What is an Operating System? The operating system is the most important program that runs on a computer.

Every generalpurpose computer must have an operating system to run other programs. Operating systems perform basic tasks, such as recognizing inputfrom the keyboard, sending output to the display screen, keeping track of filesand directories on the disk, and controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers. For large systems, the operating system has even greater responsibilities and powers. It is like a traffic cop -- it makes sure that different programs andusers running at the same time do not interfere with each other. The operating system is also responsible for security, ensuring that unauthorized users do not access the system. Operating systems can be classified as follows: Multi-user: Allows two or more users to run programs at the same time. Some operating systems permit hundreds or even thousands of concurrent users. Multiprocessing : Supports running a program on more than oneCPU. Multitasking : Allows more than one program to run concurrently. Multithreading : Allows different parts of a single program to run concurrently. Real time: Responds to input instantly. General-purpose operating systems, such as DOS and UNIX, are not real-time. Operating systems provide a software platform on top of which other programs, called application programs, can run. The application programs must be written to run on top of a particular operating system. Your choice of operating system, therefore, determines to a great extent the applications you can run. For PCs, the most popular operating systems are DOS, OS/2, andWindows, but others are available, such as Linux. As a user, you normally interact with the operating system through a set ofcommands. For example, the DOS operating system contains commands such as COPY and RENAME for copying files and changing the names of files, respectively. The commands are accepted and executed by a part of the operating system called the command processor or command line

Graphical user interfaces allow you to enter commands by pointing and clicking at objects that appear on the screen. and technologies. An easily recognized triangular representation of the work system framework has appeared in Alter (2002. The work system itself consists of four elements: the processes and activities. It can offload the management of what are called batch jobs (for example. printers. and strategies. context. The application programs make use of the operating system by making requests for services through a defined application program interface (API). and significance. information. This framework is prescriptive enough . customers. It handles input and output to and from attached hardware devices. environment. The other programs are called applications or application programs. 2008) and elsewhere. It sends messages to each application or interactive user (or to a system operator) about the status of operation and any errors that may have occurred. such as hard disks. In addition. users can interact directly with the operating system through a user interface such as a command language or a graphical user interface (GUI). the operating system determines which applications should run in what order and how much time should be allowed for each application before giving another application a turn. printing) so that the initiating application is freed from this work. infrastructure. Those elements are the products and services produced. after being initially loaded into the computer by a boot program. an operating system can manage how to divide the program so that it runs on more than one processor at a time. and dial-up ports. On computers that can provide parallel processing. It manages the sharing of internal memory among multiple applications.interpreter. An operating system (sometimes abbreviated as "OS") is the program that. Work system framework The work system approach for understanding systems includes both a static view of a current (or proposed) system in operation and a dynamic view of how a system evolves over time through planned change and unplanned adaptations. An operating system performs these services for applications:       In a multitasking operating system where multiple programs can be running at the same time. Five other elements must be included in even a rudimentary understanding of a work system’s operation. which identifies the basic elements for understanding and evaluating a work system. The static view is summarized by the work system framework. participants. manages all the other programs in a computer.

” (Hill et al. and tracing how those changes might affect other parts of the work system. Some may use computers and IT extensively. programming languages. technical. Such processes are sometimes describe d as “artful processes” whose sequence and content “depend on the skills. and services that the work system produces. Infrastructure includes human. projectors.to be useful in describing the system being studied. The term processes and activities is used instead of the term business process because many work systems do not contain highly structured business processes involving a prescribed sequence of steps. 2006) In effect. information. Products and services are the combination of physical things. For example. whereas more specific behavioral norms and expectations about specific activities within the work system are considered part of its processes and activities. technical infrastructure includes computer networks. Customers are people who receive direct benefit from products and services the work system produces. optimization. coordination. and regulatory environment within which the work system operates. competitive. and organizations. and other technologies shared by other work systems and often hidden or invisible to work system participants. agreements. . services. Technologies include tools (such as cell phones. information products. informational. and technical resources that the work system relies on even though these resources exist and are managed outside of it and are shared with other work systems. They include external customers who receive the organization's products and/or services and internal customers who are employees or contractors working inside the organization. experience. The organization’s general norms of behavior are pa rt of its culture. and automobiles) and techniques (such as management by objectives. making the distinction between data and information secondary when describing or analyzing a work system. These factors affect system performance even though the system does not rely on them directly in order to operate. control. Information may or may not be computerized. Knowledge can be viewed as a special case of information. Other perspectives with their own valuable concepts and terminology include decision-making. and information processing. describing possible changes. spreadsheet software. identifying problems and opportunities. and social products such as arrangements. When analyzing a work system the more encompassing role of work system participant is more important than the more limited role of technology user (whether or not particular participants happen to be technology users) Information includes codified and non-codified information used and created as participants perform their work. business process is but one of a number of different perspectives for analyzing the activities within a work system. intangibles such as enjoyment and peace of mind. whereas others may use little or no technology. This may include physical products. cultural. communication. Data not related to the work system is not directly relevant. and judgment of the primary actors. The definitions of the 9 elements of a work system are as follows: Processes and activities include everything that happens within the work system. Participants are people who perform the work.. each of which is triggered in a pre-defined manner. and remote tracking) that work system participants use while doing their work. Environment includes the organizational.

shipping products. Storehouse of Value: every process either creates or destroys value. wages. A five star restaurant may have higher quality meat than a fast food restaurant. or setting a marketing budget. updating employee information. FEATURES Flow simply means the order of operations or activities within a process. In this example. but the Cycle time would be one week. production. Effectiveness: how well does the process meet its targets for cost. This is the total cycle time and not just the process time. it may only take 2 minutes to actually approve an expense report and have the computer automatically generate payment. An accounts payable systems that misses vendors discounts due to late processing or that does not catch double billings would destroy value. However. the process time would be 2 minutes. or sales) performed together to produce a defined set of results. energy. The Business Process Management Initiative (BPMI). time. . and quality. However. invoicing. Meanwhile an accounts payable process that catches double billings and takes all appropriate discounts would create value for the organization. as a means of furthering development of Business Process Execution Language (BPEL) and Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN). The event typically changes the state of data and/or a product and generates some type of output. Your internal customer is concerned with the cycle time. information consumed in producing one unit of output. The term also refers to the amalgam of all the separate steps toward the final business goal. You may be concerned with the process time as one way to reduce the cycle time. exists to promote the standardization of common business processes. both types of restaurants may have a similar target of 99% customer satisfaction. For example. it may take a week to get someone to look at your expense report.Strategies include the strategies of the work system and of the department(s) and enterprise(s) within which the work system exists. Strategies at the department and enterprise level may help in explaining why the work system operates as it does and whether it is operating properly. Business process management (BPM) is a systematic approach to improving those processes. So the performance targets for the 2 different types of restaurants will be different. A business transaction that requests information from or changes the data in a database. Business processes occur at all levels of an organization's activities and include events that the customer sees and events that are invisible to the customer. A business process is an activity or set of activities that will accomplish a specific organizational goal. a non-profit organization. Examples of business processes include receiving orders. A company may close sub ledgers before reversing their accruals from the previous month. Both languages were created to facilitate communication between IT and line-of-business (LOB) A series of logically related activities or tasks (such as planning. Cycle Time is total time taken to transform one unit of input into one unit of output. (2) A specific event in a chain of structured business activities. Resource Consumption is materials.

Even if performed poorly. A transaction that occurs between a company and another company. as opposed to a transaction involving a consumer. Almost all businesses are now an e-business to at least some extent. E-commerce specifically refers to ordering. defining activities of an organization. buying.Likewise two improvement processes may cost the same. however. Rapidly creating positive cash flow. E-commerce is a subset of e-business and can make up the entirety of the business or be used alongside existing.. However. For example. There are many examples of companies' failures to manage their logistics processes adequately leading to product shortages and loss of market share... if not performed exceptionally well.. If the organization gave those activities to an external party.. selling and paying for products and services using the internet.. A business can be considered an e-business even if it doesn't buy and sell products over the internet. Critical but non-core activities. Examples include cleaning. Minimizing process variation." CORE AND NON-CORE ACTIVITIES In this context we can divide all business processes into three categories:    Core activities are the essential. traditional business models. E-commerce uses the internet to market. one process may increase revenue more or reduce expenses more or increase customer satisfaction more and thus increase revenue. Just looking at cost does not provide the total picture of value. although they are still important.. Logistics is a critical but non-core activity for a producer. they are less likely to seriously harm an organization in the short term. Many e-businesses now conduct all of their operations online and have no physical store that customers are able to visit. Process value creation is accomplished a number of ways:      "Achieving targeted outcome. it would be creating a competitor or dissolving itself.. E-business can be as simple as using the internet to send emails between staff or communicate with suppliers. Matching process capacity to customer requirements. many have taken a step further and are involved with e-commerce. B2B B2B. non-critical activities supply no competitive advantage. will place an organization at a competitive disadvantage or even create a risk. The term may also describe a company that provides goods or services for another company. Rightsizing. but it is a core activity for a transportation company. as the term refers to business activities that are assisted by the internet. catering and security. sell and conduct transactions with customers without face to face contact between the buyer and seller. Non-core. a successful shop front business may decide to create a website to promote their business but not actually sell products directly through the internet. Process Value Creation: process value creation must be measured over its life cycle. An organization or economic system where goods and services are exchanged for one another or .

In the context of communication. hoses and door locks may be manufactured elsewhere and sold directly to the automobile manufacturer. as companies purchase components and other raw materials for use in its manufacturing processes. Business-to-business (B2B) describes commerce transactions between businesses. Pricing for wholesale customers With price rules you can set different prices for different customer groups. Content visibility . such as between a manufacturer and a wholesaler. business to business refers to methods by which employees from different companies can connect with one another. rather than between a company and individual consumers. or between a wholesaler and a retailer. Every business requires some form of investment and enough customers to whom its output can be sold on a consistent basis in order to make a profit. This is in contrast to business to consumer (B2C) and business to government (B2G). The finished product can then be sold to individuals via business to consumer transactions. and then show prices and the possibility to buy only for corporate clients. Price rules allow you to give discounts based on a shopping cart's content. Business to business refers to business that is conducted between companies. It's also possible to hide product prices from consumer customers. Many of a vehicle's components are manufactured independently and the auto manufacturer must purchase these parts separately. With MyCashflow you have the possibility to close your webstore from outsiders and get your customers to log-in before showing any products. electronics. such as through social media. not-for-profit or state-owned. such as those involving a manufacturer and wholesaler. This type of communication between the employees of two or more companies is called B2B communication. batteries. Businesses can be privately owned.for money. B2B (Business to Business A type of commerce transaction that exists between businesses. An example that illustrates the business to business concept is automobile manufacturing. or a wholesaler and a retailer. An example of a corporate business is PepsiCo. while a mom-and-pop catering business is a private enterprise. the tires. FEATURES Protect your webstore from outsiders It's a common practice that a B2B webstore is kept closed from consumer clients. A typical supply chain involves multiple business to business transactions. For instance. Contrasting terms are business-to-consumer (B2C) and business-to-government (B2G).

You have to employ lots of staff on some occasions . B2C involves a service or product exchange from a business to a consumer.Can be very rewarding if you have a large market share. Many people that want your products . content pages.They can do some Marketing for you just from general conversation . Business to consumer as a business model differs significantly from the business to business model. Disadvantages . With versatile visibility settings you can create different sets of products.Large competition from other businesses offering products to consumers. B2C Business or transactions conducted directly between a company and consumers who are the endusers of its products or services.People giving your business a bad word Link of electronic payment and security unit 3 http://www. The term may also describe a company that provides goods or services for consumers.Many buy in small amounts instead of large bulky orders from businesses . Business-to-consumer (B2C) is an Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) model that denotes a financial transaction or online sale between a business and consumer.net/RiteshGoyal/electronic-payment-system .slideshare.Customer complaints . shipping and payment methods for both consumers and corporate clients. . . which refers to commerce between two or more businesses. as opposed to a transaction between companies (called B2B). . .A webshop's product range is usually different for different customer groups. B2C is also known as business-to-customer (B2C). A transaction that occurs between a company and a consumer.Many buy on a regular basis which is good for cash flow. whereby merchants sell products to consumers.The opportunity for expansion is good.

It may be aimed at business executives or some other group of knowledge workers. given past experience in a context that is described A decision support system may present information graphically and may include an expert system or artificial intelligence (AI).DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM A decision support system (DSS) is a computer program application that analyzes business data and presents it so that users can make business decisions more easily. . It is an "informational application" (to distinguish it from an "operational application" that collects the data in the course of normal business operation).Typical information that a decision support application might gather and present would be:    Comparative sales figures between one week and the next Projected revenue figures based on new product sales assumptions The consequences of different decision alternatives.

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