those galleries. were fixed the terrible in these defiles. its gaping depths and the mazes To complete the of its intersecting and twisting corridors. {Description de V Hgvpte. the punishment of the wicked helps to give (fc/a/ to the royal apotheosis by the contrasts which it affords. aipiy^. every journey. escorted by Amen-Ra and the other divinities whom he had worshipped during life. On one side the pious king may be seen. long course of centuries and this form is practically that which we find in the sepulchres of the great Theban kings and in some belonging to private individuals. It was through long and gloomy galleries. On either side of the audience chambers the imagina- narrow passes and defiles. A boat carried it which had the over the subterranean river. had its snares and narrow passages.. genii. and monsters who peopled the regions below. for in a country Nile for its principal highway. Anubis. — geance held prepared to harass the march of souls not yet absolved. which the walls seemed to close in upon the soul and bar its progress tortuous corridors and gloomy gulfs tion placed in . in which ven- ministers of divine in Fig. pi. resemblance nothing more was required than to paint and chisel upon the walls the figures of those gods. therefore. even that of the sun through space. advancing to plead his cause before Osiris on the other. and to overwhelm themselves with frightful ambush. Their subterranean corridors were a reproduction upon a small . was looked upon as a Spacious saloons were imagined to exist among navigation.

before To The represent the king in his act of self- justification that justification. The two colossi of Amenophis III. commingled to separate in in some measure to anticipate and the image were so intimately the mind of the believer that he was unable Osiris was reality one from the other. most of them are of rose granite Irom Svene the smallest are from the two . or to the Ethiopian who was his pupil. and should have a better chance of duration. even when they had painted or carved them with their own hands. with their pedestals. was better its proportions. which appears from its inscriptions to apartment statuettes. and to look upon the walls as mere ornament we power. In the inclosures of the temples of Rameses and upon the site of the Amenophium. and yet there is a chamber in the tomb of Rameses IV. VOL. Between the ideal models of these pictures and the pictures themselves the Egyptians established one of those mutual confusions which have always been readily accepted by the faithful. which in order that it keeping with the magnificence of its surroundings. was image often repeated. the external funerary adorned with might be in colossal in his sovereigns ? temple.^ The chisel which created such tangible deities gave them something more than the appearance of life. pp. in have been called the Statue c/iamber. vol.. Maspero has shown by an ingenious collation of various texts. each had their protective or resulting from a desire for luxury liberating under world. ' Rccua'/ ih- Titi'-aiix.The Tomb under the New scale Empire. i. This M. the 289 of the leading characteristics of we should commit series of jsictures a great mistake were which decorate its and display. 155-159. Did the royal tombs contain statues of the defunct ? None have been found in any of those already opened. Each god exercised his own proper function in that tomb which was a reproduction in small of the regions of the other world. while another for the funerary its neighbourhood is reserved of private individuals contained statues . His gestures and the written formulse which appeared beside him on the walls. are as much as from 55 to more than 60 feet. Nothing seemed more natural to the Egyptian. I. the remains of these huge figures are to be counted by dozens. than to ascribe the power of speech and movement to the images of the gods. The tombs why then should none have been put in those of the The commemorative sanctuary. 24 to 28 feet high. and some. P P .

but by an only wells which have been discovered in Bab-el-Molouk are. been found empty.chamber reached with sarcophagus." ^ were never. &c. The exact and accurate spirit which if marks would lead them to prepare for the placing of a door at the entrance to each chamber but at the same time it is obvious that a iew panels of sycamore would do little to stop the progress of any one who should attempt This latter consideration may to violate the royal sepulchre. ingeniously contrived to throw any would-be violator We have already mentioned one of these off the right scent. reached as the latter Flayed. if we may use the term. is At the end of the long descent the its mummy. but no trace of hinges or of the leaves It is possible that they of a door itself have been found. .' and in a closed which has hitherto. The the tombs of the ascending plane. Description de I'Egypte. false wells. is sometimes an mummy-chamber the leads to which the corridor inclined plane. as at Thebes. Maspero {Recueil. It is known that tombs were sometimes thus some of the doors have been found in place. mutilated. when their size and the simplicity of their lines will have an effect upon the traveller which he will never forget (Fig. pp. p.edeker. and Plate vi. . vol. as in those at Memphis. One was found in . put in place. they had been closed. 20. iii.a Theban tomb opened by Rhind {Thebes. In the pyramids false wells as existing in the tomb of Seti. History of Art in Ancient Egypt. It is doubtful whether the sarcophagus-chamber was closed by a door or not. 405) i . in every instance. these statues still place. 2 See one of the great inscriptions i. 3 p. In the royal tombs at Thebes.).igo A Pharaoh height. They should be seen in autumn and from a little distance as they raise their solitary and imposing masses above the inundated plain.. generally a very simple one of red granite. all the work of Egyptian artists . Uiiter nothing but a new door was required to put the opening in its j-E^^pten. at Beni. dishonoured in they have been. 168). vol. In the tomb of Ti easily recognized traces of a door were found (B. the approach to the mummy-chamber is not by a well. interpreted by M. 94 and 95). 35). {Anfiqtiitis.Hassan. p. ancient state. but in the Theban tomb it is always descending. the whom gigantic the Greeks are called Memnon. etc."^ but not the slightest vestige of one has yet been discovered in the royal sepulchres " All the doorways have sills and grooved jambs. few of the texts mention is made of doors.

the mummy of Queen Aah-hotep. no doubt. by the desire to develop to the utmost possible extent those pictures which were to be so powerful for good over the fortunes of the defunct in the under world. the length of reign enjoyed by their respective Cheops. The mummy chamber consisted of a few ill-adjusted stone slabs. V Egxpte a petitcs jounices. at merely buried in the sand. it is difficult to find place for all the sovereigns of the nineteenth and twentieth dynasties in the two Valleys of the Kings. Even when we admit that a certain number of royal sepulchres have so far escaped discovery. These tombs seem to have varied greatly in size from reasons similar to those which determined the dimensions of the pyramids. As these galleries were meant to be sealed from the sight of man. some few feet beneath the surf^ice.Molouk. Like other mummies found on the same place. Chephren. to the height and mass of their tombs until death put an end to the work. Apart trom the question of duration. there between king and king in the matter of their tombs. p. several of those princes were some of them may have been Thus Mariette discovered. ^ and it was but natural that they should employ the crowd of artificers and artists which their enterprises gathered about them. 291 have caused them to abstain from expending time and trouble upon a futile precaution. this prolongation was caused. of the nineteenth dynasty. and Mycerinus continually added makers. and was decorated with jewels which now form some of the most priceless treasures of the Boulak Museum. Many an extraordlnarv things lead us to believe that . 104. The three great Theban dynasties included several of those monarchs who have been called the Louis the Fourteenths and the Napoleons of Egypt. . for the excavation and decoration of their own is tombs. The private tombs in the Theban necropolis. In the same way. reigns which were glorious would give us larger and more beautiful tombs than those which were obscure and marked by weakness in the sovereign. Seti and Rameses never ceased while they lived to prolong the quarried galleries in the Babel. It was gilt all over. Drah-Aboit l-A"eggah. namely. it seemed never to have been disturbed since it had been placed beneath the soil.The Tomb under the New Empire. Rhone. Either for this reason difterence or for some other. which are much content with very simple tombs ' A.

belong ancient a single period in the national history. The private sepulchre never subdivided hmmimmm^i . between Amosis. 79. This subdivision is to be explained by in the exceptional position of the sovereign mid-way between his subjects and the national deities. a contemporary with the Ptolemies and the Roman emperors. ii. (Dcscriplion de V Egypte. but in neither case does it ever fail to form an integral part of the tomb. to the centuries. But by far the greater number belong to that epoch which saw Thebes promoted to be the capital of the whole country.. The most among them There are and few some also of the Sait period. of the Ramessides. do not. so that the latter preserves at once its traditional divisions and its indissoluble unitv. sides A funerary chapel cut the mountain would obviously be too small for the purposes to which the commemorative part of the tomb of a Rameses or a Seti would be put. before may be is referred. vol. the conqueror of the Hyksos. and the last date back to the eleventh dynasty. On the other hand. ^ /W "^ ^ // ^ Fig. no private individual could hope to receive royal honours nor to associate his memory with the worship of the great Egyptian gods. We find that for him the chapel always remains closely connected with the mummy chamber. like the latter. of the . 1S6.) like those of the kings. but. These tombs are distinguised by great noticing the jDrincipal types to which they points variety. Sometimes it is in front of it. namely. — Plan and section of a royal tomb. pi. more numerous than those to of kings. sometimes above it.29: A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. the which distinguish them from the royal burying-places should be indicated.

^ After the introduction of the corpse. cross. . dating from the time of Rameses. In a few exceptional instances. arms of a ii. 293 We. 18-120). 78. such as priests and military functionaries. may say the same of the well. which was facilitated by notches cut in two faces of the well.The Tomb under the New Empire. Desci-iption de V Egypfe. sometimes for more ignoble . purposes. whether the tomb be constructed in the plain or in the side as those of Gizeh of the mountains.^ In the time of the Ptolemies. and of unequal heights. {Antiquith^ plates.- is very necessary to make sure that explorers have not been deceived by appearances.Sakkarah its depth hardly e. the well gave access to four like the vol. chambers of different sizes arranged round " pi. mummy . In more than in one of these a usurpations the for comer has been placed chamber constructed new some other object. escaped the notice of the violators (pp. It is seldom so deep or . In these dusty interiors the carefully sealed opening might easily escape any but the most careful research and as for a sarcophagus. it v. there are two chambers facing each other at the foot of the well. every instance the mummy chamber is reached by a well. visited and pillaged at some unknown epoch. . it may have been placed there long after the making of the tomb. 5. Sometimes The mummy chamber opens directly upon it. as in In such cases the case of it roj-al tombs. the well filled the door of the mummy chamber was built up in. influential people. etc. which plays the same part in the private tombs of the New Empire as in the ]Mastaba and In almost the S/>cos of the Ancient and Middle Empires.v describes a tomb of this kind in detail in his Cafa/c's^/te raisonniTliis tomb had been des Antiquith dccoicvcrtcs en Egypte (8vo. but the second. when one is found in such a chamber. its Tombs. In the tomb opened by Rhind {Thebes. were thrown into a corner their cases were made use of. after relegating the statues and mummies of the rightful owner and his people to the room above.). ^ Rhind describes one of the most curious of these substitutions in his chapter IV. Passalacqu. received the mummy. Such usurpations are by no means unknown. which opened lower down the 1 well. and on the other side. . The venerable mummies. One of the two chambers had been ' ct historique opened and stripped. sometimes for the mummy of the usurper.xceeds from 20 to 30 feet but its arrangement is similar to those in the early necropolis. and the innermost — chamber. made them without scruple. p. all his In that case an usurper of the time of Ptolemy established himself and family in the chambers at the foot of the well. 1826). the tombs of private individuals seem to have had no well.

There . being above the reach of the annual inundation.2 94 A well History of Art and in Anxif. then. waters lie the of the we speak of the plain in connection with we do not mean the space over which spread TJile. what they tell us with the figured representations in bas-relief and manuscript.— Theban tombs from the bis-relicls. ch. the rock crops up here and there. may be called the level part of the necropolis.Such a soil. some and yet disappeared. band which widens a little between the long spurs which In these land-gulfs the mountains throw out towards the river. . In this. we may form some idea of the aspect which The this part of the cemetery must formerly have presented. in The mummy its chamber and in site. varies according to but the form of the rest of the tomb date Those sides. which Their tombs have left but slight and ill-defined traces. the rock are. found almost universally. and nowhere is it covered by more than a thin layer of sand. 1S7. a square or rectangular structure with slightly sloping walls was surmounted by a small pyramid. iSS. superstructures have almost entirely which have now completely vanished were seen by travellers By comparing to Thebes in the first half of the present century.) for the construction of the tomb and for the preservation of the mummy. xvi.xt Egypt. in the plain are it arranged differently to those the hill But must be understood that when the Theban tombs. (From Wilkinson. principles same the upon tombs which it contained were built the as those of Abydos . was marvellously well-fitted both which a narrow -TrrmwrmnnTrr FiG5. We mean the gentle sandy slopes between the foot of the cliffs and the cultivated fields.

xvi. Abydos at nature of the subsoil in compelled contrive the mummy chamber the interior of his own structure Thebes.xauU qua/re Apis . at a depth below the surface which would ensure it greater safety both from violence and from natural causes of decay. 190). One of the points of difference has already been noticed the other type is The that of the Spcos. but came into general employment and obtained its full development under the First and Second We have already given some idea of the Theban Empires. \ siir /es soi. the an essential difference between At to . architect !95 however. and to intrust the corpse to the keeping of the earth. with the eighteenth dynasty. we must now indicate the peculiarities which in these respects distinguish the tombs of the kings from those of their subjects. architectural character and of the decoration of the royal sepulchres. p. We . have here seen that it dates from the Ancient Empire. times it was surmounted by a small sometimes it was a quadpyramid rangular mass standing upon a surbase. Empire. Mariette at Sakkarah. and were discovered by M.^ at These little monuments have since either — Tlieban b. to be free from soil all danger of settlement or disintegraregion is The of all this mummy pits. was built above the well and Someinclosed the funerary chapel. At Thebes the rock was soft enough to be cut with sufficient ease. m ii i ii ii i /////: boldly projecting cornice at the top. be taken as specimens of this latter A Fig. 1S9. which must also have been represented These are contemporary Thebes. by the sand (see Fig. on the other hand. tomb from a (From Wilkinson. the the two. and yet firm enough tion. been destroyed 185 1 or covered ch. with a pilaster at each angle and a now filled structure . 55 {RcnseignfDioits Scrapeuin de Memphis). ' AthencEuin Fraiicais^ le trouvh dans 1S55. there was nothing to prevent him from being faithful to a tradition which had manifest advantages.) The Tomb under the New was. oldest of the known tombs of The Apis may class. which have long ago been pillaged and are honeycombed with The superup with sand.i'^-relief.

united by corridors. sometimes upon a corrider opening out of the latter. The mummy pit opens sometimes upon the corridor between two of the chambers. Thebes. . in a direction parallel to This chamber is the funerary for from 12 to 24 feet. sometimes upon the innermost chamber. Theban catacombs Petamounoph (Fig. This view is obtained by a series of horizontal and vertical sections in the By this operation we are enabled to show the rock to the right of the galleries. chapel. beyond the chamber without arriving at the mummy pit. besides which there are a large number of But this chambers. The great majority. p. subterranean parts of the tomb. The most extensive of In this the galleries have not less than 895 feet of total length. and others excavated in the hill of Sheikh-Abd-elGournah.^ that of a private individual. from 6 to 10 feet and 10 the wall. etc. but more often the 300 feet second in order. the whole being covered with painted reliefs. access to a rectangular chamber. of inclined employment all of wells instead planes as approaches to the the mummy is chamber. the priest tomb for is quite exceptional. - Rhind. those of Rekhmara. From Mariette. instance. are composed of two or three chambers at most. — A tomb of Apis. It is sometimes the first. Rhind tells us that he followed one of these corridors for about Fig. 43.296 A History of Art vertical in Ancient Egypt. in A considerable number o-ives The door hio-h which case the first acts as a sort of vestibule. ' which extends. of tombs are very simple in arrangement.^ The chamber for the funerary celebration is easily recognized by its decorations. 190. 191). passage opens which is nearly wall a posterior From its to 12 wide. the air then became too bad for further progress.

Q Q .kmmm Mima I VOL. I.

.

The Tomb under the New
equal in height and width to the chamber.

Empire.
It

299

has a gentle slope

and penetrates
terminating,
in

into the rock to a distance of

some

cases,

in

the

mummy

some 25 chamber

to 35 feet,
itself

but

more frequently
a

in a small

apartment containing the opening of

mummy
It

pit.^
;

must not be imagined that all the tombs were decorated there are many which have received neither painted nor carved ornament, and in others the ornament has never been carried beyond the first sketch. But even in those which are quite bare,
the
Vv'alls

are, in

nearly every instance, covered with a coat of

white stucco.

no effort could be made to mask or conceal the entrance, which accordingly was taken advantage of for the display of ornament.
the
itself,

As

the funerary chapel was contained in

tomb

Fig. 192.

The most simple form of Theban tomb from Rhiud.
;

Fig. 193. Tomb as represented upon a bas-relief ; from Khind.

But no attempt was made to cut architectural facades in the cliffs not more than one or two sepulchres like tho.se at Beni-Hassan have yet been discovered which have facades made up of those The makers of columns which have been called protodoric. these tombs were usually content with dressing the surface of The latter, with its the rock above and around the entrance. sloping lintel above a cornice, stands in the centre oi an almost In perpendicular wall which acts as its frame or background. the uninjured state of the sepulchre this wall was more or less concealed bv a construction similar to those which we have According to described in speaking of the tombs in the plain. all appearances, one of these little buildings, a cube of masonry crowned by a pyramidion, was placed before the doorway of
; '

RniND,

Thebes, etc. pp. 56, 57.

A
every tomb.

History of Art
It is difficult to

in

Ancient Egypt.
was of sufficient size It may have been no more meant only to mask the
it

say whether
not.
size,

to contain a funerary

chamber or
of small
its

than a solid erection
wealthy,
public

entrance and to indicate
indeed,
attention

situation to those concerned.

The
call

may have been
to

only too

pleased

to

thus

the

position- of their

gorgeously decorated
find

selpulchres.

The

little

pyramids of crude brick which we
is

upon the
little

irregular rocky slopes of the Koiwuet-el-Moiirrayi, above the

honeycombed, some are still standing, and others have left unmistakable traces upon the They seem to have existed in great numbers in this part slope. of the necropolis, which seems to have been set apart, about the
window-shaped openings with which the rock
probably answered a similar purpose.

Of

these

time of the eighteenth dynasty, for the priests.

Although they hardly varied from the two or three types little buildings could easily have been made to present slight differences one from another. When they existed in their entirety, they must have given a very different aspect to the cemetery from that which it presents with its rocky slopes burnt by the sun into one harsh and monotonous tint, varied only by the black and gaping mouths of the countless tombs. The sides which they turned to the city and the river were adorned with those brilliant colours of which the Egyptian architects were so fond, and, spaced irregularly but never very far apart, they were sprinkled over the ground from the edge of the plain to the topmost ridges of the hills. Nearly all of them ended in a pyramid, but the varying dimensions of their bases and their different levels above the plain, gave diversity to the prospect, while here and there the slender apex of an obelisk rose above the private tombs and signalized the sleeping-place of a king. It has been very justly remarked, that the best idea of an Egyptian cemetery in its best time is to be gained by a visit to one of those Italian Campo-Santos, that of Naples, for example, where the tombs of many generations lie closely together under a blazing sun.^ There, too, many sepulchral facades rise one above another upon the abrupt slope of a hill into which the graves are sunk. A comparison with the cemetery of Pere-Lachaise, or with that at Constantinople, would not be
consecrated by custom, these
'

Rhind,

Tlubes, etc. p. 55.

The Tomb under the New
just because

E>hure.
the

no trees could

flourish

in

Theban

rocks,

at

least in the higher part of the necropolis.

In those districts

which
to

border closely upon the irrigation channels, the tombs seem

Palms and sycamores have had their gardens and fountains. appear to have been planted about them, and here and there, perhaps, the care of survivors succeeded in rearing flowers which would shed their perfumes for the consolation of the dead.^ Were there statues in the courtyards by which many of these tombs were surrounded ? There is no doubt that such statues were placed in the rock-cut sepulchres all the museums of which come Europe have specimens from the Theban tombs. The latter were opened and despoiled, however, at such an early period that very few of these figures have been found in place by those who have visited the ruins of Egypt for legitimate motives. We have, however, the evidence of e.xplorers who have penetrated into tombs which were practically intact. They tell us that the statue of the deceased, accompanied often by that of his wife and children, was placed against the further wall of
;

the innermost chamber.-

In some tombs, a niche
is

is

cut in the

wall for this purpose,^ in others a dais

raised three or four
too, is

steps above the floor of the chamber.^

Here,

found the

sar-

cophagus,

in

basalt

when

the defunct was able to afford such a

luxury, and the canopic vases, which were sometimes of stone,
especially alabaster,

sometimes of terra
hold the

cotta,

and now and then
of

of wood, and were used to

viscera

the

deceased.

by the and Selk (Fig. goddesses Isis, Nephtys, Neith, 196). During the period of which we have just been treating, the taste for these huge rock-cut tombs was not confined to Thebes and
four in number, protected respectively
'

These vases were

Maspero, Recueil
:

de Travaiix, vol.
steles

ii.

p.

105.

The formula which

is

generally

found upon the funerary
this

of the eighteenth and nineteenth dynasties hints at

rest

"That I may walk daily upon the border of my fountain; that my soul may upon the branches of the funerary garden which has been made for me, that each day I may be out under my sycamore " These desires may be taken literally, as is proved by two steles in the museums of Turin and Boulak, which bear representaThe latter, which we reproduce, comes tions of tombs upon their lower portions.
!

from the Theban necropolis.
^

Most of these

statues
vol.
iii.

r Egypte {Antiguites,
^

p.

were of calcareous stone, but in the Description de 34) two granite ones are mentioned.
See
iii.

In the tomb of .Amenemheb, for instance, discovered by Professor Ebers.
p.

also Description de F Egypte, vol.
*

41.
iii.

Description de fEgvpie {Antiguites, \o\.

p.

34).

A
its

History of Art
;

in

Ancient Egypt.

immediate vicinity we find obvious traces of them in the city which then held the second place in Egypt, namely, in Memphis, where a son of the sovereign resided as viceroy. It was in the reign of Rameses II., that the fourth of his hundred and seventy

Fig. 194.

— Stele

in the

Boulak Museum, showing tombs

witli

gardens about them.

From Maspero.

children

began what is now called the neighbourhood of the Great Pyramids.^
'

little

Serapeum,

in

the

Until then each Apis
which did so much honour

It is

no part of our plan

to describe this discovery,

We refer all those wlio are both to the perspicacity and the energy of Marietta. interested in the matter to the article contributed by M. E. Desjardins to the
jRriiie dcs

Deux-Mondes of March

15,

1874, under the

title:

Les Dkottvertes de

The Tomb under the New
bull

Emph^e.

305

had had a tomb apart, a tomb in \vhich everj-thing was of This royal prince was especially vowed to the small dimensions.

Fig. 196.

— Canopic vase of

alabaster.

Louvre.

w

.^rship

He

of Ptah and Apis, for whom he inaug^urated new rites. began the excavation of a grand gallery, and lined it on each
les

r Egyptologie fran^aise,
details will also

Missions

et les

Ti-avaux de

M. Marie fie.

Many

precious

be found, some of them almost dictated by Mariette, in ihe L' Egvpte a petiies Jounices of M. Arthur Rhone (pp. 212-263). This work includes two plans, a general plan and a detailed plan of the subterranean galleries, which were supplied by tiie illustrious author of the excavations himself; views of the galleries are also given, and reproductions of various objects found in the course of the exploration. We may also mention the Choix des Alonumcnts du Serapeum, a collection of ten engraved plates published by Mariette, and the great work, unfortunately incomplete, which he commenced under the title Le Serapmvi de Memphis (folio, Paris, Gide, 1858). In the second volume of Fouilles et Decom'ertes (Didier,
:

8vo, 1873, 2 vols.)

Beule has given

a very

good description of the bold but fortunate

VOL.

T.

R R

3o6

A

History of Art

in

Ancient Egypt.

chambers which were increased in number as each This gallery and successive Apis died and required a sepulchre. its chambers served for 700 years (see Figs. 197 and 198). The funerary architecture of the Sait epoch seems to have had an originality of its own, but we are unable to form an opinion from any existing remains. Not a trace is extant of. those tombs
side with small

which the princes of the twenty-sixth dynasty were, according Here are the words to Herodotus, placed one after another. Egyptians) /j,iv (A pries) of the Greek historian Be (the ol
in
:

UTreTTVi^ai',

Kai
Trjs

tTretra

eOa-^av

ev

rycrt

TrarpMrjai

ra^yai,

at

be

eiat

Iv

T(p

X'^poi

ipw

'A6r]i'airji,

aj)(0TdT(i3

Tov
t/c

jxeydpov
vofxov

eaiovTi

opiarept]?

'tda\jfav
ecro)

St ev

Saifrat

irdvTas
kcu

toi'S

tovtov
ai)fia

yeuof^evovs

/Sao-'tXtay

rco Ipti.

^dp to tov \\ixaatos

eKaartpu) fitu

Fig. 197.

— View of the
»;

gr.-ind gallery in

the Apis

Mausoleum

;

from Mariette.

eoTL TOV /xeydpov
/juevTOi

to tov

Anpieoi)

nai

tcov

tovtov irpoTraToprov'
fj.eja\T],

eari

Kol ToiiTo Iv Ty av\y tov Ipov, iraaTas XiOcvr)
re
ev
tCTTi.

Kai

TjaKT]/j,tv7]

aTvXoiai
eao]
I'l

(polvixas to,
Trj

BevSpea

fie/jUfinfievoicn,,

Kai
ev

ttj

aWrj
TOicrt.

BaTravr/.

Be

TraaTaBi,

Bi^a dvpajfiaTa

eaTrjKe'

Be

dvp(v/j.aai

Ol'lKf}

campaign which, begun

in the

month of October,

1850, brought fame to a young

man who
'

had, until then, both open enmity and secret intrigue to contend against. Herodotus, ii. 169. "The Egyptians strangled Apries, but, having done so,

This tomb is in the temple of they buried him in the sepulchre of his fathers. Athene {Ncifh). very near the sanctuary, on the left hand as one enters. The natives of .Sais buried all the kings which belonged to their nome within this temple, and,
in fact,
it

also contains the
is

tomb of Amasis,

as well as that of Apries

and

his family,

but the former

not so close to the sanctuary as the former, but

still it is

within the

buildings of the temple, in a large chamber constructed of stone, with columns in the shape of the trunks of palm trees, and richly decorated besides, which incloses

The Tomb under the New

Empire.

307

Preceding centuries afford no example of a tomb placed within
a temple like
First of
artificial
all

this.^

the royal

mummy
it

was entombed

in the

bowels of an
in

mountain, secondly, under the Theban dynasties,
;

those

above the soil, in the precincts come and go at their will, and nothing but a pair of wooden doors protects it from disturbance. Such an arrangement seems inconsistent with all that we know of the passionate desire of the Egyptians to give an eternal duration to their mummies. We have every reason to believe that this desire had shown no diminution at the time of the twenty-sixth dynasty, and we can hardly admit that Psemethek and his successors were less impelled by it than the meanest of their
of a real one

but at Sais,

rests

of a temple, where curious visitors

subjects.

The

e.xplanation of the apparent

anomaly

believe, in the peculiar nature of the soil of

Sait princes were determined to leave their which they had filled with magnificent buildings and had turned into the capital of all Egypt. Both s/>i'os and mummy pit, however, were out of the question. Sais was built in the Delta upon an alluvial soil which was wetted through and through, as each autumn came round, by the water of the Nile. Neither hill nor
;

is to be found, we Lower Egypt. The mummies in the city

rock existed for

many

miles in every direction.

It

was, therefore,
is

a kind of niche or shrine with folding doors, in which the

mummy

placed."

one of the most dififttult passages in Herodotus, and has given much trouble to translators and commentators. See Larcher's note (ii. 565), and the passage in Stobseus (serm. .xli. p. 251), which he cites in justification for the sense which is here given to the word dvptlifiara. Strabo is content with but a line on this subject Sais," he says, " especially worships Athene (Neith). The tomb of Psammitichos is in the very temple of that goddess" (xvii. 18).
This
is
''
:

Herodotl's affirms (ii. 129-132) that Mycerinus caused the body of his daughter be inclosed in the flank of a wooden cow, richly gilt, and he says that " the cow in question was never placed in the earth." In his time it was exposed to the view of all comers in a magnificently decorated saloon of the royal p.alace of Sais. We may be allowed to suggest that Herodotus was mistaken in the name of the prince
'

to

;

Mycerinus

is

not likely to have so far abandoned
at Gizeh.

all

the funerary traditions of his

entombed the body of his daughter in a spot so distant from his There is one hypothesis, however, which may save us from the necessity of once again accusing the Greek historian of misunderstanding what was said to him in their desire to weld together the present with the past, and to collect into their capital such national monuments as might appeal to the imaginatime, or to have

own pyramid

;

may have transported such a curiously shaped sarcophagus either from the pyramid of Mycerinus or from some small pyramid in its neighbourhood.
tions of their subjects, the Sait princes

;

3o8

A

History of Art

in

Ancient Egypt.

absolutely necessary that the

tomb should be a constructed one upon the surface of this soil. It would seem that the pyramid would have been the best form of tomb to ensure the continued
existence of the

mummy,

but, to

say nothing of the difficulty of

finding a satisfactory foundation for such a structure

the pyramid had, for Egyptian art was entirely occupied with richer and more varied forms, forms which admitted of the play of light and shade, and of all the splendour of carved and painted decoration. The pyramid being rejected, no type remained but that of

and yielding

soil,

upon a soft many ages, been completely

out of fashion.

Fig. 198.

— Sepulchral chamber of an Apis bull
should
inclose

;

from Mariette.

a

building

which

both

mummy

chamber and

funerary chapel under one roof,
wall.

or, at least,

within one bounding

also, it is true, the Abydos type of sepulchre, chamber hidden in the thickness of its base but it was too heavy and too plain, it was too nearly related to the pyramid, and it did not lend itself readily to those brilliant

There was

with

its

mummy

last renascence of Egyptian But the hypostyle hall, the fairest creation of the national genius, was thoroughly fitted to be the medium of such picturesque conceptions as were then required, and it was adopted as the
art.

compositions which distinguish the

The Tomb under the New
nucleus of the tombs at Sais.
aisles

Empire.

309

A
of

hall divided, perhaps, into three

by

tall

shafts covered with figures

and

inscriptions, afforded
for

a meeting-place and a place

worship

the

living.

The

mummy
in

chamber was replaced by a

niche,

placed,

doubtless,

which faced the entrance, and the well, the one essential constituent of an early Egyptian tomb, was suppressed. Such arrangements as these afforded much less security to the mummy than those of Memphis or Thebes, and to compensate
the wall
in

some measure

for their manifest disadvantages, the

tomb was

placed within the precincts of the most venerable temple in the

and the security of the corpse was made to depend upon the awe inspired by the sanctuary of Neith. As the event proved, this was but a slight protection against the fury of a victorious enemy. Less than a year after the death of Amasis, Cambyses tore his body from its resting-place, and burnt it to ashes after
city,

outraging

it

in

a childish fashion.^
of these Salt kings, consisting of so

The tombs

many comremind us

paratively small

buildings
in

in

one sacred inclosure,

of what are called,

the

modern

East, furbchs, those sepulchres

of

which are found in the immediate neighbourhood of the mosques. Vast differences exist, of course, between the Saracenic and Byzantine styles and that of Ancient
saints or priests

Mohammedan

Egypt, but yet the principle
Cairo or
of visitors
Constantinople,

is

the same.
or

iron

At Sais, as in modern wooden gratings must have

barred the entrance to the persons while they admitted the glances

were hung before the niche, as the finest shawls from India and Persia veil the coffins which lie beneath the domes of the modern burial-places. Perhaps, too, sycamores and The most palm-trees cast their shadows over the external walls.hasty visitor to the Bosphorus and the Golden Horn can hardly fail to remember the suburb of Eyoub, where the /itrbe/is of the Ottoman princes stand half hidden among the cypresses and
;

rich

stuffs

plane trees.

The
'

material

condition which compelled

the Salt

princes to

break with the customs of their ancestors, affected the tombs of Herodotus, iii. 16. Upon this subject see an interesting article by M. Eugene
Revh.lout, entitled
Egyptologique,
^
:

Le Hoi Amasis
de
seq.)

et

d' Heiodote et les Renseigiiements
first

la

la merceiiaires Gtecs, selon les Donnes {Rei'ue Chronique Dbiiotique de Faiis.

year; p- 50 et

There are two passages in Herodotus (ii. 91, and 138) from which we may infer that the Egyptians were fond of planting trees about their temples.

;

3IO
private

A

History of Art

in

Ancient Egypt.

individuals also. Throughout the existence of the Egyptian monarchy the inhabitants of the Delta were obliged to set about the preservation of their dead in a different fashion their to that followed by their neighbours in Upper Egypt mummies had to be kept out of reach of the inundation. Isolated monuments, like those of Abydos, would soon have filled all the available space upon artificial mounds, such as those upon which The problem to be solved the cities of the Delta were built. Since there could be no question of was, however, a simple one.
;

a lateral development, like that ot the

Theban tombs,

or of a

down-

ward one, like that of the Memphite mummy pits, it was obvious development must be upwards. A beginning was made by constructing, at some distance from a town, a platform of crude brick, upon which, after its surface had been raised above the level of the highest floods, the mummies were placed in small chambers closely packed one against another. As soon as the whole platform was occupied, another layer of chambers was commenced above it. Champollion discovered the remains of tvvo such cemeteries in the immediate neighbourhood of Sais. The larger of the two v/as not less than 1,400 feet long, 500 feet an enormous mass " which resembled," he wide, and So feet high No doubt said, " a huge rock torn by lightning or earthquake." was possible as to the character of the mass Champollion found among the debris both canopic vases and funerary statuettes. Within a few years of his death Mariette undertook some fresh they led to no very excavations in the same neighbourhood
that the
;

^

;

;

important
in a

results,

but

they confirmed

the justice

of the

views

enunciated by Champollion.

Most

of the objects recovered were
;

the materials had been too and in time the dampness, which had impregnated the base of the whole structure, had crept upwards through the porous brick, and turned the whole mass into a gigantic sponge. These tombs resemble those of the kings in having no well and as for the funerary chapel we do not as yet know whether it

very bad state of preservation

soft,

existed

at

all,

Perhaps each of
divided into

was arranged, or what took its place. more carefully constructed tombs was two parts, a chamber more or less decorated and a
it

how

the

niche contrived in the masonry, like the rock-cut ovens of the

Phoenician catacombs.
'

As

soon as the munmiy was introduced,
de Ntd>ic, 2nd edition, 1868, p. 41.

Lett res Eciites

d' Ei^xpte et

The Tomb under the New
the niche
for the

Empire.

311

was walled

up, while

the

chamber would remain open
and
in the

funerary celebrations.

In order that the tombs situated

at

some height above the

level of the soil,

middle of

the block of buildings, should be reached, a complicated system
of staircases and inclined planes of centuries the tombs of the
first

was necessary.

In the course

layer and especially those in the

overwhelmed and buried from sight and above and around them. The families to which they belonged, perhaps, became e.xtinct, and no one was left to watch over their preservation. Had it
centre of the mass, were
access by the

continual

aggregation

not been for the infiltration of the Nile water, these lower strata
of tombs would no doubt have furnished
to explorers.

many

interesting objects
that,
if

In any case

it

would seem

likely

deep

trenches were driven through the heart of these vast agglomerations of

unbaked

brick,

many

valuable discoveries would be made.^
;

Such a system

left slight

scope to individual caprice

space must

out to each claimant, and the elbow room than when he was cutting less into the sides of a mountain or building upon the dry soil of the desert. In the royal tombs alone, if time had left any for our inspection, could we have found materials for judging

have been carefully architect had much

parcelled

of the funerary architecture of Sais, but, as the matter stands,

we are obliged to be content with what we can gather from Theban and Memphite remains as to the prevailing taste of
the epoch.

Upon
Colonel

the plateau of Gizeh, to the south of the Great Pyramid,

cleared, in 1837, an important of Colonel Campbell, then which gave the name to he British Consul-General in Egypt. The external part of the tomb had entirely disappeared, but we may conclude that it was in keeping with the subterranean portion. The maker of the

Vyse discovered and

tomb

tomb had taken the trouble
around
it

to

define

its

extent by a trench cut

in

the rock.

The

external measurements of this trench
its

are 89 feet by 74.
faces to the well,

A

passage had been contrived from one of

which had been covered in all probability by an The well opens upon a point nearer to the north than the south, and its dimensions are quite exceptional. It is 54 feet 4 inclies deep, and 31 feet by 26 feet 8 inches in horizontal
external structure.
'

Similar structures exist in lower ChaldK.i.

and have furnished many

inscriptions

of great interest and value to assyriologists.

A
section
;

History of Art
in

ix

Anxient Egypt.
is

it

terminates
thick.

a chamber which
It

II feet 2 inches

was not however
in

in

covered by a vault this chamber, but
grottos
in

small

lateral

that

several
basalt,

sarcophagi

granite,

white quartz,

&c.,

found.

The

remains

of

other wells

tomb dates Psemethek
In the
there
the
Fig.

were traced. from the time
I.

were two This
of

necropolis

of

Thebes

is

a whole

district, that of

hill

El Assassif, where most
tombs
belong
dynasty.
is

Sectim in perspective of 199. "Campbell's tomb," from the plans and elevations of Perring.

of

the

to

the

twenty-sixth
external aspect

Their
to

very different
the

from

that

of

the

Theban
is

sepulchres.

The
a

entrance

subterranean

galleries

preceded

by

spacious

rectangular

Fig. 200.

— Vertical

section in perspective of the sarcophagus charuber of the above compiled from Perring.

tcmb

;

courtyard, excavated in the rock to a depth of 10 or

12

feet.

This court was from 80 to 100 feet long and from 40 to 80 feet

The Tomb under the New
wide by a
;

Empire.

was surrounded by a stone or brick wall, and reached flight of steps. A pylon-shaped doorway gave access to the
it

courtyard from the side next

the rock,

another door of similar

shape opened upon the plain
(see Fig. 201) except

;

but some tombs are entirely closed

towards the mountain, from which side they
in size.

may be The
of

entered by one or two openings.

subterranean part of these tombs varies
to

In

some
rooms

them a gallery of medium length leads

a single chamber.
is

In others, and these form the majority, there

a suite of

connected by a continuous gallery.

To

this latter

group belongs

ElG. 201.

— A Tomb on EI-Assasif (drawn
all

in per?]iecli\*e

from the plans

.ind

eksations of Prisse).

the largest of

the subterranean

Theban tombs,

that of Peta-

have already noticed the extraordinary there are also two wells which lead to lower sets of chambers. All the walls of this tomb are covered with sculptured reliefs. In the first chambers these are in very bad condition, but they improve as we advance, and in the farthest rooms are remarkable for their finish and good preserva(Fig.
191).

mounoph

We
;

dimensions of

its

galleries

tion.

The exterior of tliis sepulchre is worthy of the The open court, which acts as vestibule, is 100 feet

interior.

long by

80 wide. An entrance, looking towards the plain, rises between two massive walls of crude Ijrick, and, to all appearance, was once crowned by an arcade within it a flight of steps leads
;

vol.,

I.

s s

314 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. and these two great saloons there was no lack of space for 7. Rhind. often with the instruments of their trade by their sides. and it endeavoured to compensate for its want of invention and creative imagination by an increase in richness and elegance. times as at Thebes. stone rock. Thehcs. p. At Memphis. pierced through the limea second and smaller court which is surrounded this peristyle From a sculptured portal leads to is first subterranean its once had next 53 feet by 23. cut in cliffs. chamber. help to give variety of as those of sovereigns. They were each enveloped in bandages of mummy cloth. in the sculpture. etc. but they are distinguished In some.7. ^ are of mummified animals Rhind saw some also found among the human graves. . The Egyptian A chronological classification is only possible in the cases of those tombs which bear inscriptions and figures upon their walls. tombs Someat they are . hundreds of the mummies of hawks and ibises taken from a tomb at the foot of the Drah-Abou'1-Neggah. as at Thebes. slightly is expanding the bottom sometimes. Private tombs become as large and similar tendencies are to be found genius was becoming exhausted. and beside theni numerous small boxes. in wells are much wider than others It is upon the external temple. hundreds of small chambers. Narrative of thi. p. the remains of thousands of are to be found which give no indication of their date. Another door. each with a ^ carefully embalmed mouse etc. Belzoni. that courts and to upon those double gateways which play a part similar that of the successive pylons before a Theban extra care is bestowed. 167. roof supported by a double range of columns. deep mummy pits. with bare walls and often extremely minute in size.Operations. which and The With a double vestibule chamber is feet square. Vaults are frequently employed and effect. Neither at Memphis nor at Thebes do the tombs of this late period contain any novel elements. their decoration. 51. each chamiber of which the Pits full mummies of labourers and artisans were crowded. the by their size and the luxury of usual . leads to portico. the rock In the mountains the sides of the in honeycombed with there are graves between the border of the cultivated land and the foot of the Libyan chain. there are the vast catacombs. down by a the into the court. Catherines of the friends and relations of the deceased. themselves Finally.

Empire. sometimes gilt.The Tomb under the New inside it. regarding it as an encampment for a day or a mere hotel for a passing traveller. he looked with comparative indifference. the tomb did not lose its The chief care of the Egyptian in all Rich or poor. monkeys. of those different periods were. . his eternal " dwelling. carries us much farther back than any other towards the first awakening of individual We thought and consciousness early in mankind. at Tliebes. but. pre-eminent importance. upon which. sheep. to the clearness and transparency of its springs. Being mostly subterranean and hidden from the eye of man. and the temples which have been preserved are very few in number. they but nevertheless later reflection. Wilkinson also mentions p. etc. crocodiles. The art of Egypt is the oldest of all the national arts. Among the mummified animals found cows. his happy. whether it were a miserable mud hut or a vast edifice of brick or wood. ' Those among the which Rhind." with which his thoughts were far more preoccupied than Avith that home in the light. p. 315 The lids of these boxes had each a wooden were found. Narrative. as we know it through the still existing monuments. contained the germ of all the development that has followed and to thoroughly understand the origin and constitution of this enough from those to . palaces of great sovereigns and care that they have survived in thousands. solidity sepulchres preserved the deposits entrusted to them much latter better than buildings upon the surface. because the Egyptian civilization. The primitive conceptions. By these alone the is earliest history which we call Ancient Empire known and sumptuous to us. 1S7. 52. and the oldest that monuments epoch of in Egypt are its its tombs. as soon as he arrived at full age he directed all his spare resources towards the construction and decoration of his tomb. which mankind was l^rought by they were the premises. The tombs. when not hollowed from the living rock. See Belzoni. cats. mouse upon it. In later ages the country palaces. development it was necessary to follow it up to its source. of course. was covered with magnificent temples even then.^ have endeavoured to notice all that is of importance in the funerary architecture of Egypt. were built with such ages was his place of rest after death. while the have perished and left no trace.

and mutilated a thousand ways. Almost all the peculiarities of the Memphite tomb are to be explained by the hypotheses with which primitive man is content. completely very in remote times. what the tomb meant to them. to what its general arrangements and its principal to follow out the various details responded it was necessary modifications which were brought about by the development of religious conceptions. colossi and bastells us nothing beyond the reliefs often broken and disfigured pomps and triumphs of official history. But when mature reflection evolved necessary to explain sentiments and beliefs . p. in many instances. bas-reliefs. seem. classes of the people appear in them in their every-day occupations and customary attitudes. 239." (Quoted by Rhonk in L' Egypte a F<:tiks /ouriias.200 years 1 When Marietta discovered the of sixth year of the reign before. The brilliant architectural revival which distinsfuished the first and second Theban Empires was mainly due to this development of religious thought. The statues.3i6 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt.) . were. In order to give a true idea of the national character of the Egyptians and to enable the originality of their civilization to be thoroughly understood. The whole national life is displayed before us in a long series of scenes which comment upon and explain each other. Almost all that we know concerning the industrial arts of Egypt has been derived from a study of her tomb-houses. and " when I entered the sarcophagus-chamber I found upon the thin layer of dust which covered the floor the marks made by the naked feet of the workmen who had placed the god in his last resting place 3. stripped. the fingers of the Egyptian mason who laid the last stone of the wall built across the entrance to the tomb were found marked upon the cement.^ The pictures offered to our eyes by the walls of the private tombs are All very different from those which we find in the temples. to have been the work of the very men whose footprints were found in the sand which covered their floors when they were opened. tomb of the Apis which had died in the twentyRameses II. and paintings which have been found in them. The tombs have suffered much less severely. it was necessary to show the place occupied in their thoughts by the anticipation of death it was . In every hundred of such objects which our museums contain at least ninety-nine come from those safe All that subsists of their decoration — — shattered depositories. in were not damaged. destroyed.. pillaged. from the time of the first six dynasties to that of the Theban Empire.

which partook of the character of both. The temple is the highest outcome of the native genius during those centuries which saw Egypt supreme over all the races of the East. under the Theban necropolis. but mainly by the superiority of her civilization. for majestic colonnades when polytheism came and massive pylons river. EiviriRE. and the two were. but it followed closely upon its footsteps. united by those erections on the left bank of the Nile.The Tomb under the New higher types for the national gods. the hour arrived for the temple to take its proper place in the national life. 2^7 to be superimposed upon fetishism. . to The temple was be erected on the banks of the life-giving later than the tomb. supreme partly by force of arms. in a fashion.

if we may use the expression. ^ I. and that its polytheistic due to the gradual degradation of pure doctrine which took place Egypt system was among all but the chosen people. Maspero. Others affirm that the absence of gods is due to the fact that the Egyptian people were so near to the first creation of mankind that they had not yet forgotten those religious truths which were that at that early period the revealed to the fathers of our race. in his desire for enlightenment upon this point. — The Temple under is the Aiicicnt Eii2pire. searched the epitaphs of the ancient empire. an exaggeration.CHAPTER IV. in later phases But to the hypothesis we shall of the national civilization. No statue of a god to the first six dynasties. shall not It is attempt to discuss the latter hypothesis scientific in these a matter of faith and not of first demonstration. THE SACRED ARCHITECTURE OF EGYPT. known which can be confidently Hence it has sometimes been referred asserted Egyptian gods were not born. that they were still content with those fetishes which retained no slight hold upon their imaginations until a much later period. than is generally imagined. at least. Some writers incline to believe that Egyptian thought had not yet reached the point where the polytheistic idea springs up. that the notions of the people had not yet been condensed into any definite conception upon the point. and that Egypt was even in those early days much farther advanced. oppose certain undoubted facts which prove it to be. M. We pages. designate the principal deities of the . and found in their nomenclature most of the sacred names which. They believe that began with monotheism. more capable of analysis and reflection.

Hathor-En-Khcou {588). Osiris invoked the steles d> nasty. more often than not. Osiris. Ptah. 582. served them that can The most be said . silver. or. Selk. the inscription and the figured representations certain stele still existing upon a which was found a short distance eastward of the pyramid of Cheops^ are to be taken believe that that literally.^ The composite proper names often seem individual devotion to some particular deity. (Edition of 1S76. Amen. that it These statues would seem to have bronze and wood.) . they had not yet arrived at complete definition external unchanging features and them those had not yet given characteristics which they retained to the last days of paganism. &c. No. and some connection between the latter and the mortal These who bore his name and lived under his protection. for symbols. the the middle. Histoirc Ancieime. Ra-Our (25). Horus. li. however. introduction. now in the British Museum. p. first Amnion. even during the so New lelic On of nt attempting the to venerable a of author greatest Ra-Hotep We may take a few of those in the Boulak Museum random : (No. then. the wooden of the (Maspkro. (ORhBAULX. Mariette. Ptah-Hotep. or is . It is quite possible that they were.) This is natural enougli. that perhaps. 75). father. perhaps. express indicate divinities must. Thoth. 41. represented by those animals which. in more enlightened times. Noum-Hotep (26). 319 pantheon. Ptah-Asses (500). art. is this inclined to think stele does not date from the time of Cheops. Setekh. Ra-Nefer (23). //rw//. p.-fs exposes dans /es Ga/eru's pn'r/s.The Temple under the Ancient Ei^ryptian to to Empire. 590).' a AiiimoiiRa. have already been in existence in is the that minds of the Egyptians. restore ' is a restoration made during Empire. 136. his appearance is - Notice des principaux Moini/iier. Horus in as the avenger of his Harpocrates. i>art iii. (Boulak Catalogue.) never mentioned on the monuments of the Ancient Empire contemporary with the twelfth dynasty. The names of several deities are to be found in the inscription upon coffin or mummy-case of Mycerinus. The upper part ot the stele in question shows the god of generation. Hathor-Nefer (41). Sokar-Kha-Ca-u (993). and 'I'hebes does not seem to have existed in the time of the Ancient Empire. and Apis. No. Nephthys. Isis in several different forms. we must monarch restored the principal statues of the Egyptian gods and made them pretty much what we see them in monuments belonging to times much more recent than his. been gold.i/vs ilu Mmce d'Aiiliqiiilh E^vptienncs a Boulak. is A priest of in Apis is mentioned upon of the sixth a tomb fourth dynasty. Amen uas a Theban god.

the scribes figures treated in the style of their It is may have allowed own day we need. sooner or later.320 architectural A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. which adorned the sanctuary. they multiplied their own images Between the to as great means would rate. It may be that the divine effigies were abundant even in those The early days. or bronze. to the well-concealed serdabs. The greater their number. in Ptah total and Hathor. moreover. The to a ingenuity of man combined to with the process of nature to preserve these figures generations in the time when they could and all. the greater was the chance that one of them would and their escape destruction. The material of those which were of gold. sure. astonishing the disappearance of those To argue frorii their absence . allow. enough to save them eternal existence. but that they have failed to survive to our day. destruction to ensure them a chance of To laid the thick walls of the mastabas. nothing very figures. besides which a vast number them have perished in the lime-kilns. whether the text itself dates back to the earlier period. excite interest remote future. the images of the gods ran far greater risks than the private statues. ancient text. more than the constantly increasing mask of sand upon the cemeteries of Gizeh and Sakkarah by the winds from the desert. to wooden ones be destroyed or damaged by The stone statues might be overthrown replaced by others of a later of and broken and fashion. third and the sixth dynasties the multiplication of these portrait statues went on at a prodigious number may be judged from the fact that twenty were taken from the scrdab alone of the tomb of Ti. We paid see. In their more exposed situations in the temples and private houses. while the were pretty fire. did they owe their preservation through the troublous times which were in store for Egypt. assigned to certain offerings as revenues. from. portraits of so many private individuals have been preserved an extent as their because. and wood. work themselves to add to the in their country. bronze. equally doubtful. temple. accept as fact only this existing : that it Cheops restored an already sacred silver. and perhaps. in their desire to aftbrd a proper support to their double. to and. that supposing Cheops and Chephren to have before statues their devotions there is of Isis and Osiris. would excite dangerous cupidity. silver. and restored the statues of gold. then.

For the history of the Sphinx. Pliny speaks of it (N. Between these several of the j)aws a little Theban kings all temple was contrived. We possess. out ot a natural rock which reared its head above the sand in this part of the necropolis here and there the desired form was made out bj' additions in masonry. dates from the time of the ancient monarchy.' Harmachis. moreover. but was mixed with errors it was said to be. represents Hor-em-Khou. such as that which gave us.The Temi'l?: under the Ancient Empire. the nose 6 feet. he tells us. Ques/toiis relatives aiix noircelks Fouilles. it was carved. T T . Our plan (Fig. 30) gives three sections and a plan of the little temple between the paws. it 1 7) . the tomb of the king Armais. however. to the stele or ' Horus in the shining Sun. the great Sphinx at Gizeh (Fig. as now exists. see Mariette. Before that statue was found it might similarly have been contended that the series of royal effigies only commenced with the first Theban Empire. only dates back to the Roman epoch. H. The Denkmaler of Lepsius (vol. but he knows that the whole figure was painted red. If cleared entirely of sand the Sphinx would thus be it higher than a five-storied house. The same work (vol. It is curious that neither Herodotus. the ear is 6 feet 4 inches high. above quoted. nor Diodorus. but the ensemble.^ corresponding to the According . and the aspect which has presented at difterent epochs. in the opinion of all contemporary archaeologists. pi. the difterent restorait has undergone. 321 gods of the Egyptians were not yet and consequently that there were no temples erected in their honour. to the restoration of the Sphinx. I. or rising sun. Egypt had gods she must have had temples. at least one divine effigy which. some of the information ^^hich he obtained was valuable and . As Before they began to erect stone buildings. the statue of Chephren now in the Boulak Museum. authentic. xxxvi. pi. Caviglia was it the first to bring these matters to light. in 1S17. long before the time of Cheops. namely. and their almost total disappearance is mainly owing to causes which merit primitive careful notice. \0L. 68) contains a reproduction of the great stele of Thothmes relative i. ^^'^ learn from epigraphic WTitings that this gigantic idol. twenty years ago. of the Greeks. wide. The greatest width of the face across the cheeks tions which 14 feet 2 inches. mention the Sphinx. 157)combining the body of a crouching lion with the head of a man. is to hazard a gratuitous assertion which may at any time be disproved by some happy discovery. the early Egyptians 1 The is total height of the Sphinx is 66 feet. the is mouth 7 feet 9 inches. 204) shows the wide flight of steps which was constructed in the time of Trajan to give access to a landing constructed immediately in front of the fore-paws. V. Few traces of them are to be found. that in those early days the created. where the steles consecrated by in honour of the Sphinx were arranged. nor Strabo.

the high palisade which enclosed the sacred precinct. Either of wooden we are constrained to much more important part than the characteristics in stone. 125. temples of stone. the furniture. a structure could be quickly and easily restored. such of wood. but after stone and brick it was reserved for special purposes. and 166. ChampolHon discovered remains of a building of the . were constructed. and the time came when the comparative simplicity of the primitive erections was unable to satisfy the longing of the people for magnificence and splendour. 143. brick or stone was absolutely necessary for a tomb. in the remains of the early dynasties. however. inscription or a piece of sculpture betrays the and.^ ' These temples Champollion. in the their skill. however. Under both the temples at Ombos. With either the help of colour and metal. The national taste changed with the centuries. The island of Phite. more vaSt and sumptuous than the old. the doors. we see constructions so closely imitated believe that under the but to it wood then played a Theban princes. employed in their construction. ages. We may admit. Sometimes a fragmentary restoration . as Thinis. made constant use and paintings wood for many Various bas-reliefs prov^e that this latter material abandoned. because they alone had sufficient durability. affords an exception to this rule. is quite possible that most of the temples were of wood. Memphis. inscriptions on the later building go so that far as to preserve the at name of the architect of the first. pp.A History of Art of ix Anxikxt Egypt. here and there. Champollion discovered the Ptolemaic temples almost always replaced structures dating from the great Theban or Sait dynasties. Abydos. Leftres d'Egypte et de A'ulne. statue wood could be easily made The shrine which enclosed object. When. as a matter of course. might all have been When destroyed by accident or damaged by time. a or some symbolic the portico which surrounded the inner court. they could then state of have done without any serious The chief cause of the disappearance of the early temples was the construction of those that came after them. New temples. such constructed architectural difficulty. was never entirely came into general use it was usually employed in rapidity of those lighter and more ephemeral edifices in which construction was the chief point required. fulfil all the conditions of a temple. and others. and the substance of their predecessors was. which. An instance of this occurs Denderah. that from the epoch of the Pyramids cities onwards.

nothing that shows any power of eftort. he adds " At Heliopolis. . was thinking of the same building in his treatise upon the Syrian goddess. he calls " second editions. Mariette cleared the whole of the interior.The Templk under the Anckuxt Empire. there is nothing graceful artistic . is have been discovered in the small building disinterred by Mariette in 1S53. as Strabo calls them. etc. running north and The roof is supsouth. After having described. These are monoliths 16 ported by six quadrangular piers. however. a few still sacred buildings of the early period were in existence during Roman occupation of the countr)-. is its most striking characteristic. except Philse." ^ Lucian. apart from the great size of the columns. at about 50 yards distance from the right foot ot the Sphinx in a south-easterly direction. that on the left to a staircase giving access to the terrace above. But the in all these rearrangements and restorations. - LL'CIAX. and that the cataract was then at SilsiUs. and so they still supposed remain. the building. too. About midway along this passage two small galleries branch off. because there Empire ' that island xvii. : We thing occurred at Edl'ou and at Esneh. good reason to beUeve that in the time of the Ancient did not exist. and impotent eftort. which runs almost in an easterly direction through the massive masonry which constitutes the external wall. etc. there is a certain buildinof with several ranees of : columns. and were then shown as curiosities. At the end of the passage we find ourselves at one of the angles of a hall. and about 83 feet long by 23 wide. in ancient times. when he said that the Egyptians had. the barbarous style . temples without sculptured decorations. But he left the external walls buried as he found them.- One of these to ' barbarous ' temples. he provided easy access to it. because. their number design and in their position in several long rows." spite of But in some cases they were third or even fourth editions. ^ 3 'A^odl'Ol vqoi.K6v. The same is : Strabo. The entrance is by a passage about 66 feet long and 7 wide. which recalls. 128 Oi-Sev cxei ^(^apier uvBi ypa<^i. and by means of a flight of steps well protected from the sand. that on the right leads to a small chamber. certain buildings much precision. This we may gather from a passage \\ith in Strabo. the disposition of which are easily recognized as temples built under the princes of the New Empire. by its arrangement. time of Thotnmes III.

lengths of the The piers are not q^uite equidistant in . parallel one with six columns in the centre of the . From in the south-west angle of the first hall there is a short the corridor which leads to six deep niches in the masonry. their spacing varies Exact symmetry has been sacrificed stones which formed the architrave. consequence of the different . hall. This second hall is about 57 feet long and 30 wide. but there floor. and apparently intended for reception of mummies. high and 3 feet 4 inches by 4 feet 8 inches in section. arranged pairs one above the other.^ From the eastern side of this hall another opens at right angles. it has no supporting a pillars. These are stones 10 feet in about length. 202. Fic.A feet 6 inches History ok Art in Ancient Egypt. There by some centimetres. it Mariette cleared from the sand with which 1 deep well which was filled. Several of their architraves are still in place. and its roof was supported by ten columns similar to those we have already mentioned. In the middle of the eastern wall of this same large chamber there is a short and wide passage which leads to a third and last to the is.. — The Temple of the Sphinx (from an unpublished plan by Mariette).

203. The the is walls are without either basconstructed reliefs or paintings. the lining slabs of the walls ceiling. At each end of it with Fig. these materials are dressed and fixed with care and but in no part of the temple monoliths the slightest hint at Both knowledge. this hall there is a small chamber communicating by short corridors. one from the other. The supporting and the is of granite. that in the northern angle of the temple. a moulding pillars are or at any other sort of ornament to be found. At the bottom nine broken statues of Chcphren were found they were not copies. The of the largest limestone blocks which are to be found in Egypt. plain rectangular . because it was sunl-: below the level of the Nile. Several stone cynocephali were also found.Tiiii Temple under the Ancient Empire. 325 had been water in it. seems to have communicated with the outward air by an irregular opening in the masonry. . Ernest DesjardinsK' The materials employed in the interior of this building are piers are rose granite and alabaster. alabaster. — Interior of the Temple of the Sphinx (from a sl<ctch by M. the king at different periods of his life. One of these. and there not a trace of any inscription on external walls are any part of the building. but represented .

. and Teniplc of ? " Harniacliis. " what the at the temple of Denderah terms them. it must be confessed. which it but slightly excelled The six deep niches which exist in the interior recall in size. but to some extent Every mastaba of any importance has funerarv representations upon it.) Itineraire des /mites dii ]'ice-roi. The seemed to him another way. shows at least a stele upon which the name of the defunct is inscribed together with the prayer which is to insure him the benefit of can supply . the only one. but according to Mariette. emplo)' the And he does not hesitate Temple of the Sphinx. {Acadhnie des Inscriptions. were accounted for in " May they not be here. Mariette himself allows us to see that he could not convince himself of its real meaning: "It cannot be doubted that this building. and inscriptions containing both the name of the deceased and those magical formulae which we have already e. several other tombs in the neighbourhood. had inspected them by means of temporary excavation. the internal arrangements of the pyramid of Mycerinus and the Mastabat-el-Faraoun. it must be the Temple . as the Sphinx is a god." ^ For the last thirty years there has been much controversy as to the true character of this curious monument. \). therefore. crypt to is be intended for funerary purposes. . . 99. be asserted that.On of the Sphinx. Questions relatives aitx iiouvelles Fouilles a /aire en Egypte. more that of a tomb than From a distance it must have looked not unlike a of a temple. He does not give his reasons. nothing is to be seen but " smoothlv polished surfaces." - This to latter hypothesis seems to have found most favour with rectangular niches. doubtless. Comptes Rendiis des Seanees de VAnnee. and that very small. who. .xplained the walls display his portrait and the whole The humblest of these tombs course of his posthumous life.326 In these A days History of Art in Ancient Egypt." he asks. 427-473. none of their outward faces are visible. very naturally.pp. decorated w-ith long vertical and horizontal grooves skilfully interlaced in one corner there is a door. iS77. and the general plan resembles that of It appears. mastaba from Sakkarah or Abousir. which at first Mariette. archaeologist.dates from but is it a temple or a tomb ? the time of the pyramids Its external appearance is. that the hypothesis which would make it a sepulchre might be upheld without violating the rules which should guide the the other hand it ma)'. we 1 Mariette. .

disappears bareness . all the necessary elements of a place oj sepulture. tlie different purposes of the buildings which he erected. of an individual whose name is placed upon it. The to bareness of the walls. supposing the when it is looked upon as a and simplicity agree entirely with the descriptions given by Plutarch and the pseudo-Lucian of those early Egyptian temples which the one saw with his own eyes and the other knew by tradition. any place could. is difficult to see how • such an anomaly this is to be accounted for e. can hardly attributed want ot means on the It is part of the proprietor. Here there is neither sarcophagus nor no enlargement of the well of any kind. total size . It It is the only one of three which is absolutely indispensable.xcept by the supposition that not a tomb. put one . The architect of this temple seems. In this temple there Its is no sign in of such individual appropriation. The anomalous temple. but here. is rather excess of that of the largest mastaba yet discovered are finer its materials and its construction more be careful. in itself furnish it it. An the examination of the well leads to the same conclusion. with any certainty. because could ensure the safety and repose of the corpse entrusted to Where strictly there is no mummy chamber there can hardly be a tomb. not the slightest to be discovered that any funerary ornamentation had It is ever been attempted. while the similarity between its general arrangements and those of the mastabas may easily be accounted for by the inexperience of the early architect. Its character of these arrangements. A well for providing the water required by the Egyptian ritual and by the ablutions of the priests would be in its proper place in such an edifice. the most important is the mummy chamber. is In the mastaba the well simply a vertical corridor of approach to mummy to chamber. The forms at his command were too few and too rigid to enable him to mark. therefore. building to be a tomb. and was never intended to be one. But of the three parts into which the t\'pical Egyptian tomb may be divided. in a good preservation. speaking. true that in many tombs the the decorative works have never although the advanced building sign is beyond is sketch state stage of . The tomb is thus consecrated to the use of some particular person. funerary offerings mentioned upon it. and who is exclusive owner ot it and its contents to all eternity.The Temple under the Ancient the Empire.

R. we are told. and it seems to us to be hazarding too much to affirm that. at we are discussing. This solution confirmation derives from the following facts mentioned by Mariette: "The granite stele.vpt." asks Mariette." which.tDEKB'. however. erected by Thothmes IV. in his but we cannot discuss them here. to commemorate the works of restoration undertaken by him. were combined into years this stele ' B. In the absence of any decisive evidence either one way or the other. " recently published memoir. . to have done his best to express the distinction. Guide to Lower Egypt. It is very near the Sphinx. irritated populace. 350. According to all analogy. had a temple of for its own.o 28 A HisTuRV OF Art in Ancient E(. In none of the Memphite mastabas do we find such spacious chambers or so many large and well-wrought monolithic columns. Many hypotheses have been put forward in the attempt to reconcile these two explanations of the " Temple of the Sphinx. " Why. some moment of political tumult. should not the temple of the Sphinx be the tomb of the king who made the Sphinx itself. was benefit it : whose placed against the right shoulder of the Sphinx. must formerly have been arranged in one of the " : . moreover. These statues. in a word.es in the well. - The actual ilistancc about 670 yards.. they must have been cast into the well either by foreign enemies or by the in chambers. the funerary chapel would be in the immediate neighbourhood of the mummy was erected. that the point nearest to the building which later is to say. the most reasonable course is to look upon this building as the temple in which the worship of the neighbouring Colossus was carried on as the temple of Harmachis. because the statues of that kine were found in it. we shall never learn the true cause of this memory of Chephren. In and some others representing scenes of adoration which were added by Rameses II. is p. and. and it is a considerable distance from the second pyramid. the building we are discussing must have been In all probability insult to the his funerary chapel.''" This question we may answer by two more Why did not that king decorate the walls of his tomb ? and why did he have neither sarcophagus nor sarcophagus chamber ? Others have seen in it the chapel in which the funerary rites of Chei^hren were performed ^ a theory which was of course suggested by the discovery of that king's statu.

The Temple under the Ancient Empire. Questions relatives aux nouvelles Foiiilles. so that no exact agreement has yet been plan. . and the whole group of sufficient height the future. protected by the sand. 127). have already mentioned them. shall quote. from which it is but 43 feet distant. however. In any case would lay open the material connection between the great idol and its temple. and the enormous size In plan it is almost of the blocks of which it is composed. which almost directly faced any one cominoout of the temple. and is exactly opposite to the centre of the pyramid. five of which are still in existence the farthest of these is the same size as the vestibule. The honour they were erected were worshipped within their walls even down to the time of the Ptolemies. Those structures which are generally called the temples of the it pyn-amids belong to the same class of architecture (Fig. savants. come to even as to their ground however. being 177 feet by 186. the description given by Jomard The French of the temple belonging to the third pyramid. . and their materials could readily be carried deceased kings in away for the construction of other buildings. a vestibule or annexe 103 feet long and 46 is. The ' Mariette. building situated to the east of the third . must We We return to them for a moment whose in their capacity as temples. w-hose visit to Egypt took place nearly a century ago. 204). and would help us to reconstitute the most ancient group of religious buildings in existence. VOL. etc. perhaps. Outside the vestibule there is a vast courtyard with wide. than that of the pyramids. to clear all the space and the temple (see Fig. We saw many things which have disappeared since " their time. two lateral openings or posterns beyond this there are several spacious saloons. Nothing remains but the lower courses of the walls and their footings. and explained how they are to the pyramids what the funerary chamber is to the mastaba. On its eastern side there square. pyramid is remarkable for its arrangement. . They are in a much worse state of preservation than Unlike the latter they were not the Temple of the Sphinx. . its extent. U U . fail to keep it free between it round from sand in antiquity. In Mariette's opinion such an operation could hardly to bring to light more than one monument of great of an antiquity greater. 329 a sort of small building." clear the sphinx ^ One of Mariette's favourite projects was to finally to build a wall down to its base. I.

elaborately worked and dressed. as it were.. p. whose description is. I was astonished by the size of the stones here and the care with which they were fixed. when complete. vol. suffices prove the connection between the two buildings. that the religious architecture of the early empire represented by a very small number of monuments. however. the same employment of huge masses of stone and the same care and skill in dressing and fixing them. It which are not less than 13 feet 4 inches thick. At first I took these blocks for the I face of the rock itself. either carved or painted. then. . " The eastward prolongation or annexe is formed of two huge walls. In spite of this difference many the of the peculiar arrangements of the sphinx temple are repeated in these buildings. The general symmetry of the arrangement. Narrative of the Operafious. decorated or not . to be found upon We is see. pp. ^ Ant. of its blocks were 24 feet high. The walls a thickness which is determined by that Their length varies from 12 to 23 feet. v. 654. " After havine studied the construction and the materials of the Theban edifices. ect. be carried off and used elsewhere. " This building. It is now impossible to say whether these buildings. made use of. Belzoni. both of the edifice short and confused. could see no opening in that part of the wall which faced the pyramid. and might not have discovered my mistake but for the cemented joints betvt'een the courses. 261-2. them. seeing that had they been of only half the thickness they would have been quite as durable and solid.forms. of the stones employed. and he adds that some second pyramid. however. of course.330 But " to I A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. the continuation of an enclined plane or causeway laid out at right angles to the base line of the third pyramid.or about the same height as the . seems to have found them in the temple of the He speaks oi portico. are 6 feet 9 inches thick ." ^ Jomard appears to have found no traces of pillars in any part but Belzoni. -Sl monoliths in the Temple of the Sphinx. be the first to Such blocks would. were same squareness of plan. and leading up to it. may well be asked why such walls should have been constructed. There is the same multiplicity of internal chambers. ot which Description de I'Egypte. it is certain that at the present day no sign of is any ornamentation.

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however. seeing especially how skilful the PZgyptians had shown themselves to be . Amen. at this period. had advanced so far that there any difficulty in marking the the tomb. and the forms employed in these rock-cut in constructed buildines. there was no longer distinction between the temple and at Beni. To him and acquired successful sovereigns attributed their successes both of peace As the god of the king and of the capital.Hassan which date from the very different kinds of support. The Theban triad received the homage of the Ousourtesens and Amenemhats its principal personage. nor the homage paid by every man and woman in Egypt to Osiris. of which we have spoken. In the sepulchres we find two was nothing to prevent chambers from beincr made use of twelfth dynasty. become war. Art. Wiien we recall the which we have quoted. give some slight foretaste of a feature which was to reach unrivalled majesty in the hypostyle halls of Karnak and Luxor. that the worship of the dead held the largest place in their religious life. a supreme deity for the nation as a whole. which affected. T/ie Temple under the Mieietle Empire. They give slight earnest of the magnificent edifices which the country was to texts rear some ten or fifteen centuries afterwards at the command of the great Theban pharaohs. or Amnion. and severe in their absence of ornament. Their temples were small in size. when we compare the temple of the Sphinx with tombs like the pyramids or the sepulchre of Ti. neither the worship of the local deities. in existence . however. the god to whom they looked for happiness beyond the grave. first Theban empire are now and yet the Egyptians had then generally adopted the worship of all those deities whose characters and attributes have been made known to us through the monuments of the NewEmpire. insignificant in height. TiT^t. already showed a tendency to No temples constructed under the . is in a good state of preservation. The monolithic pillars. we must acknowledge that the energies of the Egyptians during the early dynasties were mainly directed to their resting-places after death. Amen an uncontested superiority throughout the whole valley of the Nile.The Temple under the Middle only one Empire. identified with Ra.

working the excellent materials provided for them by nature. The name of Ousourtesen is to be read upon the remains of the polygonal columns which mark. are hexagonal in section. of buildings dated from the time of at Theban empire. The architect could. narrates Ousourtesen.. published by Herr the dedication of a chapel by probable that the obelisk was in the portion then built and consecrated to the god Ra. have multiplied to infinity those stone supports which his distant predecessors had employed. Nothing has been found of that great tem[)le at Heliopolis which all the Greek travellers visited its and described. and 41-45 of the text. apparently with some inkling of their future possibilities.334 in A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. those at BeniTIassan. than in their orener^l arranrrement. This. according to the pictures and inscriptions which cover its walls. It forms the central nucleus around which the later buildings of Karnak have been erected. Ludwig Stern in 1873. Fig. it is not improbable that time of Ousourtesen were prefaced understood in his time. Nubia. 37. proves that the cutting and polishing of those monoliths was as the obelisk seems always to have the pylon. is sufficient to prove their existence.^ Of many other buildings erected at this period. like any apparent traces that which . temple marked the plan which forms plate 6 of Mariette's A'lm/ak. the only one which has is left was erected at Thebes by the twelfth princes of the dynasty to the honour of Amen. at least. in 1 The is little that now remains in of the columns and foundations of the ancient a. it is believed. The obelisk set up by Ousourtesen at Heliopolis. however. if he had chosen. It is Berlin. and the obelisks of the New Empire differed from those of the Middle Empire rather in their extent and in the magnificence of their decoration. because a MS. the pylons. The hypostyle halls. In plate 8 the remains of all statues and inscriptions which date from the same See also pages 36. but we know that a the first part. these columns. period are figured. which. Of all the temples then constructed. the fortress on the left bank of the river contains a temple of Thothmes HI. the site of the sanctuary properly speaking. . between the granite chambers and the buildings of Thothmes III. nothing is left to us beyond tradition and the mere mention of them in various texts. We shall choose examples of them from the two extremities of Egypt. and been closely combined with the religious edifices of the by those huge pyramidoid masses. is no more than a At Semneh.

could dispose of the resources of a and of an aged civilization for the construction of their edifices. The later additions. fail to hide or materially affect the general characteristics of the buildings. Egyptian character. honour of Ousourtesen III. but the attention. halls. His temple. all the energy of an unconquered people was combined with the knowledge and experience resulting from an old and complex social system. besides which they were the zenith of the national greatness.The Temple under the New restoration Empire. an obelisk or a pylon here. and that his death. Many more the second instances might be given. although they render the ground-plans more complicated. and in no way prevent us from recognizing and defining the originality of their conception. nineteenth. The Temple under tlie Nezo Empire. in tlie first instance. Before porticos we cross the threshold of the great Theban temples and attempt to evolve order out of their complexity of courts. Each temple had which had their share the relieious ceremonies of which was . to the condition in which they were left by the great monarchs of the eighteenth. This latter prince was deified at Semneh after and his worship continued for more than ten centuries. a Seti or a Rameses. Theban empire demand our rich country or an Amenophis. In the later ages of the monarchy a few unimportant additions were made. and we have little difficulty in restoring them. or a few the chambers . which had fallen into ruin during the first reigns of the eighteenth dynasty. in 335 of one built. in it may be its convenient to describe their external and accessory parts it approaches. and twentieth dynasties. spirit and § 3. was reconstructed by Thothmes. on paper. there a courts a colonnade. at the moment when. but the great temples of the New Empire have come down to us with few modifications beyond those caused by the three thousand years through which they have existed. prince is represented doing whom Ousourtesen homage to the local deities. among may be discovered presenting his pious monuments of A Thothmes all successor to the other gods. and colonnades. edifices so great and splendid that they ran no risk of being destroyed in later times for the sake of constructing others built at in still more sumptuous .

Karnak. avenues vary in width. — Ram. or A'riosphinx. that at Karnak is 76 feet between the the theatre. into the sand Mariette.2. One of the first signs which denoted to visitors the proximity of an Egyptian temple was what the Greek travellers called a Bpofj. At the Serapeum of Memphis the sphinxes which Mariette found by digging 70 feet ' downwards ]>. edifice. within the precincts of the sacred Fig. 205. 4. which led from Luxor to Karnak was about 2.i^ A History of Art it in Ancient Egypt. . that is to say a paved causeway bordered on each side with rams These or sphinxes. there must. therefore. this width underwent a considerable increase. from Karnak. their heads being turned inwards to the road.of. between the first and second pylon. The space between one sphinx and another The dronws on the same side of the causeway was about 1 3 feet.200 yards long. would be diiticult to make its economy understood unless we began by noticing them in detail. and inner faces of the pedestals ^ . have been five hundred sphinxes on each side of it.

to but those which are prolonged for ings of the some distance outside the temple almost always make some abrupt turns.650 yards long. Following our modern notions we should. from the time of Thothmes III. L XX . p. or Traces of this hatred are rather hatred. We had find the same thing tombs between which its course lay. the axis of the avenue inclines gently to left. no doubt. several slight changes of direction. etc. Description ginerale de Tlicbes. but as their upper parts have disappeared through the perishable nature of the material. placed in the interior of a temple. are straight. The very short ones. where the architect must have different motives for his abandonment of a straight line. that sphinxes were sometimes fine sphinxes in rose granite which form the chief ornaments of the principal court of the Boulak museum. were still nearer to one another ^ the dromos which they lined was found to be 50 feet wide and about 1. At Karnak they are about 33 feet thick. VOL. to avoid the at build- The Serapeum dronws undergoes in order. and without religious signification. all performed within this space. however. The two ^ Description. perhaps. It is within these gates only that the sacred inclosure called The religious ceremonies were by the Greeks the Tefi€vo9 commences. those which extend between one pylon and another. of a rigorous symmetry.xes of Horus succeed to those sphinxes without inscriptions the date of which Mariette found the impossible to determine.- TiiK Temple under the New Empire. however. 4 inches. These outer walls are of crude brick. from which it actual walls has been inferred that they were merely ornamental. probably. . such as be found in these avenues. it is impossible to say with certainty what ' their original height may have been.. to whom this part of the building owes its existence. They date. It has sometimes been said that one of the characteristic features of Egyptian architecture is its dislike. Some of the great temples have several of these avenues leading up to their different gates.^ We may infer from what Mariette says that they were separated from one 1 2 another by a distance of ^ feet 5. § i. which was inclosed by an encircling wall built at sufficient distance from the actual temple to allow of the marshalling of processions and other acts of ritual. were found in one of the inner halls of the temple at Karnak. expect to find They these causeways laid out upon an exactly rectilinear plan. . At it the point where the man-headed sphin. section viii. Karnak. Karnak. These avenues of sphinxes are always outside the of the temple. Mariette. are not so. We find.

"These walls were pierced in places by stone doorways. these inclosures would afiord a sanctuary which could not easily be violated. connected one with another by avenues of sphinxes. 6. these portals expanded into those towering masses which by their form as well as their size. or upon the lakes could "It is probable purposes. under the colonnades. whose highest parts always rose more or less above the battlements of the wall (Fig. . except a few chapels. p. without ornament of any kind. Denderah. and other places. Their summits. state of preservation . These inclosing walls served more than one purpose. . These masses have by 1 The wall of the principal inclosure at Denderah. that on the north. with their crenellated parapets. and all the sacred parts of the building. At those points where the sphinx avenues terminated. the height of walls with that of the pylons on which they abut. Our only means of estimating their original height is by comparing. on certain occasions. in the representations furnished to us by certain bas-reliefs. embedded in the masses of crude brick. When their height was considerable. 27. They protected it against injury from without. Karnak. Its surface is perfectly smooth and naked. . so greatly impress the traveller who visits the ruins of ancient Egypt. 206). curtain mysteries performed Avithin . are in one of the four inclosures. must have afforded a continuous platform connected with the flat tops of the pylons by " flights of steps. - Mariette. They marked the external limits of the temple. pp. Sais. generally at the principal entrance of the temple but sometimes at secondary gateways. as at Denderah. or even rough-cast (Mariette. be proceeded with in strict isolation from the outer world. and between 30 and 40 thick at the base. so that the ceremonies in the halls. while they would keep all those who had not been completely initiated at a respectful distance from the holy places within.338 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt.) At Karnak the bounding walls are in a much worse they are ten or twelve centuries older than those of Denderah. and those centuries have had their effect upon the masses of crude brick. they acted as an impenetrable between the profane curiosity of the external crowd and the and when they had to serve their last named purpose they were constructed in such a fashion that those without could neither hear nor see anything that passed. ^ We may therefore perceive that. . is not less than 33 feet high. 5. Their height was at least sufficient to prevent any part of the inside from being overlooked from any (quarter of the city. that the walls of Karnak served all three There are four of them.

206. — Gateway and boui.dary wall of a temple .Fig. . Lhipiez. restored hy Cli.

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it We may therefore understand in his description of 28) preferred to use the why Diodorus (i. of the pylon spring those vertical masts from whose summits many coloured streamers flutter in the sun.In consequence of the inclination of the walls.. 341 named />j/o//s. great favour with the architects of Egypt.The Temple under the New common means consent been Empire. or would have had to follow the inclination of the wall to which they were attached. surfaces of the pylon. which it and paintings. cuts oft' from the cornice and from the uneven line which marks the From the base junction of the sloping walls with the sandy soil. in Cailli. Voyage a Mi-roe. Traitc de la Formation des in PoLVBius {Thesaurus. iii.Strabo (xvii. term was employed to signify a Mots dans s. being themselves perpendicular. § doorway with its 84). these masts. were some distance from the face of the pylon at its upper part. Another representation of the same kind will be found illustrated in bas-reliefs Khons one of the upon the same building.. 1 great door (upon the augmentative force of the suffix wr. in They seem to have been in who succeeded by their more original than they rendering their buildings still would have been without them. .. . Brackets of wood were therefore contrived.^ The pylon is composed of three parts intimately allied one with another a tall rectangular doorway is flanked on either hand by a Both portal and pyramidal mass rising high above its crown. which are. v. which adds to the This moulding bounds all the flat firmness of its outlines. and pylon to the great doorways which form one of the most striking features of Egyptian architecture. 64. pi. or rather uivo%. word irp6TTv\iav. through which the masts passed and by which their upright position was preserved without some such support they would either have been liable to be blown down in a high wind.\bou. Fig. i. Modern usage has restricted the word propylaum to Greek buildings. which would have been an . Several passages that in the military language of his time the fortified flanking towers and other defences. ii.aud. vol. covered with bas-reliefs It serves as a frame for all this decoration. towers terminate above in that hollow gorge which forms the Each angle of the cornice of nearly all Egyptian buildings. iii. 57. See in the text. pi. It is taken from a rock-cut tomb between Dayr-el-Medinet and Medinet-. 9). plates. Fig.) show /a Langue Grecque. towers is accentuated by a cylindrical moulding. The fai^ade of the temple of That relief was reproduced in the Description dc I'Egypte (vol. . It shows the masts and banners in all their details. see Ad. 29S. We learn the part played by these masts and banners in Egyptian decoration ''' entirely from the representations is in the bas-reliefs. ' The word tt-dAiui' strictly means the pl.ice before the door (hke dvpwv). moreover. 47) made use of the so-called tomb of Osymandias. p. vol. and is so well known that we refrained from giving it in these pages. Regnier. i.

too. and a third immediately afterwards.Kor there are three. it may be called an external pylon. The pylon which we have taken as a type of such erections. progressively diminishing in size. in approaching the great temple from the temple of Mouth. (iv. Then. But instead of that being the case they are slightly salient. form the fa9ades is always conmerely a This plate not a picturesque restoration it is map in relief. because when the latter were in place. Only those buildings are marked upon it which have left easily traceable remains. No attempt has been made to reconstruct by conjecture any of those edifices which are at present nothing but confused heaps of debris. Mariette counts six pylons. Thus M. is connected with the inclosing wall. on the west. . the most southern. At Karnak. 1 pylons which. when connected with curtain walls. If the pylons had been intended for defensive purposes. the doors in their centres would have been kept in rear of the flanking towers. only one of which. which proves conclusively that their object was purely decorative. which. there are those again. is one of those which inclose a doorway opening in the centre of one of the sides of the brick inclosure. behind the narrow court which seems to cut the great mass of buildings into two almost equal parts. separate one unsightly arrangement. another has to be passed before the hypostyle hall is reached. which lie in the way of the visitor entering Karnak by the west and passing to the east. the visitor passes under four pylons. A glance at our "general view of the buildings of Karnak will give a good idea of the various uses to which the Egyptian archiThere is the pro-pylon there are those tect put the pylon. The object of these chambers seems to have been merely to facilitate the manoeuvring of the masts and their floating banners. there are three more at very slight intervals. Ampere. as in more modern fortifications. for instance. " were partly chambers to which access was obtained by narrow staircases winding round a central square newel. At Lu. to make use of the word proposed by M. the placed immediately hypostyle halls. the small openings which gave light to the chambers were entirely obscured. temples properly speaking.) is The temple .342 A they History of Art in Ancient Egypt. or a pro-pylon. courtyard of the ' from in another front of . So. . After passing the pylon in the outer wall. but in all temples of any importance several pylons have to be passed before the sanctuary is reached. The interiors of the pylons hollow inclosed small .

207). and the portal in the its two great masses is middle is 56 feet high (see Fig. 83 feet 9 inches . The obelisks are generallv two in were reared in number. The dimensions of pylons vary with those of the temples to which they belong. The first pylon wide at the widest part and 50 feet thick. each of 100 feet wide. obelisks were . proportions than this 76 feet high. or outer. Empire. at Luxor. were jDlaced those colossal statues by which every Egyptian monarch rated his connection with commemo- the structures which his time. erected a few feet in front of the pylons. according to the magnificence The obelisks range in height from about 60 to and the statues from 20 to 45 feet. that of San Giovanni I. . still standing Karnak. [The Cleopatra's Needle on the Victoria Embankment Ed. In those temples which were really complete. or 107 feet 4 inches. a repetition which is explained by the fact that such temples as those of Karnak and Luxor were not the result of a single effort of construction. that in the piazza Rome.] only 68 feet 2 inches high. This pylon is 376 feet to the \'endome column in Paris. in contact with the pylons themselves. which was built by Rameses II. 343 whose summit rises above it while its two wings stretch beyond it laterally until they meet the rectangular wall which incloses the sanctuary. 100 feet. Each of the successive pylons which met the visitor during the last centuries of Egyptian civilization had been at one time the front of the whole edifice. before the St. ' The obelisk of Ousourtesen at Heliopolis high. before he had entered the sacred inclosure itself But they are also to be found before the inner pylons. Luxor obeHsk Peter's in is at Paris. is less gigantic in its it is. pylon of a temple. amid the is ruins at 107 feet 2 inches . The largest still existing is the outer pylon It was constructed in Ptolemaic of the great temple of Karnak. and immediately behind the obelisks. and that of Queen Hatasu. or 76 feet.^ Obelisks and colossal statues seem to have been peculiarly necessary outside the first.. the colossi vary from four to six for each pylon. however.aterano.— The Temple under the New cealed behind a pylon. or about equal times. or 67 feet 6 inches. This produced an effect upon the visitor at the earliest moment. Its two chief masses are 146 feet high. 32-20 metres. This is the highest obelisk known. 22-80 metres. is 20"2 7 metres. To complete our description of the external i:)arts of the temple of the temple. the tallest in Europe.

which. colossal statues and obelisks. in spite of their curious differences. all its parts any monarch who desired that his name too should be connected with it in the eyes of posterity. could be nothing but a mere replica of some part already They took some element of the general plan. still existing inscriptions prove this to the same custom obtained. that part of their duty before crossing the sacred threshold but their situation behind the impenetrable veil of such walls as those we have described. were set afloat upon these lakes. from such a tangled mass of halls and porticos. distinguishing from each other its essential and accessory parts. When we cast our eyes for the first time either upon the confused but imposing ruins of Karnak themselves. however. under the circumstances supposed. so that other purposes intending worshippers could discharge . it seems a hopeless task to evolve order from such a chaos of pylons. as we know from the statements of the be the case. columns. corridors If we begin. it may easily be understood how a miniature voyage by water came to have a place in the worship of deities their character. were repetitions of one another so far as their significance in the Wlien a temple was complete in general plan is concerned. bearing the images or emblems of the gods. we have yet to mention tliose small lakes or basins which have been found within the precincts of all the g-reater temples. As the diurnal and nocturnal journeys of the sun were looked upon as voyages by navigation across the spaces of heaven and through the shadows of the regions below. and we must attempt to describe and define that edifice.^ ' We At Thebes. and at Memphis Greek travellers. Upon certain festivals richly decorated boats. If nothing but washing was in view they might have been outside the inclosure.344 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. such in existence. had no resource but to add some new building to it. who were more or less solar in have now arrived upon the threshold of the temple itself. The temple of Ptah — the site of which seems to be determined by the colossal . by studying some of and narrow chambers. Their position wuthin the inclosing walls suggests that they for were used beyond such ablutions as those which are prescribed for all good Mohammedans. or upon one of the plans which represent them. suggests that they had to play a part in those religious mysteries which could not be performed within sight of the profane. the less complex structures we soon find that many of these numerous chambers.

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Strabo. Herodotus.) I. our guide. 140) at the same time he must have raised obelisks and cap. are We shall. Strabo.The Tilmple under the New Empire. constructed courts and pylons. giving rise to Karnak. soon lose the thread of our argument if we were to begin by attacking temples which are at once so complicated and so mutiThe character of each of lated as those of Karnak and Luxor. — . ii. take Strabo for partly hidden by modern ruins. such as the temple at Luxor. At a much later period. 347 as the hypostyle hall at again. He saw all these great buildings in their entirety. but we shall endeavour to give our descriptions in better sequence than his. It says nothing of some accessory parts which were by no means without their importance. and to give them some idea of the Egyptian temple. Finally Psemethek I. in front of the same tem]3le (Diodorus. arrangement and decoration. namely. and some indeed. . Sesostris (a Rameses) erected several colossal monoliths. Herodotus attributes to two other kings. One of the most intelligent of the ancient travellers. according to the same authority. He wrote for people accustomed to and simple arrangements of the Greek temple. and added to it over and over interesting changes in the proportion. Herodotus. Ivii. 153. and to fill up some of the gaps in his account by the study of those remains which are in the best state In our descriptions we shall advance from of preservation. when so many of them present nothing but a confused mass of ruins. We should simple buildings to those which are more complex.) who built the southern propylons of this (i. surpassed all their rivals in magnificence. i. statue of in extent . perhaps. which would seem to be that in which the visitor from without would meet them in his course from the main door to the sanctuary. whom he names R/iampsinite and Asychis. the construction of two more pylons on the eastern and western sides of the temple (ii. such as he found it in that Heliopolis whose buildings made such an impression upon all the Greeks who saw them. and those details which most strongly attracted the author's attention are not mentioned in their natural order. and could follow their arrangement with an easy certainty which is impossible in our day. 121 and 136).^ His description is. But Strabo had one great advantage over a modern writer. xvii. rather superficial. 28. ii. attempted the work of discrimination which it is now our duty to the clear undertake. which. he attempted Rameses which still lies there upon its face must have rivalled Karnak According to Diodorus and in the number of its successive additions. from 20 to 30 cubits high. built the southern propylons and the pavilion where the Apis was nursed after his first discovery. then. 50) it was temple. Maris (Amenemhat III.

.-^ Time has not treated very badly. As the whole temple ho trace of either obelisks or colossal is no more than about 233 feet long and 67 feet wide. although the painted decoration of several successive princes. and without those successive additions which do so much to complicate a plan.uv Trap' iKaTtpoi' irpoKurai Tii Xey(>/j.aa Trrcprr Ictti oe rai'Ta TrXeoi'. rather than a rectangle. Immediately behind pylon lay a rectangular court sur- rounded by a portico of two rows of columns standing in front of In this wall and in the columns in front of it we a solid wall. Strabo says that the space proiaos. His court must therefore have been a trapezium with side opposite to its smallest the pylon. is They that lead up to a pylon of much more modest dimensions than of Ptolemy. The really ancient part of the structure begins with the rows of sphinxes which border the road behind the propylon. KaT (ipp^as fxh' dc^eoTcTjTa utt" aAX)/A. between these walls diminishes as they approach the sanctuary. which stands is south-west of the great temple at Karnak. 28. the elements of an Egyptian temple of this period will be readily perceived well if we begin our researches with one which its is at once preserved. We have searched in vain for such a form among the plans of those pharaonic 1 This is the temple which the members of the Egyptian institute call the Great In the background of our illustration (Fig. or prop\lon. which stands some forty metres in front of the whole building and was erected by Ptolemy Euergetes. simple in arrangements. . front of Strabo appears to have seen religious which there were neither obelisks nor the this statues of royal founders. In front of this pylon there figures. StrAEO. I. may be omitted from our examination. The advanced pylon. Icrovtf/T] TU) e'cTTt raio Tii)0 Si'o. or perhaps their small size may have led to their removal. and. recognise the tuings of which Strabo speaks the two walls of the same height as those of the temple. 208) the hypostyle Southern Temple. Of to the all the ruins at Thebes the Temple of Khons. r. simplicity of the plan that may be the work we are inclined to believe from the most of the architectural part of the work was begun and completed by Rameses III. it may not have been thought worthy of such ornaments. ^ Tov Se Kpova. n'hieh are prolongedin front of the There is but one difficulty.tui' jXiKpov ei5 to TrAaros •njs Kpyj—iSoi TOV vew. hall and the southern pylons of the Great Temple are seen.— A History of Art 348 in Anxiext Egypt. xvii. Ittut TTii'Tr/KOVTa 1/ to Trpofrfi'ev irpoiovTi kot eTrivtuoutras ypafi/jLas I'-tXP'- T^X"'^ Ifi^KOi'Ta. fulfils that which it most completely these conditions. edifices in In any case.

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but also called the priests were allowed to penetrate into the sanctuary for the purpose of bringing forth the emblem the tabernacle or other receptacle in or statue of the which which it god from was kept. . pi. This emblem the or figure was placed either in a sacred boat or in one of those portable wooden tabernacles various in it was carried round altars. the form in question was more frequently employed than in those of Upper Egypt. of the peristylar court form a rectangular parallelogram. where. were of Description de Egypte. The Ptolemaic temples which we know. and even then he was mistaken in sup- posing such an arrangement to be customary. roof of this hall is The the supported by eight columns. iii. Esiic/i. have all a court as preface to the sanctuary. we find it but once. which have perished. It must. In we may allow that it is Lower and Middle Egypt. a high portal opens into a hall of presence of this example of the trapezium form quite possible that in the temples of little depth but of a width equal to that of the whole temple. vol. \\\e.- room that name of hypostyle hall has been given. construction the large Hall of Assembly and the Hall of the terms which explain Only the kings and Appearance themselves. apparently. To return to the Temple of Khons. We know how in the great peripteral buildings of Greece and Italy.^ the peristylar court which follows the second further pylon is rather narrower at its extremity than immediately behind the pylon. 5. 55. hall . those of DcudcraJi. the Egyptian hypostyle Its is had much the same appearance as its the Greek pronaos. have been in a Ptolemaic temple that Strabo noticed these converging sides. Ed/on. 351 In every instance the sides temples which have been measured. the central It is to this four beinof rather hio-her than the others. with a double and sometimes a triple row of columns. We can easily understand how Strabo saw in it the equivalent to the />ro7iaos of the Greek temples. From the courtyard of which we have been speaking. vol. sacred inclosure to priests ' resting places or The crowd of and others who had been 1^ initiated but i. Antiquiti's. are rectangular. name in those texts which treat of it is . that it pronaos prefaced the entrance to the cclla Except is entirely inclosed by its walls. among the remains of so many buildings. but in every case those courts In the great temple of Philae alone do we find the absence of parallelism of which Strabo speaks. " Description de i'Egypfe.The Temple under the New Empire.

A inferior hall. the courts. chapel. from the temple of Eleph. tabernacle. which filled the spaces between the In this hall fragments of a corridor and the external walls. or is A?. or a'r)Kos. or sacred boat . The second tuary. was the sancwas a rectangular chamber. History of Art in An'ciext Eovrx.-? so often figured upon the bas-reliefs some other in receptacle containing the peculiar emblem of the local divinity. closed by a folding . from the kind of less little must have had something to distinguish it This something was a sacred parts of the building. or shrine. 209. upon which either the or sacred boat. from the cclla in that contained no statue of the divinity. — The ban. In this Temple of Khons it =-^^^"^1 Fig. granite pedestal have been discovered. for Strabo.inline. separated by a wide corridor running round its four sides from two smaller chambers. 209). in rank awaited the appearance of the deity in the hypostyle which the cortege was marshalled before emerging into division of the temple. which (Fig. must have was no doubt correct of the Greek temple but nevertheless it saying that the it a-qKos differed Strabo been placed.

on a smaller scale. etc. One of of the finest . there was. In temples of any importance the shrine was hollowed out of a block of granite or basalt.^ . The Greeks used the word Abd-el-Latif describes with great vao's or I'Ews to signify the temple as a whole. The tabernacle in the Turin Museum (Fig 210) is of this kind it is still in place in the Ptolemaic temple of Edfou I.^ The doors of the shrine were kept shut and even sealed up. 175. ^ Nubia. A De and B. Figs. 211). upon which the Ethiopian conqueror Piankhi-Mer-Amen celebrates his victories and the occupation of Egypt from south to and to pay their devotions they inclosed. . (Upon the ground floor and the stair- No. pji. the tabernacle Elephantine workshops. admiration a monolithic tabernacle which existed in his time among the ruins of Memphis. Emph^ie. belongs to the Louvre and bears the red granite and (Fig. 353 divinity. that 3 it was broken up ii. like the ark of the Hebrews. After noticing the capture of at Memphis he the tells us that he stopped Heliopolis in order that he might sacrifice to the gods fashion '' : in the royal He mounted in steps which led to the ' According to Gau. A monolithic chapel behind. VOL.. A7it. which it was a structure of painted and gilded wood. which so greatly excited the admiration prepared in the of Herodotus. and was called by the Egyptians the Green Chamber. 572. Makri/i tells us case. This north. 573. a well preserved tabernacle in the {Aniiquitts de la Niibie. v. sometimes it was a little In those cases in edifice set up in the middle of the sanctuary.'It is name entirely covered with inscriptions Amasis it is of and sculpture must resemble. in 1S17. under Amasis. v. for the temple of Neith. bears the royal oval of Nectanebo in all E.) Moniiiih'iiti Divers.The Temple under the New door. Sometimes tliis slirine was no more than an inclosed niche in the wall. pi. Notice dcs Moniiiiiciits. {Description de I'Egypte. in 1349.) Rougk. Z 7. 182 1. at Sais. sanctuary of the temple at Dtbout. vol. The term imos has generally been applied to these monuments. and containing either an emblem or a statue of the before which prayers were recited and rehgioiis ceremonies per- formed on certain stated days. but it seems to us to lack precision. it has generally disappeared and left no trace one of the few objects of the kind which have escaped complete destruction. 29. I. The king and the chief priest alone had the right to open them before the image or symbol which seems clearly proved by the following passage from the famous stele discovered by Mariette at GcbclBarkal.xamples are to be found the important European museums.) Herodotus.

face to face.-inslated Ri-cjrds of tlie Past. — Portable taLernacle of painted wood. ii. Thus same the Temple of Khons. — Ed. Like most of the Greek temples. into a second hypostyle hall which is smaller than the first and has its roof supported ' Translated by Maspero. of Ra. the Egyptian further chambers which owiadcF^o/^oi temple had its served nearly the in purposes as the of the Greeks. T. and published of . In the Turin Museum. Such was not the Fig. he set sealing boat Seket. English by the Rev. great sanctuary in order that he might see the god who resides Standing alone. the sanctuary opens. Histoire Andeniu\ into p. and swung open the folding doors he looked upon the face of his father Ra in Ha-benben. Cook. The wliole inscription lias in vol. 385. case however. he drew the bolt. of Shou clay upon them and impressed it with the royal signet. upon the boat Mad. C. 19th dynasty. Ijeen tr." . and the then he closed the doors. at the rear.54 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. From the description of Strabo we should guess that the Egyptian temple ended with the sanctuary. in Ha-benben.' . . 210.

Herodotus's story was founded upon fact. 121). such as the temples of Edfou and Denderah. they are comparatively well preserved. the architect of Rhamjjsinit contrived in the wall of the royal treasure-house which he at least was commissioned to build. The second hypostyle hall is however much larger and the chambers to which it gives access much more numerous. according to Hkrodotus (ii.- Fig. these secret passages remind usof ihe movable stone which.The Temtle under the New Empire. It is not easy to determine the object of each of these small apartments . od:> by only four columns instead of eight. M.^ Some of the sacred images and such emblems as were made of precious materials were kept in these hiding places. passages contrived in thickness of the walls. were both 1 As M. Upon this hall open four small and separate chambers which fill up the whole space between it and the main walls. 135). in the Pharaonic temples they are usually in very bad condition.ASPERO has remarked {A?iintaiie de T Association dis Etudes Grccqiics. . question is In the last named the complicated by the existence of numerous blind rffmm -• ' i lillL I . . as the arrangement in question was a favojrite one with Egyptian constructors. p. 211. i&IT. Similar general arrangements to those of the Temple of Khons are to be found in even the largest temples. — Granite tabernacle the : in the Louvre. Their absolute darkness and the coolness which accompanied it. but in some of the Ptolemaic buildings. The stone which stopped the opening into these passages seems to have been manipulated by some secret mechanism.

these apartments might be multiplied to any extent and might At Karnak. is. in represented the act of worshipping kings on the Egyptian throne. to however. The last feature noticed by Strabo in the small temple taken by him as a type. was the sculpture with which its walls were These works reminded him of Etruscan sculplavishly covered. They built are material witnesses to the piety of the princes who and who wished to associate the divinities in they were raised with the worship of the god to whom the temple Whether store-rooms or chapels. the preservation of delicately ornamented objects of the temple. no space inclosed by a solid by its purpose. was of this part that the Greeks called the treasure-house. In the temple at of Khons. ol Mariette has shown the their interesting nature these representations the historian. One of them was that small chamber which was dismantled thirty years ago by Prisse d'Avennes and transported to Paris. as in every other building of the same kind and Thebes. ^ is which. always keeping two original points in the characteristic physiognomy of the Egyptian temple which seem to have escaped the attention We have in view. known as the Hall of Ancestors. were consecrated to particular divinities and seem have had somewhat of the same character as the apsidal chapels of a Roman Catholic Church. value to we find this uninterrupted decoration. inclosed the material objects of worship. I. they communicate with long and wide galleries. as a whole had been dedicated.356 conducive in It A to History of Art in Ancient Egypt. in In it Thothmes sixty III. In the Greek temple there wall but that of the cclla. chosen from his predecessors among ture and of Greek productions expressions ' of the archaic period. such reserved as certain strictly circumscribed the friezes and pediments of the temples. but we can divine from the perceiveil to the principles which be different he makes use. they are very numerous. them whose honour It is fact. answers to (StRABO. of the Greek traveller. then. that he governed the Egyptian sculptor The Greek architect from those of the Greeks. where present great varieties of aspect. still the same edifice to notice. It such a climate as that of Egypt. XVll. while in itself Egypt it spreads indiscriminately over every surface. therefore. of which places for sculpture. 28). 'ArayAi'^as 5' i)^o\•cnv 01 TOijj^ot ovtoi /xtyaAoji' cidwAcui' . Some its chambers.

all that lies to the west of the open passage and fourth pylon. but those parts were less sacred character than the inner . This arrangement is repeated in the position of the two walls. But in larger buildings the box is. The Egyptian temple may. supplies the It fourth is side. we see that all the back part of the vast the pile. the Egyptian temple is altogether dissimilar. the other describes three sides of a rectangle at leaving a wider space at the back of the temple than pylon.The Temple under the New the arinos Empire. in a word. the withdrawn some distance behind the courtyard. The inner one embraces the chambers of the temple and follows their irregularities . the pronaos are open to the air and to the view of the statues of the pediments. and its adjuncts. this wall must be passed. true that in Karnak lateral openings exist in the hypostyle hall and in their the courtyard. The as we have said. the box is a simple rectangular one. This outer wall is absent only on the side closed by the inner pylon. a double one. be compared to a bo. the reliefs visible Both the peristyle and all comers . and the eye rejoices freely both of sculpture master- pieces and in the long files of columns. the inclined faces of which seem to be endeavouring to meet at the top so as to give the greatest possible amount of privacy and security to the proceedings which take place within. lies between the outer wall and that which immediately surrounds the various chambers. In the The appearance of The peristylar court. and in such buildings as that dedicated to Khons. 61). A sort of wide corridor. of the friezes in are all from outside. is inclosed by a double wall. which vary in effect as they are looked at from different points of view. 357 of the Egyptian buildings. hypostyle hall. open to the sky. partially at least. the sanctuary some temples. When we examine a plan of the great temple at Karnak.x (Fig. From the outside nothing is to be seen but a great retangular mass of building. wall the sides. This outer at has no opening of any kind. The partitions which separate its various halls and chambers are kept within the main wall. in a word the whole combination of chambers and courts which form the temple proper. hypost)le hall especially in those is of the Ptolemaic period. Before any idea of the richness and architectural magnificence of the temple itself can be formed. is surrounded by a curtain wall which is at least as high as the buildings which it incloses. and the sanctuary behind the hypostyle hall.

j 358 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. hall — The hypostyle comiTiunicated directly Fig. which was bathed in the . and by an ample doorway with the open courtyard. — General plan uf the Great Temple at K. The high and in- thick wall. When the slabs roofs which formed the of the temple of Khons were all in place — they are now the ground it must have been very dark mostly on indeed.trnak. From the point where the wall becomes double. which dependencies like closed the sanctuary and its a was no doubt intended to avert the possicuirass. ( « til' I 4> _ ' I ## » » » # 9» <» bility I of clandestine visits «a 4i (k ##* & 41 # «t » <«' o3 to the holy place. that is from the posterior wall of the hall. lUUU hypostyle there are no more external openings of any kind. without opening of any kind. 1 he evident desire of the architect to hide his porticos and saloons be- hind an inpenetrable curtain of limestone or sand- stone suffices to prove that shadow rather than sunshine was wanted in the inner parts of the temple. To reach the presence of the deity the doors fifth of the fourth ilSjpn and pylons had to be passed. 212. chambers to which they gave access.

although would be softened darker. After the Description de TEgypte. to a light much The the was which came through the door was certain extent. but. A few feeble rays may have found their way to this chamber when the doors of the temple were open. there would be no want of light. number of There are even some temples which become gradually narrower and lower from front to back this is especially the case with those which have a double wall round their more sacred parts. i. they seem to methods made use ot to ensure sufficient light for the enjoyment of the sumptuous will be it decorations lavished upon them here. constant sunlight of Egypt . and they actually found a pivot of sycamore wood. have enjoyed a little light was that have been closed. The authors of tlie Descrip- tion ghiirale de Thebes noticed recesses sunk in the external face of one of the pylons at Karnak.The Temple under the New Emhre. Marks of hinges have been found in the Egyptian temples. 219. As we leave the last pylon behind and penetrate deeply into the temple. p. 234). vol. and it is certain that the sanctuary was permanently closed in some fashion against the unbidden visits of the curious. 248). When the door was open. which is the same temples. The hall sanctuary borrowed still from hypostyle hall. the light gradually becomes less and the chambers largest- The diminish in size. therefore. Anfi/juites. vertical section than in one taken horizontally. . The pylon is much higher than any ' other point in the building.^ We shall return elsewhere to the illumination of the Egyptian as a rule. The only one which could which lay on the central axis of the building. and shall discuss the various . until the building comes to is an end in a small apartments in which the darkness unbroken. sufficient if we indicate their general character. with the it four supporting columns and the chambers which surrounded were the first named was worse provided than the sanctuary feebly illuminated by small openings in the stone roof the latter were in almost complete darkness. which they believed to be intended to receive the leaves of the great door when it was open (p. in all the religious edifices in the country. and best lighted chambers are those nearest to the entrance. however. The . they also noticed traces of bronze pivots upon which the doors swung (p. 359 besides which there were openings just tlie under the cornice and above it capitals of the columns. This progressive diminution is even more clearly marked in a .

Luxor. We united at is thus find the characteristic features of Egyptian architecture in a single building in this temple of Khons . As the roofs of the temple chambers are gradually lowered.) illustrate this statement. 213) and the general view of Karnak (plate iv. At Luxor the level of the second In the temple Khons hypostyle hall. In this it hall architects have the raised the loftiest columns. the roof of the chamber with four columns. the roof of the sanctuary. in A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. by which their flat roofs may be reached. In the Ramesseum there are and second hypostyle hall. except on a few stated days and in a fashion prescribed by the Egyptian ritual but the general public were allowed to mount to the roofs. others in the demotic character. which are still to be seen upon the roof of the temple of Khons. In passing from . court is higher than that of the first. Next come in height from front to rear holds good. Similar arrangements are found elsewhere. \vhich surrounds the temple of Khons. The longitudinal section temple of Luxor (Fig. this fact. even to Thebes. attest three flights of steps between the first All these buildings are provided with staircases . with the exception that in their cases it is the hypostyle hall which is the highest point in the their building after the pylons. and is after these that the proof gressive diminution begins. At Karnak a considerable flight is interposed between the courtyard and the vestibule of the hypostyle hall. Between the large hypostyle hall and the smaller one there is a difference in height amounting to a quarter of the whole height of the former. The interiors of the temples were only to be visited by the priests. some in the hieroglyphic. an equal degree. In the most important temples. but. The numerous ^77?^7/. such as those of Karnak. the same laiu of constant diviiniition their order the the courtyard. These roofs seem to have been freely opened to the people. and the roof of the last small apartment which rests upon the inclosing wall. and the Ramesseum.360 pylon. no such similarity between one building and another be found as in the great temples of Greece. just as with us they are allowed to ascend domes and belfries for the sake of the view over the surrounding buildings and country. but not to four steps lead up from the court to the and one step from the hall to the sanctuary. comes the portico in columns of the hypostyle hall. their carefully paved floors are raised.

G B LES .The Temple under the New the Partheno n to the temple of Empire. 361 The seus I ^ .

ft- t. . ^\^. .

Our purpose does not require that them in in we should describe any of detail. They are generally to be explained by those developments and repetitions of which Egyptian architects were so fond. pro- portion and decoration are seen. In Egypt the variations are much greater even amontj buildincrs erected during a single dynasty and by a single architect. very great. the visitor proto !t->tT ceeds inspect the ruins of Karnak. . Medinet-Abou or Gournah. After the well attentive study of some simple and like marked building. fact. and at each Karnak new in ruin explored the visitor's perple. the Ramesseum. We shall endeavour to demonstrate this by glancing rapidly at each of the more celebrated ings in Theban build- turn.The Temple under the New the Parthenon to the temple of Theseus or to Empire. of The object part remains sufficiently well and immutable to be easily recognised by one who has mastered a single each defined example. we be content with noticing their VOL. and from an Ionic to a Corinthian building. the temple of Khons. The variations are. from a Doric to an Ionic. certain well marked variations. differences are never sufficient But the to embarrass the student of those buildings. but they are not so great as they seem at the first glance. they are of little help in unravelling the mazes of or Luxor. 361 that of Jupiter Olympius.xities begin anew. certain changes of style. Luxor. and shall I. and attempts to restore something like order in his mind while walking. as we have already done iv?r the case of the temple of Khons. to all such buildings .amongr But in vain are the rules remembered which were thought to apply their ruins.

We reproduce.700 yards in length. There is Khons to the south.212).Egypie.165 feet.362 variations A History of Art in Ancient Egypt.^ i After passing the first pylon (No. 214 on on page 363. north to south it The Karnak Temple first is is thing that strikes us in looking at a general that Egyptian temples were not oriented. its transverse axis is 620 yards long. which called the several dimensions. one of which (C on plan) cuts through the outer wall and ' These measurements are taken from Mariettf. the plan given on page 35S (Fig. - p. with Amen. is 1. the Two of the most important are consecrated to those deities who. This. 3 The Lepsius's Dviikinakr i. Diodorus. From Its the external doorway of the is first w^estern pylon to the eastern extremity of the building. the most colossal assemblage of ruins which the world has to show. the length. 7. We are here concerned with the latter building only. The whole circuit of the walls is nearly two English miles and a half ^ The longest axis of this collection of ruins . on a much larger scale and in two parts (Fig. its four inclosing walls of crude is that from measures about 1. On our right and left respectively we leave two smaller temples.500 to 2. comprises no less than eleven separate temples within brick. 74-76) occupies entire pages. over all. pi. The outside curtain wall of brick is from 2.560 yards. i. Our plan fourth plate will give a sufficiently accurate idea of in its ment.^ map of The Great turned to the west. of the oldest of the four great Theban temples.215 f^et. and Pig. which corresponds closely to the 13 stadia said by Diodorus to be the circumference pylon. The total circumference of the bounding wall is about 3. or In order to do so we should we should have had to give (part upon too arrangethree small a scale. We have not given a general map. form The highest and largest of them all. is dedicated to Amen-Ra. that Great Temple. . that of IMouth to the north. either have it vol. 215 on page 367). greatest width that of the first namely 376 feet. A few figures will suffice to give an idea of the Theban is triad. on the plan) we find our- selves in a peristylar court answering to that in the temple of Khons. Voyage dans ii. upon the type established by our study of the minor monument. that of some doubt as to the name which should be driven to several of these buildintrs. liad to overpass the limits of our page. Let us take Karnak first. 46. la Haute.

BiTiiie._-i~L I li ii 1 n p. J'l r~ /J e<n Q 2J Ju >\_ Fig. n iu:!..i_. ti nj- ...-rian of the anterior portion of tlie Great Temple at Karnak. j:'L--J" -. .. J3 Cl^ '"»//-:• LET © © HSSgBfiSScrr L^ c (O G C =C1 ~i_^ rL-j„. 214.r I ^. From the plan of M.

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twelve pillars of larger proportions than . Other authorities give 340 feet by 177. If my expressions were to convey but a thousandth part of what I felt. Seti 1 1. at Karnak. was the author of the other (D). We may here quote the terms in which Champollion describes the impression which a first sight of these ruins made upon him " Finally I went to the palace. It is 340 feet long by 170 wide. was not less than 76 feet above the floor in this central portion. 135). had seen at Thebes. Those two buildings are older than the court and its colonnades. at least for an enthusiast. without a doubt. sunk into insignificance before the gigantic structures among which I found myself. they are Right and left of the 70 feet high. There all the magnificence of the Pharaohs : is collected . and so free from littleness as that of the ancient l-'gyptians. they refrained from destroying those their ancestors... I shall content myself with saying that no people. so grand in expression. which. they are equal to the central part by 33 feet.) . I shall not attempt to describe what I saw. a thousandth part of all that might with truth be said of such objects. at ' These are the figures given byMARiETTE {Ttiiu'rairc dc la Haute-Egyptc.^ i i feet 10 inches diameter and more than feet in circumference. 365 was built by Rameses III. there the greatest artistic conceptions formed and realised by All that I mankind are to be seen. so that. Diodorus ascribed to the temple of which he spoke a height of 45 cubits (or 69 feet 3 inches). if I succeeded in tracing but a faint sketch. monuments to the piety of We also may regard these temples as mere accidents in the general arrangement. have had a national architecture at once so sublime in scale. 79. the most massive pillars ever employed within a building." [Ltffirs 1/' Egy/>h\ pp. and the largest room constructed by the Egyptians (E). After the second pylon {2) comes the hypostyle hall. or rather did once support. This is slightly below the true height. in column of Trajan. They are. central avenue the remaining 122 columns form a forest of pillars supporting a flat roof. in the central portion. or rather to the town of palaces. I'^'om the ground to the summit of the cube which supports the architrave. the others form an avenue in these columns are t. We may follow the path marked out down the centre of the court by the remains of an avenue of columns which dates from the times of the Ethiopian conquerors and of the Bubastide kings (E). either ancient or modern. When the princes of the twenty-second dynasty added this peristyle to the already constructed pnrts of the great temple. all that I had entluisiastically admired on the left bank of the river. which is lower than that of the bulk. The cathedral of Notre Dame. the wonder of Karnak. p. The Temple under the New Empire. ^ One hundred and thirty-four colossal columns support. So. in the dimmest colours. of the marvels of Karnak. perhaps for a madman. the roof. I should be taken.

would stand upon the surface covered by (see Plate V). it because a passage. at least. the chamber (H) which bears a is upon the major axis of the temple in strong resemblance shape. the sanctuary of the temple as reconstructed and enlarged by the princes of the second Theban Empire. To use the ing the expression of Strabo. He does not attempt to account. ^ Including a postern of comparatively small dimensions. open to the sky. this hall Paris. It is certain however that between them they constitute the uaos. there are five doorways to the hypostyle hall. Or must we follow Rlariette when he places the sanctuary in the middle of the eastern court (I in plan) ? All traces of it have now almost vanished. it is constructed on the same principle and lighted in the same fashion. for those carefully built granite apartments which seem to most visitors to be the real sanctuary. part of the ^ we have here a real pronaos or ante-temple. but Mariette based his opinion upon the fact that in the ruins of this court alone are to be found any traces of the old temple dating back to the days of the Amen- emhats and Ousourtesens of the twelfth dynasty. In which of these chambers are we to find the a^]Kos 1 Was it. plan to ? in those granite apartments which are marked locality H on the This was suggested by the extra solicitude as the strength and beauty of those chambers betrayed by the use of a more beautiful and costly material upon them than upon the rest of the temple. however. as the early observers — thought. as well as position. but yet it fills same office in the general conception. in the case of which no doubt was possible. . situated Moreover. Its proportions are very different from those of the correspond- chamber in the little temple of Khons. intervenes between building which contains the sanctuary. or temple properly speaking.— o 66 A History of Art easily in Ancient Egypt. We cannot pretend to determine the uses of all those chambers which encumber with their ruins the further parts of the great building. or. Ed. They are surrounded by a double wall and there is but one door by which they can be reached precautions which suffice to prove the peculiarly sacred character of this part of the whole rectangle. and that four The doorways with which this vast hall is provided seem to indicate that it was more accessible than the parts beyond the passage just mentioned. to the sanctuary of the temple of Khons.

Fig. 215. inner portion . from the plan of M. Bru . — The Great Temple at Karnak .

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KARNAK .

INTERIOR OF THE HYPOSTYLE HALL C .

For our purposes it is sufficient to note that in the Great Temple. But the final determination of the question would be of no particular moment to our argument. similar to those in the TerhpJe of Khons. 569 In the actual state of the ruins the doubts on this point are.The Temple under the New Empire. I. The two temples is completed by both of a minor hypostyle hall behind the hall of four columns of the smaller building the the corresponds to the large saloon called in the Great Hall of is Thothines. The in roof of this saloon supported by twenty columns disposed standing free of the walls. two rows and by square piers 146 feet wide. 216. The resemblance between the existence in sanctuary. as in the Temple of Khons.. the sanctuary was surrounded and followed In the Great by a considerable number of small apartments. Temple (J). irremovable. and from 53 to Immediately before the granite apartments. — Karnak as it is at present. 57 feet deep. Fig. Temple these chambers are very numerous and some of them are large enough to require central supports for their ceilings in In other respects they are the form of one or m^re columns. perhaps. vol. and It is X B . The ruins of a pylon and of the hypostyle hall.

to evolve . organs. between the fifth and sixth pylons. some order out of find the seeming chaos ruins the essential Karnak if we wish the vital to characteristics. river. and to take account of the long series of additions which resulted These in the finally stupendous dimensions of the whole mass.3/0 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. rightly examined the gigantic ruins of the great temple of Amen betray those simple lines and arrangements. These columns belong to the first hypostyle hall. the architecture to use the words of Champollion. another hall. the Temple first There. The same remark may be applied on the too. among its if we may put it so. we wish. were they not buried for two-thirds of their height. . then. The changes shown by work. Etude topographupie ct archeo1 A plan of the successive accretions is given in plates 6 and different periods and their work are : logiqtie. as we • have shown. the pylon to the innermost architecture of giants. of the Egyptian temple. being deeply impressed by the first sight of its lofty colonnades. The plan of Luxor is more simple than that of Karnak it was built in two " heats " only. from the ground up to the base of their more than 50 feet high the capitals and the cubes above them measure about 18 feet more. we have only to apply the method of analysis and reduction suggested by examination of simpler monuments. is introduced. also with two ranges of columns but not so deep as the last. which form. the original type.^ additions may be distinguished from one another by their scale When of proportions and by their methods of construction. Plates in folio text in a 4to of 88 pages (1875). The complete title of the work is as follows Karnak. seems to have been designed fine The first the purpose (G). " to the other great building of Luxor. Its position shows it to be meant for a vestibule to the naos properly speaking. . they capitals. . avec un Appendice coinprenant : les principaux Textes hieroglyphiqius. left bank of the is. to borrow an expression from the rather ." From the recesses of the sanctuary the building measures about 850 feet. The same information is given in another form in pages 36 and 37 of the text. would be. 7 of Mariettes' of tint. and. Osiride pillars. by its tall and finely proportioned pillars rearing their majestic capitals among the palms and above the traveller can avoid No huts of the modern village. penetrate into for a similar If ot Coni't of tJic Caryatides with its chamber entered by the visitors who the temple proper.

there sions a hall of modest the dimenIt beyond sanctuary. and yet we are respects more at a loss in attempt- ing to assign their proper uses to its apartments and in finding some than equivalent for them in the elementary type from which we started. The naos. hall in The which • it is placed is preceded by a those vestibule. The at sanctuary glance.The Temple under the New athletes. there . always temple. we were in the larger temple. is us the and examine the hypostyle as elsewhere. one in each end. Empire. 371 under Amenophis II. exactly upon the major axis of the building. it is the only chamber which has two the whole building . It is narrower than its grreat neisfhbour. and surrounded by small chambers which are found in far. nothing to embarrass thing is us every• • • e conformity with the principles which have been laid down. for it granite has been used doors. . this part of a is So in then. and covers a very much less space of ground. III. halls. neither has it so in many some chambers. It is true that the proper character of the iiaos is better marked a at Luxor than elsewhere. may It be determined consists of a rectanofular chamber larcje standing in the middle of a square hall in . real difficulty begins for when pro- we look round Here. In later periods underwent some insignificant reand that is all. and it Rameses touches.

while all the rest of the building. is supported by twelve columns. that is where to look for the true it pronaos Luxor. again unlike the Karnak hall. therefore. ' In jiresence of this double range of superb columns one as the beginning of a hypostyle liall upon them . This gallery is in effect a hypostyle hall. perhaps. so far as the interior of the building is concerned. could find elbow-room. . some 76 feet long. In part of the ground plan where generally found there nothing but an open portico. inclosed and covered. but it differs profoundly from the superb edifice which bears that name at Karnak. and that the builders contented themselves by inclosing and preserving their work as far as it had gone. Moreover. which is considerably lower than the highest parts of the building. . By its design. We is can at hardly tell.. It is long and narrow and looks more like a mere covered corridor than an ample hall in which the eager crowd . it reminds us of the hypostyle hall of Karnak. by force of circumstances unknown. much wider and deeper. so is The separated from the naos by an open to be classified as what the Greeks called a propyla-um but yet it is a hall. The place occupied by this hall in the whole composition is equally singular. There is another. It has been ascertained that the first pylon and the peristylar courtyard behind it date from the time of Rameses II. was built by Amenophis III. again. and that. of great size and height. in front of the naos it has thirty-two of those lofty columns of which we have already spoken. and richly decorated.372 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. without any external wall towards the court so that it may be called a portico with four ranges of columns. court. from the second to the third pylon. it is by no means the most imposing feature of the whole edifice. and the spacing of its columns.' that it ought. great colonnade. The doorway in the second pylon leads immediately into the grand gallery. to suppose that a great cential nave was constructed. the aisles were never begun. like the hypostyle halls which we have already described and others which we have yet to notice. is tempted to look which was never finished. The greatest elevation and the most imposing proportions. of which we have been 1 speaking. are to be found in the great gallery which leads from the first to the second court. from what is at present the second pylon inwards. situation. It differs from it in being open.

I ''j< %M 111 .5" 3 .

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whose funerary destination we have already noticed. The built first not parallel with is the two by Amenophis one. and with representations of their exploits. as such they would require no depository for those mysterious symbols contained : they were the mastabas. we have reason to believe that the great Theban divinities were associated in the worship paid to deceased If that were so these funerary temples might well have kings. 0/ . The Ramesseum certainly appears to have been the monument described by Diodorus as the Tomb of Osyiuandias. as In no one of them. should be carefully noticed. been arranged like those of the right bank. which is No justification unique among the Theban temples. These are royal chapels erected in connection with the royal tombs in their neighbourhood. On the other hand. or even explanation of this irregularity. the Ramesseum. has any chamber or structure been found which corresponds temples of Amen or Khons. Consequently we do not find in them those complications which.The Temple under the New Another peculiarity of Luxor pylon. the Palace of Memnon and the Memnonium. we find ourselves in the presence of those temples. . in the great temples of the right bank. lineal in ' Diodorus. that of Rameses. the angle at which they stand is a very perceptible Neither the doorway of this pylon in alignment with the other doorways on the major axis of the building. descendants of the upper chambers in the which no rudiment of such a thing is to be found. Medinet-Abou. The inner portions of the Ramesseum and of Medinet-Abou are so ruinous that the question cannot be settled by the examination of their remains. is its cliange of axis. yet the difference in general appearance is But is not great far .^ It is also called by the Institut d Egyptc. . we may judge from plans which have been made. i. a name which has never been satisfactorily explained. one distinction which. The absence of such a chamber might easily be explained by our to the sanctuary or (njxos of the supposition that these buildings were funerary chapels of this or that deity which the temples proper . and Gournah. if it goes to prove the peculiar character of these buildings. 47 49. they are cenotaphs filled with the memories of the great Theban princes. is Empire. If Ave cross the Nile and land upon the plain which stretches between the river and the Libyan hills. mark the successive dynasties to which their final form was due. there however. has been discovered.

of the details. little less extensive than the Right and there left there are porticos. we have borrowed the ornamentation of the first pylon — . each with a figures. it of Rameses . of these eight ranges are still standing and still afford support This latter is painted with golden stars to a part of the ceiling. On the left the almost square on plan (186 feet by 173). Immediately behind this pylon comes a vast peristylar court. pierced siderable amount of the courtyard. if not larger. counting from front to rear. this statue plete. 46) he seems to place the would. Three flights of steps lead up from this court into a vestibule ornamented with two colossal busts of Rameses and with a row of columns.xvii. was 226 feet wide the whole of its upper part is destroyed. Many of these figures are standing they are 31 feet high. In another passage (xvii." the remains of which have been discovered in the immediate neighbourhood of the two colossi. to Memnonium He be the case. feet eight Five ranges of six each. seem rather to have had in view an " Amenophium. 2 to the opinions of their immediate predecessors iii. .) among Egyptian [Description gencrale de Thebes. Temple of Khons.^ _^76 A History of Art in An'cient Egypt. double range of columns. 220). From this vestibule the hypostyle hall is reached wide by three doorways of black granite. remains of a double colonnade e. i. The French snvaii/s suspected this close to the two famous colossi. upon the It is faith of Strabo's identification of Isniandes and Memnon. Although seated. The scale of our cut is too small. When it was comto ChampolHon true title. that opposite to it On are still the side of the entrance and on single ranges of Osiride . a conits fragments now cover was more than 56 feet high A grand doorway. through the centre of the wall upon which the defeat of the . a first. were made. section This pylon stands in the foreground of our view (Fig. It measures 136 Its roof is supported by forty-eight columns. the size of the Ramesseum would astonish us anywhere but in Egypt. was a colossal statue of Rameses. must have been as large as Luxor before the additions The first pylon II. 42. in and 103 deep. Khetas is painted. Without being so colossal as Karnak. to show any . therefore. however.xist. which must at one time have extended along at least two sides of the quadrangle. i. The face which as \ve may judge from the parts which remain is here shown was formerly covered —with pictures of battles and that we might not have to actually invent scenes of combat for our restoration. leads to a second court.^ that this building owes the restoration of its under \vhich it is now generally known. At the further end of this court and directly facing the back of the pylon. but they often defer travellers. 1 Straeo.

o z [1.X a. o 05 O o u 0^ .

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{Description gaierale de Thebes. n :::::::: v. The in its . side walls have entirely disappeared.) VOL. — Plan of the Ramesscum (from Lepsiiis.. plates 88 and 89. d'Egypte into an error in speaking of this court. ill a blue ground. sixty columns.in I it^^ fe. hall. Deiikmakr..The Temple under the New uj^on Empire.^ This hall resembles that at Karnak. i. L ^ C . The engineers of the Iiistitut They failed to notice that it it was smaller than the second and they accordingly gave p. supported by columns thicker and higher than the rest. from which they are also distinguished by the nobility of At Karnak the hall was begun by their bell-shaped capitals. in its plan is and general The mode of lighting the same the .o so I'lG.aig.." ^'r l^^y^-m iji^ii^ij -I •- D "v lzz3j^ jo ?o 30 . part fell i. both appearance. is the . in imitation of tlie vault of heaven.) arrangement same there is in both a wide passage down the centre. 132.^^^. ' Lepsius. vol.^.

Beyond them again there is a fourth and smaller chamber which has only four columns. 1 formerly surrounded by brick structures of a peculiar character. The great hall at Karnak required three reigns. ii. p. almost with stupefaction. could not attempt to give the colossal dimensions of the great temple of Amen to what was. Rameses II. On the other hand. some of which are yet to be found in good about 50 metres from the north face of the They consist of a double range of vaults closely at See Ebers. more than carry on of his predecessors. Ibid. We its larger share than of that beauty into which merely colossal dimensions do not enter. Rameses II. of the larQfer rooms in seem to confirm the Toiiib assertion of Diodorus. and we can easily understand that he was thereby its happy arrangement and majestic proportions in the great temple which he was erecting in his own honour on the left bank of the river.'^ The Ramesseum was preservation building. Ambitious though he was. no more than the chapel of his own tomb. the bas-reliefs in one . Round these rooms a number of smaller ones are gathered they are all in a very fragmentary state. pp. their proportions. including base and capital. it must have had a less surprised. ALgypten. the others were only twenty-five feet but they surpassed the pillars at Karnak by the elegance of incited to reproduce . He heard the chorus of admiration with which the completion of such a superb building must have been hailed. situated upon the major axis of the building. History of Art in Ancient Egypt.^ Beyond the hall there are wide chambers. of the central nave were no more than thirty-six feet high. and among them no vestige of anything like a secos has been found.378 A I. his description of the of Osymandias. after all. did no Rameses the work and Seti . but at the Rames- seum we see that. 309 et seq. In the Ramesseum an attempt was made to compensate for inferior size by extra care in the details The tall columns and by the beauty of the workmanship.. 312. rival more charmed although we are when complete. and each with its roof supported by eight columns. vol. that the library was placed in this part of the building. '^ . two of them very long ones. The admiration excited are in us by the ruins of Karnak is mingled with astonishment. for its completion.

restored by Chipiez.mm -mt^t Fig. 220. Ch. M. Bird's-eye view of the general arrangement. — I he Ramesstum. .

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. numbering. yEgypti'u. ' Ebers. the founder of the twentieth dynasty. vol. a or sort of university. Ninety yards farther to the north we come upon the great temple. may have contained rooms for lodging and instructing students. structures. The group is composed of three distinct buildings in one enclosure. the in included was situated within the outer bounding wall of the temple. ii.The Temple under the New abutting- Empire. 3 1 2. They both lie upon the same axis. — General plan of the and the Roman Emperors (A on biiildinirs at Medinet-Abou. they are connected by a sphinx avenue. which are these curious building.. and Thothmes III. and surmounted by a platform. p. the funerary character of which we have already explained (C). and to avoid r. the credit of having founded. by the side of his tiirbch and inosquc. It is a second Rauicsscuni. as well as In that case Rameses would deserve chambers for the priests.^ But for these texts we should be inclined to believe that these remains are the ruins of storehouses. (B). and afterwards enlarged by the Ptolemies 221. The first of the three which we encounter in approaching the group from the river is known as the Royal Pavilion or Pavilion of Rameses III. like the )iit-d}'css(-\ Mussulman sovereigns. The oldest is a temple built by Thothmes II. 38 f on each other. was not until the second half of the present century had commenced that they were cleared from the debris and modern huts which concealed many of their parts.from ten to twelve in each If it be true that a library range. time of Rameses III. Additional probability is given to this conjecture M ^ both by certain discoveries which have been made in tombs near the Ramesseum and by the evidence of several papyri. and they must certainly be considered as two parts of one whole. The other two date from the plan). 11 i\ About the a thousand yards south-west of Ramesseum rises the group of buildings which is known by the name of the It modern village of Medinet-Abou. .

its really It ancient portion is of too little importance to detain us long. p. court. consists of a of a visitor entering the temple.^ It bears a strik- resemblance to the Ramesare seum. it That of Lepsius goes to the back of pi.382 confusion A it is History of Art in Ancient Egyi't. The great temple. Medinet-Abou is 210 feet The two courts which follow isolate the i t and feet second pylon are severally 3 feet by 140. {Deiikmceler. where a double colonnade. which was consecrated to Amen. as for the Temple of Thothmes. It has only four rows of si. 4) does not go beyond the back wall of the second — the hypostyle it hall. consists merely of an isolated sccos surrounded on three sides by an open gallery upheld by square piers and.) — with caryatides of Osiris. the first quadrangle of these the right has colonnades. 1 two peristyles. goes three stages farther back in 1866. The first pylon wide.x each. Royal Pavilion presently. pi. however. i. 222. five steps above the pavement.) Ours is much more comprehensive was communicated to us by M. upon the fourth. who measured the building . at Their dimensions nearly the same. 92. that One on colonnades. . and 126 by 136. Notices descripiives. Brune. counting vol. by a block containing six small chambers (Fig. The plan of Me- dinet-Abou does not differ (223) in any very important points from that of the Ramesseum. Osiride piers These in repeated the second court. row of are pillars faced =OG= Fio. ii. those which are at right angles to the face of the pylon. part. deserves to be carefully considered even in our generally known We shall return to the summary ing review. 314. leads to the pronaos. Plan of the Temple of Thothme (Champollion. whose picturesque ruins attract every visitor to Thebes. Upon two of its sides only. 222). as the Great Temple of Medinet-Abou. and. The latter seems too small for the in twenty-four supporting columns. The plan in the Description de F Agypte [Antiguilh.

to his own The columns of the central passage of hall the hypostyle similar in are to section those styles. Its unambitious apis pearance ter the all the af- more surprising portions noble pro- and rich decorations of the two external courts. 223. eiofht and the concentral which the stitute nave do not differ from their companions. These columns smaller in are section than those of the peristyles.^ This hypostyle hall therefore. Ed. '8^ the building. some of the distinguishing characteristics its rivals of elsewhere. — Plan of the great Temple at Medinet-Abou. Perrot is in error. usual fashion. as may be seen by reference plan. lacks.— The Temple under the New Irom front to back of Empire. The hall effect of is still the farther lessened by the fact it does not occupy the whole width of the build- 9 fl S fl S fi fi fi that 1 Here M. (Communicated by M. Brune.) . of the two periexcept that their bases are flattened laterally in a somewhat unFig.

and need not be noticed in detail. for instance. preservation. in Nubia. on the right of the great lake seem to have been very peculiar in arrangement. that upon the major axis of the temple there were two small halls.— 384 ing. Temple ophis by Thothmes III.^ have good reason to believe that the type of temple which we have described was a common one in other parts of Egypt The temples of Memphis. The II. Medinet-Abou could oppose the Royal Pavilion which rose in front of the temple and grouped itself so happily with the first pylon. To the fine hypostyle hall of the Ramesseum. so far as can be judged through the discrepanIII. of the temples in this neighbourhood and within the enclosures at Karnak are all more or less intimately allied to the established. Cailliaud only allows 1 it one peristylar court.. while Hoskins and Lepsius few of these buildings that. affording one of the most effective compositions in the The type rest whole range of Egyptian architecture. One of these. the are in comparatively good o(: So/c/>. according to the recent investigations of INIariette. . each supported by eight columns. cies in the available plans of the first-named building. extended to the sanctuary and its dependencies in the rear. left no trace behind but the great buildings constructed by the Theban con- we have We . A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. like those in the Ramesseum around these many small chambers would be grouped in the fashion which is almost universal in this part of an Egyptian religious building. the Delta cities. but their remains are in such a state of confusion that it is A — at present impossible to describe their plans. have perished and. it Ranges of apartments are introduced between there a sanctuary behind this hypostyle hall ? and the It external walls of the temple. of Heliopolis and of than Thebes. because it mio-ht prove that the similarity. little that can be discovered as to this point has its importance in establishing a comparison between the and that of Rameses III. Was would seem rather. practically. . The last of the great Theban Pharaohs certainly drew much of In his inspiration from the work of his illustrious predecessors. which decide their present state of mutilation it is impossible to temple of Rameses was the finer of the two in their complete state. querors outside built the limits of Egypt proper. and reconstructed by Amenmust have borne a strong resemblance to the Ramesseum.. which we have mentioned as existing between the more public parts of the two edifices.

are and vestibules to this all important chamber. plates 40.ples The which we have hitherto examined are chiefly their plan. and the second forty. but it only shows the beginning of the first hypostyle hall and nothing of the second. or to speak more accurately. formed of six columns. D . . From a peristylar court enclosed between two pylons. O^D which must have been a very beautiful one. lation would have to be cleared away over the whole area of the temple. DcnknuTlcr. After it came another hall. the the whole and hypostylar halls. usual position. Tra-i-eh in EtJiiopia. to Cailliaud.^ We find analogous arrangements in the great temple of Napata Built by Amenophis III. Voyage a Mirot. These divergences are easily understood when it is remembered that nothing but some ten columns of two different types remain in situ. In the plan given by Lepsius there are two h}post\le halls with a wall between them. the largest in the building. The smaller faces of the whole rectangle are continuallv carried farther from ' Cailliaud. with call this its cjitoiiragc of small chambers. The plan given by Hoskins agrees more with that of Lepsius than with Cailliaud.The Temple under the New give it Empire. two. in front of the first pylon it reminds us in some degree of the great corridor at Luxor by its general form. 117. columns. pi. vol. this accumudl'bris are high and wide. We may the classic type of Egypt. this temple resembles the buildings in its Theban plan. LErsifs. HosKlNS. the remains of which are very confused. we pass into a hypostylar hall containing behind this hall comes the sanctuary. ii. of four rather less diameter the remainder of the temple has disappeared. for the simplicity of A heart single sanctuary of forms the centre but anterooms and. contained forty-eight columns. . remarkable composition. peristylar courts dependencies this are developed to an extraordinary extent. with a roof supported by twelve columns. while the small apartments which surround it afford the necessar)accommodation for the material adjuncts of Egyptian worship.8. and repaired by Tahraka when Ethiopia became supreme over Egypt. According seat of an Egyptian pro-consul. q VOL. tem. part pi. In temple Karnak. rather than its situation. plates. and 42. when Napata was the (Gebel-Barkal). All tlie pjlans show a kind of gallery. 41. 116. so to speak. I. however. and that the mounds of In order to obtain a really trustwovtliy plan. in its forty-six columns . 9-14. an arrangement which The outer one nuist have had twentyis also found at Abydos. i. its hypostj-le hall. This was surrounded by small chambers. of the depth of the building. : . the at anterior the great and posterior Pjlons. but development is always in the direction of the length.

Their absence. is not allowed to aftect the eeneral lines of the olan.386 A History of Art ix Axciext Egypt.complete it with another wing at the opposite angle. but that there is necessities of our time. This is a poor equivalent for the majestic colonnades and files of caryatides which we have hitherto encountered. and the long walls must have seemed rather cold and monotonous in spite of the bas-reliefs and paintings which shadows cast covered them. at As are two courts. . thanks to his efforts. of square pillars standing before the inner wall of the second court (see plan). It was begun by Seti I. which are distributed. This salient wing has no corresponding excrescence on the other side. It deprives them of the rich by the long colonnades and their roofs of the Theban temples. The only thing of the kind is a row temple. with which the parts to the sanctuary and its dependent chambers form a right angle (see Fig. there After these comes the pronaos. The Egyptians were never greatly enamoured of that exact symmetry which has become one of the first artistic the building unfinished. The building. \vith more or less regular alternation. however. A good more complex arrangement is to be found in the Abydos (Fig. in spite of many successive additions always contrives to preserve its the unity of organic constitution. 224). a great effect The suppression of the portico has upon the appearance of these two courts. therefore. 224). and finished by Rameses II. Still more surprising than the eccentricity of its plan. each other by the additions of fresh chambers and architectural features. are the peculiar arrangements which this are to be found in the interior of Medinet-Abou and the Ramesseum. But all the great buildings in the service of religion were not so simply Egypt which were constructed for designed. instance of a great temple at Its general shape is singular. there are now few monuments in Egypt whose inner arrangements can be more clearly and certainly perceived. The courts differ from those at Thebes in having no peristyles or colonnades. We might consider no sign whatever that the architect meant to . each preceded by a pylon. on the right and left of the major axis \Yhich always passes through the centre of the scros. Mariette freed it from the cfcbris and modern hovels which encumbered it. The courts and the pronaos compose a narrow and elongated corresponding rectangle. and.

to at A little farther on we shall have speak of a peculiarity which exists is . and was content with making known its internal arrangements by a plan. where the measurements all are given in a fashion which forbids doubt of their fidelity. The building was hardly We anaaaa QaDoata known until Mariette freed it from the debris with nhich it was engulphed. 3E Abydos.ooy oofj o o o ooooo ^ ca La La isa La £ni oo oooooooooo oooooooooooo oooooooooo O'O oooooooooooo oooooooooooo have given neither an elevation nor a section of the temple at Abydos.' . — Flan of the Temple at Abydos (from Marietta. studied rather as an egyptologist than as an architect. in the first hypo- We take this fact from the Description. This plan does not appear to be minutely exact. because neither the one nor the other was to be had. I? Fig. 224. too. He. but which the not hinted at in adjoining plan some of the columns are coupled style hall.

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sanctuary there just as we find it is a secondary hypostjle behind the single scros of the ordinary Its roof was supported by ten columns. gods. whose name and image appear in the decorations of the chamber itself and also upon the lintel These names and images are again repeated of the door outside. are Amen. Behind hall. and opening upon seven oblong vaulted saloons. There is columns of extra size and more careful There are design. Harmachis. The seven Horus. Very little is left of the bounding walls.several of these chambers were dedicated to one or other of the deities between whom the naos was apportioned. Isis. corresponding to the last named. These pictures this septuple deal with the rites which w'ould be celebrated by the king in each of the seven sanctuaries. dedicated to some particular deity. The decoration of the southern wing of the temple seems never to have been completed. the second by thirty-six columns. and access to it was obtained through the third sanctuar)-. and Seti himself. and a third under that of Isis. It contains a long corridor. 389 to recognize when we arrive at the pronaos that we fail we have grown accustomed. two hypostyle halls. the first supported by twenty-four. that of Osiris. a rectangular court with an unfinished peristyle. these vaulted decoration chambers declare Each one of them is themselves to be so many sanctuaries. all of one size and completely isolated one from another. and by the of their walls. by their form. with its the door. Ptah. They are separated by a wall pierced with seven doorways. Each chamber contains which are repeated from one to another with no changes beyond those rendered necessary by tlie substitution of one god for another. but it has been ascertained that . Thus one of the chambers referred to was placed under the protection of Osiris. whom we thus find assimilated with the greatest of the Egyptian a collection of thirty-six pictures. leading to the closed door of the sanctuary. beoinninir at the riirht. there are seven more doorways. By their situation on the plan. deities Osiris. another under that of Horus. halls. each doorway corresponding to one of the aisles In the farther wall of the second of these between the columns. thus honoured. upon all the surfaces presented bj' the aisle which leads up to the disposition to which no central nave. several small . This part of the temple is in a very fragmentary condition.The Temple under the New It is Empire. temple.

. the construction of the seven parallel vaults in the naos a future opportunity will be found ^ . for that is at present our business to Fig. between Amen. and a the by a floor flight of steps leading up on to dark apartment or crypt. with the attributes of Osiri--. make the differences between the temple at Abydos and that of Khons and its congeners. The distinction lies in the seven longitudinal subdivisions. 225. to whom he is paying homage. and Chnouai. chambers wiih columns. may have been used as a A storehouse. — Seti.390 A flat roof. the temple would not betray parts same number of sanctuaries. clearly understood. its want of unity of the . beginning with the seven in doors the facade of the hypostyle hall. divided into two stories of large stone slabs. and ending in the vaulted chambers which form the Seen from 1 outside. We shall not here enter matters . These sort farthest apartments seem to have been arranged into such in no as of order. Full particulars of the in Mariette's first more obscure temple at Abydos will be found volume. History of Art in Ancient Egypt.

all chambers. 234. ^. in the Two propylons. 226). Eight of these fine columns are still erect. The central one of these chambers opens upon a hall where the roof is supported by four square pillars. 391 it was surrounded by a single wall. see Ebers. form an outwork to the main building. It is probable that they were originally the doorways through brick walls. and it would not be until the building was entered and explored that the fact would become evident that it was seven shrines in one. The another . enclosures round the temple. funerary character of the great temple at Abydos. but they have suffered so greatly that no certain ' Upon tlie ii. and more especially to Amen-Ra.The Temple under the New Empire. seven independent temples under one roof^ At Thebes also we find a temple which. It is eighteen metres long. its roof is supported by six columns similar to those of the portico already mentioned. These can hardly be mere storehouses. which formed successive The dromos led up to the pronaos. one inscriptions it is called the House of Sell. resembles that of Abydos. Its entrance doorway opens directly upon a hall which is the largest in the whole temple. pp. The front of the naos is a which was reached by a tew steps. 235. only feature in which these compartments resemble one is their independence. They are isolated from one another by walls which run from front to back of the naos. to which three distinct compartments or divisions of the interior correspond (see plan. by its internal It is called sometimes arrangements. portico of simple design. and ranged around it are nine sm.gypten. sometimes as himself the object of worship. vol. the Palace and sometimes the Temple of Gournah . with which they are connected by an avenue of sphinxes. the whole being 166 feet long by 10 feet deep. the pictures in which illustrate the apotheosis of Seti. The wall at the back of the portico is pierced by three doorways. consisting of ten columns between two square pilasters. who. about fifty yards in front of the other. The most important and elaborate of the three compartments is the middle one. is sometimes shown doing homage to the Theban triad of gods. the complex naos was prefaced by courts and pylons in the same fashion as in the temples of Thebes which we have already noticed. now demolished. . often indued with the attributes of Osiris. and upon this hall again four small apartments open. Fig.

paying his devotions to the Theban The is left compartment preservation . arrangements like those of are the and its more central It is part of the naos.. has in and style contains no hypohall.392 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. . right-hand is com partment but in a very bad enough of it its remains to show that different arrangements were quite from those of its neighbour and much complex. 226. not so it large. behind the other. Rameses gods. the two set one I.. opinion can be lormed as to their real purposes. and his grandson Rameses II. It six chambers placed sets of three. son by his honoured Seti I. the larger part it was taken up with a court or hall peristylar seventy-six feet long and forty-six wide.— Plan cf the Tuiiplc of Gouniah. Here the we find Rameses of founder the dynasty. Ik. however. The state. of less So far as we can judge. Behind this the site of three rect- angular chambers distinguished may be wall Every which bears is still standing of representations II. in better than the right.

:^ fe Tjl I^V^ jk~ VOL. 3 E . -.h-I - s o _. I..

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fertilizinfj A Q-rain is divided between several cells. ^^ differs from the Pharaonic temples of the same class in having square piers only at the angles. or in the angles of the sanctuary itself. and Rameses II. seems as if the absence of a true orfjanic centre arrested the development of the building we find no signs of an edifice which.^ It seems probable. We might call them chapels. and exactly temple thus cut into three parts.The Temple under the New The great temples of Empire. but there were a few temples of the same kind erected under the Ptolemies. therefore. or seven. and in the neighbourhood of. Temple {Antiquiles. almost to infinity without losing its unity. and to the conquered provinces. in the Dcsciiption. . or for the purpose oi commemorating the passage of some conquering prince and epoch the building at Edfou. there were a few temples in which a severe and extreme unity was the distinguishing characteristic. of Memphis or Sais. 395 Abydos and Gournah were built by the same sovereigns. As a rule they date from the eighteenth dynasty. the rest of the portico being supported by columns. the routine of worship were grouped round as at it. Perhaps. either on one side. as at Gournah. But whether these are numerous or few. between them is so great that they may be looked upon as variants of one type. the subsidiary chambers which were required for of the other. vol plates 62-65). In Upper Egypt and Nubia a few examples of the class are still to be seen. of a type which is distinguished by the juxtaposition of similar parts grouped laterally one by the side Each of the chapels which we have described was self contained. division is tripartite. the naos never has any great depth. like the temple of Amen at Karnak. Abydos. might be developed It . and the three compartments vary in their arrangements . On the other hand. ' We may cite as a peripteral temple of the Ptolemaic railed. They were erected within. those cities whose importance was not sufficient to demand such great monumental works as the temples of Thebes or Abydos. as well as to Egypt proper. at Abydos they are seven in number. With such slight differences of detail as this. their The resemblance plans were traced by the same architect. in which the similar in design. reminds us of the seed-pods of certain plants. raised either to the honour of the local deities. Seti I. the two At Gournah the buildings were built upon the same principle. that they were common to all the periods of Egyptian history. the Little i. too.

and named by them the Temple of the South} This little buildino. vol.-396 A homage History of Art in Ancient Egypt. ^ ^1 j The raised total area of the temple. 1 " Description dc i'Egypte. Happily the jalans and drawings. consisting of a few pairs of sphinxes. one at square piers. no doubt for the sake of economising the material. of each of the smaller faces the latter were introduced in the centre of the building. A flight of steps. 229. The portico Two of itself was composed of square piers and round columns. There is. It was of upon a well-built rectangular base Fig. seem to have been made with great care. (Dcicripiioniier Jigy'/'le. who had a mania for building. There seems to have been no means of access to it. enclosed between two walls of the same height as the stylobate. It was destroyed in 1822 by the Turkish Governor of Assouan. nothing . in most would appear that a short dromos. Templeof i- of the Eleph. inclusive of those at the angles. oblong chamber enclosed by this portico had two entrances. .. From the earth level to the top of the cornice the temple was 21 feet 6 inches in height.and 7 feet 6 inches high to the pavement of the portico. It was dislittle covered at the end of the last century by the draughtsmen of the French Expedition. but a rectangular chamber and a portico about cases. A . i. lent dignity to the approach. and were thus higher by about three feet than either the The piers or the columns in the corresponding facade at the rear. in fact. Antiquitis. which we reproduce. plates 34-38- This base contained a crypt. the paid by him to the deity to whom he looked for protection and victory. was 40 feet by 31.no loncrer exists. 35-) — Plan almost the same lateral dimensions. In these chapels there are neither internal peristyles nor hypostyles it is there are none of those subsidiary chambers among which sometimes so easy to lose our way. led up to the portico. it it. upon the southern frontier of Egypt. at the floor level of the cella. The best of this class proportioned and perhaps the most interesting building is the at Elephantine. and the circular columns on each side afforded a base for the piers of the entrance alone stood directly upon the pavement of the gallery. while the side galleries were enclosed by seven dwarf wall about three feet in height bounded the gallery on the outside.\n(ine. sandstone temple built by Amenophis III. either from without or within. and.

shows the temple as must have the hands of the architect. and one only obtained at the expense of the continuous portico. Neither in piers nor in walls do we find that inward slope which is almost universal in its Egyptian is exteriors. and by its position with regard to the steps. and in a different bond. 1 stylobate raised left well above Our plan. the Descrijttion a'e VEgyfte. 230. he gave to his small creation a would otherwise have missed.\[pire. 35). 597 The first named was indicated as the true entrance to the building by the shght salience jambs and lintel. Fig. One more peculiarity must be noticed. but however that maybe. the back part of which was enclosed with a wall in which the columns sculptured decoration which covered the rest of the temple. Fig. Jomard (pi. became engaged. but he bids us remark that it was constructed of It different materials. has imported a small chamber into his plan. from the rest all of the temple. concealed diminutive size. According to to Jomard. inclination By avoiding the usual dignity which towards the centre. In spite of its modest dimensions. . and. — Mew in per?pective of the Temple of Elephantine (from i. This the architect had a good reason for neglecting the traditions of his profession. not the effect of caprice and horizontal. placing it behind the large hall as a sort of opisthodomos . etc. i) according to the authors of the Description de PEgypte. Its it this temple was without it neither beauty nor grandeur. The lines are vertical . the other at the back.The Temple under the New the top of the steps. in some it its degree.^ of E. by the increased size of the columns in front of it. this alteration dates from the Roman period. in our examination of the temple we may disregard an addition which appears have been so awkwardly inanaged. showed no trace of the This chamber was therefore a later addition. 35.

that of the Greek temple. The dignity of the entablature and the bold projection of the cornice added to the effect of the whole. while the steps in front gave meaning and accent to elevation. completely round we colonnade goes find such a striking for the mouldings. because it. The piers on the flanks were more closely spaced than the columns of the faradc. pleasing as a whole. essentials the arrangements are the same. Its symmetry and just proportion appeal directly to those whose artistic ideas are founded upon the creations of the Greeks and Romans. ] . . and the richly decorated be seen contrast was heightened by the simplicity of their form. The wide spacing doorway to of the columns in front allowed the in effective grouping with the long perspectives of the side galleries. is Elephantine (from the Description. " is a model of simplicity and phantine purity. and emphasized the well-balanced architects nature of the composition." . But the purity and harmony of our admiration. its The Temple of Eleand commands our attention.1 231. Nowhere else do resemblance between Greece and Egypt. 35)." . — Longitudinal section of the Temple of monument. This sympathy was conspicuously the little felt by those who discovered saj's " The arrangement.398 A History of Art in Anxient Egypt. The its general arrangement of the Elephantine structure has even in name the technical language of the it Greek the architects. they would call a peripteral temple. the result of its lines are not its only claims to The pleasure which it causes us to feel is partly resemblance to a well-known and much admired In all type. its the plain. a cella raised upon an important base and surrounded by a colonnade. i. But . Jomard. The Egyptian never pro- duced a building better calculated to please modern tastes.

a mistake would. as cause and effect.The Temple under the New Empire. In coming to this conclusion they were right. Would arts it not be much simpler to admit that we have here one in of those coincidences which are so frequent the history of the Human nature is pretty much the same all over the world. and have attracted very little notice indeed from strangers dazzled by the wonders of Sais. The French savanis knew enough them falling into such an error. the temples built must . but the general physiognomy of the to prevent it building told them that could boast of a venerable antiquity. When examined closely the circumstances of mankind are never found unchanged from one period or one race to another. inspired the early place. In we are asked to believe. in supplying similar identical problems. strength to extremities of a wall. if Greek been any direct imitation of an Egyptian model. we should have found in the copy at least some passing trace of those square piers which were so continually and successfully used by the Egyptian architects architects. These are more or less marked accordin^r to race characteristics or material surroundincjs. and the inscribed texts. and even end of the last century. but are Greek peripteral temples the external colonnades always made up exclusively of circular columns. be impossible in these days. but decorated at the the Egyptian taste. Greek in in conception and plan. between the Egyptian building and the temples of Greece. we should be Such tempted to see in it a building of the Ptolemaic period. ? When human skill has been employed at different times and in wants and solving almost in it different countries. 399 the sculptured decorations. excejat the form pilaster. however. They were unable to read the hieroglyphics. but first we may allow ourselves to make two observations. but a superficial resemblance is enough to ensure that their artistic creations shall have many important points in common. In the upon this plan were very small. Memphis. but they should have stopped there instead of attempting to establish a direct connection. and Thebes and the place. The Greek in the architect in hardly of a ever made to use give of the square the pier. We shall not here discuss the delicate question of the indebtedness of Greek artists to those of Egypt. has been led to results which vary only variations the minor details. buildings in those great cities did not offer the peculiar characteristics which. the second there had . In no pursuit does .

human mind turn in a narrower circle than in architecture. And yet such types are scarce. ^ the temple built by Thothmes II. vol. pi. . 222). on the left bank of the river. There is nothing to forbid the supposition that these temples were once much more numerous ' in the valley of the Nile. but it Figs. in Upper Egypt. Although it has suffered greatly. neither are the materials at the command of the architect very many. i. civilization . which must resemble the two at Elephantine very strongly we mean the temple constructed by Thothmes III. and Thothmes III. differs from that Elephantine . it there at is a temple constructed upon the same plan in . The French explorers found a second temple of the same class not far from the first now. however. exercise a great intluence upon form. pi. 3 Descriptioti. 71. the purposes for which important buildings are erected are very few. letterpress. as it seems to us. i. part is i. and the qualities of the material on the other. and 15 feet 8 inches high. Antiquitis. it exists only in their drawings. 4. traces of a portico are to be found about the cella. 38. .400 the A History of Art in Ancient Egypt."^ . having only two circular columns. vol. The sanctuary is there surrounded on three sides by a portico of square piers (Fig. 2 In the Description de I'Egypte it is called Tlie Northern Temple (see vol. The only difference noted by Jomard was in the ornamentation of the capitals. vi. ch. . Figs. 3. i. - Lepsius Denknitcler. and that without numerous. those upon the facade all the The oldest part of rest of the peristyle consists of square piers. pi. we might have omitted all mention of it. 2.^ A third has been discovered in Nubia. and it has been ascertained that this portico consisted both of square piers and columns. at El-kab (Eilithya). The But purpose of the building on the one hand. This temple 50 feet long. Finally. any knowledge of each other's work ? From this point of view only. at Medinet- Abou presents an analogous arrangement. or at least devoted but a few words to it. 113. should the type of building just described be regarded. If the temple at Elephantine had possessed no other interest but that belonging to it as an example of Egyptian temple building. i. at Semneh. and 3). The possible combinations are therefore far from Take two races placed in conditions of climate and which may fairly be called analogous put the same materials in the hands of their architects and give them the same programme to carry out is it not almost certain that they would produce works with many features in common. 31 wide.

peripteral arrangement. that it was the within the high external walls of their open to the sky or as supports for wide and lofty halls.^ When we compare these remains with one another and call to mind the words of Strabo and of other ancient travellers as to the monuments which have been destroyed. As long ^ See Lepsius 128. it. for plans of these buildings. Ramesseum. those of Sais and Memphis. be called history. where it served to give imFig. that the Egyptians loved to group their mighty piers and columns. so small that there was no room for columns and that the walls could buildings. Medinet-Abou and . part i. It 401 like appears certain that they were always of small dimensions. which might a chance likeness. 127. no more than a rare accident in that of But in spite of this difference the similarity. Gournah and Abydos we have several important temples built in Ethiopia by Egyptian conquerors. we find the columns situation of their colonnades. it is full The following facts are sufficient to prove that was the small size of these peripteral temples that first suggested the external as the cella was large enough to admit supports of the ordinary diameter without encumbering the space or destroying its proportions. 232. When the temple was reduced to a single narrow chamber. plates 125. we might have been led to believe that the great religious buildings of the Egyptians had been form but we have Luxor and Karnak. portance to the cella. Amenophis HI. and to clothe at Eilithyia from Lepsius. L . and VOL. — Temple of . which is IS a constant prmciple m architecture. if the word chance had any place in of interest for the historian of art. we are forced to this gr-eneral conclusion. and others erected by the Ethiopian sovereigns in imitation of Egyptian architecture. around courts support the roof without help. and beautify The Greek Egypt.The Temple under the New Empire. Denkmaler. the temples of Thebes had vanished and left some of in this no trace behind. When the^ portico was outside it was so placed because there was no room for it within. the colonnade was relegated to the exterior. .

115. 233). which mountains. These strips of 2 The it Denkmaler. as their bases were 4 feet in diameter. the chapel. Here too we find beine laree enough internal columns. cut. A niche contrived in the further wall of the naos acted the part of a secos. as a rule. a fact which has sometimes been explained by the natural configuration of the soil. grotto. internal measurements of to this chamber were 26 in the feet by t. Lepsius gives four columns. portion of the Nile Valley the it river is it embraced so closely by the rocks between which would. and wider than it is deep. 232 and It is prefaced by a chamber. (Lepsius. we examine a map of either one or the other of the Nubia we shall find many places where two chains of hills fall back from groups of the mouth of those wadis. at intersect torrent 1 beds.) . III. but the naos to admit. but at present there are only the remains of one to be found. or dry tilled little the river far enough to allow a considerable intervening fringe of level ground. pi. however. have been difficult to find a structed temple. according to whether they are entirely rock constructions.402 inside. Almost the same arrangements are Denkmirlef. A Of History of Art the in Ancient Egypt. the use of never entered the architect's head to surround and even to with a portico externally. be found Temple oi Sedeiiiga. or half-grotto. parti. a rectangular chamber measuring The roof might very posinternally 28 feet by 22 feet 6 inches. Thus arranged.. This is cropped and the by natives. We may say the same of those subterranean temples which are called speos or hcmi-speos. was nothing more than an epitome of the temple. 100.^^. or prefaced by architectural in They In that are chiefly found Lower Nubia. there is some exaggeration. It is now difficult to say whether this was an uncovered court or a hypostyle hall. sometimes reduced until it resulted in buildings where a few paces carry the visitor from one extremity to the other. who live. and there is no need for insistance upon the variations which it presents upon a single theme. a plan and section of which we take from Lepsius (Figs. we are told. upon a first principle which sometimes was developed into a colossal structure lilce that at Karnak. If flows that site for a con- In this. very ruinous. demand. parti. at this temple of Amenophis Eilithyia. pi.^ is an instance.Immediately abutting upon it comes the naos. it it a very simple form of temple. sibly have been supported by the four columns. as we have called these buildings.

See. not be very oratories as difficult to obtain a site for such were required lor the scanty population. for Gebel Lepsius. It would always have been easy with pick and hill. indeed. would. would be required. for the engineers and that it workmen in some neighbouring quarry. for these little Nubian temples. of the of We must not seek. in which the popular ceremonies of religion were performed. the militarv commanders. pi.Hassan there near Assouan. from Lepsius.The Temple under the New Empire. and hills near Beni. — Temple of Amoiiophis HE at Eilithvia . 102. at much less cost. part i. Silsilis. some durable memorial of no very large building cities. In this fashion Seti obtained a site for his great temple at Abydos. unless it be the excavations at Thebes. The Egyptian architect did not hesitate to cut awa\. finest of the sepulchral hownumerous on the where. chisel to adapt some ridge or cornice of the clifts for their reception. therefore. Dcnkmalcr. or rather contrast Silsilis. Fig. architectural Even Egypt proper there are is chapels cut in the flanks of the the Speos Arteuiidos. they sometimes rise to first Below the cataract. for the multiplication of these rock the Nubian section Nile Valley either in natural conditions or in the want resource. as they are a magnificence of which nothing else in Egypt. for the soldiers in the nearest military post. close to the quarries of another. 403 It little arable land are always either level or of a very gentle slope. choose some deserted of Even supposing site in pleased the king to a conquered province for the erection his prowess. or to cut a in sort of courtyard in the slope of the which a small temple In might have been erected. can give an idea. . and the priests resided.^ there is these grottos are as other side of the frontier. 233. Great temples were reserved for populous in which the kincj. a level site for buildintr. ? How are ^ we to account for this difterence.part of the side of a mountain when it was the only means open to him of obtainino. The same thing might have been done. then. for a reason temples in . loiigitudinni section. rare Gebel ever.

the governors of the southern provinces must have been continually employed in repelling the incursions of the negroes from Upper Ethiopia. the living rock. would be in great risk of destruction in a country exposed to the repeated incursions of savage tribes columns and piers would soon be overturned by their ruthless arms. and the did thoroughly than any of its predecessors. and in suppressing the warlike tribes who lived within the conquered frontier. its independence during the domination of therefore. . We think it probable. and to bury • — — . especially when of small size. work of subjugation all over again. in those localities just as we do in Egypt. however. than This question more easily asked answered. than because the configuration of the country required security Where was assured by the presence of a strong and permanent garrison. But chambers cut in the living rock would offer a much the decorations might be scraped down or stouter resistance daubed Over. and Napata for instance where there was a large urban Soleb population. it regained . the most probable. Although they were closely connected as early as the sixth dynasty. of the In Ethiopia proper. Everywhere else it was found more convenient to confide the temple to the guardiansliip of its own materials. too. when the Egyptian sceptre ruled as far south as Napata and the great bend of the Nile. A constructed temple.404 A History of Art is in Ancient Egypt. but the time and patience required for any serious attack upon the limestone or granite sides and piers would not be Such damage as could be done in a short time and forthcoming. to begin the it its work more Then. we find constructed temples They are found. The following explanation seems to us. that subterranean architecture was preferred throughout this region because the political condition of the province was always more or less precarious. rather it. as at Semneh and Kumneh. men did not feel so sure Between the sixth and the eleventh dynasty the hold of Egypt upon Ethiopia had been lost at least once. by the weapons of the invaders could readily be repaired when the raid was over. therefore. and therefore fortifications and troops for their defence. . Ethiopia was not Egypt. Reconquered by the kings of the first Theban as in morrow Egypt period. the former never lost its character of a conquered province. At such times the king himself must often have been compelled to take the field and lead his armies in person. Hyksos the eighteenth dynasty had.

moreover. The Egyptian monarch carved the cliffs of Ipsamboul into gigantic images of himself because he wished to astonish his contemporaries and their posterity with the time. the art which imitated the forms of a stone building by excavations in the living rock. and the temples of IpsamIn the necropolis of Memphis. continued to II. Karnak and the pylons Temple of Seti and the Ramesseum. had its wxMght in leading the conquerors of Nubia to fill it with Such a method of construction was at underground temples. as to build one of the same size. New Empire. the great temple at Ipsamboul was the masterpiece of that art which had been so popular with the Egyptians from the earliest periods of their civilization. of to-day. In the execution of such works they must have arrived at a degree of practised skill which made it as easy for them to cut a speos like the great temple at This fact probably Ipsamboul. hand of the river.The it Templp: under the cliffs. in the early years of the the occupation of When be security was love established. was per- For many centuries they had fectly easy to Egyptian workmen. facades. the For these he could have imagined no pendant more original or more imposing than the great temple carved from a natural hill. The hypostyle hall at Karnak was a marvel of constructed architecture. used from the art When whose Rameses travellers cut those two caves in the rock at Ipsamboul. regular of course. to go through a works boul. once expeditious and durable. the hall of Luxor on the leit bank. as we have seen. with their gigantic figures. and in that of the First course of tomb of . to hollow out the flanks of their mountains. at Thebes. a double advantage. which would be greatly appreciated the province. nor because boldness and novelty of the enterprise. in front of which statues of the sovereign. for same process itself. would see countless generations of Egyptians pass before their feet in their journeys At Thebes he had built. Subterranean architecture had. and to decorate the chambers thus obtained. The military supremacy of Eg\pt and the security of her conquests seemed to be assured. up and down the Nile. higher than any of those which adorned the courtyards at Thebes. been accustomed. on the of right . 405 in faces of the This kind of work. it have such an eft'ect upon the was neither because he was pressed tor he was doubtful of the tenure of his power. as the development before it w'as capable of such Seti. for the last resting-places of their dead.

. to which it was as the Speos Ar'temidos.. Greek Artemis. which. the first ambition was more easily So. consecrated. in the Two of them are to be found neighbourhood of Ipsamboul but on the other side of the The river. There is an equally small it is the grotto speos in Egypt which dates from the same period — at — . too. rock-cut temples were of very modest dimensions They date from the eighteenth dynasty. Theban Empire. carried have been finished. It was I. the other at Feraig. one near the castle of Addeh. satisfied. as also is that of Addeh two lateral chambers. had been identified with the begun by Thothmes to III. has been known The goddess Sekhet. ever since antique times. and seems never The temple proper is prefaced by a kind on by Seti . and a sanctuary. Beni-Hassan.4o6 A History of Art its in Ancient Egypt. It is composed latter was cut by the king Harmhabi (or Armais) of a hall supported by four columns.

part. -I — — —•— I ' 1 7. that which It is is cut the flanks of the Gebel-Barkal at Napata.. on account of the grimacing figures which stand before It dates from the time of Tahrak the piers. from example of the hemispeos (Figs.The Temple under the New is Empire. We may J '^ give Gherf-Hossein as a good & ^35— Plan 'V^. A pylon gave access to a angular court.. on the right and left sides of which stood piers faced with colossal statues of ^ - rectfive Rameses II. or Gircheh. near Kalabcheh (Figs. Beit-el-\Vali. namely.^: fe%'. 23S and It was approached from the river by a broad flight of 239). Dayr. .All the other rockcut temples were the work of Rameses II. ah . in 407 known to us. of Lepsius's first That. GherfHossein. few fragments now remain. and was one of the works with which the famous Ethiopian decorated his capital in the hope that it might become a formidable rival to those great Egyptian cities which he had taken and occupied. There are also a hemispeos or two of the Ptolemaic period. 237.Wali . Wadi-Seboua. Deiikmceler.. .'. and Ipsamboul. from Prisre.. decorated with statues and sphinxes. steps. for instance. Fig. part i. as we ascend the Nile. 127. of which the plans are given in plate 101 was begun by Ptolemy EuerCTctes 11.^^/„. — Longitudinal fection of the specs at Beit-el. .i. pi. of which but a \nv ". 236 and 237). These statues Lepsius. they are. P)eit-el-\\ of ^peos at Prisse.' called the Typlwniinn..

to the back of the niche.-Asseboua. There are discrepancies. . from first commencement rest of the the foot of the pylon. The resemblance between is Gherf-Hossein and Horeau's plan of Wadi-Asseboua so great as to suggest that one of the two writers may have made a mistake. This passage leads to a long transverse vestibule. vol. may to of the building. 23S. and at a slightly higher its roof was supported by twelve square piers. one of them can still be identified as Ptah. and four is only there caryatid pillars . those forming the avenue being of caryatid form and higher than the others. — That of Derri and 241) is more simple. probably be referred to the bad condition of the structural According to Prisse's measurements the dromos. its shape. between it and both the inscription of Isambert and the plan of discrepancies which part its Horeau {Panorama d'Egypte et Ntibie). The furthest chamber on the major axis of the whole building was the sanctuary. and the niche which in its is cut further wall. . the of the temple.).4o8 A came History of Art feet high. . in the rock. was about as Prisse's plan of much The = rock-cut part was only about ten yards deep. a hypostyle hall Next. and three from its further side. This is proved by its position. almost in the the same arrangements 240 hemispeos of Wa4i.- Fig. was about fifty-five yards long. and the temple. Plan of the hemispeos of Gherf-Hossein from Prisse. were about twenty-six level. properly speaking. central The subterranean part of the temple begins with a passage cut in the rock on the further side of this hall. At the back of This description has been mainly taken from the plate given by Prisse {Hisfoire i. but a an open court with hypostyle hall and a sanctuary cut de I'Art Egyptieii. Four deities are sculptured in this niche. in Ancient Egypt. again. and in spite of the ill-usage to which they have been subjected. however. There are neither dromos nor pylon. from which open two lateral chambers.' find chief god We (Figs.

Derri from Horeau. ?1_ ia_ 1 - > %ft-Y.nder •iiie New Empire. The two temples of Ipsamboul are so well known and have been so often illustrated and described..The Temple the u.^.-.'. they are inclined from the perpendicular. the statues and they I. is that they are their without any external and constructed and that from •.'Vr:..£i--. Fig.ii./.--ii^-4*.-'->/'/^. above the river and close to it. longitudinal section . figures They have the same inscriptions. debris from the cliffs..--i. that they need not detain us long. high that they could . — Lingitudinal the section.%.'i . The chief thing to be noticed here part.^i^i^.. '•a Fic. 241. — Plm of . it was impossible have any dromos and yet between the doorway of the speos and the river bank there were steps which are now either worn away by the action of the floods or hidden by the position. — Gherf-Hossein.J.>{. 239. 240. surfaces covered with circumscribed by a moulding and to and crowned by a of cornice in bold relief.^/'j-. afford a background the king VOL. however.. The facades of these temples were. of Derri tlie hemispeos from Horeau.w/<: ///. from Prisse.. The prototype of these facades trapeziform is Theban pylon.' >'^-. 409 sanctuary there is a stone bench upon which three statues were seated.//-/''-'^'^-'/^^/y/. . as richly decorated and as monumental in in their way as those of the most sumptuous buildings Thebes.v.//'''/. Fig.

above which they unite and become a wide band of flat carvinof markingf the centre of the facade. but to recede a pace or two so as to be incorporated in the pylon. The skill gentle salience oi these buttresses forms a framework for the statues (see Fig. and having a good deal in common in their design. substance of the pylon itself. for many reasons. executed by the same processes. two temples close to one another. They of Ra is carved in Rameses is depicted . the case of a built temple they are monoliths. and that the statues should be carved in the rock from which its chambers were to be cut. though conceived in the same spirit. which are chiselled with orreat care and sandstone of which the mountain consists. They of a are not less than seven high. is on a smaller scale than the Great Temple. brought from a distance and erected in front of the But space was wanting for such an arrangement at Ipsamboul besides which it was better. The front is 90 feet wide and nearh' 40 high. it has a bold cornice not divided by buttresses like the of twenty-two cynocephalic made up figures seated with their animals is sculptured in the round. are yet by no means similar. in the act of adoration. group occupies the middle of the facade. That of the temple of Hathor. in A frieze. It is ornamented by six colossal upright statues. as we have seen. These statues. It is about other. Each of these is only connected with the its face of the rock by a small part of feet posterior surface. and hands upon their knees. In The in the situation of these statues. but It 130 feet wide by 92 high. and on each side of him This low relief. At Ipsamboul there are. but perhaps its design is the happier and more skilful of the two.410 A History of Art to ix Ancient Egypt. 242). which are about 34 feet high. four ot them Rameses himself. that the whole edifice should be homogeneous. generally called the Smaller Temple. Their facades. But the most striking feature of the building is supplied by the four colossi of Rameses placed two and two on either side of the door. are separated one from another by eight buttresses. consisting dedicatory inscription carved deep and firmly drawn hiero- glyphs runs below the cornice. The colossi had The way to do this was obvious. chief difference is who caused them be made. . two of them acting as jambs for the door. in the fine vellow The facade of the Great Temple is is much larger. the other two his wife Nefert-Ari. ficfure Above the doorway a colossal in the rock.

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about ninety feet. The Interiors of the two temples are more different than the ^. 4U are the largest in Egypt... in this instance. Fig. countenance. 245. travellers an which has been noticed by still all who have written upon Ipsamboul. tlie the workmanship is very fine. is The single total depth of the smaller edifice supported sanctuary. especially. — Plan of temple.. . From the sole of the feet to the apex of the pschent which the king bears on his head. Fig. 4%^'f^^jwm'^ U^. made use of for the royal statues at the temples. 246. 243. — Longltvulinal section of the -mailer temple from Horeau. in the pose ordinarily entrances of the Rameses is seated. — Perspective The of of the principal chamber in smaller temple from Horeau. — Plan exteriors. . by six square is Hathor-headed pillars. they are about sixtyfive feet in height. In spite of these enormous dimensions c I Q D D I ^ the smaller f'^pifw isir^v^ Fio. of the Great Temple.' ^mm. force is remarkable expression for its combination and the sweetness. middle of which a small . 244.TiiK Temple unuer the New Empire. : ' ^ l_ J Fig. precedes in the the The latter nothing but a narrow gallery. :ki. the variations are entirely in favour of the greater monument. and. his hands upon his thighs. h hall.

The is a great deal larger. was an altar. as wide as the second. and supported by Three openings in its furthest side lead four thick square pillars. They represent .it Temple . chamber. second chamber not quite so large as the first. from Horeau. i\ Ancient Egypt. table In the middle of this chamber . 13 feet by 23. but only 10 feet deep. is about to a third . The other temple Its total length is about i8o feet. The walls of both temples are covered with pictures like those of Luxor.414 A History of Art is cut. the adytum. those on the left and right being very small indeed. or for offerings at the back of it a bench with four seated statues. 247. against each of which a colossal figure 33 feet high A doorway in the middle of the further side leads to a is placed. in chamber or niche may be seen with a statue between . Fig. and the Ramesseum. while that in the centre. Through this the innermost parts of the speos are reached they consist of three small chambers. — Peri-pecl ive nf the principal linll in tlie Gre. Karnak. first hall is 60 feet long and 53 wide the roof is supported by eight pillars. which the rock-carved cow of Hathor its legs.

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249. sometimes the hypostyle hall is included. or sanctuary . from the secos to those colossal statues which generally form the preface to the pylon of the constructed Except in the case of the peristylar court. . The elements of the building are the same. but some- times one. — Longitudinal section of tlie Great Temple .The Temple under t. from Horeau. sometimes living rock. Besides the halls which form the main body of the temple. lighted VOL. colossi before the entrance. and they are arranged in the same order ^an avenue of sphinxes when there is room for it.. L \ II . and at Ipsamboul the whole temple temple. the interior of the rock-cut temple did not differ so much in appearance from that be imagined. some perpendicular to the major axis of the building. a naos with its secos. and the king seated upon the laps of goddesses. 417 the battles and triumphs of Rameses. a colonnaded court. so that the absolute night which was involved in their being excavated in the heart of a mountain was no very the constructed edifice as mieht at first already explained .|ie New Empire. is in the mountain. There are indications that they were utilized as depositories for the objects worshipped in the temple. a hypostyle hall We — Fir. others falling upon it obliquely. who act as the tenderest of nurses. ol We have was the interior how scantily of the Egyptian temple its innermost chambers were plunged in almost complete darkness. Neither in plan nor in decoration do they materially differ from the temples of wrought masonry. have now briefly noticed the principal rock-cut temples in Egypt and Nubia. many of these divisions are excavated in the Sometimes only the sanctuary is subterranean. acting as a pronaos.Several of these do not seem to have been finished. the plan shows eight lateral chambers.

that the darkness of the speos would seem no drawback in their eyes.S 41 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. .xistence intermittent period. and of Thebes. which represent the presiding deity of the place and his acolytes. sometimes in places only inhabited for an their e. But their position. At they the time these rock temples were cut. Another and more constant peculiarity of the underground is the existence in them of one or more seated statues left in carved from masses of rock expressly of the excavation. the Pharaohs to whom owed no doubt assigned a priest or priests to each. that In the great temple of Ipsam. is This preference for the pier easily to sufficient be explained by the necessity for having supports of strength and solidity to bear the weight of the super- incumbent mountain. sometimes in desert solitudes. The column occurs very seldom in these subterranean temples. in the quarries at Silsilis for instance. In the latter the tabernacle which stood to hold in the secos was too small anything larger than a statuette or emblem. but the Egyptians were so thoroughly accustomed to a mysterious solemnity of shadow. do not occur in the constructed temples. boul the daylight does not penetrate beyond the second hall point from onwards artificial light is necessary to distinguish objects.speos at Beit-el-Wali (Fig. Abydos that. In the case of a hemi- speos the internal effect must have been almost identical with that of any other religious building. the furthest recesses These statues. 237). We think that the cause of this difference may be guessed.^ Even those chambers which correspond to the hypostyle hall by their places in the excavation and the general characteristics of their form. rendered in it impossible that they could be served fashion which was easy and guarded the the ample temples of Memphis." in their temples. a at these considerations ' suggested instead shrine Beni-Hassan containing in the There are two polygonal columns resembling those small . to a " dim religious light. as in the case of the Speos Arteviidos. but these piers are is often clothed with an elaborate decoration which unknown in the works of the primitive architects. are hardly ever supported by anything but the' rectangular piers in use in the early ages of the monarchy . temples. great change from the obscurity caused by the thick walls and heavy roofs of the edifices in the plain. or in provinces which had been conquered by lost to Egypt and might be enough All in her again.

S^FEnS DE L'OvEST • -ffe Tehrasss m j. TO 20 30 40 L_ SO^ M.^-- W C I S .-nrms:r | (? SpbosvuNoud -TiiM 7£R'?>5 S J5 D77 Centre _xrl^ k r ad • acaa aooaiif''. according to . l^rune. — Dayr-el-Bahari . 250. TeI^J\ASS£ J)t L Es h rfifc«i#i2ak ^' f' c ^ <^%*>«^'^'' ^ ^ %!^»>. '' Fig.

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The name is derived from an abandoned Coptic convent which existed among the ruins of the ancient building. on the right and at the back. . We have not yet described them because they do not belong to any of the categories which we have been treating they form a class by themselves their general arrangement has no parallel in Egypt. The building in question a chain. surprised especially at our so little about them hitherto. and therefore we have reserved them to the last. is situated at the foot of the Libyan deep amphitheatre hollowed out by nature in the yellow limestone rocks which rise on the north-west of the necropolis. Our study of the Egyptian temple would not be complete without a few words upon the buildings called Dayr-cl-Bahari!^ By their extent. statues of a considerable size. Antiquitcs de la It seems that the statues.The Temtle under the New some Empire. . On the left this natural wall is absent and is replaced by an inclosure of bricks (Figs. and that they be actually chiselled in the living rock itself and left By their attached to it by the whole of their posterior surfaces. from six to eight or ten feet high. were in a fairly good state. For Beit-d-Wali and Ginheh. see plates 13. size and by their incorporation with the rock out of which both should they and their surroundings were cut. 30 and 31 in Gau. such statues would defend themselves efticientJy against all attempts on the part of enemies. it rests against perpendicular walls of rock cut by the picka. perhaps. On two sides. 2 These words mean Convent oj the North. 421 small figure or emblem. In spite of their age several of these statues a sufficiently good state of preservation to allow came down to us in ChampoUion and personages his predecessors to recognize with certainty the divine whom During the last fifty years they have suffered as much at the hands of ignorant and stupid tourists as they did in the whole of the many centuries during which they were exposed to all the vicissitudes of Egyptian history. Those who know having said Thebes will.xe and dominating over the built part of the temple.^ they represented. these ruins have always had a great effect upon be foreign visitors. their picturesqueness. as they are older than most of the buildings over which we have been occupied. should be employed. in ' Nubie. 250 and 251). . when they wtre drawn by him. and the peculiar nature of their situation.

but at the other extremity of the building. to be distincruished. his the effect. than the narrow flight restoration . rising in terraces one above another like the steps of a gigantic staircase. a courtyard was entered. of Hatasu. a few of the last being shown (P^ig. After passing the pylon. ^ Here the arrangements which con- The whole between the pylon and the commencement of the speos. better. The mausoleum Thebes. we have supposed them to contain seated statues at regular stituted the real originality of Dayr-el-Bahari began. hemispeos. no surprise at finding part Under such of the we need feel temple subterranean. is to us. a dromos of sphinxes had to be traversed of which very scanty traces are now to be found. more ample and . The whole arrangement may be compared to the system of three in the rock. left was excavated sanctuary. We have done so not only because nearly preface.42 2 A History of Art conditions in Ancient Egypt. consisted of four courtyards. but in the time of the Iiistitiit d' Egyptc there were still two hundred of them 251). intervals alone the inner faces of their walls ' . as it seems too. all the important temples had such a says that he but also because Sir Gardner Wilkinson saw the foundations of two obelisks and of a doorway. At a point immediately to the door in the external pylon. is so common at the east end of European In approaching this temple from the river bank. which first communicated with a second by an inclined plane stretching almost across its width. in In backing. The walls upon which these inclined planes and terraces were constructed In order to furnish the vast are still to be traced in places. apsidal chapels which cathedrals. with the in M. in the restoration figured upon the opposite page At the end of the dromos. unlike the other funerary chapels at a triple then. Brune's plan of the actual remains at Dayr-el-Bahari.his work against the mountains this fashion the architect impelled by a desire to make use of the facilities must have been partly which it afforded. there are two more groups of rock-cut apartments. interior of the temple. in such matters of indications This wide inclined plane agrees in better. a chamber about sixty-five feet deep This must have acted the part of a and at a shorter distance from the entrance. upon the spot where a few traces of the bounding walls still remain. we have placed a pylon with a couple of obelisks in front of it. opposite is. of steps given majestic. courts. Right and of it.

—Restoration in perspective of Dayr-el-Bahari. Chipiez. . 251. by Ch.Fig.

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Brune. Dayr-cl-Bahari. this temple in detail to the The plan which forms plate i in the said an architect."^ Those excavations have the porticos since court. to which all the courts were but the prelude. letterpress. in 1866. " ! that the temple it of Dayr-el-Bahari a strange construction. work w-as drawn. " visitors to the " cenotaph resembles No one is will deny. there was also the court a colonnade entrance to which was cut in two b}^ the steps leading to the fourth and highest terrace. this doorway was built of fine red granite.The Temple under the New decorative detail Empire. who is now a professor at the Brune succeeded. and that little an Egyptian temple as ' as possible '^ Some have thought steps between The same . VOL. its remains were visible even before the excavations a little of Mariette. Ecole des Beaux Arts. 10. in obtaining the materials for a restoration which gave us for the first time some idea of what Plate 2 interesting monument must have . of the third suggested the secos hidden in the flanks of the mountains.^ ornamented the further side of the which As for the portico second court." says RIariette. by this intelligent and conscientious examination of all the remains. We must refer those who work devoted to it by M. by M. all These terraced courts have surprised of Hatasu. informs us that he found no trace of any such sphinxes. while on the right there was a long colonnade which masked a number of chambers cut Facing the in the rock which rose immediately behind it. courts . by its broad and mysterious shadows. p. contains a restored plan plate 3 a in perspective of the three highest terraces and of the hill which forms their in support. who recently investigated the matter. ^ Our view some of Mariette. which. idea caused M. Brune to jilace sphinxes upon the the he thought that some small heaps of debris at the ends of the steps indicated their situation but M. M. moreover. While all the rest of the temple was of limestone. In the middle of this terrace a fine doorway leading to the principal speos was raised. but except the less important details. a distinction which is to be explained by its central situation. it does not gieatly differ from his. facing the gateway in the pylon though far above it. Maspero. Brune. " wish to study the remains of Mariette. 1858 led to the discovery of There seems to have been only a plain wall on the left of this court. 425 conjecture may perhaps be allowed. We have attempted to give an idea of the building as a whole. taken from a more distant point than that of M. been view is in the great days of Egypt. L X I . instantly seized by the beauty and commanding position of this doorway. and forming the culminating point of the long succession of terraces and inclined The attention of the visitor to the temple would be planes.

attention to Twelve hypostyle different or thirteen centuries later the Persians. this . one of them being the highest that has remained erect who made the first recorded attempt at acclimatization . trodden the time. in baskets. that " Are we consider had. although the decorative details were all borrowed from the latter country. than the high spirited in the . the temple of Karnak. So too the Egyptians. ° Maspkro. may be distinguished these shrubs were planted by the orders of Hatasu in the gardens of Thebes. after their conquest of Egypt. see Maspero's paper entitled : Navigatio}is des Egxptiens siir 1878). ' Ebers. before those loft)' towers with their successive terraces. . /Egypten. wide plains of Persia. asks Ebers. to which access was obtained by majestic flights of steps. The bas-reliefs at Dayr-el-Bahari represent the booty brought back by flatasu from the expedition into Fount. civilization. in spite of the pride which they to felt in their ancient may have been unable in the control their admiration when they found themselves. carried back with them the notion of those halls which gave to the buildings of Persepolis so an aspect from those of Assyria. pp. in its foreign influence to be traced arrangements. p. in its soil of Egyptian Mesopotamia the first and found monumental buildings constructed great cities so ? terraces Why did the Egyptians. never imitate it the arrangements of this imposing building elsewhere. sovereigns of Egypt was better fitted to preside over such an attempt queen who reared two obelisks and enterprising Hatasu. On the subject De quelques of Hatasu and her expedition. Histoire booty thirt)'-two Aitcicniie. that who they as a rule were fond of repeating themselves became almost incapable of inventing new forms. unless was because its forms reminded them of their foreign enemies and therefore seemed to be worthy of condemnation ? " ^ We are content with asking the question and with calling its interest. The materials are wanting for a definite answer but the suggestion of Professor Ebers is probable enough.and who was the first to launch a fleet upon the waters of the Red Sea.426 A to History of Art was it in Ancient Egypt. Ics Coles de la Afer Ervthrce (in the Revue Hisfori'jiie. 202. 203. an accident. . 285. It seems by no means unlikely that one of their architects acclimatize an artistic conception to should have attempted to which was so well calculated impress the imaginations of the people and none of the . Among perfume shrubs. the stepped building at Dayr-el-Bahari was built shortly after an army for in under Thothmes.

as time went on. to find sites upon the slopes of the western chain similar to that which Hatasu had employed with such happy results but certain that siderable dimensions . which played such an important part in the Egyptian ritual. work was. The is soil has a gentle slope. cartouches and replaced her It is titles with those of her brothers.The Temple under the New Whether Hatasu's architect Empire. had they chosen. a form which did They erected their ceno- taphs in the plain. 203. they preferred a different combination. Why did such a model find no imitators } Must we seek for the reason in the apparent reaction against her The Egyptian memory which followed the death of Hatasu } people chose to look upon her as an usurper they defaced the they eftaced her inscriptions which celebrated her campaigns '' . When the princes of the nineteenth dynasty wished to raise funerary temples to their memory in their own capital. ' We are Maspero. and they chose not essentially differ from that of the great temples on the opposite bank of the Nile. the pompous processions. while under every portico and upon every landing place they could find resting places and the necessary shelter from the sun. At most it may be said that something of the same kind is to be found in those rock-cut temples of Nubia which are connected with the river bank by a dromos and flights of steps. religious is architecture of Egypt. Histoire Aiicieime. deserving of high praise. . in all its richness and known to us only through the monuments of the second Theban Empire. . 427 artistic crea- was inspired by those tions of the Chaldees which. and there no lack of rocky walls against which porticoes could be erected." ' nowhere in Eg) pt has any building of conbeen discovered in which the peculiar arrangements of Dayr-el-Bahari are repeated. and in which subterranean Upon a series of wide platforms chambers could be excavated. or his whether he drew his ideas entirely from his own In brain. in either case. were multiplied over the whole basin of the Euphrates and even spread as far as northern Syria. at some distance from the hills. it would have been easy. The variety. upon which the erection of successive terraces would involve no architectural difficulties. through the great works of the kings belonging to the eighteenth and nineteenth dynasties. could defile with great effect. and easy gradients like these. most parts of the Nile Valley sites are to be found which lend them- selves readily to such a building. p.

ii. ecstasies over the propylsa. but simply to impress their contemporaries with an exaggerated idea of their wealth and power. for grace. In all that we possess from this last period of artistic activity in Egypt. but they were never used except when they were required. He describes in great detail a chapel carved out of a single block of Syene granite. and the Greek writers have but vague accounts to supply their place. architects the earlier or some other purpose made the mistake of seeking for difficulties merely to show how cleverly they could overcome them. the followinof & terms : — " Havine become master Herodotus. and decorations of those temples which the princes of the twentysixth dynasty.' All that we learn from the historian is that the Sait princes made use of colossal stones in their buildings without much regard to their appropriateness. that is. It is probable that the same qualities existed in the religious architecture of Sais. and described by him in of the whole of 175. carried sometimes to an extreme which is not free from weakness and affectation. 428 A History of Art in Ancient Egytt. It is to be regretted that we know so little of the monument to cover a void . in their desire that their capital and the other cities of the Delta should rival or excel the magnificence of Memphis and Thebes. Unhappily all the buildings constructed in Memphis and Lower leaving left Egypt during the Sait supremacy have disappeared hardly a trace behind. Both the statues and the royal tombs of the Sait period have characteristics which distinguish them from those of earlier epochs. to believe that the architects of the Sait period must have introduced fresh beauties into the plans. never attributed by Herodotus to Psemethek. which Amasis added to the temple of Neith at Sais. which Amasis transported from the quarries at great cost in order that it might be erected in the sanctuary of the said temple unhappily it was so much injured on the journey that his intention had to be abandoned. proportions. The contractors of an earlier age were also in the habit of employing blocks which seem astonishing to us from their length and size. and over the enormous size of the stones employed. us nothing into Herodotus goes the pylons and outer courts.. . tempted. confided to their skill. however. there is a new desire for elegance.

a god for its inhabitant.The Temple under the New Empire. but as Apis was the incarnation of Herodotus. In it the god was present in flesh and blood. in temples. in a method satisfactory to the Egyptians. as the guide who attended Herodotus called his attention to . Colossal statues. temples. in taking account merely of the general effect. instead of columns. and employed it under novel conditions. placed immediately in front of the real supports. in the It was a peristyle ^ peristyles of the fore-courts or the hypostyles of the pronaos. and to exhibit him to the crowd or conceal him. and so far it might be called a temple but it was a temple of a very pecu. it Herodotus does not instance. tlic " Herodotus uses word a'-Xy. however. Psemethek made use of it t'or the decoration of what was no more than a cattle stable. The problem was solved." and of the means by which they hoped to rival their predecessors. and did not themselves uphold an entablature. as the ritual demanded.liar kind. as in the ' Theban ii. were employed as supports. 429 Egypt. apparently. Herodotus was not an architect. The most important point to be noticed in this short extract from the Greek historian is the hint it contains of the attempts at originality made by the later generations of Egyptians. twelve cubits high. 153. . The caryatid form of pier is generally found. and special arrangements were necessary in order to provide for his wants. there are many examples at Thebes. it must be confessed. Psammitichos constructed those propylaea of the temple of In front of Hephaistos which he to the south of that building. propylaea he also caused to be constructed an edifice in which Apis was nourished as soon as he had manifested himself these ornamented with figures. of which stable or cattle-shed was one of the primitive meanings. of which. The architect of Psemethek borrowed a motive which had long been disused. by " men born too late in too old a century. he doubtless used an expression which is not quite accurate. as in other Egyptian buildings. and. It is tell us what form the caryatides took in this unlikely that they were Osiride figures of the king." We may assume that these colossi were. in which the arrangements must have i:een very different from those required in the abode of an inanimate deity.^ The stable in question had. the building with an insistance which led the historian to pay special attention.

There are no internal subdivisions of any kind. We may. Between the days of Camb)ses and those of Alexander. Ptah. the great deity of Memphis. richly-decorated wall. Thus the faithful who came to be present at the rites of Isis would assemble in the waiting-hall. Egypfe. mention a work carried out no more than years before the Greek conquest. and taste were entirely — — similar. therefore. nothing which resembles a secos. . 406. but one must point it out as a second result of the . This screen does not extend quite half-way up the columns these latter support an entablature. but there has never been a roof of any kind. which grew into frequent use in the Ptolemaic epoch. in the reign of Nectanebo small building which is I. Here.430 A in History of Art in An'ciext Egypt. Egypt temporarily recovered her independence more than once. they may very possibly have been carved • the imao-e of that god. This is not the place for its detailed consideration.to every prying eye be a temple ? Ebers is Close to it the disposed to look upon it as a waiting-room. are here encountered for the first time. against which boats were moored. in the island of Philse. which forms a kind of screen between the lower part of the columns. arrangements are different to anything we have hitherto encountered in religious architecture. whose image is carved all over it but could an edifice thus open to the outward air and . it contained only one hall. The art of that period during which numerous works were carried out and many others restored was a prolongation of the art of the Salt princes. inclosed by fourteen graceful columns and a low. Its aims. desire shown by the architects of the period to achieve new developments without breaking the continuity of the national traditions. in spite of the limits which we have imposed upon ourselves. as in the ' monumental p.^ remains of a wide staircase are to be traced. cattle-shed at Memphis. island. . whence they would be conducted by the priests to that sanctuary which became the object of so many pilgrimages in the later years of the Eg\-ptian monarchy. etc. According to all the plans which have been published. or rather rectangular court. fifty We mean the Its temple. There can be no doubt that the building was consecrated to Isis. and upon which they discharged their loads. Certain peculiarities in the management of the column. all the rest It is sometimes called the southern the oldest building upon the being Ptolemaic or Roman. methods.

fi^ r'\i= I m^:M^::::^Jtf !\ J H^:Cj ts'^!?^- ® -^^^ •^ .li&j\. "^- '-1^.-— y^'i .I i^a_.MU^iX-^^^ l^B^^^'jyS r^' m. i -? >i5Sad r.li^iW 'f\ [^.> -^-j^^^ 'vBN^ ..

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but the repetition of forms in a much later generation proves that answered in to a real change in the national taste and to new and aspirations the national genius. the great hyperthra.^ ' The temple . or rather by their want of result. aspect and physiognomy of the building that is new. . but its plan is quite In the sketch lent to is us by M. engraving. however. 252). Hector left Leroux. We have omitted to speak of those little temples known since the time of Champollion as iiiaiiimisi or places for accouchement.^ proportions are more lofty. amid a bouquet of palm-trees. we have found its it nothing like it either in Egypt or in Nubia. If we knew it better. Amasis. We should find in it at least hints and foreshadowinofs of those origfinal features of which we shall have to speak when we arrive at the Unhappily. L K . built by Psemcthek. the suuimer-housc of rises Tiberijis. But must all hope of recovering something from the ruins of Sais be abandoned ? Mariette himself made some excavations upon its site. as none of the temples Graeco. and their successors have been recovered from the sands of Egypt. photography have building given us countless reproductions of the picturesque which on the eastern shore of the island.Egyptian temples. X It is VOL. Whatever by edifice erected Nectanebo at the southern we may call it. the eastern temple. we should probably find that the archi- formed the transition between that of the second Theban empire and that of the Ptolemies. and confessed that he was discouraged by their result. &c. deeper and more prolonged excavations might bring to light sufficient indications of the ordonnance and plans tecture of the Sait period of the more important buildings to permit of some attempt at restoration being made. because the existing examples all belong to the Ptolemaic period. The best preserved is that of Denderah. 433 no invention of new forms all the architectural elements It is the general introduced are to be found in earlier buildings. the eastern temple of the drawing is seen on the right. It is nothing more than a replica of Nectanebo's its creation it is larger and similar. It has been variously called the bed of Pliaraoh. Painting. the point of the island is certainly novel in form . we shall be reduced to conjecture on this point. while the filled up with the pylons of the great temple of Isis (Fig. Empire. Perhaps. of Kerdasch or Gaiiasse in its Nubia resembles the Eastern Temple at Philse in plan date appears to be unknown.The Temple uxder the New there is .

This deity has. i. 255. from the effigy of a grimacing deity which figures in their decoration. with acquainted the temples of the Nile valley. pji. to make it clear and precise. and that he presided over the toilette of women. and to the as we see it in its finest and most comjjlete expression. vol. nothing in common with Set-Typhon.) Mariette. Voyage dans la Haufe-Egypte. p. Dayr-el-Bahari. The mammisi symbolised the celestial dwelling in which the goddess gave birth to the third person of the triad. etc. General Charactcj-istics of the Egyptian Temple. that he was imported into Egypt from the country of the Aromati. or with Mohammedan probable.. p. He visited them all at his leisure. monographs and in the Itindraire these de la Haute-Egypte. The authors of the Dtscription called them Typhoiiia. in the buildings of the great Theban Pharaohs. We borrow the words of No one has become more thoroughly Mariette upon the subject. 13-16. (Eeers. We from the most ancient monument to the period have now conducted our history of the Egyptian temple to which that title can be given when Greek details. . § 4. he returned to his definition again and again. We shall freely extract from his pages all those expressions which seem to us to give the best rendering of their author's ideas. We now know that his name was Bes. introduced into the country by the to Macedonian conquest. with church. and Denderah. however. 19 . 16. 157-159 ' ' Karnak. and he published circumstantial descripIn tions of Abydos. that before The reader will surprised to find we conclude our study we wish latter to give a resnnid of the in leading ideas which seem to be embodied define the temple. if art.434 A History of Art in Anciekt Egypt. 15. and to bring out most clearly the originality which belongs to the monuments cannot do better for our purpose than of \vhich he treats. pji. L'EgypU. the enemy of Osiris. however. began the have an influence upon many of the important not upon general not be aspects of the national architecture. he explored their ruins and sounded most of them down to their foundations. Itincraire. in a continual attempt to improve it. Karnak.^ " The Egyptian temple must the Christian not be confused the with that of Greece. that tlie custom of building these little edifices by the side of those great temples where a triad of gods was worshipped dated back as far as the Pharaonic period.

at the compositions. It was not a place for . consisted for the most part of great processions. only to be The essential : the king. these are the subjects offering (meats. The hands whole decoration of a temj^le consisted therefore in an act of adoration on the part of the monarch repeated in various forms." The piety and gratitude of the monarch also found expression in the splendour of the great festivals of which the temple was the " The ceremonies scene several times in the course of the year. to Ebers.). and the same may be said of the general significance of the pictures on the one hand. issuing from the sanctuary to be marshalled in the hypostyle hall. for the recital of it . temples are covered point of departure. This canal was defended by and is called in inscriptions the Cutting {L'Egypte. the one dug by Seti fortifications. 435 mosque. in them by employing them upon the construction of their temples.General Characteristics of the Egyptian Temple. the oldest of the Suez Canals. common prayers a no public it ritual was celebrated no one was admitted to except the priests and the roj-al The temple was kind of oratory. and afterwards traversing the open courts which lay between the buildings of thousands to the ' The canal figured in front of the Chariot of Rameses. 254 was. one or of all more deities . his monument of the whom was founded and decorated. monument in reared by the king in token of his own and the order to of the purchase the favour of the gods. and the limbs of the animals sacrificed. etc. . By such deeds he proved his piety and merited the continuation of those favours for which the erection of a temple was meant to be an acknowledgment. . and tiers above tiers of pictures cover the walls from floor to ceiling. according I. in Fig. The temple was prince by therefore the exclusive personal it emblems) to the god and asks for some favour in his answer the deity grants the favour demanded. precious representations This fact explains of battles which the presence of those adorn the external walls of certain temples. on the other. within king. the meeting of the faithful.^ all The king ascribed his successes in the field to the immediate protection of the gods. a piety. . This arrangement never varies. in bringing capital. The king makes an flowers. fruits. " The elaborate decoration is with which all ' walls e. In combating the enemies of Egypt.xplained by admitting this element of this decoration is many pictures are arranged symmetrically side by the picture side. flowers. he was performing an act as agreeable to the ofods as when offerinof incense.

.is. " was attached required preservation of so appliances on a great be kept in The total much apparatus itself.) deposited priest to in Upon the occurrence of a festival. the temple and the great wall which incloses the whole. and it was . pi. a those Theban stele we find who follow thee at architects Tliebes. by P. which the kings were At other times all these objects were Fig. (From ChampoUion. : the following words addressed to when thou goest abroad. They a few perambulated the terraced sacred roofs. —The battle against the Khet. at the head of a brilliant other city. like the sanctuary had almost darkness ' in order to preserve the sacred vestments and other To follow these processions was an act of piety." translated into French Upon Amen-Ra " I am one of The stele of Suti and Har. 253.436 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt.xtensive store-rooms. to which. p.^ul Pierret. the coffers in which their effigies or symbolic representations were inclosed. whom then carried under a canopy. they launched upon the lake the barque with its many-coloured streamers.' The ensigns of the gods. the duty Luxor. the was delegated by the king entered the naos and brought out the mysterious emblem which was hidden from all other eyes he covered it with a rich veil. their shrines and sacred barques were carried in these processions. required e. called " ' flotilla. directed their course to some either by the Nile or by the waterway which they " ' the sacred canal. sallied from the inclosure which ordinarily shielded their rites from profane eyes. in Recueil de Travatix. of the reputed conductors. with the sacred images. and. 72." A ritual to which so much material " pomp and circumstance scale. Upon rare occasions the priests. the naos. 328.

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these halls would have been ill fitted for the uses to which the spacious naves of a church or mosque are put. wealth. to sing and pray in common. and even the almost total darkness of the apartments which were ranged behind it. It was only in the central aisle that sufficient space was left for the easy passage of a procession. " The temples show no trace of dwelling-places for the priests. and the the texts which . 439 There is nothing in insects which they engender. objects from the deteriorating effects of sun. But in spite of their vast dimensions. There is nothing to lead us to suppose that. heat. were compelled to wait in the courtvards. nor of places for initiation. part of the ritual was performed in the open air." at least beyond the hypostyle hall. and the few liturgical acts in the naos were short and took place before a They consisted of a few prayers said by very restricted audience. except the king and the priests. dust. Such duties. and no trace of the discoloration caused by smoke has been found upon the walls. and power of the king who constructed it. . to unite in the expression of their faith and hope.General Characteristics of the Egyptian Temple. for the periodical festivals had also to go on in that part of the temple. There seems to have been no necessity for anything beyond the most subdued All the important daylight within the chambers of the temple. and in order that it might bear witness by its magnificence to the piety. any of the public were admitted into the building. nor of any contrivance for divination or the giving of oracles. and in the presentation of the The cares of maintenance and of preparation traditional offerings. It offered no place in which the faithful could assemble to listen to religious discourses. seems to hint at the celebration of any rites in the dark parts of the temple by artificial light. It was their rio-ht to be the first to see the god as he emerged from the sanctuary on the shoulders of the priests. Certain privileged individuals or classes were admitted into the latter on the occasion of a festival others. however. the king or by the chief priest. The hypostyle hall was lofty and wide in order that it might be a vestibule worthy of the god who dwelt in the sanctuary beyond it. could be readily discharged by the practised and disciplined jsriests in the half light of the sanctuary. less fortunate. The huge and closely spaced columns would embarras the movements and intercept the view of those who crowded about their bases.

Now that the line of the external wall is only indi- cated by a gentle swell of the ground. The temple was also. and The two architects in fact. The . the terrestrial resting-place to which the and the nursling of the goddesses. the temple was him the dwelling of the god. its In virtue of the sanctuary which was king. and preservation of holy objects a huge sacristy to which access was forbidden to all but those who were specially attached to the service of the god and charged with . in virtue of those numerous chambers which surrounded the sanctuary. . But the Greek temple was no more a church than its Egyptian rival. consecration. of the brick wall which formed the outermost inclosure . the custody of the sacred furniture. by the door and by a few openings contrived in the roof. It was not a place of assembly for public praise or religious Its cella was an inclosed chamber. the pronaos. a place for the preparation. leaving a narrow passage only wide enough for the walk of a sentry thirdly. we should be struck by the jealous severity of their isolation. it is difficult enough to form a true idea of the former appearance of the Egyptian temples. came in to offer thanks and to do homage return for the protection and support which he received. This fortification consisted. had the same points of departure the problems which they had to solve strongly resembled each other. by the austere monotony of the screen of stone which was interposed between the eyes of the In this we people and the internal splendours of the building. we need feel no surprise at the triple fortification behind which it was entrenched. his son nucleus. should find the chief point of distinction between the temples of Egypt and those great religious edifices of our own times with which we half involuntarily compare all other works of the kind. secondly. of the inner walls are now that the best preserved broken down in many places. and }-et they created types which differed very greatly. of the wall of masonry which embraced the temple proper. in the first place.440 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. illuminated only teaching. and now that all the roofs and ceilings have fallen and encumbered the floors. of the wall which divided the really secret parts of the building from . Such being the origin and purpose of the temple. reserved for the god who inhabited it. Egyptian and Greek. Could we see them as they left their architects' hands.

. from Horeau. could be seen from sides in commanding all position to . 255. 441 Greek temple was not it isolated all and hidden behind a stone curtain its . architects was almost identical requirements. Another and perhaps be found VOL. its encircling band of porticos seemed to invite all comers the shelter of their galleries. — The goddess AnouKe suckling Ramcses to fulfil II.. outward expression. this trans- position of the elements employed was sufficient in to cause a profound difference in the of their several works. while they charmed eyes with the and Egyptian for the decoration of courts and halls were placed by the Greek upon the external faces of his temples. I. still the physiognomy. in tlie tact that more characteristic difference is to the Greek temple is not susceptible. and although the task of both their alternate voids solids. play of light and shadow afforded by reserved The colonnades by the Fig.General Characteristics of the Egyptian.Temple. Bcit-Wali .

and the elements of which it was to be composed could only vary within very narrow limits. the temple certain definite limits. the cella connection. When we know its a plant is seen bursting from the seed. if the species to which its belongs. Given the main dimensions. and forbade it in advance to excede laid. and It its is fruit will be like. Such was not the case with the Egyptian temple. These walls thrown from rise above the level of the ground. . the centuries when she the taste for the colossal eclipsed the love for the great. Behind the lonof files of columns on either side. but from the day upon which the seed was sown. from the day upon which the foundation was had been virtually complete. the In accordance with would be either surrounded by a simple wall or would be encircled by a portico. flower. the law which governed its development. The Greek temple had the unity of a living organism. behind the double or triple rows which veiled the two facades. to say beforehand what leaves. a vesture which would be more or less rich and ample according to circumstances. of almost infinite extension. and of the bas-reliefs of the frieze. was proportioned to the sacred figure which was to be its inhabitant. The is trench dug to to receive footing is stones of the cella walls the hole into which the seed is which the whole temple spring. were determined. never dreamed or imagined anything of the kind. the Greek temple inclosed within itself the principle of its own growth. afforded a standard by which the proportions and subjects of the groups which filled the pediments. the same. produced anything like Karnak or Luxor even . it we to are able. but this portico would only be a kind of adornment. which. as well as the height of the columns and Between the projection of the entablature. the body of the temple could always be discerned. In those of small or moderate dimensions this unity and simplicity of plan . Greece never in that of Egypt. to a great extent. in spite of the folds which cover it.442 like A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. Like an organic body. the building progresses to completion. just as the modelling of the human form may be distinguished under the The cella drapery of a statue. and the foretell the limits of its height. all these parts there was an intimate and clearly defined degree of luxury desired. again. with the Greek temple.

The peripteral temple of Elephantine Khons may be given as instances of this impression received The still from the ruins of more from those of Karnak or Luxor. being dominated by Abydos or Gournah. and yet our imagination can give to it even greater dimensions artistic than it actually If possessed without it injury to its expression. hypostyle hall and pylons. she found herself obliged either to sacrifice the unity of the temple by dividing it up into distinct naves and sanctuaries. and there was nothing to prevent him doubling the number if he had chosen to do so. all of the same size and decorated in the same fashion. That centre exists . of Sometimes hypostyle halls and chambers. in one place the architect has built seven in a row. in the manner of an inorganic body. Karnak. General Characteristics of the EgvptiaxX Temple. it existed before those sumptuous additions of which it was the cause. of forests of columns. In another we find a succession of courts. But it would seem that its influence failed to make itself felt beyond a certain distance. the worship of which was the scene . wedged tog^ether. The vestibule and other subsidiary parts mask the real dwelling of the god. When Egypt of herself had arrived to wished to erect temples summit of her greatness and her gods which should be worthy both at the and of them. egyptologists have found it impossible to agree as to the situation of the heart and organic centre all of the whole. 445 and even the temple of in them there is much with which the most exclusive philo-Greek can sympathize. because our knowledge of the circumstances of ancient Egyptian worship is still far from complete. again. imposing It is significant that even among such an pile of buildings as those of Karnak. it requires considerable search to pitch upon the sanctuary. We are sometimes at a loss to decide the uses of all the chambers of so vast and complex a structure. which. is the most colossal work of architecture which has come down to us from antiquity. The temple was enlarged by additions made at its two extremities. There we find several sanctuaries closely is very different. as it was left by the Pharaohs and their successors.. so that no limit could be logically assigned to its development. or to hide the main parts by the accessories in such a fashion that the sanctuary seems to be lost among the annexes which envelop it in front and rear. exists to a certain extent. is not the loftiest part of the building.

SONS. and new hypostyle halls to those already existing but had the worship of Athene endured through as many ages as that of Ptah or Amen. END OF VOL. I. LONnON : R. it would have been easy to add new pylons. . it would have been impossible to make additions to the Parthenon as it left the hands of Ictinus and Phidias. had endured a few centuries longer. new courts. CLAY.444 A History of Art in Ancient Egyi'T. AMI TAYI 'JR. rEINTERS. 9nw/^ .